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ANDRSAEXAMINATIONS
OXFORDCAMBRIDGE
AdvancedGCE
PHYSTCS B (ADVANCTNG PHYSICS) 2863101
RiseandFallof theClockwork
Universe
Tuesday 20 JANUARY2OO4 Morning t hour15 minutes

Candidatesansweron the questionpaper.


Additional
materials:
Data,Formulaeand Relationships Booklet
Electronic
calculator

Candidate
CandidateName CentreNumber Number

rT-l-l-l
TIME t hour15 minutes

TO CANDIDATES
INSTRUCTIONS
a Writeyournamein the spaceabove.
o WriteyourCentrenumberandCandidate numberin the boxesabove.
o Answerall the questions.
o Writeyouranswersin the spacesprovidedon the questionpaper.
o Readeachquestioncarefullyand makesureyou knowwhatyou haveto do beforestartingyour
answer.
. Show clearlythe workingin all calculationsand give answersto only a justifiablenumberof
figures.
significant

INFORMATION FORCANDIDATES
o Youare advisedto spendabout20 minuteson SectionA and 55 minuteson SectionB.
o The numberof marksis givenin brackets[ ] at the endof eachquestionor partquestion.
o Thereare fourmarksfor the qualityof writtencommunicationin SectionB.
o The valuesof standardphysicalconstantsare given in the
Data,Formulae andRelationshipsBooklet. Anyadditionaldata
are givenin theappropriate
required question. FOREXAMINER'S USE
Sectlon Max. Mark

A 20

B 50
TOTAL 70

This question paperconsists of 14 printed pages and2 blank pages.


sP (NF/KN)546071/6
@ocR 2004 [H/100/3709] CharityNumber:1066969
Registered [Turn over
2 For
Examinefs
Use
Answerall the questions.

SectionA

1 Hereis a listof units.

J N Jkg-t Nkg-t

Fromthe listwritedownthe correctunitfor

(a) the energystoredin a stretched


spring

(b) centripetalforce.
l2l

2 A can of drinkingchocolatecontainsa chemicalheatingpackthat releases3.5x 104J of


energyintothe drinkwhenactivated.

of the drink assumingno energyis lost to the can or


Calculatethe final temperature
surroundings.

massof drink= 0.21kg


specificthermalcapacityof drink= 42OOJ
kg-t 6-t
of drink= 20"C.
initialtemperature

of drink= ................"C
finaltemperature [3]

28901 Jano4
3

3 for the energyEstoredon a capacitor


(a) Hereis an expression

E=lzeV

whereQ is the magnitude of the chargein coulombson eachplateof the capacitor


and
V is the p.d.in voltsacrossthe capacitor.

can be writtenas
Showthatthisexpression

E=|c v2

in farads.
whereC is the capacitance

l2l

(b) Sketcha graphon the axesof Fig.3.1 showinghowthe energystoredon a capacitor


varieswiththe potentialdifferenceacrossthe capacitor.

energystored

p.d.acrosscapacitor

Fig.3.1

286901 Jano4 [Turn over


For
4 Exaninefs
Ufi
4 Readthe shortpassageand answerthe questionsbelow.

Most physicistsacceptthe Hot Big Bangmodelof the originof the Universe.Twopiecesof


evidencefor this model are (i) the expansionof space and (ii) the microwavebackground
radiationthat is observedto be of almostequal intensityin alldirections.

to suggestthatspaceis expanding.
that leadsphysicists
(a) Statean observation

l1I

(b) Explainwhy the secondpieceof evidencesuggeststhat all the early Universewas at


approximatelythe sametemperature.

l2l

S 4.0g of heliumcontainsone mole (6.0x 1023atoms).The heliumis at a pressureof


of 300 K.
1.0x 10sPaandat a temperature

(a) Show that one mole of heliumoccupiesa volumeof about 0.025m3 underthese
conditions.

molargasconstantR = 8.3Jmol-lK-1

I2l

2863V01
Jan04
For
5 Examinefs
Use
(b) The gas is compressedto a volumeof 0.020m3.The temperatureof the gas is kept
constant.

of the gas.
the newpressure
Calculate

pr essur=e ......................
Pa [2]

6 is chargedto a potentialdifference
In thecircuitin Fig.6.1,the capacitor of 6.0V.

6.0v

C = 4700ttF

R = 5.6 kC)

Fig.6.1

throughthe resistor.
Whenthe switchis movedfromA to B, the capacitordischarges

currentis about1 mA.


of thedischarge
(a) Showthatthe initialvalue

tzt
(b) The timeconstantRC of the dischargecircuitis about26s.

Calculatethe currentin the dischargecircuitafterthe switchhasbeenclosedfor a time


equaltoRC.

current= mA [2]

[SectionA Total:20]
26901 Jano4 flurn over
Fq
6 Examiner's
Use
Section B

for thequalityof writtencommunication.


In thissection,fourmarksare available

7 Thevariationin depthof waterin a harbourcanbe modelledas a simpleharmonicoscillation.

depthof
water/m

hours
timeaftermidnight/

Fig.7.1

Fig.7.1showsa graphproduced of depthof waterin a


fromthemodel.lt showsthevariation
harbourwithtimeoverthe periodof one day(24 hours).

(a) Usethe graphto find

(i) the maximumdepthof thewaterin the harbour

depth=............
maximum m [1]

(ii) the amplitude


A of the tidalmotion

of motion= ............
amplitude m [1]

(iii) the rateof changeof depthin metresper hour(m hr-l) at f = 6 hours


wheref = timeaftermidnightin hours.Showyourworking.

rateof changeof depthE ....................


m hr-1 [3]
2863/01 Jano4
7

(b) Usedatafromthe graphto calculate


thefrequencyf of the tidalmotionin unitsof tides
per hour.

= ......................
frequency tidesperhour [3]

(c) A largeboatneedsat least7 m of waterto be ableto enterthe harbour.Usethe graph


to estimatethe numberof hoursin the day (24 hours)that the boat couldsafelyenter
the harbour.
Showyourmethodclearly.

l2l
(d) Theequationfor thedepthof water4 in metres,in the harbouris

( 2 n ft ) .
d- 10+Asin

Use your answerto (a)(ii)and this equationto showthat the lowestdepthof wateris
5m.

t2l
[Total:12]

2863V01
Jan04 [Turnover
I

Thisquestionis aboutthe physicsof ejectionseats.

Ejectionseatsare designedto fire an aircraftpilotout of the planeat highvelocity.

the seatupwards.
Onetypeof ejectionsystemusesan explosionto accelerate

Theseatwastestedin a planestandingon the runway(Fig.8.1a).

i J I'aximum
i ladditional
fi
ssms-1li
___,__l]"'nn'
,,t
____&

Fig.8.la Fig.8.lb

The combinedmassof the seat and pilot is 280kg. Whenejectiontakesplace,the mass


to a verticalvelocityol 55m s-1.
accelerates

(a) (i) Calculatethe changeof momentumof the seatand pilot.

= ..........
changeof momentuffl unit..............
t3l

in (i) takesplacein a timeof 0.25s.


(ii) Thechangeof momentum

in 0.25s.
the averageforceneededto givethischangeof momentum
Calculate

force=

286301 Jan04
For
I Exaninefs
Use
(iii) Suggestand explainhow the body of the plane may moveverticallyduringthe
ejection.

tzl
(b) 0.25s afterthe ejectionbeginsthe seat and pilothavea maximumverticalvelocityof
55m s-1.

Calculate the maximumadditional heightreachedby the seatand pilotaftermaximum


velocityis attained(seeFig.8.1b).

lgnoreair resistance.

9=9'8Nkg-r

height= ..............
[ 3]

suggests
(c) The heightreachedafter the ejectionis less than this simplecalculation
becauseof air resistance.
forceon the pilot.
Explainhowthe particlesof air exerta decelerating

t3I
[Total:'13]

286401 Jan04 [Turnover


10 For
Exanine/s
Use
Fig.9.1showsthe apparatusused in an experimentto investigatethe energyneededto
evaporate
water.

50W heater

waterat 100"C

vacuumflask

electronic
balance

Fig.9.1

(a) The 50W heaterkeepsthe waterat boilingpointfor250 seconds.

Showthattheenergysuppliedto thewaterin thistimeis morethan 12kJ.

t1l
(b) ln thistime,the massof thewaterin theflaskdecreases
by 5.0g.

Showthatabout1.7x'1023molecules
escapefromthewater.

18g of watercontains6.0x 1023molecules.

tzl

2863/01Jan04
For
11 xaminer's
Use
(c) Show that the energyE neededfor a moleculeto escapeinto the vapouris about
7.5 x 10-20J.

l2l
by
(d) The averageenergyof a moleculeat absolutetemperaturef is givenapproximately

averageenerg[= kT'

to estimatethe averageenergyof watermoleculesat 373K.


Usethisexpression

k = 1.4t 1g-23'16-t

k T =. . . . . . . . . J. . .I .1. l

(e) (i) Calculatethe value of the ratio of the averageenergy of a moleculeat 373 K to the
energy(7.5x1O-20J) requiredfor a moleculeto escapeinto a vapour.

= t1l

escapeintothevapourat 373K.
(ii) Explainwhysomemolecules

tzl
[Total:9]

286901 Jan04 [Turnover


12

10 Thisquestionis aboutthe gravitational


fieldandpotentialnearthe Earth.

The gravitational
potentialVg,"rdueto the massof an approximately
sphericalbodyis given
by the expression
_GM
vgr", =
R

where

M is the massof the body


R is the distancefromthe centreof the body.

(a) (i) Show that the gravitationalpotential at the Earth's equator is about
-6.25x107Jkg-t.

massof Earth= 5.98x 1024kg


radiusof Earthat the Equator= 6.38x 106m
radiusof Earthat the poles= 6.36x 106m
constantG = 6.67x 10-11p n121g-2
gravitational

I2l
(ii) Showthat the magnitudeof the gravitational
potentialat one of the polesis about
1.003timesthe magnitudeat the equator.

(iii) Explainwhygravitational
potentialis alwaysnegative.

2863/01 JanO4
For
13 Examine/s
Use
(b) Statean equationwhichshowshow the gravitationalfieldstrengthI outsidea uniform
sphereof massM , varieswithdistanceB fromthe centre of the sphere.

t1l
fieldat the Earth'ssudaceis not quiteconstant.There
(c) The strengthof the gravitational
arelocalvariationsin tietOstrengthdueto concentrationsof densematerialbeneaththe
surface.The shapeof the Earthalsoaffectsthe fieldstrengthon the surface'

fieldstrengthat one of the Earth'spoles.


(i) Calculatethe gravitational

- .-..........
strength
gravitationalfield unit............
t3l

(ii) The gravitationalfield strengthat one of the poles is about 1.006times the
fieldstrengthat the equator.
gravitational
fieldstrengthby
The shapeof the Earthchangesthe magnitudeof the gravitational
a factorof 1.006butonlychangesthe magnitudeof the potential
gravitational by a
factorof 1.003.

Explainwhythesetwofactorsare different.

tzl
[Total:12]

Qualityof WrittenCommunication'[4]

[SectionB Total:50]

2863/01 Jan04
16

OCRhasmadeeveryefforlto lracethecopyrightholdersof itemsusedin thisQuestionpaper,butit we haveinadvertently any,we apologise


overtooked

2863Y01
Jan04