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Neal

Samantha Neal

Miss Cook

Composition-01

19 January 2017

The Obligation of a Free Man

The Duties of an American Citizen is a speech by Theodore Roosevelt and it was given in

1883, the same exact year that the Civil Service Reform Act was passed. The Civil Service

Reform Act, also known as the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, is a United States federal

law, enacted in 1883, which established that positions within the federal government should be

awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation (The Pendleton Act (1883)). This

act was passed to prohibit government officials and employees from soliciting campaign

donations from yard workers. This bill extends the law to cover all civil service workers as long

as they make campaign contributions in order to keep their jobs (Huneiti). This is important

because the people would now need to stay informed about the political agenda and what was

going on in congress so they were not just mindlessly throwing their contributions away. So the

main purpose of Roosevelts speech was to persuade the American people to become more

involved with the country and its politics. Along with this, he was trying the persuade them to

fulfill their duties as a citizen of the United States of America and stand up for their country.

In this speech, Roosevelt was using the three appeals of ethos, pathos, and logos to

persuade his intended audience to take action and represent their country, in congress, as the

people of the United States of America. Roosevelt explains how no man has an excuse to dismiss

his civic duty no matter how great they think their own excuse is. He also boldly states that a
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man who lives in the luxury of freedom is no man at all without repaying the people who fight

with their lives by just being politically aware and active. As I mentioned previously, Roosevelt

uses literary appeals to further persuade the people of The States to make the effort and walk the

extra mile by becoming an active member of society.

The first appeal that Theodore Roosevelt uses in his speech is ethos. The first example of

this appeal is when Roosevelt says, It ought to be the axiomatic in this country that every man

must devote a reasonable share of his time doing his duty in the political life of the community

(Roosevelt). This is an example of ethos because he is calling to the American peoples ethics by

appealing to their sense of reasonable requests. Roosevelt describes the time spent doing political

duties as a reasonable share and that word choice helps paint a positive, realistic picture in the

minds of his audience. By using this appeal, he is also making civic duty seem more achievable

to the common man. Another example of ethos is when he says, I think we ought to be

broad-minded to recognize the fact that a good citizen, striving with fearlessness, honesty, and

common sense do the best for the nation (Roosevelt). This is an obvious use of ethos solely

because of his use of positive connotation. He uses descriptive words such as good, fearlessness,

and honesty to describe a citizen that is doing the right thing by participating in the government.

This helps appeal to the goodwill of the audience because it states that these good attributes will

do the best for the nation. By bringing up what was best for their home it sheds light onto the

bigger picture and whats more important. These are just some of the few examples of ethos in

Theodore Roosevelts speech.

The second appeal that is used in this speech is logos. Logos is the literary device that is

more targeted towards the audiences sense of logic and it usually consists of employing reason
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within the persuasion. Roosevelt uses this multiple times and the first example is when he states,

nothing worth gaining is ever gained without effort (Roosevelt). This is a use of logos because

it appeals to the American peoples sense of logic by using an approach that makes the most

sense. This quote also stresses that a change within the American government can not, and will

not, be made without the effort of the American people. The second example of logos is when

Roosevelt states, but if he has the right stuff in him he will go ahead and do his duty irrespective

of whether he meets success or defeat (Roosevelt). This appeals to logos because if one was to

think logically, if you have the means to do something as a citizen you should do it whether your

cause fails or succeeds. This also calls out to the American citizens who may have the means to

make the difference but have just decided not to take the chance. There are many example of this

literary advice in his speech and they are very effective at persuading his intended audience.

The last literary device thats used in this speech is pathos. This device appeals more

towards the emotions of the audience and there are countless examples of this in Roosevelts

speech; the first being, no man can be a good citizen who is not a good husband and a good

father, who is not honest with his dealings with other men and women, faithful to his friends and

fearless in the presence of his foes, who has not got a sound heart, a sound mind, and a sound

body (Roosevelt). This phrase uses positive connotation and emphasis on the adjectives of a

good man. It is targeted towards American citizens emotions and is meant to bring forth

feelings of possible guilt or pride; whether you act as a citizen in the way Roosevelt described.

Another obvious use of pathos is, when once a band of one hundred and fifty or two hundred

honest, intelligent men, who mean business and know their business, is found in any district,

whether in one of the regular organizations or outside, you can guarantee that the local
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politicians of that district will begin to treat it with a combination of fear, hatred, and respect, and

that its influence will be felt; and that while sometimes men will be elected to office in direct

defiance of its wishes, more often the successful candidates will feel that they have to pay some

regards to its demand for public decency and honesty (Roosevelt). This quote also targets the

intended audience's emotion by using positive connotation to describe honest men who want

nothing more than whats best for the country. He also uses negative connotation to describe

certain politicians and that strikes distrust into the minds of the American people by using words

such as: fear, hatred, and defiance. Roosevelt effectively uses pathos to influence the emotions of

his intended audience.

All in all, Theodore Roosevelt efficiently uses ethos, logos, and pathos to persuade the

American people to become more involved in politics within their own country. By appealing to

their sense or morals, emotion, and logic, Roosevelt argues the importance of fulfilling ones

societal duties as a citizen of the United States of America.


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Works cited

"Digital History." Digital History. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2017.

Huneiti, Haya. ""Duties of American Citizenship"." Prezi.com. N.p., 04 Oct. 2012. Web. 13 Feb.

2017.

PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2017.

Rubric rating submitted on: 3/17/2017, 9:04:02 AM by danielle.cook@redstreaks.org


5 4 3 2 1 0

Introduction 5 = Fully and 4= 3= 2= 1= 0 = No


W.2.a & creatively Demonstrate Attempted to Attempted to Attempted to attempt made
Conclusion demonstrated d demonstrate; demonstrate; demonstrate; Introduction
W.2.e Introduction Introduction a couple a few errors several errors W.2.a
Your score: W.2.a W.2.a errors exist exist exist -Intro
5 -Intro -Intro Introduction Introduction Introduction paragraph
paragraph paragraph W.2.a W.2.a W.2.a captures the
captures the captures the -Intro -Intro -Intro readers
readers readers paragraph paragraph paragraph attention.
attention. attention. captures the captures the captures the -A brief
-A brief -A brief readers readers readers summary of
summary of summary of attention. attention. attention. the text(s)
the text(s) the text(s) -A brief -A brief -A brief analyzed is
analyzed is analyzed is summary of summary of summary of given to
given to given to the text(s) the text(s) the text(s) anticipate the
anticipate the anticipate the analyzed is analyzed is analyzed is readers
readers readers given to given to given to knowledge
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knowledge knowledge anticipate the anticipate the anticipate the level--no


level--no level--no readers readers readers more than a
more than a more than a knowledge knowledge knowledge couple
couple couple level--no level--no level--no sentences.
sentences. sentences. more than a more than a more than a -Intro
-Intro -Intro couple couple couple paragraph
paragraph paragraph sentences. sentences. sentences. clearly
clearly clearly -Intro -Intro -Intro introduces
introduces introduces paragraph paragraph paragraph the thesis and
the thesis and the thesis and clearly clearly clearly topic of the
topic of the topic of the introduces introduces introduces body
body body the thesis and the thesis and the thesis and paragraphs
paragraphs paragraphs topic of the topic of the topic of the that are clear,
that are clear, that are clear, body body body sophisticated,
sophisticated, sophisticated, paragraphs paragraphs paragraphs and
and and that are clear, that are clear, that are clear, insightful.
insightful. insightful. sophisticated, sophisticated, sophisticated, Conclusion
Conclusion Conclusion and and and W.2.e
W.2.e W.2.e insightful. insightful. insightful. -Conclusion
-Conclusion -Conclusion Conclusion Conclusion Conclusion restates
restates restates W.2.e W.2.e W.2.e thesis,
thesis, thesis, -Conclusion -Conclusion -Conclusion reviews the
reviews the reviews the restates restates restates topics/claims
topics/claims topics/claims thesis, thesis, thesis, in the body
in the body in the body reviews the reviews the reviews the of the essay,
of the essay, of the essay, topics/claims topics/claims topics/claims offers closure
offers closure offers closure in the body in the body in the body and answers
and answers and answers of the essay, of the essay, of the essay, the So
the So the So offers closure offers closure offers closure What?
What? What? and answers and answers and answers question.
question. question. the So the So the So
What? What? What?
question. question. question.

Body W.2.b 5 = Fully and 4= 3= 2= 1= 0 = No


Your score: creatively Demonstrate Attempted to Attempted to Attempted to attempt made
4.75 demonstrated d demonstrate; demonstrate; demonstrate; Body W.2.b
Body W.2.b Body W.2.b a couple a few errors several errors -Each body
-Each body -Each body errors exist exist exist paragraph
paragraph paragraph Body W.2.b Body W.2.b Body W.2.b begins with a
begins with a begins with a -Each body -Each body -Each body clear,
clear, clear, paragraph paragraph paragraph sophisticated,
sophisticated, sophisticated, begins with a begins with a begins with a insightful
insightful insightful clear, clear, clear, topic
topic topic sophisticated, sophisticated, sophisticated, sentence.
sentence. sentence. insightful insightful insightful -Claims,
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-Claims, -Claims, topic topic topic reasons, and


reasons, and reasons, and sentence. sentence. sentence. evidence are
evidence are evidence are -Claims, -Claims, -Claims, effectively
effectively effectively reasons, and reasons, and reasons, and structured
structured structured evidence are evidence are evidence are and
and and effectively effectively effectively organized in
organized in organized in structured structured structured a logical
a logical a logical and and and sequence
sequence sequence organized in organized in organized in with effective
with effective with effective a logical a logical a logical transitions.
transitions. transitions. sequence sequence sequence -The
-The -The with effective with effective with effective significance
significance significance transitions. transitions. transitions. of the claims
of the claims of the claims -The -The -The is clearly
is clearly is clearly significance significance significance established
established established of the claims of the claims of the claims for the
for the for the is clearly is clearly is clearly audience
audience audience established established established throughout
throughout throughout for the for the for the the body.
the body. the body. audience audience audience -Maintains a
-Maintains a -Maintains a throughout throughout throughout consistent
consistent consistent the body. the body. the body. focus
focus focus -Maintains a -Maintains a -Maintains a throughout.
throughout. throughout. consistent consistent consistent Ideas always
Ideas always Ideas always focus focus focus related back
related back related back throughout. throughout. throughout. to thesis in
to thesis in to thesis in Ideas always Ideas always Ideas always order to
order to order to related back related back related back prove the
prove the prove the to thesis in to thesis in to thesis in central claim.
central claim. central claim. order to order to order to -A clear,
-A clear, -A clear, prove the prove the prove the accurate
accurate accurate central claim. central claim. central claim. analysis of
analysis of analysis of -A clear, -A clear, -A clear, the use of
the use of the use of accurate accurate accurate rhetoric
rhetoric rhetoric analysis of analysis of analysis of within the
within the within the the use of the use of the use of text is
text is text is rhetoric rhetoric rhetoric apparent.
apparent. apparent. within the within the within the
text is text is text is
apparent. apparent. apparent.

Evidence & 5 = Fully and 4= 3= 2= 1= 0 = No


Elaboration creatively Demonstrate Attempted to Attempted to Attempted to attempt made
RL. 1 demonstrated d demonstrate; demonstrate; demonstrate; Evidence &
Your score: Evidence & Evidence & a couple a few errors several errors Elaboration
5 Elaboration Elaboration errors exist exist exist RL. 1
RL. 1 RL. 1 Evidence & Evidence & Evidence & -Contains
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-Contains -Contains Elaboration Elaboration Elaboration effective,


effective, effective, RL. 1 RL. 1 RL. 1 specific,
specific, specific, -Contains -Contains -Contains relevant
relevant relevant effective, effective, effective, examples and
examples and examples and specific, specific, specific, details to
details to details to relevant relevant relevant back up
back up back up examples and examples and examples and major claims
major claims major claims details to details to details to in each body
in each body in each body back up back up back up paragraph
paragraph paragraph major claims major claims major claims and the
and the and the in each body in each body in each body thesis.
thesis. thesis. paragraph paragraph paragraph -Clear
-Clear -Clear and the and the and the reflection on
reflection on reflection on thesis. thesis. thesis. the evidence
the evidence the evidence -Clear -Clear -Clear is referenced
is referenced is referenced reflection on reflection on reflection on from the text
from the text from the text the evidence the evidence the evidence and
and and is referenced is referenced is referenced thoroughly
thoroughly thoroughly from the text from the text from the text and clearly
and clearly and clearly and and and explained to
explained to explained to thoroughly thoroughly thoroughly the audience.
the audience. the audience. and clearly and clearly and clearly -Demonstrate
-Demonstrate -Demonstrate explained to explained to explained to s thoughtful
s thoughtful s thoughtful the audience. the audience. the audience. consideration
consideration consideration -Demonstrate -Demonstrate -Demonstrate of the task
of the task of the task s thoughtful s thoughtful s thoughtful and
and and consideration consideration consideration thoroughly
thoroughly thoroughly of the task of the task of the task answers the
answers the answers the and and and prompt.
prompt. prompt. thoroughly thoroughly thoroughly
answers the answers the answers the
prompt. prompt. prompt.

Mechanics, 5 = Fully and 4= 3= 2= 1= 0 = No


Usage & creatively Demonstrate Attempted to Attempted to Attempted to attempt made
Style W.2.c,d demonstrated d demonstrate; demonstrate; demonstrate; Mechanics,
& L. 1 & 2 Mechanics, Mechanics, a couple a few errors several errors Usage &
Your score: Usage & Usage & errors exist exist exist Style W.2.c,d
5 Style W.2.c,d Style W.2.c,d Mechanics, Mechanics, Mechanics, & L. 1 & 2
& L. 1 & 2 & L. 1 & 2 Usage & Usage & Usage & -Sentence
-Sentence -Sentence Style W.2.c,d Style W.2.c,d Style W.2.c,d variety and
variety and variety and & L. 1 & 2 & L. 1 & 2 & L. 1 & 2 word choice
word choice word choice -Sentence -Sentence -Sentence is effective
is effective is effective variety and variety and variety and and
and and word choice word choice word choice sophisticated.
sophisticated. sophisticated. is effective is effective is effective -A formal
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-A formal -A formal and and and style and


style and style and sophisticated. sophisticated. sophisticated. objective
objective objective -A formal -A formal -A formal tone is
tone is tone is style and style and style and established
established established objective objective objective and
and and tone is tone is tone is maintained &
maintained & maintained & established established established -Writing is
-Writing is -Writing is and and and clear,
clear, clear, maintained & maintained & maintained & concise, and
concise, and concise, and -Writing is -Writing is -Writing is strong.
strong. strong. clear, clear, clear, -Sentences
-Sentences -Sentences concise, and concise, and concise, and demonstrate
demonstrate demonstrate strong. strong. strong. correct
correct correct -Sentences -Sentences -Sentences usage,
usage, usage, demonstrate demonstrate demonstrate punctuation,
punctuation, punctuation, correct correct correct capitalization
capitalization capitalization usage, usage, usage, , and
, and , and punctuation, punctuation, punctuation, spelling.
spelling. spelling. capitalization capitalization capitalization
, and , and , and
spelling. spelling. spelling.

MLA Format 5 = Fully and 4= 3= 2= Attempted 1= Attempted 0 = No


W.8 creatively Demonstrate Attempted to to to attempt made
Your score: demonstrated d demonstrate; demonstrate; demonstrate; MLA Format
5 MLA Format MLA Format a couple a few errors several errors W.8
W.8 W.8 errors exist exist exist -Information
-Information -Information MLA Format MLA Format MLA Format from the text
from the text from the text W.8 W.8 W.8 is integrated
is integrated is integrated -Information -Information -Information into the essay
into the essay into the essay from the text from the text from the text selectively to
selectively to selectively to is integrated is integrated is integrated maintain the
maintain the maintain the into the essay into the essay into the essay flow of ideas,
flow of ideas, flow of ideas, selectively to selectively to selectively to and
and and maintain the maintain the maintain the overreliance
overreliance overreliance flow of ideas, flow of ideas, flow of ideas, on the text
on the text on the text and and and using
using using overreliance overreliance overreliance transition
transition transition on the text on the text on the text words/phrase
words/phrase words/phrase using using using s. Plagiarism
s. Plagiarism s. Plagiarism transition transition transition is avoided by
is avoided by is avoided by words/phrase words/phrase words/phrase each quote
each quote each quote s. Plagiarism s. Plagiarism s. Plagiarism being
being being is avoided by is avoided by is avoided by appropriately
appropriately appropriately each quote each quote each quote cited using
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cited using cited using being being being in-text


in-text in-text appropriately appropriately appropriately citations and
citations and citations and cited using cited using cited using a works cited
a works cited a works cited in-text in-text in-text page.
page. page. citations and citations and citations and -Paper is
-Paper is -Paper is a works cited a works cited a works cited formatted
formatted formatted page. page. page. according to
according to according to -Paper is -Paper is -Paper is MLA
MLA MLA formatted formatted formatted guidelines
guidelines guidelines according to according to according to (header, font,
(header, font, (header, font, MLA MLA MLA spacing,
spacing, spacing, guidelines guidelines guidelines margins,
margins, margins, (header, font, (header, font, (header, font, page number,
page number, page number, spacing, spacing, spacing, etc).
etc). etc). margins, margins, margins,
page number, page number, page number,
etc). etc). etc).

Comments:
Total: 24.75/25 x 4 = 99/100

This is an excellent rhetorical analysis! The essay is very well organized and supported. The
topic sentences could be a little more insightful, but overall the essay is very good. All evidence
is thoroughly explained.