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Al Bahar

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials presents

Advances in

Building Materials
Civil Engineering and
Advances in
the state-of-the-art development in:
- Structural Engineering
- Road & Bridge Engineering
- Geotechnical Engineering
Civil Engineering and
- Architecture & Urban Planning
- Transportation Engineering Building Materials
- Hydraulic Engineering
- Engineering Management
- Computational Mechanics
- Construction Technology
- Building Materials
- Environmental Engineering
- Computer Simulation
Emphasis was placed on basic methodologies, scientific development
and engineering applications. Advances in Civil Engineering and
Building Materials will be useful to professionals, academics, and
Ph.D. students interested in the above-mentioned fields.

Editors: Shuenn-Yih Chang,

an informa business Suad Khalid Al Bahar & Jingying Zhao

Advances in Civil Engineering

and Building Materials

Shuenn-Yih Chang
Department of Civil Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan

Suad Khalid Al Bahar

Kuwait Institute Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait

Jingying Zhao
International Science and Engineering Research Center, Wanchai, Hong Kong
CRC Press
Taylor & Francis Group
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Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742
2013 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
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Version Date: 20121207

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Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Table of contents

Preface XV
Sponsors and committees XVII

Architecture & urban planning

Challenges and trends of using sewage treatment plants in Islamabad, Pakistan 3
A.A. Ikram
The role of green architecture on environment relaxation of hospital users 7
M.A. Mohammadabadi & M. Massoud
An attic as rehabilitation solution for low rise prefab concrete housing blocks 11
C. Bocan
Concentration of TV news coverage to the specific municipalities Case study on the
2011 Tohoku Earthquake 15
M. Numada & K. Meguro
Research on application of green building technologies in designs of school 21
Y.Q. Cui, Y. Liu & N. Zhao
Energy-efficient office building design in cold climate 27
W.D. Ji, T.F. Zhao & X.W. Xu
Dynamic mechnical properties of sandstone under coupled static and dynamic loads 33
F.Q. Gong & X.L. Liu
The instrument for attribute shift of urban-rural land use of eastern part county in northwest China
on the background of urban-rural incorporation A case study of Hancheng, China 39
A. Bo Jing, B. Minghua Huang & B. Yu Wang
Urban complex: New urban phenomenon in China 45
H. Zhu
Prediction of environmental-friendly eco-architecture trend by neologism analysis 49
K.-I. Chin, J. WooMoon & K.H. Lee
Evaluation on building interior accessible routes design 55
Y. Han & Y. Wang
Rain water utilization in urban design: A case study of the street natural drainage program in
Seattle America 61
J. Sun & K. Shi
Studies of urban construction and development strategy of new villages Taking the construction
planning of new village in Wangji Town, Xinzhou District, Wuhan City for example 65
Q. Hua

Building materials
Damage velocity of compressively preloaded concrete under frost action 71
S. Chen, X. Song & X. Liu
Ultrafine glass fiber vacuum insulation panel for building insulation 77
F.E. Boafo, Z.F. Chen, W.P. Wu, Q. Chen, B.B. Li & J.M. Zhou

Carbon nanotube coatings for building EMI shielding 83
P. Li, J. Lin, C.H. Poo, A.S. Low, X.J. Yin & G.C. Ong
Experimental study on noise reduction characteristics of polymer modified asphalt mixture 87
L. Wang, Y.M. Xing & L. Pan
Influence of mineral admixtures on anti-permeability of mixed aggregate concrete 93
J. Huo, D. Song, H. Yang, W. Li & J. Li
Corrosion resistant performance of a chemical quenched rebar 99
J. Wei, J. Dong & W. Ke
Experimental study of photocatalitic concrete products for durability of reinforced concrete 105
A. Fiore, G.C. Marano, P. Monaco & A. Morbi
Research on the durability of Reactive Powder Concrete in marine corrosive environment 109
Ming-zhe An, Y. Wang, Q. Lu & Run-dong Liu
Review and exploration of river sand substitutes for concrete production in Asian countries 115
C.-P. Sing, P.E.D. Love & C.-M. Tam
New insulating material: Binderless particleboard from durian peel 119
S. Charoenvai
Durability of reactive powder concrete under the action of sulfate dry-wet cycles 125
Y. Wang, M.Z. An & S. Han
The new conception of rare earth compounds used as asphalt modifier 131
Haixiao, R. Fu, R. Hu, S. Zhang & M. Zhang
The application technology of warm mix of ultra-thin cover face in urban road maintenance 135
Y. Li, X. Song, J. Sun, Y. Zhang & Y. Li
Studies of construction quality based on distributed fiber optic monitoring of mass concrete 139
F. Jin
Pozzolanic characteristics of palm oil waste ash (POWA) and treated palm oil fuel ash (TPOFA) 145
N.M. Altwair, M.A. Megat Johari, A.M. Zeyad & S.F. Saiyid Hashim
Investigation of accelerating effects of mineral admixtures by hydration heat and
thermal analysis 151
H. Yang, S. Tu & F. Gao
Estimation of asphalt mixture mechanical property by digital image correlation method 157
Y. Cui, L. Feng & L. Wang
The manufacturing of floating decks using grancrete and reservoir sludge 163
W.C. Liao, S.Y. Tsai, C.S. Tsai & J.W. Lin
The finite element analysis of behavior for reactive powder concrete-filled circular steel tube
stub columns under axial compression 167
H. Luo, W. Ji & Z. Yan
Review of water desorption test methods 173
C. Ince, Y. Ozturk, M.A. Carter & M.A. Wilson
Lightweight aggregates produced from mixtures of high silica heating microscope procedure 179
S. Al-Bahar, S. Al-Otaibi, M. Taha, A. Al-Arbeed, A. Abduljaleel, F. Al-Fahad & S. Al-Fadala
Nonlinear finite element analysis for reinforced CRC beam 185
H. Guo & H. Zhu
Experimental grading of locally grown timber to be used as structural material 189
G. Concu, B. De Nicolo, M. Valds, M. Fragiacomo, A. Menis & N. Trulli
Mechanical properties of ultra-high strength concrete with local materials 195
S. Allena, C.M. Newtson & M.N. Tahat
Experimental study on shear strength of reactive powder concrete 199
G. Minlong, J. Wenyu & A. Mingzhe

Coastal engineering
Wave transformation by a perforated free surface semicircular breakwater in irregular waves 207
H.M. Teh & V. Venugopal
Spectral analyses of sea-state wave data for the development of a regional-sensitive spectral model 211
M.S. Liew, M.Z. Abd Wahap, E.S. Lim & N. Abdullah
Wave-induced seabed response around offshore wind turbine foundation: Donghai offshore
wind farm, China 215
K.T. Chang & D.-S. Jeng

Computational mechanics
The force-based quadrilateral plate elements for plate analysis using Large Increment Method 221
H.X. Jia, D.B. Long & X.L. Liu
Assembling and factorizing the structure stiffness matrix of skeletal structure in
segments based on graph theory 227
L. Haifeng, Y. Jingbo & H. Junke
Fracture simulation of reinforced concrete structures with account of bond degradation
and concrete cracking under steel corrosion 233
A.V. Benin, A. Semenov & S. Semenov
Effect of plane stress and plane strain conditions over fracture parameters of
ductile plate in SSY (LEFM) and EPFM regimes: A review 239
S.N.S.H. Chittajallu, M. Bansal, A.R. Bedare & S. Bhat

Computer simulation and CAD/CAE

Three-dimensional modeling of foundation pit structures and surrounding buildings during the
construction of the second scene of the State Academic Mariinsky Theatre in Saint-Petersburg
considering stage-by-stage nature of construction process 245
A.P. Ledyaev, A.V. Benin & A.N. Konkov
The second-responses method for simulation of vehicle-pavement dynamical interaction 249
S.H. Li & J.Y. Ren
Method for throughput capacity of container terminal based on complex stochastic system 255
X. Song, Y. Peng, W. Wang & Y. Guo
HOPs: A new tomographic reconstruction algorithm for non destructive acoustic testing of
concrete structures 259
B. Cannas, S. Carcangiu, A. Fanni, R. Forcinetti, A. Montisci & G. Concu
3D finite element analysis of seismic soil-micropile-structure interaction 265
A. Ghorbani, H. Hasanzadehshooiili & E. Ghamari
Wireless sensor placement based on SHM requirements and net energy consumption 271
R.N. Soman, T. Onoufriou, R.A. Votsis, C.Z. Chrysostomou, M.A. Kyriakides & B. Han

Construction technology
Use of polythene sheet formwork in place of conventional formwork (plywood/steel) 279
H.V. Pathak, L. Pasha & M. Kashyap
Research on the mechanic analysis method of prestress construction process of
large-span suspendome 283
Y. Wang, Z. Guo & B. Luo
Concrete shear test: A new tool for determining rheological properties of fresh
Portland cement concrete 289
S. Girish & B.S. Santhosh

Study and optimization of construction monitoring method for long-span continuous
rigid frame bridge 295
H. Hu, X. Zhang & L. Zhu
Concept of partnering in construction projects 301
A. Ghaffari & R.K. Jane
Simulation modeling of a concrete transporting system for construction of RCC dams 307
C. Zhao, J. Wang, Y. Zhou & H. Dong
Developing a model for profit sharing amongst partners in consulting engineering
companies of construction projects 311
A. Ghaffari & R.K. Jain

Engineering management
According the historical interpretation to research the relationship of construction logistics
and the project managers level 321
H. Zhang & X.H. Wang
Structural properties of concrete containing lateritic sand and quarry dust as fine aggregates 325
M.E. Ephraim, I.Z.S. Akobo, J.O. Ukpata & G.A. Akeke
Multi-objective repetitive activities projects scheduling using Genetic Algorithms 331
M.S. Eid, M.E. Abdelrazek & E. Elbeltagi
Research on social risk evaluation and mechanism of major engineering projects of
Zhejiang province 337
Y. Wang
Scheduling of repetitive projects with learning development effect 341
M.A. Ammar & A.F. Abdel-Maged
Evaluation for subway project quality based on supply chain thoughts 347
Z. Zhang
Research trend in partnering in construction journals 351
A. Ghaffari & R.K. Jane

Environmental engineering
Evaluation on the investment effect of railway vibration reduction measures 359
Z. Gongjuan, Y. Haifeng & Z. Qianbiao
Optimization of influent distributing and effluent discharging modes of constructed
rapid infiltration system 363
A. Junmin Chen, X. Yao & B. Zhenhua Sheng
A least-square solver to estimate vertical groundwater velocity using subsurface
temperature profile 367
L. Dong, J. Shimada, M. Kagabu & K. Ichiyanagi
Unit-based SOx emission values for fuels consumed in precast concrete production 373
M. Wimala, K. Kawai & A. Fujiki
The effect of NH4 NO3 concentration on the environment-induced cracking behavior of
carbon steel 379
K. Koide, A. Iwase & R. Nishimura
Theoretical investigation of operating control strategy of a new solar-water-assisted
ground-source heat pump 383
X. Gong, L. Wei & W. Feng
Research of the Properties of Calcium Carbide Residue Desulfurization Gypsum 391
M. Ye & T. Zhu

Effect of air handler supply air temperature in VAV system on building energy consumption
under Korean climatic condition 395
K.H. Lee, K.I. Chin & J.W. Moon

Geotechnical engineering
Slope stability analysis based on method of FEM strength reduction 401
L. Zongwei
Experimental research for the wetting characteristics of compacted loess 405
W.-B. Zhang
The application of the analytical recursion scheme method on soft ground sites 409
Q. Jingjing, Y. Shaoyan, Y. Zhiqing & L. Dahua
Theoretical model for the time prediction of landslides based on the monitoring data 415
X.H. Xu & H.Q. Yang
Throws and blasting vibration control of the channel blasting near the tunnel entrance 421
N. Fang
Considerations on technical and administrative management for peer review of preliminary
design of bracing and retaining structure for foundation pit excavation protection in
Guangzhou region 425
J.Y. Zheng
Analysis on 3D surface crack transient propagation process 429
L. Guo, R.H.C. Wong, L. Liu & P. Yin
Framework of DW I2 CAD/E system for deep foundation pit dewatering 433
J.X. Wang & X.Y. Gu
Monitoring of ground deformation in southern part of Metro Manila, Philippines 437
K. Kurita, Y. Kinugasa, T. Deguchi & R.E. Rimando
Study on wall group effect of rectangular closed diaphragm wall as bridge foundation
under vertical loading 441
H. Wen & Q. Cheng
The lateral behavior of single piles in liquefiable soils 447
A. Ghorbani & R. Jahanpour
The deformation characteristics and calculation prediction method of deep excavations in
Shanghai Soft Soil area 451
K. Yang & J. Jia
Research on temperature controlling technique of mass concrete bridge bearing platform 457
Z. Qin & X. Zhang
Technology strategy of Astor House Hotel protective restoration project 463
Q. Zhang & Y. Zheng
Analysis of the attribute of indemnificatory housing 469
K. Sun
Experimental study of recycled asphalt mixtures containing high rates of reclaimed
asphalt pavement 473
L. Geng, R. Ren, L. Wang & P. Wang
Research on strain rate-sensitivities of the tensile strength for concrete and its components 477
Y. Wang, J. Zhou, H. Zhao & D. Shen
Model test study of a novel vacuum preloading method 483
S. Xiaowu, G. Bingchuan & S. Xiaoxian
Creep property of undisturbed reticulated red clay under constant-load creep test 489
J.Z. Li & Y. Xie

Bearing capacity for drilled pile with rock socket and a case study 493
X. Huang
Seabed stress response by jet trenching 497
Y. Wang & D.-S. Jeng

Hydraulic engineering
Technique and theory on continuous pouring concrete of tail water branch pipe in
water power station 505
C. Yeying, W. Junjie & H. Jianyun
Tidal level trend test and extraction in downstream of the Yangtze River 509
G. Li, M. Xiao & X. Xiang
Experimental study on hydraulic characteristics of allotypic hybrid-type flip bucket 515
T. Zhang & Z.W. Wang
Dynamic gravity dam-reservoir-foundation interaction analysis based on the
scaled boundary finite element method 519
J.Y. Liu, G. Lin, Z.Q. Hu, Y. Wang & Y. Zhang
Study of material failures in operating gravity fed water supply pipelines 523
V.G. Tzatchkov & V.H. Alcocer-Yamanaka
Study on the law of coal-bearing soft rock belts in the steep excavation slopes at ZIPINGPU
hydroelectric station in SiChuan Province of China 527
Y. Cao & Y. Huang
Element analysis of consolidation of soil under surcharge and vacuum preloading 531
X. Shu, B. Guo & X. Song

Road & bridge engineering

Practical calculation method of composite cable-stayed bridge 539
X.-N. Wu, B. Li, M.-M. Zhou & X.-L. Zhai
Comparison between two improved methods of long term permanent deformation
calculation in high-speed railway subgrade 543
A. Kang Zhuang, G. Quanmei & B. Wang Yang
The influence of additional attack angle on flutter analysis result of 1400 m
cable stayed bridge 551
H.J. Zhang & L.D. Zhu
Performance evaluation on highway snow-melting agents 557
Y. Wu, N. Liu & X. Fan
Prediction of CBR from index properties of cohesive soils 561
M. Zumrawi
Static load test arrangement analysis based on combined control of moment and stress 567
X.-J. Che, X.-D. Zhang & C. Yang
Test and simulation analysis on early temperature field of the main girder for a
concrete cable-stayed bridge 571
Q. Li, Q. Chen, P. Wang & J. Yuan
Research on influence factors and evaluation of ride comfort of bridge bump based on road test 577
X. Pan, L. Yu, W. Guo, X. Ma & Z. Fu
Nonlinear dynamic stability of a rigid frame bridge with super high-rise piers 581
H. Zhang, X. Zhang & B. Dong
Performance of Ultra Thin White Topping with different admixtures to White Topping 585
C.C. Abhijith & S.P. Mahendra

Structural glass in metal load-carrying systems of building constructions 591
M. Karmaznov & J. Melcher
The surface electrical and microstructure analysis of peat treated with cement 597
H. Moayedi & S. Kazemian
Pushoff shear tests of self consolidating concrete 603
K.N. Rahal & A.L. Al-Khaleefi
Earthquake response study of slope with anti-slide piles under bilateral seismic actions 607
B. Dong
Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation on the reliability of the in-service highway bridges 611
D.-W. Zheng, Z.-B. Hu & L.-X. Qi
Seismic performance evaluation of bridge applying mode-based pushover analysis method 615
C. Yang, X. Zhang, X. Che & L. Zhu
Research on the reasonable strength of cement-treated macadam base 621
Y. Wang, X. Sun & Z. Li
Horizontal shear behavior and vibration isolation efficiency of FRP rubber isolators 625
L. Han, T.-B. Peng & Z.-N. Wang
The comparisons of three research methods about horizontal shear stiffness of
FRP rubber isolators 631
Z.-N. Wang, T.-B. Peng & L. Han
Effect of tower longitudinal stiffness on static performance of self-anchored suspension
bridge with multi-tower 635
Y.-J. Chen, C. Zhang & Z.-Z. Fang
Characterization of stone matrix asphalt with cellulose and coconut fiber 639
S.S. Awanti, A. Habbal, P.N. Hiremath, S. Tadibidi & S.N. Hallale

Structural engineering
Analysis on the capacities of resisting natural disasters for UHV transmission towers 645
J. Yang & F. Yang
Analysis on the unbalanced tension of 1000 kV and 500 kV AC four-circuit transmission
lines on the same tower 649
H. Junke, Z. Chunlei, Y. Jingbo & Y. Fengli
Research on load-displacement skeleton curve model of L-shaped concrete-filled
steel tubular column 655
B. Cao, S. Dai, J. Huang, Z. Peng & X. Shen
Mixed aleatory-epistemic uncertainty quantification using evidence theory with
differential evolution algorithm 661
Y. Su, H. Tang, S. Xue & C. Hu
New jacket-based anchorage for RC beams with external tendons 667
S. Hong, S.-K. Park & J. Choi
Experimental study on ultimate behaviors of aluminum alloy single shear four-bolted
connections according to plate thickness 673
T. Kim & Y. Cho
Application of modular industrialized housing method in villa project in Dubai 679
J. Li, L. Wang, H. Dong, T. Yu & Z. Sun
Discussion on technical coordination of reconstruction work for special villa 687
J. Li, L. Wang, H. Dong, T. Yu & R. Dai
Three dimensional failure surface of reinforced concrete element subjected to
complex loads 695
X. Chen & X.L. Liu

Study on small base isolation system using friction bearing Effects of bearing ball shape on
dynamic characteristics 701
M. Kezuka, K. Kurita, S. Aoki, Y. Nakanishi, K. Tominaga & M. Kanazawa
Dynamic characteristics of base isolation system using sliding bearing 707
S. Suminokura, K. Kurita, S. Aoki, Y. Nakanishi, K. Tominaga & M. Kanazawa
Development of oil dampers for reduction of seismic response of houses
(Examination for some types of dampers) 711
T. Yamauchi, S. Aoki & K. Kurita
Simplified calculation method for integral of mean square value of various
nonstationary random responses 715
S. Aoki & A. Fukano
Experimental tests for the evaluation of the structural behavior of steel tapered
beam-columns with I cross section and their knee connection 721
I.M. Cristutiu & D.L. Nunes
The uniaxial tension constitutive model of reactive powder concrete considering
the stochastic damage 727
Z.R. Yu, X. Qin & Y. Yuan
Design and test study on high-neck forging flange applied in UHV steel tube
transmission tower 733
J. Wu, J.-B. Yang, Q.-H. Li & G.-Q. Wu
Improvement of punching shear resistance of RC slabs using GFRC: An experimental study 739
P. Chugh, K.K. Bajpai, S. Bose & A. Gupta
Rational determination of cover thickness in reinforced concrete structures for fire loading 745
A. Gupta, S.P. Ramdasi, P. Chugh, S. Bose & S. Misra
Seismic retrofit of reinforced concrete soft-storey structures using toggle-brace-damper system 751
R.W.K. Chan, Z. Zhao & W.C. Tang
Steel-concrete composite columns composed of high-strength materials Experimental
analysis of buckling resistance 755
M. Karmaznov
Influence of organic matter on the stabilization soft soil with cement mixed method 761
L. Shao, J. Liu & Y. Ding
Performance of shape memory alloys in the nonlinear response of RC frames 765
Z. Pirsamadi & S. Zargham
The strut arrangement and monitoring analysis of deep foundation pits in silty sand 769
Y. Haihong & H. Chengpo
Fracture assessment of cold-press-formed square hollow sections at welded joints 773
M. Arita, Y. Kayamori, Y. Suzuki, K. Hanya, T. Suzuki, I. Takeuchi & T. Yamaguchi
Research on deformation capacity of Frame-Bent Structure under bi-directional horizontal
seismic excitation 779
X. Bai & F. Liu
Flexural rehabilitation of RC beams using self-compacting concrete jacketing 783
C.E. Chalioris, C.N. Pourzitidis, C.P. Papadopoulos & D. Fotis
Quantitative robustness analysis of reinforced concrete frames 787
Y. Gao & X.L. Liu
Evaluation reinforcement of compound column to bearing capacity with corrosion 795
Y.A. Mansoor & Z.Q. Zhang
Ultrasonic testing of masonry structures by features extraction and self-organising maps 801
B. Cannas, S. Carcangiu, A. Fanni, R. Forcinetti, A. Montisci, G. Sias,
M. Usai, N. Trulli & G. Concu

Frequency analysis of ultrasonic signals for non-destructive diagnosis of masonry structures 807
B. Cannas, S. Carcangiu, A. Fanni, R. Forcinetti, A. Montisci, G. Sias, M. Usai & G. Concu
Experimental investigation on shear strengths of concrete deep beams reinforced with FRP rebars 813
H. Choi, J. Choi, Y.H. Lee, H. Kim & D.J. Kim
Numerical simulation of in plane behavior of fiber reinforced polymer and polypropylene
composite retrofitted masonry wallet using 3-D Applied Element Method 817
A.S.M. Umair, B.M. Numada & C.K. Meguro
Reliability design of doubler plates for sea tankers 823
I.A. Assakkaf
Reliability-based design of tanker unstiffened steel panels 829
I.A. Assakkaf
Parametric studies in plates with holes for stress concentration factor 835
V. Pop, R. Hulea & M. Pop
Theoretical analysis for the effect of reinforcement diameter on bond strength 841
S. Yang & D. Li
RC slabs with openings issues and provision for design approach strategies 847
S.C. Florut, V. Stoian & T. Nagy-Gyrgy
Causes and required interventions on the rehabilitation process of large panel
buildings in Romania 853
T. Nagy-Gyrgy, I. Demeter, S.C. Florut & D. Dan

Transportation engineering
Analysis of speed difference at tunnel entrance and exit on freeways in China 859
H. Wu & R. Zhou
Empirical study on the relationship among lane changing, traffic speed and density for weaving
area of urban expressway on the Level of Service (LOS) four on the upper half in China 863
H. Xie, Y. Jiang, J. Sun & D. Tu
Fuzzy C-means clustering based on clustering algorithms for traffic crash data 869
I. Aghayan, N. Noii & M.M. Kunt
Potential use of multi-criteria analysis in context sensitive solutions 875
N. Stamatiadis, A. Di Graziano & S.D. Cafiso
Increasing Minimum Spanning Tree estimation precision; implemented for Tehran province 879
A.R. Mamdoohi, M. Yousefikia & A.R. Mahpour
Simulation of dynamic load for heavy vehicle under bilateral tracks road excitation 883
D. Liu, R.J.H. Chen & S. Wang
Field evaluation of weigh-in-motion system on weight enforcement operation 887
P. Chotickai
Optimization of departure time for time dependent vehicle routing problem 893
Z. Duan, D. Yang & M. Zhang
Study on percent time-spent-following: A performance measure for two-lane highways 899
P. Saha, M. Pal & A.K. Sarkar
CTM-based evacuation under incident-based non-recurrent congestion with information 903
N. Liu & A.M.H. Zhang
Speed management pilot project in China 909
C. Li, T. Wen, H. Feng, G. Zhang & A. Yuan
Gravity model with the function of cost impedance 915
D.-G. Li, Y. Zhang & Z.-W. Zheng

A review of cyclist safety studies in and out of China 921
L. Chen, X. Pan & X. Chen
Research on intercity rail terminal area planning and land development 925
D. Li, J. Cao, Y. Zheng & L. Yao
Validity analysis on ECG coefficient of variation indicator as driving fatigue measurement 929
X. Xie, Y. Zhao & B. Huang
Research on green transportation planning architecture and evaluation index system 933
Z. Lu & D. Wang
Taipei Songshan Airport (TSA) EMAS (Engineered Material Arresting System) 941
J. Bosco, H. Zou, H.K. DeLong & T.J. Chen
Research on luminance variation rate index of tunnel based on experiment 943
Q. Wu, X. Pan, H. Yang & S. Li
Studies on the low carbon building technology and integration on the green highway 947
Y. Jing, F.L. Tao & K. Yuan
Author index 953

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9


Following the great progress made in civil engineering and building materials, the 2012 2nd International
Conference on Civil Engineering and Building Materials (CEBM 2012) aimed at providing a forum for presen-
tation and discussion of state-of-the-art development in Structural Engineering, Road & Bridge Engineering,
Geotechnical Engineering, Architecture & Urban Planning, Transportation Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering,
Engineering Management, Computational Mechanics, Construction Technology, Building Materials, Environ-
mental Engineering, Computer Simulation & CAD/CAE. Emphasis was given to basic methodologies, scientific
development and engineering applications.
This conference is co-sponsored by Asia Civil Engineering Association, the International Association for
Scientific and High Technology and International Science and Engineering Research Center. The purpose of
CEBM 2012 is to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia, industry, and government to
exchange their research ideas and results in the areas of the conference. In addition, the participants of the
conference will have a chance to hear from renowned keynote speakers Prof. LEUNG, Andrew Y T from City
University, Hong Kong and Prof. XIAO-YAN LI from University of Hong Kong.
We would like to thank all the participants and the authors for their contributions. We would also like to
gratefully acknowledge the production supervisor Janjaap Blom, Lon Bijnsdorp, Lukas Goosen, who enthusi-
astically support the conference. In particular, we appreciate the full heart support of all the reviewers and staff
members of the conference. We hope that CEBM 2012 will be successful and enjoyable to all participants and
look forward to seeing all of you next year at the CEBM 2013.

November, 2012
Prof. Shuenn-Yih Chang
Dr. Suad Khalid Al Bahar
Dr. Jingying Zhao

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Sponsors and committees

General Chair
David Packer, International Science and Engineering Research Center, Hong Kong

Scientific Committee Chair

Konstantinos GIANNAKOS, Fellow of ASCE, University of Thessaly, Greece

International Committee & Scientific Committee

Ali Rahman, Jundi-Shapur University Technology, Iran
Anuchit Uchaipichat, Vongchavalitkul University, Thailand
Ata El-kareim Shoeib Soliman, Faculty of Engineering El-Mataria, Egypt
Badreddine Sbartai, Universit de Skikda, Algeria
DAVID S. HURWITZ, Oregon State University, USA
Du Jia-Chong, Tungnan University, Taiwan
Fu-Jen WANG, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taiwan
HoseinRahnema, Yasuj University, Iran
Jian YANG, University of Birmingham, UK
Jianping Han, Lanzhou University of Technology, China
Jianqing Bu, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China
Jia-Ruey Chang, MingHsin University of Science & Technology, Taiwan
Konstantinos GIANNAKOS, University of Thessaly, Greece
Lan WANG, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, China
Malagavelli Venu, BITS, Pilani, India
MANJEET SINGH HORA, Director, MANIT Bhopal, India
Mehmet Serkan KIRGIZ, Hacettepe University, Turkey
Moghadas Nejad, Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran
Mohammadreza Vafaei, Imenrah Consulting Engineers Co., Iran
Mohammadreza Yadollahi, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Mubiao Su, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China
Niyazi Ugur Kockal, Akdeniz University, Turkey
Ruey Syan Shih, Tumgnan University, Taiwan
Shengcai LI, Huaqiao University, China
Sina Kazemian, SCG Consultant Company, Selangor, Malaysia
TaeSoo KIM, Hanbat National University, Korea
Zakiah Ahmad, Coordinator of Quality Unit, Malaysia
Zhixin Yan, Lanzhou University, China

Technical Committee Chair

Chang, Shuenn-yih, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan

Technical Committee
Deng-Hu Jing, Southeast University, China
Dong Yongxiang, Beijing Institute of Technology, China
Jiachun Wang, Xia men University of Technology, China
Jianrong Yang, Kunming University of Science and Technology, China
Jingying Zhao, International Association for Scientific and High Technology
Kuixing LIU, Tianjin University, China
Li Liping, Shandong University, China
Liangbin TAN, Kunming University of Science and Technology, China
LU Qun, Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, China
Ming Zhang, Henan Institute of Engineering, China
PATRICK TIONG LIQ YEE, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

TIANBO PENG, Tongji University, China
Xujie LU, Jianghan University

Publication Chairs
Jingying Zhao, International Association for Scientific and High Technology

Co-sponsored by
Asia Civil Engineering Association
International Association for Scientific and High Technology
International Science and Engineering Research Center

Architecture & urban planning
Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Challenges and trends of using sewage treatment plants

in Islamabad, Pakistan

Amjad Ali Ikram

Project Director Shahzad and Farash Towns, Islamabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT: Like any under developed country, Pakistan also faces serious issues of urbanization and ribbon
growth in its population centers like Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad. There is a massive trend of social change
where people migrate from rural to urban areas at an alarming pace. Due to paucity of funds, the government
could not stop this dangerous trend. As a result, the existing sewers and sewerage schemes in these cities could not
sustain and accommodate additional biological loadings due to shift of population. Eventually there is general
problem of treatment and disposal of residential sewage and human excreta. As this problem worsened, there
came a basic thought of using smart technology of installing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) for this purpose.
Though presently this trend is uncommon in all major cities of Pakistan, the author restricted the study for capital
city Islamabad where STPs have been installed. The findings of the study reveal that; there are socio-political
issues and economic constraints which are the impediments in the procurement and installation of STPs in
residential areas. Moreover there is an element of reluctance, lack of confidence over this smart technology by
private societies and public service departments. Similarly the findings also cover the advantages and benefits
of using Sewage Treatment Plants. At the end, viable recommendations have been suggested to overcome these

Keywords: Pakistan, Islamabad, Sewage Treatment Plant, Biological Oxygen Demand

1 INTRODUCTION G8 and other adjoining areas. According to this sur-

vey and field data from public service departments
Over population and unbalanced displacement of like Capital Development Authority (CDA) and Water
masses leads to overloading of existing water and and Sanitation Authority (WASA), Islamabad, more
sanitation schemes. This is becomes true when there than 90 percent of sewage disposal in the city is com-
is a rapid urbanization in the major cities. The trends prised of Septic Tanks and soakage pits. These septic
of urbanization in the developing world are on the tanks and soakage pits are ultimately linked with trunk
increase, and Pakistan is no exception to this phenom- sewers and the finally bluck of sludge is thrown into
enal shift of population from rural to urban centers. the only renowned Nullah Laie. Unlike these areas,
Unfortunately this unhealthy trend has posed serious these are two famous towns Shahzad Town and Alipur
environmental and sanitation issues in the major cities Farash Town in Islamabad where two bio filter STPs
of Pakistan. Same is the case with the capital city of have successfully been installed. The sludge profile of
Islamabad. The existing sewer lines which were laid these two towns is.
a decade ago, have proved to be insufficient for addi-
tional sewage and biological loadings in Islamabad. Table 1. Design criteria.
In order to confront with this problem, a need for
installation of Sewage Treatment Plants was felts, in Chak Shahzad Ali pur frash
all residential sectors of Islamabad.
Daily Flowrate 110,000 GPD or 240,000 GPD or
500 m3 /day 1091 m3 /day
Peak Flow Rate 62.5 m3 /hr 136.38 m3 /hr
2 EXISTING SEWERAGE SYSTEM OF Operational Hours: 24 hrs/day 24 hrs/day
Parameter Wastewater value Discharge value
A field survey was conducted to ascertain the system of
BOD 250 30
sewage disposal in sectors like Shahzad Town, Alipur TSS 400 30
Farash Town, Defence Housing Authority Islamabad Fecal Coliform BDL
Colonies, Sector F6, F7, F8, F11, G5, G6, G7 and

Table 2. Problems of existing sewerage scheme.

Rank Criteria Response

1 Overflow of manholes 35%

2 Efficiency of disposal of waste 25%
3 Choking of sewers 20%
4 Maintenance of existing system 15%
5 Epidemic diseases 5%

Table 3. Perception of use of smart technologies STPs.

Rank Criteria Response

Figure 1. P.E Bio filter system.
1 Knowledge of STPs 40%
2 Cost effective 15%
3 BENEFITS OF BIO-FILTER STPs 3 Willingness to adopt the technology 20%
4 Environment friendly 15%
5 Operation of STPs 10%
3.1 Minimum construction for Biofilter Tech-
nology as compared to other conventional
systems. Table 4. Success rate of STPs in Pakistan (Priorities).
3.2 Design is very compact for a total solution.
3.3 Biofilter Technology allows for quick re- Rank Criteria Response
commissioning in case of down time.
3.4 Simple operation/low manpower required. 1 Shahzad Town STP 50%
3.5 Effective and proven process aerobic operational 2 Farash Town STP 30%
principle. 3 Quetta City STP 5%
3.6 Cost effective 4 Defence housing authority 5%
3.7 User friendly low and easy maintenance. Islamabad STP
5 Rawal Town STP 10%
3.8 BiofilterTechnology utilizes minimum electrical
3.9 Long service life as concrete structures are
3.10 Discharge can meet any desired standards.
A questionnaire was developed and divided into fol-
lowing key areas:
6.1 Perception of use of smart technology of STPs
(5 questions)
6.2 Problems of Sewerage System (5 questions)
Many articles, studies, seminars and workshops had
6.3 Success rate of STPs in Pakistan (5 questions)
been conducted on the issues of disposal of sewage in
6.4 Miscellaneous Problems (5 questions)
Islamabad by Pakistan Engineering council, Capital
Development Authority (CDA) and Water and San-
itation Authority (WASA). Several major contracts 7 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
were awarded to contractors for laying fresh sew-
ers as well as upgrading existing ones. Despite all In this section five questions were asked from respon-
these efforts, the problem still existed in Shahzad and dents and the majority of them ranked these responses
Farash Towns. as under.

7.1 Problems of existing sewerage schemes


In this research, a questionnaire was developed in order 7.2 Perception of use of smart technologies STPs
to evaluate the existing demand of biological loadings
and necessity of installing and using STPs in poplars In this section five questions were asked to evaluate
sectors of Islamabad. Information about consultants the perception of using STPs and these are ranked as
and design engineers were collected from same depart- under in Table 3.
ments. Data were gathered through a survey, ana-
7.3 Success rate of Stps in Pakistan (Priorities)
lyzed by using frequency, seniority and importance
indices. Agreement on the ranking of the importance The local populations of following towns were asked
of the installing Sewerage Treatment Plants was also to rank the effectiveness of STPs installed in these
tested. localities and results are as under in Table 4.

Table 5. Miscellaneous problems into procurement and installation of Sewage
Treatment Plants (STPs).
Rank Criteria Response 8.2.2 Inculcate Awareness on STPs. Resistance to
change is always ultimate product of Lack
1 Management rigid attitude 46% of Awareness. This aspect can very easily
2 Paucity of funds 28%
be addressed by spreading awareness at every
3 Reluctance in adopting new technology 16%
4 Lack of sludge generation data 10% policy tier and managerial decision level. Two
5 Other 0% successful projects which have already been
executed in Shahzad and Farash towns can serve
as inspiring and convincing example to eradi-
cate reluctance to adopt smart technologies.
7.4 Miscellaneous problems 8.2.3 Sufficient Funding. The problem of funds can
See Table 5. be overcome by adopting strategies like Build-
Operator-Transfer (BOT), Public Private Part-
nerships (PPP) or participation of NGOs in
8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS capacity building initiatives.
8.2.4 Harvest Joint Potential. With the growing pace
8.1 Conclusions of development and expansion in housing soci-
eties and colonies, it is imperative to adopt smart
8.1.1 It is evident there the existing system of sewage technologies like STPs in order to carryout effi-
and waste water disposal have outlived their life cient disposal of sludge and human excreta.
and fail to sustain additional biological loadings. There is need to harness the joint efforts and
8.1.2 The existing sewerage and drainage schemes potential of public and private institutions to
need up gradation because they have achieved a introduce this state of the art technology into
stage of situation in Islamabad. Pakistan at wide scale.
8.1.3 The pilot projects of Shahzad Town and Farash
Towns serve as a bench mark in successful
installation of smart technologies in sewerage REFERENCES
disposal of population areas and societies.
8.1.4 Resistance to Change Shown by most of the Afzal, Muhammad, Colonel (Retired) GM, M/S Pollution
public serve departments reflects their lack of Engineering Pakistan (Private) Limited, DHA-II office
interest in adopting new technologies due to Islamabad
their orthodoxical norms. Cheema, W.A, Adverse Effects of Poor Wastewater Manage-
ment Practices on Groundwater Quality in Rawalpindi and
8.1.5 Paucity of Funds is one of the major con-
Mitigation Strategies.http://www.wasa.rda.gov.pk/MD_
straints in acquisitive of STPs in public service Papers/paper_for_engineering_congress.pdf
departments. M/S Mumtaz Construction Company (Private) Limited,
Plot. 113, Street.8, Sector-I/10/3, Islamabad, Pakistan.
8.2 Recommendations
M/S Pollution Engineering Pakistan (Private) Limited, DHA
8.2.1 Replacement of Existing Sewerage System. The Islamabad, Phase-2. http://www.pollution-engineering.
existing sewerage system of Islamabad city com.my
is completely incompatible and insufficient to CDA, Islamabad Green City Program. http://
www . environment . gov. pk / New-PDF / IsbGCProgram
dispose off bulk sewage of residential areas.
Hence the only remedy to this problem lies

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

The role of green architecture on environment relaxation of hospital users

Mohadesehsadat Amiri Mohammadabadi & Mohammad Massoud

Department of Architecture, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

ABSTRACT: Green architecture between of treatment centers architecture expert because of their special trait
has special place. In this essay with descriptive analytical method and collecting information by librarian
method, the role of green architecture in hospital in order the health, safety and environmental comfort for
members have been studied and provided architecture solutions about decline of environmental damage and
improve comfort and members welfare has mentioned. Result of this study has been shown that attention to
solution such as access to nature, experience a pleasant, building architecture form, the use of color and natural
light in interior space, proper materials and resource selection and etc. to create various aspect of comfort
(physical, mental solution, cognitive-nerves) is affective in the care spaces.

Keywords: Green architecture, hospital, health environmental members, hospitals members

1 INTRODUCTION important studies in this field by Florence Nightingale,

the initiator of modern nursing has been operating
Hospital is one of the largest public buildings that has in which both daylight and ambient air has been
a significant impact on its surroundings. Hospitals are introduced as healing factors (Schweitzer, 2004). In
the largest consumer of energy and water and generate the following researches four elements of nature,
the waste a lot. Because this type of space is one of the daylight, fresh air and relaxing in environment are
main applicants of society sources, it is essential that introduced as four components in the treatment envi-
the indicators of green architecture in the buildings to ronment (Berg, 2006). Notable in these researches
be considered. is that these researches has been conducted only
Green hospital is a branch of sustainable architec- in area of environment impact on patients, and the
ture and subset of treatment based topic of architecture needs of staff are considered less and we can say
in basic principle green hospitals, and all efforts that the needs of families and visitors are completely
toward green design of hospital will be efficient if ignored.
the result has an effect on the treatment. A growing This article studies the ways in which health care
number of studies on architecture of medical centers facility design has an effect on satisfaction and produc-
show the effects of architecture environment on treat- tivity of all users. This type of approaches in research
ment and cure of patients. So the environment can be is far less than environmental impact on patients and
designed in such a way that is effective in improving its purpose is to provide a series of environmental
patients. design principles that by using them in architectural
One of the golden goals of green hospital is reduc- design of medical centers deep concepts of labor pro-
ing the duration of therapy. In addition to reducing the ductivity, environmental satisfaction, and environment
duration of therapy it causes the saving in treatment health are provided.
capital of the country. The study shows that there are
several reasons that hospital environment will affect on 2 HOSPITAL USERS
patients health. One factor is its effect on interactive
system of mind body, such as if environmental qual- Hospital design should reflect a wide range of its
ity of the hospital is high, environmental stress will users including patients, visitors, or employees. The
be less, and therefore the brain can focus on healing hospital users are classified under several categories
the body and therefore the duration will be decreased that in all aspects of design these users are considered.
(Erick Jonson center, 2005).
Another factor can be achieved by enhancing the
environmental quality in the hospital is creating the 2.1 Patients and visitors
distraction factor. Distractions factor is the factor Often entering to hospitals was an uncertain and full
that causes patients to be diverted from focusing on of stress period for patients and visitors. According
their pain (Weller, 1980). Of the first and the most to research conducted in the United States, the

environmental characteristics that patients and their need the environment that ensures staff recruitment
families appropriate in the hospital environment are and retention better morals the availability and
as follows: positioning a private space and security (Dalke,
It facilitates communication with employee
A field study conducted in the Barbara Anne Car-
It facilitates communication with the outside world
mons Cancer Hospital in Detroit has indicated that
of the hospital (communication with nature).
after the reconstruction of the hospitals to improve the
In the long-term care, it creates sense of health and
environmental qualities the rate of fatigue and illnesses
as a result of work in the hospital has decreased from
Environment is attractive and fun and waiting areas
23% to 8/3% (Makin, 2006). There is much evidence
with the distractions would be relaxing for people.
that shows traditional approaches in design of hospi-
The environment arouse persons sense of autonomy
tal in which the space is important cause to reduce the
and independence
working mood, fatigue, and to increase medical errors,
Spaces should be convenient and accessible.
and by correct design the result is adverse (Ulrich,
Obvious signs, symptoms and visual comfort is
2006). And although job satisfaction is not only depen-
important to find ways
dent on the physical environment the impact of the
It does not destroy confidential and private life of
environment is indispensable (Tyson, 2002).
the individual
It is the care of family
The injuries should be considered. The long corri-
dors, lack of chairs and are problems. In the review of research the following environmental
It does not destroy confidential and private life of factors are considered as factors affecting the users
the individual environmental quality.
Spaces should be convenient and accessible.
Obvious signs, symptoms and visual comfort is
3.1 Environmental experience
important to find ways
It does not destroy confidential and private life of One of the environmental factors is spatial experience
the individual that the user has in environment. All of patients, staff,
It is the care of family families and visitors share a certain physical envi-
It is safety ronment which is the space of hospital and have the
The injuries should be considered. The long corri- necessary experience to understand the environment.
dors, lack of chairs and . . . are problems. Controlling the environment is referred to the per-
sons ability and power in influencing the condition
2.2 Elderly and disabled people and his decision making about what is happening to
him, so lack of control over the environment has neg-
Important and growing subset of population in hos- ative effects on the health of the environment users
pital are the elderly, they need several treatment so (Taylor, 1997). The sense of control over everything
they are more likely to be hospitalized longer (1 to 3 is one of the most influential factors in the environ-
weeks). Elderly and those who have poor vision want mental stress and happiness of person. Several studies
to be comfortable and have everything under their indicate that lack of a sense of control in environment
control. Having control means to know where they has negative outcomes such as depression and immune
are and where they want to go (Dalke, 2004). systems will have to be week (Marberry, 1995). Those
who have more control over their environment expe-
2.3 Child and adolescent patients rience less stress that this feeling is more apparent in
Patients with low age need certain conditions that patients and staff of medical centers (Ulrich, 1991).
should be considered in the design. Hospital environ-
ment for children who are patients or who have just 3.2 Access to nature
come to the hospital along with others is frustrating and
frightening. The color design creates a visual interest Natures role in improving is indispensable. Wilson
and they go out of the hospital with excitement. proved with the assumption of liking nature that due to
Other categories of patients that specific approach the inherent communication of man with nature, with
should be applied for them are teens, taking care of human exposure in the natural environment, personal
them is very difficult because spaces for adult and health will promote (Guenther, 2007). The benefits
spaces for children are not completely appropriate for of nature in medical centers are searched by the
them (Dalke, 2004). four-factors such as stress reduction, decreasing the
disease progression and improving and increasing the
work efficiency of staff. Alrych proved that the vision
2.4 Hospital staff
of nature in the recovery room accelerates postopera-
Staff often has clear point of view of work envi- tive recovery (Ulrich, 2007). Also nature in the design
ronment design and definition. Based on surveys of medical centers is important because it can reduce
conducted in the working environment they stated they patients pain and increase staffs morale.

Accordingly, the impacts of access to green space be a great impact on the people understanding and
in the hospital include: reflection of environment, and have a direct impact
on improving environmental qualities of patients, staff
Reduction of stress for patients and visitors
and families and such as research shows that colors
Higher quality of life for permanent patients
like light can improve recovery rates to 10%. What
Increasing the pain threshold and decreasing depres-
is important here is the comprehensive knowledge of
sion in patients
designers to use color in order to reduce environmental
Improving the environmental behavior
stress and physiological negative responses of users to
Reducing hospitalization period and thus reducing
environment. The first principle in using color is the
closeness of environment to home space and strength-
Strengthening the sense of patients independence
ening the symbolic aspect of medical environment.
Increasing personnels job satisfaction and patients Generally, bright colors like white will be effective for
satisfaction and . . . increasing depression, especially in psychiatric hospi-
tals. According to a survey conducted in 2008 cool and
3.3 Buildings architectural form calm colors like blue is better for the room of hospital-
ized patients to reduce stress (Karlin, 2005). But other
Design heavily overshadows functional topics of work studies suggest that nurses in their workplaces with
quality and caring of staff. The radial arrangement of such colors may feel sad and depression (Dalken). So
rooms or the forms that minimize spaces between the we can conclude that in public spaces of the nursing
rooms and the nursing department increase efficiency care environments warm colors should be used that
of staff care. (Makin, 2006) Fatigue due to too much make the better community relations and also the cool
traffic to patients rooms is of the aspects that through colors should be used in room of hospitalized patients.
proper design and minimizing the spaces between
rooms or taking away two nursing stations can be 3.5 The quality of materials and resources
controlled. One study shows that nurses believe their One of the most important factors in the hospital green
environment architectural design has great impact on design approach is paying attention to the selecting
the ability of them in patient care. of materials. Today the topic of infection control in
hospitals has become a major problem. So that one of
3.4 Light and color the most common diseases in hospitals is the disease
Until recent years, the factor of light in the design that people are suffering at the hospital (Essex health
of medical centers has seen only as a possible tool protection unit, 2007) in green design, safety issues
for illumination and viewing, whereas the light is the related to staff and patients are considered.
most influential environmental factors on the quality The main factor in the selection of materials in the
of treatment and work environment. wash ability environment is antibacterial character-
Of survey research can be concluded that the pres- istic of materials but what is important in selecting
ence of light primarily in a therapeutic environment material of floors, walls and ceiling is the ability to
is discussed from the patients and staff point of view, absorb sound. Noise pollution is called as a source
the effects in improving processes and increasing effi- of chronic environmental stress in medical centers
ciency and reducing medical errors of the staff. Haton (Topf, 2000). Like the sound-absorbing materials by
in 2005 during a study aimed at evaluating the environ- minimizing the source of this pollution, the treatment
mental preferences of patients and staff has concluded process will improve, and also in a study in the inten-
natural light after the amplitude factor of hospital sive care unit it is found that nurses were expose to
space is the second important factor from the per- less sounds have shown satisfaction, social relation-
spective of hospital patients and staff (Makin, 2006). ships and higher levels of care of patients (Bomkvist,
After lighting the important factor in medical center is 2004).
satisfaction of staff and medical errors .The research The positive effects of these recommendations and
revealed a lack of light is the most important factor in strategies in hospitals are summarized: (Topf, 2000).
medication errors (Rechel, 2009). Increasing the efficiency of medical centers
Accordingly, the positive effects of natural lighting Reduction in the rate of patients with hospital
in hospitals can be summarized in the following cases: infections and diseases caused by environmental
Reduction of stress and depression pollution
Increasing the safety and satisfaction of hospital
Increasing patient and staff satisfaction
Accelerating the recovery process of patients users
Cost savings during the life cycle of building
Reduction of the use of sedatives and thus minimiz-
ing the costs The social positive effects.
Disinfection of spaces and reducing pollution of
treatment environment and . . . (Hassanpour)
Florence Nightingale believes that diversity in form
and clarity in objects color shown to the patient is Using green design strategies and medical centers
real sense of improvement (Dalken, 2006). Color can have the positive effects on treatment, space quality

Health Dimensions Architectural features of buildings

Cleanness/maintenance of internal spaces Physical comfort

Operation and maintenance of mechanical installations
The air conditioning
Selection of materials
Temperature conditions
Personal control over environmental conditions
Daylight Psychological-social comfort
The influence of sunlight
Access to the pleasant scenery from the window
Relationship with Nature
Social spaces
No Rush
Personal control over environmental conditions
Temperature conditions Cognitive-Nervous Comfort
The air conditioning
Cleanness/maintenance of internal spaces
Selection of materials
Personal control over environmental conditions
Adequate lighting base on performance
Lack of blinding of lights and windows
Access to the pleasant scenery from the window
Adequate visual privacy
Relationship with Nature

of the hospital and satisfaction of patients and staff. Makin, J. 2006. Healing environment as the century mark,
By considering the advantages and necessity of atten- the quest for optimal patient experiences in wagenaar.
tion to hospital adverse effects on the environment, The Architecture of Hospital: pp. 258265.
sustainability issue in hospitals should be considered Malenbaum, S., Keefe, F. & Williams, A. 2009. Pain in its
environmental context. Implications for designing envi-
as a crucial indicator of design stage, implementation ronment to enhance pain control. Pain 134: pp. 241244.
and operation. Based on this, spatial quality affects on Marberry, S. 1995. Innovation in Healthcare Design. Van
the welfare of users in the medical environment, the nostrand reinhold.
following table provides a summary of these cases that Rechel, B., Buchan, J. & Mckee, M. 2009. The impact of
is specific to hospitals and medical centers. health facilities on healthcare workers well-being and
performance. International Jornal of Nursing Studies 46:
pp. 10251034.
REFERENCES Schweitzer, M. Gilpin, L. Frampton, S. 2004. Healing Space,
Element of Environmental Design That Make an Impact
Berg, A. & Wagenaar, C. 2006. Healing by architecture in on Health. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary
wagenaar. The Architecture of Hospitals: pp. 254257. Medicine. Vol 10: pp. 7183
Blomkvist, V. (et al.). 2004. Acoustics and Psychosocial envi- Taylor, S. & Repetti, R. & Seeman, T. 1997. Health Psychol-
ronment in coronary intensive care. Occupational and ogy, what is an unhealthy environment and how does it get
environmental modeling. under the skin. Ann Rev Psychology, 48: pp. 411417.
Dalke, H. & Littelefair, P. & Loe, D. 2004. Lighting and Topf, M. 2000. Hospital noise pollution, An environmental
Colour for hospital design. HSMO. stress model to guide research and clinical interventions.
Dalke, H. & Little, J. 2006. Colour And Lighting in Hospital Journal of Advanced Nursing 31: pp. 520528.
Design. Optics & Laser Technology 389: pp. 343365. Tyson, G. & Lamber, G. 2002. The impact of ward design on
Erick Jonsson center. 2005. Mapping of the space and places. the behavior, occupational satisfaction and well-being of
Report on the workshop on neuro science and health care psychiatric nurses. International Journal of Mental Health
architecture. National academy of sciences. 11(2): pp. 94102.
Essex health protection unit. 2007. Community hospitals Ulrich, R. 2006. Evidence based healthcare design in wage-
infection control guide lines. NHSwest essex. naar. The Architecture of Hospital: pp. 281289.
Guenther, R. & Vittori, G. 2007. Sustainable Healthcare Ulrich, R. 2007. View through a window may influence
Architecture. Wiley. recovery from surgery. Science 224.
Hassanpour, C. & Bagheri, M. 2008. SustainableArchitecture Ulrich, R.S. 1991. Effects of interior design on wellness,
in Hospitals. theory and recent scienti research. J Health Care Inter
Karlin, B. & Zeiss, R. 2005. Environmental and Therapeu- Des, 3: pp. 97109.
tic Issues in Psychiatric Hospital Design, toward best Weller, B. 1980. Helping Sick Children Play. Cassell Ltd.
practices. Psychiatric Services. Vol. 57.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

An attic as rehabilitation solution for low rise prefab concrete

housing blocks

Catalina Bocan
Faculty of Architecture, Politehnica University of Timisoara, Romania

ABSTRACT: Romania, along with the other states that were under the communist regime until 1989, is gifted
with lots of prefab concrete housing blocks, low or high rise. Once the democracy reinstated, the people started
to develop different kind of construction works for comfort improvements: at a smaller scale, inside their new
bought apartments, or at a larger scale, with thermal rehabilitation and pitched roof/attic solutions. Due to
financial problems and real estate market, the new construction was built by contractors interested only in a
maximum for sale area and with no concern for good design. This paper propose an attic solution, completely
different from the actual built variations, with a large scale applicability and only prefabricated elements for
structure and enclosing parts, with light weight. There are also treated subjects like comfortable apartments,
energy saving, elevator possibility and integrated contemporary design for the whole ensemble (new plus old).

Keywords: prefab, concrete panel block, attic, structure

1 INTRODUCTION between 1960 and 1990. During this period of time,

the amount of apartments realized every year was
1.1 National evolution before 1990 more important than the quality of work process
(prefabrication, materials, even execution).
Romania, as a former satellite country of Russian
communist policy, has in each city, no matter how
big it is at least one building or one whole district 1.2 From 1990 till now
using prefabricated concrete panels. These construc-
tions were divided in two major categories: low rise After 1990, once the political regime changed, these
(four or five story high) or high rise (more than prefab constructions were no longer desired and the
9 stories, usually eleven). Because of the political population started to look for improvements of the
requirements and financial reasons, large scale indus- existing or land property for new houses. The first step
trialized prefabricated concrete panels became the everyone did was to buy from the state its own apart-
major structural design of the communist housing ment (till then there was no private ownership over the
units. Even these days, they are known under the nick- apartments from these blocks). Even so, not everybody
name of commieblock and not only in Romania. could afford to move from the small socialist apart-
(Fig. 1). ment, the consequence being local interventions for
They represent the largest percent of existing build- better comfort. Along with the global trend for energy
ings from the whole building stock, erected mostly performance of buildings, starting with the 21st cen-
tury, large scale construction works were developed in
most of Romanian cities.


2.1 Applied solutions for existing rehabilitations,

including thermal
The national thermal rehabilitation program offered
subsidies for works concerning thermal insulations of
the envelope and mechanical problems. In order to
benefit from this state help, the owners had to bring
their own financial part (the last version was 20% of
Figure 1. Bing aerial view of a commieblock district. the total cost of interventions). Because of economic

Figure 2. Existing attics. Figure 3. Colorful buildings.

motives, some owner associations decided to use the

flat roof or the new pitched roof (built after 1990) as an
exchange trade with builders or real estate developers.
This way, the building gained an attic with new apart-
ments instead of bad flat roof or unused space in pitch
roof, plus thermal rehabilitation of entire envelope.
The contractors became the owner of the attic housing
units in exchange of all necessary external operations
over the whole exterior elements of the underneath Figure 4. Typical building.
concrete structure.
Due to real estate market, the attic is improperly
called like this because the usable area obtained on made of concrete panels that forms these matchbox
this level is the same with the other stories: the closing building doesnt allow an interior position. Even the
are vertical or with little deviation, there are no exterior law binds having an elevator, in most of the cases the
spaces (balcony or loggia) inside the perimeter of the notion is left aside.
original block (Fig. 2).

2.2 Technical constraints
3.1 General conditions
The structural conditions of the attic are more diffi-
cult than in other countries, Romania being one of the As a result of industrialized process, political control
fewest European countries with seismic movements. and centralized design institutes, all over the country
The new loads from the entire sixth story should not the image of dormitory districts is similar, with lim-
exceed the former loads from the roof layers. This ited number of building types and some local variation
means that only light structures are accepted (masonry, on exterior aspect. The consequence is that today, any
metal, wood or combinations of these). A technical projected version for an attic is applicable to more
expertise is compulsory and all those layers of the for- than other dozen buildings, spread around the national
mer roof had to be removed from top to the upper territory.
concrete slab. The solution proposed for the attic as a sustainable
Another restrictive component in design is the fire option is linked with a large scale applicability, quick
safety. In Romania there are different degrees for fire execution and contemporary needs for energy saving
resistance, from 1st (the best) to 5th. The original and comfort.
building, being made of prefab concrete elements,
has a very good behavior in case of fire. The legal
3.2 Structural design
requirements oblige to maintain (if possible) the same
degree of fire resistance for the attic, but the practical Most of building types have the same structural grid,
reasons of a quick and cheap execution lead to a large with two spans of 5.4 m on the short side (the cou-
scale use of wood and metal structures instead of other pling side of a structural section) and many small
possible solutions. spans (between 2.4 m and 5.4 m) along the main facade
There was also a psychological factor that flat roof (Fig. 4).
means leaking and poor execution, determinant for The system consists of cellular concrete panels, all
many people to adopt the solution of an attic with the same on each level. The exterior panels are 27
pitched roof. Aesthetics had nothing to do with the or 30 cm width with three layers (structural concrete,
final image obtained for the entire block, most of thermal insulation and protection concrete) and the
these interventions look like an ugly hat above a interior ones are made of 14 cm concrete (***, 1983).
monotonous and very colorful facade (Fig. 3). Due to this arrangement the new layout for attic
A different structural problem concerns the neces- structure is placed exactly over the below elements,
sity of an elevator, but the small span and cellular grids for loading reasons (Fig. 5).

Figure 5. Grid disposal of structural frames.

Figure 7. Structural details.

Figure 6. The attic frame visible from any point of view.

Another good thing about having the same openings

in structure design is the great opportunity of prefab- Figure 8. Modeled closing elements.
rication, because all elements are identical and can be
used in different places/cities, even if they were pro-
duced in just one place. The attic skeleton consists They have a good fire behavior, small widths and
of a thin concrete frame with three columns and one great thermal conductivity. The vertical enclosure is
beam, repeated on each axis, visible from any exterior modeled with GLUPAN panels dimensions (Fig. 8),
point of view, even street level (Fig. 6). 125 mm width, U = 0.022 W/mK (***, 2009) and
The use of concrete is reasonable because of the the horizontal roof is formed of KS1000x-dek steel
many constraints mentioned before, including fire from KINGSPAN, 100 mm width, U = 0.19 W/mK
safety and quick execution. Another positive thing (***, 2010).
about using this type of structure is the separation of The main insulating material used in these pan-
closing elements from the structure. In this case, the els is rigid polyurethane foam (PUR), a choice made
architectural design was intended to improve the actual even for existing terrace new insulation, and instead
aspect of the matchbox beneath and to offer present of polystyrene or rock wool (the U vale is almost
day comfort standards for the new apartments. twice smaller) (Hegger, Auch-Schwelk, Fuchs &
Rosenkranz, 2005).
The whole ensemble of the structure and closing
3.3 Structural details element is not heavy considering loads for the struc-
Under the same appearance, there are three different ture of this low rise prefab concrete housing block:
possibilities of structural elements: one is the classic the concrete elements have small dimensions and a
system with steel bars reinforced concrete; the sec- single frame has 1.054 m3 of concrete and 3 to max-
ond one is a mixture between steel fibers and steel imum (together with metal parts, reinforcement and
bars reinforced concrete and the third one is just with connection elements); one GLUPAN panel weights
steel fibers reinforcement. Together with each of these 82 kg for 1.22 2.44 m element; the KINGSPAN
solutions there is a steel element needed for the joint panel has 24.6 kg/m2 .
between the original structure and the new one. This
element is connected with column shoes and chemi-
cally anchored bolts to the structural walls of the 4th 3.5 Architectural design
story. The type of concrete used for the attic frame is The whole building exterior design is an attempt to
C30/37, in a trapeze shape of 18/35/14 cm (Fig. 7). invigorate a long and monotonous facade, operat-
ing with different type of balconies, three colors for
accents and one uniform color as background. The
3.4 Closing elements
main parts of the building consists of the original five
The closing elements for attic envelope are also com- stories, detached from the ground due to the tech-
posite types and allow a quick process of site works. nical semi-basement and articulated to the sky with

monolith solutions; little structural elements inside the
new apartments; large covered terraces for the pent-
house apartments; the new elevator used as a dynamic
element for the back/inner court facade (with less
All enumerated above contribute to a daring attic
solution, combined with a thermal retrofit, and may
represent a challenge for Romanian people, running
away from flat roof, prefab concrete structures and
small spaces.


Figure 9. General aerial view. The author would like to thank to dipl. Eng. Cor-
nel Farcas and to my PhD coordinator, PhD. Eng.
Professor Valeriu Stoian for the given support in this
study, especially the structural design and details.
the given rhythm of structural frames and recessed
enclosures (Fig. 9).

4 CONCLUSIONS ***, 1983. Large panels living units P+4. Project 770 83
Short description Brochure.
The innovation of this attic solution is given by a ***, 2009. Thermal Insulation Panel Glupan. Glulam
mixture of: new attic/penthouse design adverse to Company Presentation Brochure.
***, 2010. Kingspan X-dek KS1000 XD Longspan
general adopted solution with pitch roof; new pre- Roofpanel.Kingspan Company Brochure.
fabricated materials used for structural and enclosing Hegger, M., Auch-Schwelk, V., Fuchs, M. & Rosenkranz, T.
part, opposite to wood/masonry/metal/small tiles; dif- 2005. Insulating and sealing Construction Materials Man-
ferent joint type between the original concrete walls ual Edition DETAIL, Munich: Birkhauser 132141.
and the new reinforced concrete frames instead of

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Concentration of TV news coverage to the specific municipalities

Case study on the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

Muneyoshi Numada & Kimiro Meguro

Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan

ABSTRACT: After the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake in Japan, we observed a concentration of news coverage on
the damage and disaster response activities in specific municipalities and a high emphasis was given on the
nuclear power plant accident. The concentrated news coverage induced the concentration of aid activities such
as distribution of relief supplies and donations to the specific areas. This problem has repeatedly happened in the
past disasters as well. The purpose of this research is to conduct a quantitative analysis of the municipalities that
were repeatedly covered by the TV news reports. This research defined the media coverage rate of municipalities
in order to analyze the relationship between the amount of media coverage and the level of damage caused by
the disaster. The result showed that even if the damage level is equally high, there was a difference in the amount
of TV news coverage among the municipalities.

Keywords: Tohoku Earthquake, TV program

1 INTRODUCTION people could watch the TV programs in the open air

by receiving one-segment broadcasting services.
1.1 Overview of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake According to the survey (Nomura Research Insti-
tute, Ltd. 2011) on trends in media contact associated
At 14:46 JST (5:46 UTC) on March 11th, 2011, an
with the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earth-
earthquake of a moment magnitude 9.0, the largest
quake, TV was ranked no. 1 and no. 2 as an important
earthquake ever recorded in Japan, struck off the shore
source of information. About 80.5% of the people con-
of the Sanriku area in the Tohoku Region. The fol-
sidered information from TV coverage by NHK and
lowing mega tsunami hit deeply indented coastal
56.9% considered information from commercial TV
areas and brought extensive and devastating damage
stations as important in acquiring information about
to many cities and villages in this area. Damage by
the earthquake. And information from the newspa-
mega tsunami was not only limited to buildings, but
per and information from the portal sites on the
the resulting fires destroyed many communities and
Internet ranked after TV. In addition, according to the
nuclear power plant (NPP) facilities have suffered
survey (My Voice Communications, Inc. 2011) with
complicated and serious damage. This earthquake was
question as How one gathered information about the
later named The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku
2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake?,
Earthquake by the Japan Meteorological Agency
the TV was ranked at top as 93.5% of the people chose
TV, 44.9% chose newspapers, 44.8% chose internet
news sites, 42.8% chose portal site (such as Yahoo)
1.2 Importance of TV programs
and 31.1% chose radio. From these results, it is evident
In this earthquake, it was difficult to grasp the full that many people used TV as a main tool for obtaining
scope of the disaster since the damage was widespread information.
and diverse. In order to obtain information about According to the article 108 of the Broadcasting
the damage condition, safety confirmation, news and Act and Disaster Countermeasure Basic Act (Tanaka
announcement from municipalities; varieties of media, 2008), broadcasting organizations are obliged to pro-
not only conventional tools such as television, radio vide useful services in order to prevent and reduce
and the Internet but also new types of information- the disaster. Also, the Ministry of Internal Affairs
sharing tools such as Twitter and Facebook were used. and Communications requested NHK and the National
The Internet TV news sites such as USTREAM and Association of Commercial Broadcasters in Japan to
NICO-NICO DOUGA were also able to broadcast pro- provide accurate and detailed information to the pub-
grams from NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) lic as quickly as possible (Ministry of Internal Affairs
and commercial TV stations at no charge. In addition, and Communications 2011).

From these results, it can be said that the TV news Table 1. Example of the text data of the TV program (259
is not only to report damage situation but also it is characters).
expected to provide useful information that can pre-
vent further damage and contribute to an appropriate In Miyagi Prefecture, by the earthquake, 53 people were
killed. The details is 17 people in the Higashimatsushima
disaster management as one of the disaster prevention
city, 12 people in the Kesennuma city, 8 people in the
Shichigahama town and 5 people in the Sendai city.
In the coastal town of Minamisanriku where was attacked
1.3 Problems of TV programs by the tsunami, many buildings and houses were washed
away by the tsunami except the hospital building constructed
Just after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, some areas by concrete, and many people were missing. In the area along
were easily accessible by the news reporters or broad- with the port of Kesennuma in Kesennuma city, the
casted heavily at an early stage which left a strong large-scale fire occurred caused by the outflowing oil
impact. As a result, some municipalities were inten- from the tank at the port. The video of Kesennumacity.
sively covered by the TV news reports than others. (March 12, NHK)
There was also a high emphasis on the nuclear power
plant accident. It can be said that the news coverage
was unbalanced considering the scale of affected areas
and as a result it induced the aid activities to be concen- normally the text data from each section of the pro-
trated at certain areas while other areas were neglected, gram is required. In this study, we have employed the
causing unbalanced distribution of relief supplies and database called Document-Analyser by JCC Corpo-
donations. ration. This allowed us to obtain the text data of all six
Although this problem of media concentration has TV stations for 365 days a year, 24 hours a day by the
been repeatedly pointed out in the past earthquakes unit of seconds. Also it was possible for us to com-
(Nakamori 1995) such as Hokkaido Nansei Oki Earth- prehend when, what, where, and how each TV stations
quake in 1993, Hokkaido Toho oki Earthquake in reported. Table 1 shows an example of the text data of
1994, and the Southern Hyogo prefecture earthquake NHK on March 12th.
in 1995, the same problem occurred again in 2011 This paper uses the target period of 10 days from
Tohoku Earthquake (Nakamori 2011). Unbalanced March 11th to 20th, considering the importance of the
media coverage on certain topics and areas cannot TV news reports in the early stage immediately after
provide the viewers with comprehensive views and the disaster, with regards to the understanding of dam-
understanding of a total damage especially at the time age situation and the level of influence it has on a
of such extensive disaster as the Tohoku earthquake. supply of relief goods.
The TV media has a responsibility and an impor-
tant role to provide information to influence peoples
decision-making and proper evaluation. 3 CONCENTRATION OF TV PROGRAMS
Previous studies regarding to the TV news coverage
and its contents after the Tohoku earthquake include The news programs broadcasted by each TV station
the chronological analysis of the contents of TV news were similar and there was no big difference or distinc-
(NHK 2011), the verification of early media cover- tive characteristic observed from their reports made
age, the confused reports of the nuclear power plant during 10 days after the disaster.
accident, and the analysis of the foreign media reports
(General incorporated association of Tokyo-sya 2011).
However, the quantitative analysis of the unbalanced 3.1 Definition of the Concentration-ratio of the
TV news coverage has not yet been conducted. news coverage on municipality C
This chapter analyses how each TV station concen-
1.4 Purpose of this research trated its reports on specific municipalities by using
the text data. This study defines Concentration-Ratio
The purpose of this study is to conduct a quantitative of the News Coverage on Municipality as C. This is
verification of unbalanced media coverage in differ- indicated by the ratio of the total number of all the
ent municipalities during the emergency period after municipalities each TV station picked up and the
the Tohoku earthquake. The relationship between the number of each municipality each TV station picked
media coverage and the level of damage caused by up. Here the definition of the word picked up is used
the disaster for the first 10 days after the disaster was when the name of a particular municipality is included
analyzed. in the text data as underlined in Table 1. For exam-
ple :Higashimatsushima city marked 1, Kesennuma
city 4, Shichigahama town1, Sendai city1, and
2 TV NEWS DATA Minami-Sanriku town1in the text given in Table 1.
If the index C is high, it indicates that the TV station
In this study, we selected six major TV stations for the has reported on the particular municipality intensively.
analysis, namely NHK, NTV, TBS, Fuji TV, TV Asahi, On the other hand, if the index C is low, it indicates
and TV Tokyo. In order to analyze the TV contents, that the particular municipality has not been reported

Figure 1. Relationship between the number of casualties and the concentrationratio of the municipality.

as much. If the index C is zero, it indicates that the and the damage level (Matsumura 1998), however
municipality did not get covered at all. the relationship between the TV report coverage and
damage level has not yet been studied. The defini-
tion Earthquake coverage rate is indicated by the
3.2 Relationship between the C value
ratio of earthquake related reports in all the news
and the level of damage
reports in the newspaper excluding advertisement. The
In this section, we discuss the relationship between result indicates that there is a high correlation to the
the C value and the level of damage. In the previ- number of casualties and the Earthquake coverage
ous studies, there has been a quantitative analysis rate rather than to the number of totally collapsed
of the relationship between the newspaper coverage buildings.

Figure 2. Relationship between the number of casualties and the concentrationratio of the municipality of NHK.

Using the above result as reference, this paper anal- of dead and missing people on the day of the earth-
yses the relationship between casualties and the index quake, by the third and tenth days since March 11th
C of TV news coverage. The number of total casualties respectively.
used here represents the sum of the missing and dead The index C of Sendaiand Natori cityon the day
people. of the earthquake is high, subsequently followed
Figure 1 shows the relationship between the casu- by Ofunato city, Kamaishi city, Kesennuma city,
alties and the index C on March 11th. In calculating Higashimatsushima city and Yamamoto town. Otsuchi
the index C here, the total number of news coverage town is not covered at this stage as seen in Figure 2 (a).
on municipalities from March 11th to 20th is used and Now, we will discuss by comparing two municipalities
the number of casualties referred to those confirmed of Kesennuma city and Otsuchi town.
by March 20th. On the third day (Figure 2 (b)), both Kesennuma city
Focusing on the municipalities with 1,000 casual- and Otsuchi town showed increase in the number of
ties such as Kesennuma city, Kamaishi City, Otsuchi casualties, however the index C of Kesennuma city has
town, Higashimatsushima city, and Yamamoto town, increased while that of Otsuchi town has not changed.
NHK showed the highest number of index C for By the tenth day afterthe earthquake, the number of
Kesennuma city, followed by Kamaishi city, Otuchi casualties of both Kesennuma city and Otsuchi town
town, Higashimatsushima city and Yamamoto town. reached almost the same level, yet, a big difference of
This result shows that even though the number of casu- index C is observed.
alties is similar, there is a significant difference in the These results proved quantitatively that there is a
amount of TV news coverage on municipalities. difference in the index C despite the fact that the casu-
Similarly, in Nihon-TV, for the municipalities with alty level is the same. It indicated that the news reports
1000 casualties, the index C of Kesennuma city shows coverage is unbalanced. This tendency is common
high value, while Yamamoto town and Higashimat- among other TV stations. One of the causes for this
sushima city show relatively low value. The same may be explained by the accessibility to certain munic-
tendency is observed in other TV stations. This ten- ipalities due to the road condition. However, another
dency can also be observed from the chronological cause may be that the TV stations have tendency to
analysis as given in Table 2 (a) and (b). On March comply with reports by successful TV stations which
14th, in Higashimatsushima city, 152 dead and 400 managed to deliver news with strong impacts, driven
missing people were found, likewise on March 15th by the mentality to avoid missing out on a scoop. The
in Yamamoto town, 111 dead and 638 missing people results of this study are important as it indicated these
were found. Despite these findings of high number phenomena by using quantitative analysis.
of casualties, no obvious reaction is observed in the
index C.
Figure 2 shows the relationship between casualties 4 CONCLUSIONS
and the index C of NHK on the day of the earthquake,
the third day and tenth day from the occurrence of The concentrated news coverage induced the concen-
earthquake. The C is calculated by the number of cov- tration of aid activities such as distribution of relief
erage on the day of the earthquake, the sum of the supplies and donations to the specific area. This prob-
coverage by the third and tenth days since March 11th lem has repeatedly happened in the past disasters. This
respectively. The number of casualties used is the sum research proved quantitatively that there is a difference

in the index C despite the fact that the casualty level is REFERENCES
the same and it indicated that the news reports coverage
is unbalanced. This tendency is common among all TV General incorporated association of Tokyo-sya (2011). Jour-
stations. One of the causes for this may be explained nalism of unprecedented disaster and tribulation. Journal
of general journalism research, No. 217, pp. 918, 2651.
by the accessibility to certain municipalities due to the Japan Cabinet Office of Japan (2008). Basic Disaster
road condition. However another cause may be that the Management Plan, pp. 4849.
TV stations have tendency to comply with reports by Kazuo Matsumura (1998). Reaction of society against the
successful TV stations which managed to deliver news earthquake disaster reported by the newspaper, Journal of
with strong impacts, driven by the mentality to avoid Architectural Institute of Japan. 511, pp. 6167.
missing out on a scoop. The results of this study are Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (2011).
important as it indicated these phenomena by using The request for Japan Broadcasting Corporation and
quantitative analysis. National Association of Commercial Broadcasters in
From these results, we propose the following strat- Japan about the information providing of the 2011 Off
the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, http://www.
egy to improve the TV news reports for the next soumu.go.jp/menu_news/s-news/01ryutsu07_01000018.
disaster. Under the condition of limited time and html. [Accessed at 2011.4.1]
human resources of TV stations, it is advisable to (1) My Voice Communications, Inc. (2011). Questionnaire sur-
grasp the overall damage condition properly, (2) pro- vey on How to gather information about the 2011 Off
vide information that corresponds to the needs of the the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, http://www.
audience, and (3) promote the cooperation among the myvoice.co.jp/biz/surveys/15417/index.html. [Accessed
TV stations, with respect to freedom of the press, in at 2011.5.30]
order to avoid unbalanced news coverage to specific Nakamori H., (1995). Problems about initial and regional-
municipalities and to make it more accessible to obtain detail information focused on the city of Hanshin region,
Journal of the Institute of Social Safety Science (5),
necessary information. pp. 2128.
Regarding to the role of news organizations, the TV Nakamori H., (2011). Problems of news and mass media in
stations are expected to provide useful information in the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake.
order to contribute to the realization of appropriate Journal of Urban problems, Vol. 102, pp. 49.
disaster response, both from inside and outside of the NHK (2011). What kinds of contents did TV stations provide
disaster-affected area (Cabinet Office of Japan 2008) in the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake,
and it is important to consider the above-mentioned NHK broadcasting studies, Vol. 61, No. 5, pp. 27.
strategy for improvement from this point of view as NHK (2011). What kinds of contents did TV stations provide
well. in the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake
(2), NHK broadcasting studies, Vol. 61, No. 6, pp. 29.
For the next activities of this study, we will make Nomura Research Institute, Ltd.(2011). Research on trends
similar analysis using the amount of reporting time in media contact associated with the earthquake,
and verify the difference from the text data. Moreover, http://www.nri.co.jp/news/2011/110329.html. [Accessed
we will make further study to find out what kinds of at 2011.3.29.]
subject matters were reported intensively. Tanaka H., and Yoshii A. (2008). Introduction to Disaster
Information Theory, Koubundou, pp. 164165, 218227.


This research is supported by Mr. Takatoshi Ishii of

JCC Corporation.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Research on application of green building technologies in

designs of school

Yan Qiu Cui , Yu Liu & N. Zhao

Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan, China

ABSTRACT: In this paper, the program design of Guang zhou Golden Valley International Primary School is
taken as an example, and design idea of simulating the wind environment and elaborating the building volume
to achieve good ventilation effect is introduced, a comfortable and energy-saving building space is constructed
focusing on the local climate characteristics, using appropriate technologies and equipment such as movable
partition walls, rooftop solar power and rainwater collection system, and a design method combining construction
techniques and architectural art is discussed, which provides a reference for the promotion of the application of
green building technology in the program designs of primary and secondary schools.

Keywords: Program designs of primary schools, Green building technology, Simulation technology


The Golden Valley International Primary School in

this case is located in Guangzhou Valley Garden Cre-
ative Industry Base, which is located in Panyu District,
Guangzhou, covering an area of about 83 hm2 . The
aim of the entire project is to build a sustainable green
international community, (Lin et al. 2010) as shown
in Figure 1-1. The school is a community primary
school with a scale of 30 classes containing 750 stu-
dents. The area of land to be used is 14700 m2 , and
the construction area is 10500 m2 . The aspects includ-
ing overall planning, spatial layout and appropriate
technology are taken into consider in the entire pro- Figure 1. General plan.
gram design, and the direction of development of green
building technology in architectural design of primary
and secondary schools is also explored. as a semi-closed courtyard space, adopting the tradi-
tional Chinese form of spatial organization. According
to the building mass relationship between the different
2 FEATURES OF THE PROGRAM DESIGN areas, the office area and logistical area together form
a courtyard space. The teaching area forms a court-
2.1 Traditional courtyard-style planning yard space by itself. Such a layout design not only
and layout facilitates the management of the school, but also helps
to create an orderly, quiet and complete campus image.
In the overall planning, the campus is divided into a At the same time, the two major enclosed spaces are
teaching area, an office area, a logistics area and a connected by the T-shaped campus main roads with
sports area. The teaching area is a 4-story building and the sports area, so an enclosed but unblocking and
the office area is a 5-story building. The sports area mutual-penetrated space is formed (Figure 1).
is at the north side of the base ,and both teaching area
and office area are separated from the northward city
main traffic arteries, so that the noise pollution can 2.2 Elaboration of building mass in wind
be reduced. In order to add the local characteristics environment
into the design, the main building layout is designed
Guangzhou is located in the southern subtropical zone
with a typical south monsoon marine climate. The

CAUP, Shandong Jianzhu University. alternation between winter and summer monsoons is

Figure 3. Vertical planting of verandahs.
Figure 2. Elaboration of building mass in wind

the outstanding feature of the monsoon climate in

Guangzhou. (DBJ15-1-90, 1990) Because local build-
ings have a higher requirement for natural ventilation,
so the construction of wind environment for indoor
and outdoor activity spaces is the important content of
the entire architectural design.
The layout of the case is a semi-enclosed courtyard
space, so the solution to the contradiction between the
sense of enclosure of courtyard space and building
ventilation has become the key to the formation of
the whole building volume. In the design, the local Figure 4. Openable partition of multi-function hall.
traditional space processing techniques such as exte-
rior corridor + unilateral classroom, open staircases,
as well as a moderate housing spacing are adopted 2.3 Detail design of the building space
to ensure a reasonable indoor wind environment. The
classrooms are arranged in the southeast of the entire In order to improve the microclimate in the court-
building, so they can get more dominant southeast yard space, more consideration is paid to the
wind in summers. In addition, in order to reduce 3D planting in the courtyard space, in the design, green
the impact of the cold wind in winters, the exterior roofs is arranged for the inlets of the multi-function
corridors and activity space are arranged within the hall and the step-like part of the laboratory build-
courtyard space. ing to reduce the air temperature and further improve
The wind environment simulation is shown in Fig- the microclimate of the courtyard by making full use
ure 2. In Figure 2-1, it can be seen that the wind of plant transpiration. The step-like roof combined
environment within the courtyard simply enclosed by with the vestibules of the 3rd and 4th stories forms
the building is not ideal; in Figure 2-2, the southern an activity space, which enables the students to have
volume of the building is reduced locally to form a recess activities without going downstairs, and such an
wind inlet for the courtyard, and the library is built on arrangement reflects a human care. In addition, vines
stilts, so the lower part of the library can form another will be planted outside the exterior corridors to shade
inlet, which can improve the reading environment; in sunlight (Figure 3). On the one hand, the application of
Figure 2-3, the step-like part of the laboratory build- 3D planting can increase the artistic effect of the build-
ing can further introduce wind to improve the wind ings, make the environment more clean, beautiful and
environment. Regarding the elaboration of the entire lively, on the other hand, it just needs a small place,
building detail volume, if the size of the wind inlet is but produces quick results and a high greening rate.
not determined properly, a narrow-mouth effect will For the design of the multi-function hall, in addition
form as shown in Figure 2-4, so in the design, the size to the application of artificial lighting and mechani-
of the wind inlet should be appropriately enlarged to cal ventilation, an openable light partition is designed
reduce the local wind speed. In addition, in order to in the south wall of the multi-function hall, and the
reduce the impact of the cold wind in winters on the of the opening angle of the partition can be chosen
courtyard space, the 5-story office building is arranged in according to the requirements of indoor activities
at the north side to block the winter wind, and make (Figure 4), all these measures can improve the effects
the wind speed surrounding the building within the of natural ventilation and lighting. In addition, the tran-
whole courtyard space is less than 5 m/s (GB 50378- sition from an enclosed space to a semi-enclosed space
2006, 2006). Finally, considering the various factors enables the space itself to form a visual communication
and analyzing the relationship between the different with the river landscape in the south of the base and
building volumes, the volume in wind environment is increases the interesting of the space while meeting
formed. more functional requirements.

Figure 5. Simulation analysis of classroom natural lighting.
Figure 7. Simulation analysis of energy consumption of
building using Low-e glass.

Figure 6. Simulation analysis of classroom controlled

Figure 8. Simulation analysis of energy consumption of
building using H-T glass.

TECHNOLOGY 3.2 Energy-saving design of the building envelope
Focusing on the characteristics of primary and Taking into account the climatic characteristics of
secondary school buildings, combining with local Guangzhou, the design of the building envelope should
climatic conditions, the designer explores the appli- focus on the insulation measures. Taking the windows
cation of related appropriate technology in this case of the classrooms as an example, through the simu-
from several aspects including natural lighting design, lation of the hourly temperature in the hottest day of
energy-saving design of the building envelope, build- Low-e glass and single high-transmittance glass, we
ing sunshade design, use of solar energy and reclaimed can find that the summer temperature of the classroom
water treatment. installed with Low-e glass is significantly lower than
that of the classroom installed glass with high trans-
mittance. Further simulating the capabilities of the two
kinds of glass to reduce the energy consumption in
3.1 Lighting design
maintaining indoor comfort temperature (Figure 7 and
In the case, the lighting method of each room is Figure 8), we can find that in terms of the capabil-
determined through a large number of simulation and ity to reduce energy consumption throughout the year,
analysis. The lighting calculation is carried out using in summers, the capability of Low-e glass is stronger
the CIE (International Commission on Illumination) than that of the other kind of glass, and in winters, the
overcast model, namely the most adverse conditions. difference is not significant. In addition, because the
Taking the southward classrooms as an example, in the building is mainly for children, so the heating and insu-
simulation process, it is found that the light from the lation measures in winters should be considered is the
south can not meet the illumination requirements of design, so through simulating the hourly temperature
300lx at the horizontal plane of 0.75 m prescribed in in the coldest day, we can find: the speed of the high-
Standard for lighting design of buildings (GB/T50033- transmittance glass to increase indoor temperature is
2001), and the simulation process shows that the faster than that of single Low-e glass. Therefore, if
increase in the area of the northwestward windows can the economic conditions permit, consideration should
make the classrooms meet the requirements of lighting be given to the installation of double-glazed windows
standard. As shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6, through including a level of Low-e glass and a level of high-
the simulation analysis of classroom lighting control, transmittance glass in the southern wall of the building,
we can find that in 93% of annual natural light time so as to effectively control the buildings insulation
from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm, the natural light reaches through reasonable opening and closing the windows
the critical value of 100lx and artificial lighting is not in winters and summers.
necessary, so the natural lighting of these classrooms In addition, because the impact of outdoor com-
is well-designed. prehensive temperature on the roof of large area is

Figure 9. Simulation analysis of building sunshade.

Figure 10. Roof model formed by solar energy system.

very obvious, so insulation measures should also be
considered. In this design, roof planting technology
is used on some roofs to reduce the solar radiation
through plant transpiration, and on other roofs, a building and lengthen the using time of the outdoor
ventilation insulation layer on stilts is designed accord- swimming pool in winters.This solar collection system
ing to the principle of the hot pressing ventilation, combining the functions of sunshade and roof shaping
which can help the heat staying in the roofs to be embodies the perfect fusion of architectural art and
carried away, so as to achieve the purpose of roof building technology.
3.5 Integrated design of reclaimed water
treatment and courtyard space
3.3 Sunshade design of the buildings
Guangzhou is a water-stressed city, so more attention is
While choosing sunshade methods for the buildings, a paid to sewage treatment and recycling of rainwater in
variety of sunshade types are generated with building the design. Specifically, the water tank is buried under
size simulation software (Figure 9), and after compar- the ground of the courtyard to store rain water and
ing the grid sunshade, horizontal sunshade, vertical save ground space. The rainwater collected from the
sunshade, the size of a single type of sunshade is found roofs and the courtyard can be used to meet the needs
too big. Therefore, the method of combining a variety of toilet flushing, car washing, plant watering and fire
of sunshade types is adopted. In this program, different fighting after being deeply purified with infiltration
sunshade measures are chosen for walls of different techniques to a certain degree of cleanliness (CAO et
orientations: on the south-facing walls, the horizon- al, 2002). In addition to rainwater recycling, in the
tal and vertical self-sunshades are formed firstly, and program, a reclaimed water treatment system is used
then a grid sunshade is set in the top of each win- to treat the changed swimming pool water, so as to
dow according to the sun incidence angle; on the save a lot of water.
east-facing walls, adjustable blinds are designed to
automatically adjust the light intensity according to the
demand of the classrooms; on the north-facing walls, 4 CONCLUSION
breathable louvers are designed to adapt the build-
ings to the temperature changes between winters and In this paper, combining the program design of
summers; on the west-facing walls, planting vines is Guangzhou Valley International Primary School, the
designed to prevent the western exposure, and achieve author carries out a lot of explorations and tries
the effect of 3D planting. on the application of green building technology in
architectural design of primary and secondary schools:

3.4 Design integrating solar energy and (1) To elaborate and continue to improve the build-
roof shape ing shapes using simulation software, namely, to
obtain emotional building shapes in rational ways,
The solar resources in Guangzhou region is adequate, to reflect the combination of building technology
so in the design, the overhand roof plates are combined and architectural art.
with solar photovoltaic panels and solar water heaters (2) To explore the combination of energy-saving
to become an insulating barrier for the buildings (Fig- technologies and architectural modeling: the
ure 10). Solar photovoltaic systems are installed in the integration of solar systems with the roofs can
teaching building and the office building, and the uni- not only reflect the architectural aesthetic, but
formly set solar modules can be selected and expanded also played the roles of heat insulation equipment
according to the owners demands; the solar hot water and energy sources; the adjustable blinds reflect
system is set in the laboratory building, and the con- a unique sense of rhythm which can enhance the
centrated pipeline can not only provide hot water for sense of order of educational buildings, the 3D
experiments, but also provide a stable heat source for planting can create a lively courtyard space for
the swimming pool on the north of the laboratory children.

(3) The semi-enclosed courtyard space is designed REFERENCES
adopting the design method of gathering rain-
water dropping from four roofs of a courtyard Cao, X. & Che, W. 2002. Design Analysis of Urban Roof
learned from traditional houses, which can help Rainwater Collection System J. Water & Wastewater
Engineering, 2002.01: 1415
the rainwater collection system to store rainwater DBJ15-1-90. 1990. Guangdong Standard Construction
in the tank buried in the center of the courtyard, and Meteorological Parameters Standards [S]. Beijing. Min-
reduce the length of the pipeline. The swimming istry of Construction P.R. China
pool is located close to the teaching area, and such GB 50378-2006.2006. Green Building Evaluation Standard
a design can not only improve the local micro- [S]. Beijing. Ministry of Construction P.R. China
climate, but also use the daily water changed from Lin, W. Wang, Q.G. & Dong J. 2010. Construction of Typi-
the pool as an important source of reclaimed water, cal International Green Communities. J. NewArchitecture,
so as to conserve water resources. 2010.02: 9497

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Energy-efficient office building design in cold climate

W.D. Ji, T.F. Zhao & X.W. Xu

Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan, China

ABSTRACT: Energy-efficient building design tailored for climate has aroused wide concern as energy con-
sumption in buildings plays a key role in achieving sustainable development. After identified the pros and cons of
cold climate in Jiamusi, potential energy-efficient design strategies can be identified. Exploitation of traditional
design strategies also provides possibilities. With the aid of numerical simulation tools e.g. Energy Plus, Ecotect
and CFD, design solutions like site plan, building envelop design and natural ventilation organization have been
optimized. The heat losses through building fabric represent for 18.8%, and reduced significantly compared
un-insulated buildings (35%). The earth sheltered roof, thick mud wall with double layers insulation materials
and Low-e glasses are effective ways in preventing heat losses. Double skin facades and well organized natural
ventilation will significantly improve indoor thermal comfort and air quality. The results of this study can provide
a reference for energy efficient office building design in cold climate.

Keywords: energy-efficient building design, cold climate, numerical simulation, ecotect, cfd, energyplus


People spend 90% of their time live and work in build- 2.1 Temperature analysis
ings. Large amount of energy are consumed in order
The temperature analysis are given with the aid of
to keep comfort indoor environments. The energy con-
Weather Tool in Ecotect. The average temperature
sumption in buildings which plays an important role in
peaks at June and July, and bottom at December and
the long-term process to achieve sustainability occu-
January. Summer can be not very hot, with average
pies one quarter of the total energy utilization with the
peak temperature at around 30 C, but rarely above
growth of economy (Jiang & Tony 2010). The World
35 C. Rigid winter can be very cold, with average,
Bank (Li 2008) reported that two-thirds of energy
average minimum and average maximum temperature
consumption was spent on heating and hot water
lie below comfort band. These low temperatures could
in China. Energy efficient design can be achieved
easily reach 25 C, and sometimes 30 C. Diurnal
through careful design of building form and services
variation is about 20 C. According to the big temper-
using renewable energy (solar energy, wind, etc.) and
ature variation throughout the whole year, the main
appropriate passive strategies (Liddamnet 1996). In
strategies when designing a building in this region are
recent years, energy-efficient building design in dif-
going to be focused on insulation and keeping heat
ferent climates has aroused wide concern especially
incorporating passive design strategies.
Due to climatic diversity in China, the design
of buildings and their thermal performances could
2.2 Solar radiation and position
vary greatly (Yang et al. 2008). In this paper, better
in-sight into Jiamusi climate which locates in cold The solar radiation and position analysis are given
region by Ecotect will be provided firstly. After that, with the aid of Weather Tool in Ecotect.Daily solar
focusing on a climatic responsive design with low tech radiations do not present obvious seasonal variation
resolution in cold region, the site plan and detailed cli- and direct solar radiation appears higher in magnitude
matic responsive building design of a business park than diffuse radiation. The solar radiation in winter
in Jiamusi, China will be developed. By taking into and summer hover at the same level, and sometimes
consideration of lower energy consumption and higher the radiation in winter is higher than in summer.
quality of indoor and outdoor environment, appropri- This implies to some extent, making use of solar
ate strategies combination can be defined. In addition, energy in winter is a good idea. Due to high lati-
the performance of final design will be evaluated using tude, the sun-path diagram shows summer days are
Ecotect and CFD. At last, suggestions will be sum- longer than winter days. Effective day lighting should
marized pertaining to energy-efficient office building be considered especially in winter. East and west orien-
design in cold climate. tation shows highest solar gains, active solar systems

can be incorporated with this. Optimal orientation is
shown as 182.5 .

2.3 Wind
The wind analysis are given with the aid of Weather
Tool in Ecotect.Respecting the wind rose, it is possi-
ble to see that the preponderant wind comes primarily
from the west while the coldest wind comes from the
north-west. This is particularly true during winter than
during summer, because of the monsonic effect that
brings wind from different regions especially from the
east (Pacific Ocean). For this reason, it is particularly Figure 1. Birdseye view of proposed site plan.
important to shelter west facades of buildings to avoid
infiltrations and thermal loses during winter.


3.1 Design strategies

Developed from the group combination form of Tra-
ditional Civil Residence which is known as San-
heyuan, the modern courtyard houses can be com-
monly found throughout the countryside of Jiamusi.
Figure 2. CFD-Based model (velocity m/s).
Modern courtyard is enclosed by buildings in three
sides and adopted as a basic pattern in many new vil-
lages planning. The composition of Sanheyuan can
also be used in the group design of commercial build-
ings, office buildings and residences as a basic pattern
(Wang & Liu 2002). People living in the flat area would
like to plant high and dense trees in the west and north,
and it is efficient to protect the near-by houses expose
to the west. Developed from earth construction, earth
sheltered construction is covered with soil or buried in
the earth, which could easily achieve the aim of energy
saving and environmental protecting (Hayashi 1986). Figure 3. CFD-Proposed model (velocity m/s).
The final site plan is a comprised of a cluster of
six identically similar office blocks arranged around
a depressed plane that creates the central courtyard
(Figure 1). The office blocks are partially buried with
all of the ground floors below street level. The land-
scaping has several earth fills pilled to the sides of the
buildings to create a resemblance of the hills of rural
Heilongjiang Province.
It was important for the new site plan to relate to
the context. The design had to respond to the chal-
lenges of designing within a city.This part of the design
placed particular emphasis on the macro climate of the Figure 4. Proposed sections.
site. The six building blocks are space out to achieve a
building block density similar to that of the buildings trees are planted along the West and Northern streets.
around them. This allowed for good airflow throw the Symmetry in placement of blocks was adapted from
site and ensure that the building blocks did not disrupt local traditional architecture.
flow of the mainly North West winds through the site.
Clustering of buildings is also an efficient way to
3.2 Wind environment simulation by CFD
maintain heat. Four of the buildings have been placed
next to each other to reduce the heat losses by sharing In order to clearly display the changes, two models
walls. Creation of safe sunken courtyard is a com- were created to show the differences between them.
mon feature in local Chinese Architecture. This sunken Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the basic model which
courtyard in the centre (One level below the street) does not lower the ground plane. It can be seen that the
is protected from the North-west cold winds. Trees spaces between the buildings have a high wind speed
planted strategically to screen site from cold winds the when the wind through the area. Figure 4 and Figure 5

Table 1. Constructions materials of wall and roofs.

Material Thickness (W/m2 K)

Wall 10 mm Wood wool Board + 370 mm 0.12

50 mm Polystyrene +
50 mm Compressed Wood
Fibers + 200 mm Mud
Brick + 50 mm
Compressed Wood
Fibers + 10 mm Cement
Figure 5. Wind velocity in proposed sections (velocity m/s). Roof 300 mm Soil + 10 mm 500 mm 0.12
Asphalt + 10 mm Cement +
10 mm Asphalt + 50 mm
clearly illustrate that after lowered the ground plane, Polystyrene + 10 mm
the wind environment has been improved significantly Cement + 100 Reinforced
in the region of normal human activity. Concrete + 10 mm Cement

4 ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDING DESIGN solar gains and release heat during night. Accord-
ingly, the cooling and heating load have been reduced.
4.1 Building envelop Using thermal mass in public building locating in
4.1.1 Materials of roof and walls heating-dominated region is excellent and is ironically
By taking into consideration the architecture of this considered alternative method to mechanical heat-
region, four cases were defined using different tra- ing and cooling. During daytime in winter months, the
ditional materials and strategies such as Brick walls, ambient temperature is lower than indoor and fluctuat-
mud walls, wood walls and burring the project. In ing, thermal mass plays an important role in flattening
addition two mix traditional strategies were defined, out the daily temperature fluctuations and absorb solar
a wood frame wall with a mud core (wood wall + mud energy, when the office building is nearly unoccupied
wall) and this same wall but buried. All the buildings at night, it will give thermal energy back. The process
contemplate a 20% double glazing facing south and a is similar in winter.
traditional straw roof. A simple 3 floors 10 m 10 m 4.1.2 Window openings
building model with a total height of 9.9 m and differ- The infiltration through openings and gaps in the
ent configurations as illustrated above were simulated construction cannot be neglected, especially in cold
with Energy Plus. The buried building with buried mud climate regions. As mentioned above, up to 10% heat
walls and wooden frames is the best of all, achieving losses are through window openings (Lechner 2006).
almost a 47% of reduction. But natural day lighting should also be maintained at a
In cold climate regions, the main purpose is to certain level and receiving solar gains, so changing
reduce the heat flow out of the room, so low U-value the glazing specification is a good choice to bal-
insulating materials which indicate high performance ance them. The adopted double-glazed window with
in resisting cold are needed (Steven 1998). Changing high-solar gain Low-E glasses works by reflecting or
the internal insulation to external avoids the poten- absorbing infrared light through changing the coating
tial risk of creating cold bridge and the exposure of types. Argon gas is filled between them to improve
building fabric to extreme weather. And at the same the heat preservation property. These kinds of window
time, for the purpose of avoiding frost damage to the are designed aiming at admitting solar gains and at
building construction, water proofing measures are the same time reducing heat losses. High solar gain
needed and should combine well with the insulation Low-E glass can be widely used in heating-dominated
materials. Detailed information can be seen in Table 1, climates.
the U-values of suggested construction materials are
very low. Two layers of insulation materials includ-
ing wood wool insulation board and Polystyrene works
4.2 Natural ventilation organization
very well, combined with compressed wood fibers and
thick mud brick significantly reduced the U-value. 4.2.1 Double skin facade
The effect of thermal mass of Earth sheltered roof Design and working principles
and Thick wood-mud wall cannot be neglected. Ther- Double skin facade is one of the most important enegy
mal mass refers to materials have the capacity to store saving methods in building design (Shanmeri et al.
energy for extended periods (Hasting & Wall 2007). In 2011). This type of double skin facade is a flexi-
order to resist cold climate and preventing heat losses, ble application of a open type external recirculation.
thick mud wall and earth sheltered roof are adopted in The material of the outer pane is toughened glass and
this project, simultaneously, heavy weight structures the inlet opening locates at the bottom of the ground
are selected, which can be used to absorb daytime floor. Inner pane comprises of hollow glass and heat

Figure 6. Predicted air flow patterns and velocity distribu- Figure 7. Predicted air flow patterns and velocity distribu-
tions for Double facade. tions for stairwell.

insulation special profiles, there are window openings

near ceilings of each floor (Ding et al. 2005)
The air exchange can be achieved through follow-
ing process. Outdoor air entering into the air cavity
through inlet openings of the outer pane and are heated
by solar radiation. Finally, the heated air rises up and
is exhausted via top outlet. The outdoor cool air flows
into the building from window openings on the north
faade. And then move along each of the floor and
went upward to the double faade and flow out of the
building through outlet due to buoyancy effect. Ventilation modelling by CFD

Different air temperature causes different air density,
thus produces a pressure difference in the pressure gra-
dient which results in vertical temperature differences.
The pressure near bottom was negative and near top
was positive due to upward air movement. The pre-
dicted air movement in the ground floor was largest.
And as the height increased, the velocity appeared to
decrease due to smaller buoyancy effect. Thus lower Figure 8. Hourly temperature profile for Hottest day (top)
level openings possessed larger velocity. The veloc- and Coldest day (bottom) with no active systems.
ity away from windows was below 0.5m/s and would
be comfortable for the occupants (GB 50189-2005).
The layout of the working areas should be carefully wing was higher than the leeward wing. In hot summer,
designed to create a comfort indoor wind environment. the working area in the wind ward wing near window
On the other hand, the upper three floors were well openings would be more comfortable. But in winter,
ventilated while there was only small scale air turbu- the further simulations need to be carried out to assist
lent in the ground floor due to the fact that the north the building design (Figure 7).
faade was buried under the ground. The lower part
of the double skin faade was not ventilated very well
(Figure 6).
4.3 Overall energy performance simulation of the
final design
4.2.2 Wind and buoyancy effects induced ventilation Design and working principles 4.3.1 Hourly temperature profile
A blackened surface was placed near the top vents Before adding any heating or cooling system,
of the stairwell, which will warm the air there, and the hourly temperature profile has been calculated
induced the air flow. The air flowing into the building (Figure 8). Comparing the daily temperature distribu-
under wind effects moved along the floors due to the tion of the hottest day and coldest day with the thermal
negative buoyancy effect, and flowing into the stair comfort zone, it is easy to find that the internal tem-
cases, moved upward due to the stack effect and was perature in summer is too high while it is too low in
exhausted via the top vents. In this case, the wind effect winter. Effective heating systems need to be added.
assisted the buoyancy effect. And at the same time, There are some fluctuations but the difference is not
under the combined wind and buoyancy effects, some very significant, thermal mass plays an important role.
part of the air mass flowing into the leeward wing, and As can be seen in Figure 9, if the air conditioning
drives the ventilation there. system just operates from 6 am to 10 pm at week-
days, the too high or too low temperatures during the Ventilation modeling by CFD time period without air conditioning systems indicates
In hot summer, the stair cases can work as a solar chim- uncomfortable indoor environment. Even though it is
ney. As predicted before, the velocity in the windward not in the working time, the rigid climate will poses

Figure 11. Passive gains breakdown.

important at night. Thus, the building should seek to

reduce the heat gains and losses.

4.3.3 Passive gains breakdown

Even though the building fabric has been insulated
very well, the heat losses through building fabric are
Figure 9. Hourly temperature profile for Hottest day (top) still up to 18.8%, but compared to the 76.7% ventila-
and Coldest day (bottom) with full air systems (6 am10 pm). tion losses, it is much lower. The building fabric should
seek to be sealed up and maybe the area of window
openings and air change rate can be modified in the
future (Figure 11).


A building without good heating and cooling con-

trols will result in more energy consumption. In cold
climate regions, building should be designed mainly
to keep heat in. The findings in this research are
summarized below.
The working time period of the air conditioning
system should be designed properly to balance the
heating demands and energy conservation, on the basis
of ensuring the indoor thermal comfort.
The analysis of the Ecotect simulation results
implies that most of the heat losses are through venti-
lation, accounts for76.7%. But the heat losses through
building fabric only represent for 18.8%. Compared
to the typically approximate percentages of total heat
losses in an un-insulated building (35%), reduced sig-
nificantly. But the infiltration through openings (for
Figure 10. Hourly heat gains/losses for hottest day (top) and ventilation) of the office building has been enlarged
Coldest day (bottom).
prominently, which is approximately 10%.
In this design, the earth sheltered roof and thick
mud wall with double layers insulation materials plays
threat to the facilities. So the operation time of the air a key role in preventing the heat losses, performs
conditioning system need to be designed carefully. better than ordinal design.
Enlarged area of window openings gains more solar
4.3.2 Hourly heat gains/losses energy, but on the other hand, high rate of heat losses
As can be seen in Figure 10, the curve of the HVAC occurs at the same time. The negative effects should
load correlates well with the ambient temperature dis- bear in mind.
tribution. For the hottest day, the profiles all show The ventilation problems in the earth sheltered
upward trend, and peak at around noon time, which building are reveled through CFD modeling. Even
implies when the outside temperature is high, the heat though many other remedies have been taken to relieve
gains will accordingly increase. Daytime heat gains is the negative effect, the ventilation performance can-
higher than night. The similar trends are also shown not be as well as ordinary buildings. Thus, assisted
in coldest day, but during night, the building will mechanical ventilation can be adopted in some earth
losses more heat. Keeping warm strategies are more buried rooms apart natural ventilation.

The buoyancy and wind effects in the double skin Liddamnet, M.W. 1996. A guide to energy efficient
faade and the stair cases can be harnessed to drive ventilation. Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre,
natural ventilation. Through careful sizing and posi- Coventry UK.
tioning of openings, the wind driven cross ventilation Li, J. 2008. Towards a low-carbon future in Chinas building
sector A review of energy and climate models forecast.
also performs very well. Energy Policy. 36: 1736-47
Norbert Lechner 2006. Heating, cooling, lighting: sustain-
able design methods for architects. John Wiley & Sons,
Robert Hasting and Maria Wall 2007. Sustainable Solar
Ding, W.T. et al. 2005. Natural ventilation performance of Housing: Strategies and solutions. UK: Earthscan.
a double-skin facade with a solar chimney. Energy and Shanmeri, M.A. et al. 2011. Perspectives of double skin
Buildings. 37: 4118 facade systems in buildings and energy saving. Renewable
GB 50189-2005 2005. Design Standard for Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15: 146875
of Public Buildings, July 1 Steven, W. 1998. The Passive Solar Design and Construction.
Hayashi, Y. 1986. The future of earth-sheltered architecture John Wiley & Sons, Canada.
in Chinas farming villages. Tunnelling and Underground Wang, F. and Y. Liu, 2002. Thermal environment of the
Space Technology. 1(2): 167169. courtyard style cave dwelling in winter. Energy and
Jiang, P. and Toney, N.K. 2010. Overcoming barriers to Buildings. 34(10): 9851001
implementation of carbon reduction strategies in large Yang, L., Lam, J.C. and Tsang, C.L. 2008. Energy perfor-
commercial buildings in China. Building and Environ- mance of building envelopes in different climate zones in
ment. 45: 85664 China. Applied Energy. 86: 80017

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Dynamic mechnical properties of sandstone under coupled static

and dynamic loads

F.Q. Gong & X.L. Liu

School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Hunan, China
Hunan Key Lab of Resources Exploitation and Hazard Control for Deep Metal Mines, Hunan, China

ABSTRACT: Based on the scientific understanding of deep rock under high crustal stress, the dynamic mechan-
ical properties of rock subjected to one-dimensional (1-D) coupled static and dynamic loads were conducted with
a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (MSHPB). Before the coupled loading test, the sandstone specimen is
sandwiched between the two elastic bars of MSHPB and two strain gauges glued on the surface of the middle of
bars are used to record strain histories. The pre-compressive static stress can be loaded on the specimen by using
axial pre-compressive stress device according the desired axial stress. The rise time of half-sine stress pulse is
about 100 s and the amplitude of incident pulse can be controlled by adjusting the position of spindle-type
striker in launch tube and the gas pressure. Coupled compressive strength of sandstone increases with strain rate
and the rate of increase is larger than that of general dynamic compressive strength. Due to the effect of axial
pre-compression stress, the secant modulus of coupled tests is 135% and 257% of dynamic and static secant
modulus respectively. The results also indicate that secant modulus is unchanged at the strain rate considered in
this study for dynamic and coupled tests.

Keywords: SHPB; rock materials; coupled dynamic and static loads; dynamic compressive strength; strain rate

1 INTRODUCTION pulse wave on large diameter bar are discussed.

The pulse shaping technique by using a designed
The uniaxial compressive strength is an important spindle-type striker is also introduced. In section 3
physical property of rocks, as it is used more often and 4, the testing process and results are provided;
than other mechanical indexes. To obtain the static and the strain rate dependence of dynamic compres-
or quasi-static compressive strength, some material sive strength under coupled loads was discussed as
testing machines such as INSTRON and MTS are well, followed by the conclusions in section 5.
used to conduct static experiments. For dynamic tests
with strain rates 101 103 /s, split Hopkinson pressure
bar (SHPB) is the classic apparatus to be used [15] .
One common feature for these tests is that there is
no pre-compressive stress in rock specimen before
2.1 Pulse shaping technique with spindle-type
static stress or impact loading is subjected on it. How-
ever, for some rock constructions, such as pillars in
mine or tunnels at depth, the rock is subjected to high In rock uniaxial static compressive tests, the suggested
in-situ stress coupled with dynamic loading arising diameter of specimen by ISRM (International Society
from blasting and boring. To obtain the uniaxial com- for Rock Mechanics) is 50 mm. So in SHPB tests, the
pressive strength under coupled loads, the rock spec- dynamic results can be compared easily and conve-
imen should be loaded with pre-compressive stress niently with that of static tests when the diameter of
before it is subjected to dynamic loading. Obviously, specimen is 50 mm. However, the pulse shaping tech-
it is not easy to conduct such tests using general nique in SHPB testing should be solved to conduct
equipment such as INSTRON or SHPB. dynamic tests on largediameter (50 mm) SHPB.
In this paper, it is our attempt to use a labo- For large diameter SHPB, the rectangular pulse is
ratory testing technique to simulate the stress state unsuitable in dynamic tests for rock materials large on
of rock under coupled static and dynamic load- diameter SHPB and half-sine pulse is more applicable
ing by using a modified large diameter SHPB than triangular pulse. To obtain the half-sine pulse, by
(MSHPB). The text is organized as such. In sec- using the Impact Discrete Inverse Method[6] , a pro-
tion 2, the necessity and rationality to use large file of the projectile that would initiate a half-sine
diameter bar in SHPB test and the appropriate stress pulse in the incident bar was determined and shown

Figure 3. MSHPB for dynamic compressive test under
coupled loads.

Figure 4. Recorded half-sine pulse in bars without


Figure 1. Shaped striker used in dynamic rock tests and

recorded half-sine pulse.

Figure 5. Recorded half-sine pulse in bars with specimen.

Figure 2. SHPB with shaped striker for general dynamic
compressive test.

incident wave, reflected wave and transmitted wave in

in Figure 1(a). The maximum diameter of the striker is the coupled tests.
identical to the diameter of the incident bar (50 mm).
Due to the difficulty in fabrication and fitting the
striker into the barrel of the SHPB, a linearised form 3 TEST SAMPLES AND PROCESS
of the striker was manufactured from a solid circular
bar of the same material as the incident/transmitted 3.1 Tests preparation
bars. Figure 1(b) shows the recorded half-sine pulse in
incident bar and transmitted bar. The compressive tests with coupled dynamic and static
loads were conducted on homogeneous sandstone. All
cylindrical specimens were drilled from a sandstone
2.2 Modified SHPB apparatus block. The diameter of the cylindrical specimen is
50 mm and the length is 25 mm. The average density of
A SHPB with spindle-type striker for general dynamic sandstone s is 2499 kg/m3 . And the average P-wave
compressive test was shown in Figure 2, and the load- velocity cs is computed as 3655 m/s with an ultrasonic
ing layout of compression tests coupled dynamic- pulse velocity measurement device.To obtain the static
static loads was shown in Figure 3. Compared with compressive strength and deformation of sandstone,
Figure 2, an axial pressure system was designed and cored specimens with ratio of length to diameter = 2.0
constructed in MSHPB. were tested on a displacement-controlled compres-
Figure 4 is the recorded half-sine pulse without sion machine (strain rate is 105 /s). The average static
specimen sandwiched between bars in MSHPB under strength is 115 MPa and average scant modulus is
coupled loads, and Figure 5 is a classic pulse, including 17 GPa.

Figure 6. Loading layout of compressive tests with coupled
dynamic-static loads.

3.2 Loading process

Compositions of loads include pre-compressive Figure 7. Stress-time curve of impact test under coupled
axial stress Pas and dynamic loads Pd (Shown in loads.
Figure 6(a)). From Figure 6, it can be seen that the
tests will be the conventional dynamic compressive
tests when Pas is zero and static compressive tests can
be conducted when Pd is zero.
Before the coupled test, the specimen is sandwiched
between the two elastic bars and two strain gauges
glued on the surface of the middle of bars are used
to record strain (stress) histories. The pre-compressive
axial stress can be loaded on the specimen. Accord-
ing to the desired axial stress, the value of Pas can
be regulated by axial stress device shown in Figure 3.
The two ends of the oil cylinder are connected through
hand pumps by oil inlet/outlet valves. When axial pre-
compressive stress is loaded, the right pump in Figure 3
starts to increase the oil pressure in the right cham-
ber and the piston moves to the left, and then applies
stress onto the elastic bars and specimen. The axial
pre-compressive stress of the specimen is limited to Figure 8. Stress-strain curves of impact test under coupled
200 MPa in the laboratory. When the setup is ready, loads.
the impact tests can be conducted. The amplitude of
incident stress wave can be controlled by adjusting
the position of the striker in launch tube and the gas


The pre-compressive axial stress is 80 MPa, which is

70% of static strength of sandstone. The reason for
selecting 80 MPa is that the strength of rock under
coupled loads decreases rapidly when the axial pre-
compression stress is greater than 70% of the static
strength of rock[7] . The approximate half-sine stress
wave was generated by the spindle-type striker and
conducted on the specimen by the incident bar. A clas-
sic coupled test was selected to analyze as follows in Figure 9. Strain rate-time curves of impact test under
Figure 710. The stress wave on a specimen was shown coupled loads.
in Figure 7. It can be seen that the duration time of inci-
dent wave is about 90 s, which satisfied the request
of dynamic stress equilibrium in specimen. Figure 8 stress and the initial strain rate will increase to a high
shows the stress-strain curve of impact test and there value in a very short loading time due to the effect of
are no violent oscillation on it. axial pre-compression stress. The curve of strain rate
Figure 9 shows the strain rate history of impact test. history changes gently and there is no obvious ups and
Before coupled dynamic impact, there has been a little downs on it before 100 s, and then the impact test
deformation on specimen under axial pre-compression can be regarded as approximate constant strain rate

Figure 10. Strain-time curve of impact test under coupled
Figure 12. The variation of the dynamic secant modulus
with the strain rate.

In Figure 12, the average secant modulus of

dynamic tests and coupled tests are 23 GPa and
44 GPa, which are 135% and 257% of static secant
modulus. It also can be seen that the changes in the
secant modulus of the sandstone with the strain rate
are very small and there is no strain rate dependence
for them. One conclusion can be obtained that the
secant modulus is unaffected by the strain rate in the
test range, which has also been identified in some
papers [89] .

Figure 11. The variation of the dynamic compressive A modified large diameter split Hopkinson pres-
strength with the strain rate. sure bar (MSHPB) system with a designed loading
striker has been successfully used to measure the com-
pressive strength of rocks under coupled static and
dynamic loads.The designed loading striker can gener-
loading. The strain rate remain to be positive value ate an approximate half-sine stress pulse. The results
during the whole loading time and shows that the total of dynamic stress-strain and strain rate relationships
strain of specimen continues to increase even unload- show that the dynamic stress equilibrium in the speci-
ing was conducted on the sample after 100 s (shown men can be maintained during the entire loading phase.
in Figure 10). Coupled compressive strength of sandstone increases
To investigate the strain rate dependence of dynamic with strain rate and the rate of increase is larger than
compressive strength under coupled loads, coupled that of general dynamic compressive strength. Due to
tests were conducted on modified SHPB with 7 spec- the effect of axial pre-compression stress, the secant
imens. For comparison, general dynamic tests were modulus of coupled tests will increase and is 135%
conducted with 57 specimens.The strengths with dif- and 257% of dynamic and static secant modulus.
ferent strain rates were illustrated in Figure 11 and
both exhibit a linear increase with the strain rate. How-
ever, the strength increasing tendency of coupled tests ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
is larger than that of general tests. Deduced by the
linear relation between dynamic strength and strain The authors would like to thank the Natural Sci-
rate, for general dynamic tests, the dynamic strength ence Foundation of China for their financial sup-
is 133 MPa when the strain rate is 100/s, which is ports (Grants Nos. 41102170).This work is supported
115% of static strength. For coupled tests, the dynamic by the National Basic Research Program of China
strength is 258 MPa when strain rate is about 100/s, (2010CB732004) and Fundamental Research Funds
which is 225% of static strength and 192% of general for the Central Universities (2011QNZT090), the
dynamic strength. When the strain rate is 150/s, the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project
strengths of coupled test and general test are 335 MPa (2011M500973) and Frontier Research Program of
and 158 MPa respectively, which are 292% and 137% Central South University (2010QZZD001) are also
of static strength. greatly acknowledged.

REFERENCES [6] D.S. Liu, X.B. Li, Chinese. J. Mech. Eng. 34, 506 (1998)
(in Chinese).
[1] A. Kumar, Geophysics, 33, 501 (1968). [7] X.B. Li, Z.L. Zhou, T.S.Lok. M.ASCE, L.Hong, and
[2] X.B. Li, T.S. Lok. M. ASCE, J. Zhao, and P.J. Zhao, Int. T. B. Yin, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 45, 739 (2008).
J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 37, 1055 (2000). [8] J. Zhao, H.B. Li, M.B. Wu, and T.J. Li, Int. J. Rock Mech.
[3] D.J. Frew, M.J. Forrestal, and W. Chen, Exp. Mech. 41, Min. Sci, 36, 273 (1999).
40 (2001). [9] X.B. Li, T.S. Lok. M.ASCE, and J. Zhao, Rock Mech.
[4] M. Cai, P.K. Kaiser, F. Suorineni, K.Su, Phys. Chem. Rock. Eng. 38, 21 (2005).
Earth. 32, 907 (2007).
[5] K. Xia, M.H.B. Nasseri, B. Mohanty, F. Lu, R. Chen, and
S.N. Luo, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 45, 879 (2008).

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

The instrument for attribute shift of urban-rural land use of eastern part
county in northwest China on the background of urban-rural
incorporation A case study of Hancheng, China

A. Bo Jing, B. Minghua Huang & B. Yu Wang

Department of Architecture of Xian University of Architecture and Technology, Xian, China

ABSTRACT: In China, it becomes more and more urgent to coordinate the rapid growth land desire for urban
construction and preservation desire for cultivated land. This paper argues that, there are two reasons for the
contradiction between urbanization and protection of cultivated land which lead to the incompatibility of land use
between urban and rural. Firstly, the pace of rural surplus labor moving from rural to city does not synchronize
with the conversion of land attribute in the process of urbanization. Secondly, there is no overall consideration
on urban-rural land use which takes the construction land as the core. Taking Hancheng as an example, this
paper presents an instrument for interactive urban-rural Land Use. Namely by taking the framework of urban
and rural areas integration as our research platform, establishing the villages development evaluation system
model, studying the villages development strategies through zoning and classifying, thus we establish the
corresponding relation.

Keywords: Urban-rural Incorporation; attribute shift of Urban-rural Land Use; Hancheng

1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Urbanization promoting is not paradoxical for

protection of cultivated land
Along with the sustained economic growth in China
The process of urbanization is a process that the rural
since the reform and opening up, the level of urban-
population moves into city and rural land transfer
ization has significantly increased. At the same time,
into urban land use. According to the theory, with the
urban construction land has rapidly expanded. From
change of rural population to urban population, their
the end of 1990 to the end of 2009, Chinas urban pop-
rural construction land should also be converted to the
ulation doubled, but the urban construction land area
corresponding urban construction land. Upon Chinas
has increased by nearly 2 times. With the accelerated
urban planning construction land standards, using the
process of industrialization and the implementation
provisions of the state that per capita rural construc-
and propulsion of the urbanization strategy in China,
tion land no more than 150 square meters and urban
the situation of rapid growth of urban construction
construction land no more than 100 square meters to
land is inevitable. However, with continued encroach-
calculate, we can save 50 square meters of construction
ment of cultivated LandArea, the security problem that
land as one farmer transfer into the city. Because the
remains enough farming land to feed 1.3 billion peo-
per capita standards of Chinas rural construction land
ple becomes more and more prominent. At the same
are significantly higher than urban, with the improve-
time, 18 million mu of cultivated land protection red
ment of urbanization level, the total amount of rural
line suffered a serious threat. Chinas cultivated land
land for construction should be dropped theoretically.
resource is important component of strategic secu-
The total amount of urban and rural land for construc-
rity. So protecting the safety amount of cultivated
tion should also show a downward trend. Therefore,
land is to protect the national food supply security
the reasonable development of urbanization is con-
and national security of peoples livelihood. Then it is
ducive to the transformation of rural construction land
helpful for ensuring urban construction and develop-
and to promote intensive use of land for construction.
ment smoothly. Therefore, the protection of arable land
Namely, the process of urbanization is a process of
is necessary for promote the sustainable and harmo-
land saving. From this perspective, the rapid urban-
nious development of the citys economy and society.
ization should not have become the main reason for
How to properly resolve this sharp conflict becomes
declining cultivated land. On the contrary, a reason-
a common concern and explore focus by many areas,
able process of urbanization should be land saving,
including urban and rural planning.
cultivated land-protecting process in fact.

1.2 Contradictions originate from the The biggest obstacle to solve urban and rural coor-
asynchronism of the urban-rural construction dination construction land use is the disorder layout of
during the urbanization process rural residential areas and land use extensive urban
construction land now. The unharmonious problem
Although in theory, there should be no contradic-
between the process of population urbanization and
tions between the urbanization and the cultivated land
land urbanization becomes increasingly apparent. It
protection. But the fact is: with continuing advance-
is helpful for saving construction land and promot-
ment of urbanization, the cultivated land protection is
ing healthy urbanization to conduct urbanization of
under increasing pressure. The contradiction between
the village properly, transfer village and land inte-
the two is seemingly irreconcilable. The reason is not
gration. However, since traditional planning is lack
hard to realize, the reason is that the urban and rural
of acknowledge of the urban and rural as a whole
construction land does not synchronously increase or
and scientific judgments on choosing of village devel-
opment model and timing to removal and merging,
Essentially, only the agricultural population trans-
the implementation effect have been poor. This author
form into urban population completely, the
proposes the method that establishing the county spa-
urbanization can be completed. However, the urban-
tial distribution model of village development and
ization pattern implemented over the years is that it
constraints based on the socio-economic status statisti-
only allows farmers to employment, not to settle in
cal data. Using multi-factor Standard weights assigned
city, which lead to an unharmonious state between the
scoring method, select factor for the development
process of population urbanization and land urban-
conditions potential and weakness and evaluates the
ization. This makes these quasi-urbanization of the
prospects for the development of villages. According
population in urban and rural both sides covers. With
to the results, we conducted the horizontal compar-
the development of urbanization, although agricultural
ison among the villages. Finally, classify the village
population keeps decreasing, but the total amount of
space and formulate a directional space development
rural land for construction not only reduced simulta-
and construction land conformity strategy for different
neously but also increased significantly. And the total
increased amount of urban construction land increased
more than 50% of the total. This phenomenon is far
from normal. Over the years Chinas urban and rural
2.2 Dynamic growth of attribute shift
land use the dual structure in the system of plan-
mechanism of urban-rural land use
ning and management, this is undoubtedly the main
reason contributing to this phenomenon. In the field Urban and rural coordinating development cannot be
of urban planning, for a long time, urban and rural achieved overnight, emphasizes the organic relation-
land use planning and construction have been the ship between urban and rural areas in the greater
lack of effective guidance of a unified framework and regional level; Urban and rural land management can-
management system. At all levels of urban and rural not be finished in one day, it emphasizes dynamic
planning, the lack of effective connection and flexi- space relation in the long run. Because the blueprint
bility planning restricts construction lands reasonable town system lacks of instructional maneuverability
allocation between urban and rural areas. Urban-rural for urban and rural construction as a whole, urban
land dualistic use planning cannot adapt to the rapid and rural planning ensued mostly become good imag-
development of Chinas new economic and social ination due to lack of maneuverability. It is more
situation. difficult for this blueprint type land layout to put for-
ward solution for the problems during the urban and
rural construction land adjustment of different devel-
2 PROPOSAL OF THE INSTRUMENT FOR opment stages and different types, and to effectively
ATTRIBUTE SHIFT OF URBAN-RURAL cooperate with the transformation and replacement to
LAND USE OF COUNTY realize the urban and rural land-uses scientific set-
tlement, intensive development and efficient use. In
2.1 An instrument of zoning control and process of speeding and deepening the balanced urban
classification regulation and rural development, the country has adjusted and
This method of attribute shift of urban-rural land use issued a series of policies and regulations for urban
emphasizes the expansion, settlement and replace- and rural development to adapt the changing urban
ment of urban and rural construction land according and rural development. Therefore, rural and urban
to the problems that there are no effective links planning should adapt to the changes in dynamic
between traditional urban and rural planning and way, and we should understand it with the evolu-
the blind configuration. Firstly with the principle tionary thought. Namely: to explore the urban and
of construction\production suitable, urban and rural rural land layout with dynamic growth character-
construction land rationalization and the cost of the istics, to formulate urban and rural land conversion
movement and resettlement minimization, we make timing and development timing according to the stage
the division of urban and rural functional areas for characteristic of urban and rural relationship, to for-
the urban space and put forward the effective zoning mulate rigid constraints with the premise of unchanged
control measures. gross of urban construction land consolidation, and to

safeguard sustainable implementation of attribute shift
of the urban and rural construction land.


3.1 Research background

Located in the east of northwest China, this case was
selected as one of the county level cities Hancheng,
in Shaanxi province. In 2009, the statistics show
that the whole city has 2 street offices, 7 towns,
7 rural areas and 275 administrative villages. From
2000 to 2009, the agricultural population of Hancheng
declined 28.8 thousands; the village construction land
increased 587 hectares. And rural per capita con-
struction land increased up to 210 m2 . Based on the
integration construction planning of urban and rural
areas of Hancheng (20092020), this paper is aimed at
researching and exploring the change and the attribute
shift of urban-rural construction land use in Hancheng
region, to seek attribute shift of urban and rural land-
use technology system, which is suitable for the devel-
opment of small and medium-sized town in county.

3.2 Urban-rural function division

Figure 1. Hancheng urban-rural function subarea map.
Using the function of ARCGIS spatial analysis, we
make the space composition, segmentation and link-
age of these distribution drawings such as central Table 1. Margin settings for A4 size paper and letter size
urban area, space extend range of Longmen urban paper.
area, each townships expand buffer, scenic area, the
ecological protection area and coal subsidence area. Evaluation factors Weight
Meanwhile, according to the influence to urban-rural
function space from the towns system planning and Natural factors Landform 0.13
the urban master planning, we using the urban spatial Population density 0.13
structure one centre, two parts, one axis and two Cultivated area 0.15
Economic and Per capita income 0.08
points to optimize the preliminary dividing results,
social factors Land use status 0.12
in order to get the future urban functional partition Cultural landscape value 0.12
results of Hancheng, as shown in Figure 1. Urban construction Urban system influence 0.1
Urbanization guide development regions this type factors The degree of traffic 0.08
of area is the main area in future for the development convenience
of urbanization and urban construction land, and also The degree of public 0.09
it is the key area of attribute shift of urban and rural facilities
construction land. In this region, we should expand
towns reasonably and orderly, give villages the priority
to control the scale and guide to gradually realize the
urbanization. The vacatable land will be mainly used 3.3 Village construction development evaluation
for the supply of the city construction, and we should
strive to retain the current agricultural land. On the basis of comprehensive analysis of the natu-
Ecological controlling regions we should strictly ral ecology, rural development status and objectives
control this regions various forms of construction of Hancheng, we construct the evaluation system of
behavior, avoid the construction of the regional traffic villages potential for future. According to the present
facilities and the municipal infrastructure, and gradu- development level of urban and rural areas, in accor-
ally reduce population scale. Villages should be given dance with the principles of dominance, stability,
the first place to control and guide the relocation. Some spatial diversity and accessibility, we get the main
villages with rich tourism resources should control its evaluation factors: 3 categories, 9 indexes, as shown
scale; develop ecological agriculture and characteristic in Table 1. It includes the nature factor (landform),
tourism industry. economic and social factors (population density, cul-
Rural coordinated development regions we can tivated land, per capita income, land use status, cultural
realize the rural production land and life land concen- landscape value), urban construction factor (urban sys-
tration. tems influence, transportations convenience, public

infrastructure). We use the paired comparison method evaluation grading standard. By this standard the val-
in the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to solve each ues can be divided into 8 grades, thereby we can get
indexs weight. Then with ARCGIS spatial analysis the classification standard of villages.
software for technical support, we build each eval-
uation factors space attribute information database
under the management of GIS system, to determine 3.4 Village comprehensive classification and
the minimum evaluation units and the scores at all construction scale guidelines
levels for the village development. As a result, we
In ARCGIS, by making the space superimposition of
make the weighted stack of each gridding, adding the
rural integration development evaluation and urban
geological disasters and environmental damage for
of the villages above, we get the villages integra-
correction factors to optimize the preliminary eval-
tion development comprehensive classification results
uation, in order to get the development of villages
of Hancheng, as shown in Figure 2. For the villages
construction evaluation.
in the town guiding arrangement development zone,
Through weighted superposition of initial evalu-
according to the scores combined with their posi-
ation results and correction factors, we make the
tion relations with the town construction, they can
scoring and the comprehensive evaluation values, the
be divided into altering housing, allocated in the dif-
maximum score 11, the smallest 1 it is between
ferent places and redevelopment in autochthonous
111, taking 11-10-9-8-6-4-3-2-1 for comprehensive
three types. According to the score, the villages
can be divided into three types: key development-
oriented, moderate development-oriented and char-
acteristic development-oriented three types. In the
ecological control areas, according to the scores and
the tourism resource distribution state, villages can be
classified into recent relocation type, gradually pop-
ularized type and characteristic development-oriented
three types.
For the villages in different areas and different
development conditions, we use different layout con-
struction mode. Considering that in Hancheng most
villages per capita construction land exceeds far
away from the reality of urban construction land,
we emphasize the collating of rural land, and guide
the construction scale for, and make the rural per
capita construction land index drop to reasonable
range (rural per capita construction land is not higher
than 150 m2 .According to a series of construction
activities such as the development of future facilities
and environmental reconstruction of development-
oriented and characteristic-oriented villages in plain
area, we select 120 m2 as controlled standards. For the
rest reserved type villages, we select 120 m2 as con-
trolled standards, in order to improve the intensive land
utilization level, as shown in Table 2.
Figure 2. Village comprehensive classification.

Table 2. Reserves Type villages construction scale guidelines.

Per capita land

Popular scale for construction
Construction type Person m2 /person

Villages in the urbanization guide In-situ transformation type 5001000 110

regions construction guidelines
Villages in the rural coordinated Key development type Plain region 10003000 110
development regions construction Mountains 5001000 120
Moderated development type Plain region 5001500 110
Mountains 300500 120
Villages in ecological control regions Characteristic development type 10002000 120
construction guidelines

Table 3. Urban and rural construction land tables.

Project 2000 2009 2020 20092020 variation

Town The urban population 14.77 20.87 32.16

ten thousand people
Urban construction land 1653 2838 4180 1342
Village Village population 23.48 20.6 16.04
ten thousand people
Village construction land 3522 4109 1888 2221
Total Population 38.25 41.47 48
ten thousand people
Total construction land 5175 6947 6068 879

In 2009, the urban population of Hancheng is 38.25

ten thousand people, the rural population is 23.48 ten being widely attention gradually in planning field.
thousand people, and the rural residential area is 4109 This paper, on the basis of planning practice, makes
hectares. According to the comprehensive planning of tentative exploration on attribute shift of methods
Hancheng (20102020), by the end of 2020, the urban of land use suitable for the case of county dis-
population of Hancheng will reach at 48 ten thousand trict, trying to unify the urban and rural construction
people, urbanization rate are up to 67 percent, and land arrangement at the foothold of attribute shift of
the urban population 32 ten thousand people, urban urban and rural construction land. We hope that this
construction land 4180 hectares and the rural popula- article could provide some flexible and operational
tion will reach at 16.04 ten thousand people. With the guidance for urban and rural integrate construction
rural populations gradual decrease during the plan- and development, to realize the target of intensive land
ning period and the regulation and movement of rural development in the urbanization process.
residential areas, the rural residential areas land will
sharply reduce to 1888 hectares with 2,250 hectares
decrement, 879 hectares more than urban construc-
tions increment as shown in Table 3. According to the Huang Ming-hua, Chen Mo and Zhang Jingwen, The
ideas about attribute shift of urban and rural construc- Linkage Plan of Urban-Rural Construction Land-Use
tion land and the principle of improving intensive land Necessity and Must of Urbanization and Farmland Pro-
use, we can displace the reduced villages land index tection, Urban planning and design, vol. 1, 2011, Pp.
of rural residential areas with the land index of urban 6165.
construction land in the county, to realize the construc- Tian Jie and Jia Jin, Exploration of village layout planning
tion lands reasonable growth under the total balance method under the background of urban-rural integration:
A case study of Jinan, city planning review, vol. 31(4),
of urban and rural construction land.
2007. Pp. 7881.


Under the background of urban and rural coordina-

tion, the urban and rural land integration use has

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Urban complex: New urban phenomenon in China

Huibin Zhu
Peking University, Beijing, China

ABSTRACT: Based on Space Transfer view, this paper discusses the externality of urban complex as new
urban phenomenon in China. Urban Complex acts as an important node in urban network system that related
with land use and spatial structure issues with highly relation with urban type and size. This paper analyzes how
urban complex increases land value, redefines land use period and improve land flexibility in compact land
use pattern, promotes rapid space structure development, improve environment condition and produce space
transfer in intensive spatial structure pattern.

Keywords: Compact City; Smart Growth; Space Transfer; Urban Complex


1.1 Chinese rapid urbanization

China enters a new rapid development stage after
the famous Opening-up Policy in 1978. Accompanied
with economy and living condition improvement, the
rapid urbanization evolution simultaneously occurs in
China. Chinese Urbanization is significant as huge
population of rural areas come to work in urban areas
and produce urban sprawl. The rural surplus labors
and foreign direct investment become key issues in
Chinese Urbanization. The huge demographic div-
idend and investment value support the rapid evo-
lution. The urban areas classify into several levels:
core urban areas like Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou
and Shenzhen; secondary urban areas like Wuhan,
Hangzhou and Chongqing; periphery urban areas like
Zhaoqing, Huizhou and so on.

1.2 New urban phenomenon

In the 21st century, a new urban phenomenon hap-
pens in urban areas. Urban Complex occurs in core
urban areas that merge lots of urban function like
residence, entertainment, hotel and transport into an
environment complex. Similar with the concept of
HOPSCA occurs in Europe that means three kinds
of hotel, office, parking, shopping mall, convention
Figure 1. Urban complex that comprise with different urban
and apartment incorporate together, urban complex function.
means several urban functions merge in one environ-
ment entity. In core urban areas, urban complex merges
as node into urban network system with transport hub.
1.3 Compact City and Smart Growth
In secondary urban areas, urban complex becomes
prevalent, but still could not form the urban func- The core of Compact City and Smart Growth
tion network. In periphery urban areas, urban complex concept is compact land use and spatial form that pro-
initially occurs. motes smart use of land and optimization of spatial

Influence and effect of economy externality is
two-edged with both external positive and negative
economic effect. External positive economic effect
can bring huge profit to society and individuals that
decrease the cost and output. Urban Complex can help
make a comprehensive arrangement that decrease the
external negative economic effect and hold back the
land sprawl phenomenon.
The government and market together construct
urban complex to protect and exploit urban land. Urban
development agency considers the efficiency and bal-
Figure 2. Merge of urban function in urban complex. ance of land. Only through detailed analysis, control
of urban land value could make highly effective use of
government public resources. The government under-
takes the non-profit public service function. If the
governments dont keep pace with market to protect
and develop land, the urban need to pay for public
infrastructure bill with consistent huge public budget
that makes high tension to urban finance.
Urban complex not only increases the value of
building lot, but also the value of industry. Urban
complex occurs in late urbanization when urban func-
tion, urban population and industry structure already
become stable. The main urban industry changes
from second industry to the third industry. Meanwhile
the core value of urban complex is the service and
management space, together with industry and popula-
tion agglomeration decided by commercial value. The
Figure 3. Commercial development stages. internal urban industry of urban complex could help
increase job occupation and create tax. LE Jie (2010)
made a conclusion that an ordinary urban complex in
secondary urban areas could bring about ten thousand
structure. Urban Complex acts as Internal City stable jobs in China..
that corporate architecture and landscape to form the
new kind of human habitat environment, with highly
mixed-use land and close connection with urban trans-
2.2 Land use period reconstruction
port as significant characters. Urban complex has great
value in changing land use cycle and land flexibility Chinese land all enjoys public land right with two
that makes positive externality to urban economy in forms of land ownership called national land and rural
rapid growth. Cities like Hong Kong, Shenzhen and collective land. Urban land belongs to nation and man-
Guangzhou already form mature urban complex net- aged by Chinese State Council. Land of rural and urban
work system. Cities like Hangzhou and Chongqing fringe could be adopted by nation legislation for pub-
are working hard to construct urban complex network lic right except land already belonged to nation. The
system. Urban complex is an important experiment in nation will distribute land resource allocation highly
Smart Growth Concept. Research on urban complex concentrated and strictly managed. Nation classifies
especially urban complex network system in Smart land use usage at large.
Growth view is essential and emergent. Phillip Berke (2009) mentioned land use was a
meaningful concept. Land use system contains land
use classification and symbol. For instance, specific
2 COMPACT LAND USE PATTERN land could be used as residence, commerce, public use
and so on. Land as living condition and part of envi-
2.1 Land use value promotion ronment system could be sold, developed and bought
through ownership transfer and value assessment.
Industry agglomeration effect of urban complex will Land as space for public planning, service and man-
decrease market breeding period and increase sustain- agement could act as social behavior. The diversifica-
able operation ability that have significant drive force tion attributes of land decides diversification of value.
to urban economy development. Commercial breed Land use period differs for land usage. Land usage
need specific time cycle like infrastructure construc- period is legal land use period minus used period and
tion, commerce target set, commerce garrison till the could be resigned after deadline. Land use right could
commerce saturation. The appearance of urban com- transfer, lease and mortgage as other economy activ-
plex helps increase land value of both the specific ity in land use period with legal rights protected by
building lots and surrounding areas. nation law.

The development and operation of urban complex lower. High-level urban complex drived by real estate
places new challenges to urban value period. Diver- relates to market demand. The area of urban complex
sified usage in urban complex have diversified land is more than 1000000 square meters for core urban
symbol and could be transferred when needed. The areas, 500000800000 square meters for periphery
development mode of urban complex will produce urban areas and lower than 500000 square meters for
reconsideration for land use cycle. Land law now fringe urban areas. Urban complex serves as strong
decides the usage right could be resigned after deadline driving force when urban develops into poly-center
without noted free. Urban complex and mixed-use space structure.
of urban land usage will place long-period influence Chinese rapid urbanization produces new urban
on land use cycle and land use usage. centers that help construct new space type like res-
idence. Japanese urban space planning ensures shop
existence within two-hundred-meter walking distance.
2.3 Land flexibility improvement Its core concept is to ensure peoples infrastructure
need in short-distance area as well as residence and
Different from definite land usage classification work separation.
in China like residence and commerce, land use
classification in Hong Kong set kind of CDA
(Comprehensible Development Area) as a special land 3.2 Ecology environment promotion
use classification. This area doesnt affirm the defi- Urban economy improvement promotes demand of
nite land usage and urban function to increase land living condition. Urban citizens will have higher
flexibility and provide comprehensive development demand when basic living demand is satisfied. Envi-
opportunity for real estate development to promote ronment condition improvement is especially impor-
urban space transfer and exchange. Rudel (1989) clas- tant when transport accessibility and efficiency could
sified into three types of land use variation region as not be improved quickly. Open space have new trend
slow developing rural area, rapid developing urban with internalization of externalities and landscape
fringe and slow developing urban area. Urban complex ecology environment promotion. Urban complex
help accelerate the development speed and increase could reach the goal that individual will improve envi-
land flexibility. Urban sprawl is a special situation due ronment condition and infrastructure to attract more
to the cheap land price in urban fringe that attracts people to consume.
population and industry. Urban complex realizes the Urban complex could promote urban public func-
goal of compact use and smart growth in starting tion and infrastructure condition as accessibility, trans-
stage. Differences in type and mode of urban complex port exchange, transfer efficiency and living condition
help to suit the specific site characters. of individual, together with comprehensive infrastruc-
Land could be classified into developed land, devel- ture improvement. Urban complex serves as coop-
oping land and construction available land. Urban eration association could save cost of government,
complex could promote exchange with different types increase land use value and decrease public cost. Urban
of land by phased construction to deal with the land complex have high radiation range to surrounding
ownership and flexibility. Urban complex have same areas to effectively control land use and develop-
character with Hyper-architecture and holds big space ment speed. Due to definite development and oper-
structure for reservation that provides opportunity for ation mode, urban complex could produce new public
commerce transform and upgrade. For example, urban infrastructure to solve demand of public space. The
entertainment function like theatre always situate at top government could produce diversified political refund
of urban complex that attracts population to organize or tax discount to inspire urban complex to realize
urban function like transportation and entertainment more social value like creating gardens and so on.
to maximize economy efficiency. Comprehensive land
ownership distracts development risk.
3.3 Urban space transfer
Land could classify into two types of raw and culti-
vated land. Urban complex in new town planning is
a procedure of space exchange that raw land or not
3.1 Rapid space structure development
fully cultivated land form changes to new residence,
ZHANG Shuiqing (2001) mentioned urban space commerce and industry land. With evacuation evolu-
structure comprises of different urban issues in spe- tion in old town, urban complex is a new kind of space
cific period that reflects urban level system and urban exchange by transfer land usage like redevelopment of
internal structure as space style of urban function. urban residence district.
ZHANG Jingxiang (2000) mentioned urban space Urban space transfer could classify into four stages:
structure as composition of different urban functions the first stage as blur and fuzz of urban space that the
in location to form spatial shadow of urban function. limit of space becomes unclear influenced by policy
Related research prove prevalent urban complex or usage. For instance, when people work and live in
development have high relationship with urban level same place, the space limit with bedroom and dinning
that urban complex would be less when urban level is room will be unclear. The second stage is unlimited

urban space transfer that space transfer occurs for def- Phillip Berke. Urban Land Use Planning[M]. China Archi-
inite land owner. For instance, a private house leases tecture and Building Press. 2009.
for three people that the dinning room becomes living LU Dadao. Formation and Dynamics of the Pole-Axis Spatial
space of one person, the attribution of dinning room System[J]. Scientia Graphica Sinica, 2002(1): 16.
WANG Fuhai, Li Guicai. Review for the Planning of
changes.The third stage is limited urban space transfer. Shenzhen in the Past 20 Years and its Perspectives[J].
For instance, land use changes from industry to resi- City Planning Review. 2000(5): 2427.
dence in specific policy influence. The fourth stage LI Hongwei; WU Zhiqiang; YI Xiaofeng; PENG Tao.
is limited urban space transfer that occurs between Global-Region: a New Urban-Region Phenomeno in
different land owners. For instance, the ownership the Context of Globalization[J]. City Planning Review.
of residence compound becomes unclear, sometimes 2006(8): 3137.
designer will change the location of land right to create CUI Gonghao. Urban Issue as the Regional Issue-The
more suitable living condition. Urban complex could Establishment and Development of the Regional View
promote low cost of space transfer and exchange. of Urban Planning in China[J]. Urban Planning Forum.
2010(1): 2428.
HU Xuwei. The Relationship between Globalization and
Urbanization in China[J]. Urban Planning Forum.
4 CONCLUSION 2007(4): 5355.
TANG Zilai, KOU Yongxia. The Urban Land Recourses
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structure and network system. High density of pop- case[J]. City Planning Review. 2000(10): 2125.
ulation leads to concept change of space scale and SUN Shiwen, XI Dongfan. Thinking on the Land Use
tradition network system. High density and devel- Right and Urban Planning Development[J]. City Planning
oping speed will influence urban network system to Review. 2003(9): 1216.
PENG Zhenwei, SUN Jie. Distribution of Urban and Rural
produce urban space internalization. Urban internal Land Resources at the Backdrop of Rapid Urbanization
space structure consists of poly-centers and urban in China[J].Time Architecture. 2011(3): 1417.
groups. Urban need to adjust development form to CHENG Xiugang. Probe into the Principle of Location
promote urban development quality, realize internal Selection of City Center[J].Planners. 2003(5): 8082.
development of urban in compact criterion. The Jiang Ling, Yang Kaizhong. Metropolitan-oriented Region-
occur of urban complex have important promotion alization of Japan and Lessons for China[J]. Asia-Pacific
to both land use and space structure as land use Economic Review, 2007(2): 113117.
value promotion, land use period reconstruction and DONG Xiaofeng, SHIYulong, ZHANG Zhiqiang, LI
land flexibility improvement in compact land use Xiaoying. A Study on the Development of the
Metropolitan Region[J]. Advances in Earth Science,
pattern, together with space structure rapid devel- 2005(10): 10671074.
opment, ecology environment promotion and urban ZHANG Jingxiang, ZOU Hun, WU Qiyan, CHEN Xiaohui.
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WANG Zhongzhi, WANG Fuxi. Rethinking on the Puzzle-
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Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Prediction of environmental-friendly eco-architecture trend by

neologism analysis

Kyung-Il Chin
Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, South Korea (Main author)

Jin WooMoon
Department of Building and Plant Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, South Korea
(Corresponding author)

Kwang Ho Lee
Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, South Korea

ABSTRACT: This study aimed at predicting the future of the environmental-friendly eco-architecture based
on the investigation about the newly-coined words reflecting issues relative to the environmental-friendly eco-
architecture as well as to the general social phenomena. Common trends significantly considered in social and in
the environmental-friendly eco-architecture were public interest (12.5%), duty/appropriateness/morality (8.7%),
social problems (6.5%), consumer problems (8.7%), formal deviation (12.5%) and new technologies (21.7%).
On the other hand, trends, which existed in the social phenomena but hardly not in the environmental-friendly
eco-architecture, were the aging society, poverty, anonymity, population, improvisation, and joblessness, and
their relativeness to the environmental-friendly eco-architecture were the issues needs to be seriously taken
into account. The results of this study are as follows. At first, the people has interested in the environmentally
appropriative accidents, which should be continued for the future at any reasons. Second, these neologism points
out the fundamental human problems such as environmental pollutions, genetic mutation, energy exhaustion,
and so on. Third, they accommodate the conceptual variation of the consumption as well as refused generality
and required extraordinary. Lastly, it revealed that there was significant expectancy on the new technologies and
their reflection to the environmental-friendly eco-architecture.

Keywords: Neologism, Trend, Environmental-friendly eco-architecture

1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 Methods & scope

This study investigated new words, which have been
1.1 Background & object
generated since the beginning of the 21st century,
Language reflects the phases of the times and the soci- dividing two groups: words in social science; and
ety as well as the thoughts and requirements of the words in eco-architecture. Then, social trend was
people. Since the newly-coined words, in particular, extracted based on the grouping of new social words
contain the phases of the times and peoples require- with similar characteristics. In addition to this, new
ments, they may be one of the major tools to check on words in environmental-friendly eco-architecture were
the timely requirements of the society. Not only in the analyzed their similarity with the extracted social
South Korea, but also internationally, a variety of new trend.
words has been being created, which is a phenomenon The research scopes were given below.
occurring in all social area including the architectural
field. (1) Trends could be categorized based on the degree
This study investigated newly-coined words reflect- of the ripple effect, and their characteristics
ing social developments and phenomena, and then could be slightly different. However, the char-
extracted social trend from them. In addition, the acteristics and types were not considered in this
way how this trend could be applied to the architec- study.
ture or how the architecture considers this trend was (2) New words were extracted from internet and a
predicted. Based on this prediction, this study aims variety of literature. They are Korean and English
at proposing a direction that environmental-friendly words which were created since the beginning
eco-architecture could follow. of the 21st century. Respective 50 words were

collected for representing social phenomena and <Table 1> 25 types of trends were extracted from
eco-architecture. new words:  a individualism,  b change of eco-
nomic concept,  c high-quality human resources,
d aging,  e public interest, 
f network technology,
2 ARCHITECTURE & TREND g change of morals and ethics,  h poverty prob-
lems,  i social problems, j weakened social adapta-
2.1 Change of environmental-friendly tion, k consuming problems,  l consumer-oriented,
eco-architecture trend m leisure,  n egoism,  o anonymity reinforcement,
p anthropocentrism,  q population problems, r affec-
The past international meetings regarding
tion for descendants,  s impulsiveness, t unemploy-
environmental-friendly eco-architecture could be
ment problems,  u community,  v metamorphosis,
summarized as s follows. In 1972, the Stockholm
w opportunism,  x new technology,  y well-being,
UNCHE adopted Declaration on the Human Envi-
z environmental-friendly and pollution.
ronment with subject to the Only One Earth at the
Declaration on the Human Environment. In 1982,
UNEP introduced a concept of sustainable develop-
ment, in 1987, UN published a report regarding sus- 3.2 Neologism for eco-architecture
tainable development, and in 1992, UN Conference Newly-coined words regarding buildings, architec-
on Environment and Development declared global ture, eco-system and environment were summarized
sustainable development plan in Rio. In 1997, United in the Table 2. They were purely created and naturally
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change occurred excluding words generated from regulations
adopted the Kyoto Protocol, and in 1998, action plan and standards by official bodies.
for the Kyoto Protocol in Buenos Aires. From the early
1970s to new millennium, international interests in the
environment have been increased. However, the upper
mentioned activities have been conducted not by the
general people, but by the experts idea. In a strict
4.1 Analysis by using social trends
sense, conditions of respective regions or nations have
not been reflected. Analyzed social trends werenumbered as table 2. With
Therefore, even though the international trends and this, this study analyzes the ecological environmen-
declarations are worthy of attention, it requires to tal architecture field trend and shows the result at the
investigate the ways for application of the contempo- table 2 and Figure 1.
rary trend to the architecture. Even though all contents regarding social trends
might not be reflected in the eco-environment and
architecture, some of them were found frequently.
3 NEOLOGISM AND TREND ANALYSIS Those were  e public interest (12.5%),  g change
of morals and ethics (8.7%),  i social problems
Newly-coined words reflecting contemporary social (6.5%),  k consuming problems (8.7%),  v metamor-
phenomena, peoples requirements, and psychological phosis (12.5%),  x new technology (21.7%). These
conditions are media to see the image of their society. trends could be inferred as area that peoples are actu-
In this study, new words were collected in two cate- ally interested in. On the other hand, Trends that are
gories. Firstly, in order to see the areas or issues receiv- found in social phenomena but not in eco-architecture
ing attentions in our society, new words, which reflect were  d aging,  h poverty problems,  o anonymity
the social phenomena, were collected. From these new reinforcement,  q population problems,  s impul-
words, the social trends were extracted. The extracted siveness,  t unemployment problems. These trends
trends were used as evidentiary materials for analyz- were not reflected in eco-architecture even though
ing neologism of environmental friendly architecture. they were considered importantly in society. Currently
Secondly, new words relative to the eco-environment there exists some distance between eco-architecture
and architecture were collected, and their similarity to and social trends, however, it still needs to seriously
the extracted trends was analyzed. For understanding investigate the relationship between them.
the contemporary environmental-friendly ecological
architecture, the relationship between new words and
the social trends were summarized in the table 2.
4.2 Eco-architecture point by trend
Based on the analysis in chapter 4.1, this study point
3.1 Neologisms for social trend out the necessity of study fields; prossible new envi-
New worlds reflecting the social trends were collected ronmental eco-architecture field related with social
in terms of social tendency, economic tendency, cul- trends, and the method of its copulation. As a result of
ture and values tendency, and new technological ten- this study, these are 1) reflection of justice, 2) pointing
dency. Since the numbers of new words are countless, out the humankind problems 3) conceptual change of
the representatively sampled words are summarized in consuming culture, 4) refusal of common-placeness,
the Table 1. 5) eager for new technologies.

Table 1. Some examples of typical newly-coined words related with social trend

No. Words Definition Trend analysis/Extraction

1 Instant Family Formation of family relative anthropocentrism Publicinterest

to the adoption
2 Speed Impulsive marriage and divorce individualism impulsiveness Change of
divorce/marriage morals and
3 Pregnancy as a Pregnancy before marriage Change of individualism
bottom drawer morals and
4 Velcro parents Innuendo about parents Affection for egoism
excessively interfering to descendents
childrens lives
5 Immature, Drop a job due to weakness for Weakened social individualism
depression the stress from work adaptation
6 Depraved male People who excessively loves individualism Change of egoism
and female excessive him/herself morals and
7 Gold-tern Likening a phenomenon hard to Unemployment Social problems poverty
find even an internship position problems problems
8 Pan-NG family Delay graduation by a leave of Unemployment High-quality
absence or an insufficient credits problems human resources
9 School-drifted People wandering the school Unemployment Weakened social
party after graduation problems adaptation
10 Spec reset, Registering again for advancing Unemployment High-quality
low-quality individual specifications, or low problems human resources
spec individual specifications
11 Unfriend Removal of the friend list Change of individualism egoism
morals and
12 down Downsizing home property for poverty aging Population
investment retaining cash & reducing risks problems problems
techniques by the baby boom generation
13 polysumer A class needing an instant support poverty Social problems
from Policy + consumer society problems
14 Yu-Nanomics Yu-Na Kim + economics: Change of
Re-evaluation of economic economic
value by a person concept
15 actvertising active + advertising: Consumer- Network community
consumer-participated oriented technology
16 Crazy A supporting actor leaving a impulsiveness
existence strong impression
17 volarbeit Volunteer + arbeit anthropocentrism Public interest
18 voluntainment Volunteer + entertainment Public interest leisure metamorphosis
19 bleisure Business + leisure Leisure metamorphosis
20 coffice Coffee + office: a person Leisure metamorphosis opportunism
working at a cafe
21 weisure Work + leisure based on the Leisure metamorphosis opportunism
communication wireless
22 smartboomer An highly-educated and Leisure aging Consuming
consuming-powered aging class problems
enjoying smart phone
23 socialnomics Consuming activity using Consuming Network opportunism
social-media problems technology
24 No-link, A party composing personal opportunisam Anonymity rein- community
No-tie party connections using social-network forcement
25 Emotion A behavior restricting individual individualism egoism
labour expression for consumers
... ... Skip below etc: environmental-friendly, well-being

Table 2. Some examples of typical newly-coined words related with environmental-friendly eco-architecture/trend analysis.

Background trend Background trend

No. Words (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) No. Words (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

1 Arborcide e 35 Aesthetic Aging k w x

2 BANANA a g e 36 Archityranny k
3 Bioneers e x 37 Blobject v
4 Brownfields g e i 38 Digital Artwork v x
5 Carbon Sinks x p 39 Ecstatic Architecture v x
6 CaulerpaTaxifolia g x 40 Facadism g x i
7 Circle of poison g p n y 41 Fashion-Tech v x
8 Conservation Concessions b e g p h 42 Hypersurface Architecture v x
9 Dark Sky Preserve e m p y y 43 Industrial Cool v w x
10 Designer Waste Streams b e i k x 44 Michael Anastassiades x
11 Eco-Industrial Park b c e f x 45 New Edge Design v
12 Ecological Footprint e g i 46 Startups v x
13 Environ e i k y x 47 Trash art e v
14 ESU = The Red List e g 48 Visible Storage w v u b
15 Franken-fish e g i a x 49 Pragmatist Architecture w v
15 Green Premiums a e k 50 Qubico v w x
16 Green Washing a e n 51 Softroom v x
17 Grow it yourself Furniture k v x 52 Articure v x
18 Hard Green w j 53 Connectionism v x
19 Industrial Reincarnation x e k 24 Designer Departures v
20 Iron Fertilization g x 55 High Visibility Design v m
21 Low Emission Farming e x y 56 Inflatism v x
22 Network Farming k f y 57 Bilbio Effect b e v x i
23 Pharmaceutical Pollution i x 58 Pinut House l r v w x
24 Polylactide x k 59 Clayarch k x
25 Solenium x k 60 Swimming Spar w m j
26 Terratex x k 61 Building Webonomics l b
27 Viridian Greens a m g u v 62 Slow City a y j k
28 Wave Power x e 63 Re-Seouling g
29 Wind Farms x e i 64 Anarchitecture v g
30 Ecological Equation i 65 Slim Floor x
31 Extinction Saving Bank c e x 66 Ecobaum g
32 Home Water Treatment a i k x 67 Zero Emission House e k x g
33 Interruptive Conservation w x f 68 LOHAS y p k
34 Leadfills i g 69 Green Home x e

*Background trend symbols are extracted from social trend (except the symbol Z(environmental friendly).

eco-architecture issues, and based on the analysis of

them, the future of eco-architecture was predicted.
Findings in the study were: eco-architecture showed
that the socially and environmentally right things
have continued to being conducted and will be per-
formed; new words pointed out various problems such
as pollution and genetic variance; they also accepted
the conceptual change in consuming culture as well
as refused commonplaceness and required new and
extraordinary things; and there were a significant
expectancy in the new technologies and a hope to be
applied to the environmental-friendly eco-architecture
Figure 1. Ratio of trend appearance.
Further studies are warranted based on the
expanded samples relative to new words and on the
objective surveying process. In addition, it needs to
organize trends more systematically for being cul-
5 CONCLUSIONS minated in a philosophical background and flow.
Finally, a causal analysis for the part that presented
This study surveyed new-coined words reflect- in social trends but not in the eco-architecture will be
ing social phenomena and environ-mental-friendly conducted.

REFERENCES handbook of lectures on 50 year commemoration for
Architecture Institute of Korea. AIK.
Chin, K.I. 2011. Forecasting the Future City & Building by Kim, N.D. 2012. Trend Korea 2011. Seoul: Window of future.
Analyzing the Future Oriented Neologism & SF Movies Shin, J.E., Park J.E. 2007. Revolution of future. Seoul: Il-
with Maslows Hierarchy of Needs. Advanced Materials song-Book.
Research Vols. 255260: 16221626 Nomura Research Institute. 2008. 2010 IT roadmap. Seoul:
Chin, K.I. 2012. The analogizing the city & building future Maekyung Economic Daily.
by analyzing scene in the science fiction films and LG Economic Research Institute. 2011. 2020 new future is
the human action desire. Advanced Materials Research coming. Seoul: Hans-media.
Vols. 450451: 10741077 Kim, M.J. 2011. 2011 trend keyword. Seoul: Window of
Faith popcorn & Adam Hanft. 2009. Dictionary of the future. future.
Hyperion Jung, K.S. 2000. Researches trend of ecological dwelling.
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Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Evaluation on building interior accessible routes design

Ying Han
Engineering Institute, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
School of Architecture, South-east University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

Yan Wang
Engineering Institute, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

ABSTRACT: To design complete interior accessible routes will be the inevitable trend of the barrier-free
environment design, and how to effectively evaluate the design of accessible routes is missing in Chinese
current specification content. On the basis of the existing accessible routes design evaluation method, a method
that combination the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Gray Clustering Analysis advantages for building indoor
accessible routes design evaluation approaches (referred GCAHP) was constructed, and the method of calculation
and evaluation process described in the paper. Followed by analysis of the Nanjing Museum, for example, to
verify the practicality and effectiveness of the rating system, these study results of the perfect building indoor
accessible routes design evaluation system has a certain amount of guidance.

Keywords: Indoor public space; Accessibility flow line design, Methods of Evaluation

1 INTRODUCTION countries Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and

Facilities (referred to as ADAAG-2010). The barrier-
1.1 Barrier-free design free facilities constructed by our specification, can not
form a complete barrier-free path of travel, a lot of
Barrier-free design proposed by the United Nations in
barrier-free facilities does not work properly; result-
1974, stressed that in modern civilized society, pub-
ing injury legal disputes are more complex. Many
lic space planning and design of the environment,
big cities, those who do not contiguous, the visually
must take into account the needs of people with dis-
impaired can not use the Blind is the best example.
abilities and the elderly, with service and device to
Therefore, to establish more detailed and complete
be able to create a caring and protection of human
barrier-free path of travel design specifications, and
security, convenient, comfortable and modern life. The
the existing barrier-free design to be effective evalu-
study found that the design changes to adapt to people
ated is very important. In this paper, a new evaluation
with disabilities do, in fact, are beneficial to anyone.
method for the evaluation of the flow line design of
From a different angle to consider, take into consider-
indoor accessibility was built based on the existing
ation the needs of those special people in the general
evaluation methods[14] .
design, so as to achieve the effect will everyone fair
use more attractive and market potential. Therefore,
the current barrier-free design has actually extended to
consider including other potential users of the physio- 2 THE EVALUATION METHOD
logical normal and the disabled, the elderly, children,
left-handed, universal design for all staff. At present, the main academic evaluation method in
building filed including Artificial Neural Networks,
the Analytic Hierarchy Process, Comparative Eval-
uation, Data Envelopment the Analysis of Delphi
1.2 Accessible routes
Method, Entropy Evaluation Method, Gray, Cluster-
The main specifications of our current barrier-free ing, Analysis, and so on[5] . Taking into account the
design is The urban roads and buildings accessi- complexity of building accessible routes on the func-
ble design (to referred JGJ50-2001), which written tional diversity and the building structure, the author
mainly considered by building parts, not expressly constructed an approach (referred GCAHP) that com-
provided for accessible routes. However, the course bined advantages of the Analytic Hierarchy Process
of action and demand of the people were consid- and Gray Clustering Analysis to evaluate the indoor
ered in the accessibility norms of the developed barrier-free path of travel design.

2.1 Sample preparation partition of accessible 2.3 Built accessible routes evaluation system
routes design based on the method of GCAHP
To establish the design evaluation system of build- The second step, build the level of evaluation. Based
ing indoor accessible routes, we must first carry out on the determined partition or classification, in accor-
in accordance with the standard partition of the inte- dance with the affiliation of the evaluation, the evalu-
rior space. Museum, for example, usually divided into ation level should be established. Specific explanation
three parts: about how to determine the level was shown in Table 2
with examples. Generally speaking, the base layer is
(1) Indoor traffic space, including indoor under-
specific targets, while criteria layer and sub-criteria
ground parking, building entrances and exits,
layer is the classification standards.
stairs, ramps, safety grab bar armrest set, lift,
The third step, the target weight set. This part of
lifting platform, and emergency safety and evac-
the computing methods used is the Analytic Hier-
uation routes;
archy Process. The basic principle is the pair-wise
(2) Indoor function space, including the total ser-
comparison. Through construct the structural matrix
vice desk, public phones, drinking fountains, toilet
R (see Equation 1) to assess the relative importance
facilities, exchange of rest, exhibition spaces,
of a variety of factors. Then, the use of the char-
wheelchair spaces;
acteristic root method to calculate the weight vector
(3) Emergency security evacuation and indoor mark-
W = {W1 , W2 , , Wn } (Equation 2), and the initial
oriented systems, including barrier-free symbol
evaluation value of each factor were taken into the
of international general service radius, color and
calculation to seek final evaluation results justified by
luminous sound and Braille, safety and emergency
the consistency test[67] .
evacuation, large screen and so on.
The article refers to the building interior space is t
the public space areas, without considering the space
of the office staff.

2.2 Determination of evaluation indicators

More barrier-free indicator of the flow line of the
indoor, need to be screened to determine the key
indicators of the evaluation system required various
types of indicators. Screening process with telephone which, uij is the importance of scale[5] .
counseling, a combination of internet voting and The fourth step is to determine the score approach.
questionnaires, inquiries mainly targeted at the archi- Usually the score for different index of a building were
tectural design staff, building staff, ordinary viewers determined according to the expert survey results, or
and audiences with special needs, such as the disabled, reference to foreign scoring criteria to determine[8] .
the elderly, audlts with children, the left-handed and Finally, calculate the score value. Interval where the
so on. last calculated value, evaluation of the building indoor
After a series of research and index selection, accessible routes indicator level is divided into three
the paper ultimately determine the indoor Acces- grades A, B, and C, are shown in Table 1.
sibility flow line evaluation include: indoor under-
ground parking, building entrances, doors, stairs or
ramps, handrails set of safety grab bar, walkways
and floors, elevator and lifting platforms emergency 3 INTERIOR ACCESSIBLE ROUTES DESIGN
security evacuation routes, barrier-free toilet seat or EVALUATION INSTANCE OF THE NANJING
a dedicated toilet, wheelchair spaces, indoor facilities MUSEUM
(including desk, public telephone, drinking fountains,
exchange of rest, etc.), display spaces and interior 3.1 Present of Nanjing Museum
marked-oriented system. Nanjing Museum is the first built by the State National
museum, which is located in Nanjing Purple Moun-
tain south of Zhongshan door on the north side, an
Table 1. Standard values of the evaluation grade. area of 70,000 square meters, two gallery (history
museum and art gallery) construction area of 35,000
Grades A B C
m2, architectural style exist side by side for imitation
Calulation 0.81.0 0.60.8 0.6
Liao palace-style building, hospital luxurious vegeta-
values Median Median Median tion, a variety of carved stone artifacts interspersed
Si(A) = 0.9 Si(B) = 0.7 Si(C) = 0.3 with cultural landscape and the natural landscape[9] .
Part of the Museum interior shown in Figure 1.

3.2 Interior accessible routes design evaluation of
Nanjing Museum
The process and calculation method of GCAHP
described in the front in this article, in this section com-
bined with the Nanjing Museum to explain GCAHP
method. This the study, Values of the matrix R for the
rule layer and sub-criteria layer by consulting experts
to the architectural design and construction responsi-
ble person to obtain. The matrix values of the base layer
with special needs to ordinary viewers and audiences
(mainly people with disabilities and the elderly) ques-
tionnaires. In the study, 120 valid questionnaires were
selected among the distributed 130 questionnaires to
conducted a survey using the Likert Scale [10] , and the
values of the matrix R based on valid questionnaires
as follows (See formula 2 to 4), evaluate layers and
corresponding weights results shown in Table 2.

Then, the weight of each evaluation index calculated

in the share of the entire evaluation system. That is, the
second data column of in Table 3. Next, select the score
for each indicator in the base layer rate according to
the choice of rating criteria, the score results are listed
in the third column of Table 3.
Then dimensionless, with the score sequence (i.e.,
the median score) divided by the pending rating:

where k is the evaluation of level A, B, C.

i = 1, 2, 3 . . . , n, Represent the baseline layer indica-
tors 1 to 16 in this case. And then calculate the
difference as follows:
Figure 1. Pictures of Nanjing Museum.

Table 2. Museum evaluation level and evaluation index weight calculation.

Rule layers Sub-criteria layers Base layers

Interior accessible Hardware Indoor function Services, security facilities (24%)

routes design (81%) space (33%) Wheelchair seat (22%)
evaluation Exhibition space (31%)
Barrier-free toilet seat or a dedicated toilet (23%)
Indoor traffic Vertical transportation (33%) Stairs and ramps (50%)
space (67%) Elevator and lifting platforms (50%)
Horizontal transport (40%) Door (25%)
Aisle (42%)
Ground (33%)
Transport hub (27%) Indoor underground parking (36%)
Building entrances and exits (18%)
Emergency security evacuation
routes (46%)
Software Indoor marked-oriented system (35%)
(19%) Indoor blind sidewalk (31%)
Acoustic panels (14%)
Safety grabs the rod handrail (20%)

Table 3. Indicator scores Si , dimensional calculation results and the gray relational coefficient.

i (k) iF (k)

Base layers Ni Weight Si A B C A B C

Services, security facilities 0.064 0.66 0.27 0.06 1.20 0.75 0.93 0.40
Wheelchair seat 0.059 0.54 0.40 0.23 0.80 0.67 0.78 0.50
Exhibition space 0.083 0.78 0.13 0.11 1.60 0.86 0.88 0.33
Barrier-free toilet seat or a dedicated toilet 0.061 0.70 0.22 0.00 1.33 0.78 1.00 0.38
Stairs and ramps 0.09 0.78 0.13 0.11 1.60 0.86 0.88 0.33
Elevator and lifting platforms 0.09 0.63 0.30 0.10 1.10 0.73 0.89 0.42
Door 0.054 0.54 0.40 0.23 0.80 0.67 0.78 0.50
Aisle 0.091 0.60 0.33 0.14 1.00 0.71 0.85 0.44
Ground 0.072 0.72 0.20 0.03 1.40 0.80 0.97 0.36
Indoor underground parking 0.053 0.55 0.39 0.21 0.83 0.67 0.79 0.49
Building entrances and exits 0.026 0.63 0.30 0.10 1.10 0.73 0.89 0.42
Emergency security evacuation routes 0.067 0.81 0.10 0.16 1.70 0.89 0.84 0.32
Indoor marked-oriented system 0.067 0.75 0.17 0.07 1.50 0.83 0.92 0.35
Indoor blind sidewalk 0.027 0.70 0.22 0.00 1.33 0.78 1.00 0.38
Acoustic panels 0.059 0.71 0.21 0.01 1.37 0.79 0.98 0.37
Safety grab the rod handrail 0.038 0.82 0.09 0.17 1.73 0.90 0.82 0.32

Table 4. Correlation degree results. but in the audio-visual display devices, wheelchair
spaces and certain details of barrier-free design tend
Grades A B C to be improved.
Correlation degree 0.806 0.917 0.404


By comparison of the barrier-free design standards of

Combination of interior accessibe routes indicator
China and abroad, our barrier-free standards should be
to judge the grade standard values (Table 1) and the
added to form a complete accessibe routes provisions.
Nanjing Museum Accessibility Evaluation of the flow
On this basis, to optimize the existing evaluation crite-
line system benchmarks scores Si, obtained various
ria constructed GCAHP way, through public research
indicators of non-dimensional calculations are shown
and expert advice, screening out the key indicators
in the forth to sixth columns of Table 3.
to determine the index level and scoring methods,
Subsequently, the Gray correlation degree calcu-
and then the gray cluster computing to carry out
lations were done. The gray relational coefficient of
building indoor accessibility evaluation of the flow
comparison sequence Xi (0) with the standard sequence
line. Finally, the Nanjing Museum for the case of an
Xi (k) for each point, which is defined as:
empirical analysis, calculated the interior accessibe
routes of the Nanjing Museum of the results of the
evaluation of the Class B to verify the practicality and
effectiveness of the rating method.

where, iF (k) is the gray relational coefficient; is the

distinguishing coefficient, taking the value 0 to 1; the ACKNOWLEDGMENT
meaning of other symbols are the same as before.
The gray relational coefficients for each index The authors appreciate the support of the Foundation
results are shown in the last three column of Table 3. of Architecture Discipline, as well as thank profes-
Finally, the correlation coefficient of each indicator sor Xiang-sheng GAO of South-east University and
to its right to re-multiplying interior accessibe routes Mr. Xiao-quan LV, for their valuable assistance.
design and evaluation criteria associated degree; the
results are shown in Table 4.
By calculation, it is easy to see that the design of
interior accessibe routes of the Nanjing Museum is the
Class B standard. [1] Petry, I., Becher, T. & Steinauer, B., 2011. Barrier-
In other words, barrier-free design of the Nanjing free design of civil engineering structures using road
Museum is not perfect. Although the entrance has a tunnels as an example. Bauingenieur: 5360.
ramp, the museum is equipped with signs, elevators, [2] Department of Justice, 2010. ADA Standards for
accessible toilet location, exchange of rest spaces etc., Accessible Design.

[3] Hong, C., & Jia, H., Z., 2009. Barrier-free Design of [7] Yan, L. Z. & Da, W. X. 2010. Objective Evaluation Sys-
Residential Community and Disabled Crowd Charac- tem of Historic Cultural Villages and Towns. Huzhong
teristic. Sichuan Building Science: 259261. Architecture: 161163.
[4] Qiang, W., 2010. Discussion on the Barrier-free Design [8] Xue, H., 2010. Study on the Battier-free Design of
for Railway Station Based on the Behavior of People on Public Building. Central South University.
Crutch: Behavior Experiment for People on Crutch in [9] Da, L. W., 2011. Evaluation on the present condition
Beijing. South Railway Station, Architectural Journa: of protection and utilization of Nanjing architecture
9295. and streets in the republic of China period. Urban
[5] Xi, P. Z., 2011. Beijing Urban Green Space Sys- Problems: 4952.
tem Function Evaluation and Development Strategy. [10] China Academy of Building Research Institute &
Beijing Forestry University. China Disabled Persons Federation. Codes for Design
[6] Jian, M., Xin, Y., Jang, L., & Xiao, M. Su, 2010. Study on Accessibility of Urban Roads and Buildings, 2001.
on the Assessment Indicators for Exterior Luminous Beijing: China Building Industry Press.
Environment of Residential Area in the City, China
Illuminating Engineering Journal: 16.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Rain water utilization in urban design: A case study of the street natural
drainage program in Seattle America

Jing Sun
School of Civil Engineering & Architecture, Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo, China

Kaiqi Shi
Division of Engineering, the University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo, China

ABSTRACT: With rapid pace of urbanization, increasing roads and drainage facilities destroyed the natu-
ral hydrological cycle, which led to a series of urban water environment problems. Simultaneously, rainwater
drainage through pipes wasted a large amount of rain water resources and caused river pollution. In order to solve
the problems, this paper studied the case of the street natural drainage program in Seattle America, whose design
technique and management measures are analyzed systematically. It is concluded that using the ecological design
methods such as rain water utilization is significant to the urban sustainable development, and these theory and
measures are useful to the contemporary urban design in china.

Keywords: Landscape design, city street, rainwater utilization, water resource protection

1 INSTRUCTIONS road together. Therefore, it is significant to mod-

ify drainage mode, rainwater retention and recycle
With the rapid urbanization process, there are increas- combined with urban and landscape design. The
ing amount of hard surfaced man-made areas that do Seattle public municipal natural drainage project is one
not readily absorb rainwater, which had to be drained of typical successful cases.
through artificial pipes to rivers rather than natural
rainfall infiltration. Therefore, the natural water cycle
process was largely destroyed, causing a series of
problems such as increases of rain runoff and flood
peak flow, water pollution, flood disasters, and so on.
It becomes increasingly serious in the world of water
2.1 Background
resources and environmental problems (Zhou 1995,
Cheng 2000, Liu 1999). Before urbanization, majority of Seattle was cov-
Rainwater utilization emerged in the 1970s and ered by forests and grassland. Some of rainwater
developed quickly in the European and American was absorbed by plants and soil. Some was reten-
countries. The United States issued the first law about tion. And the rest of rainwater was surface runoff.
rainwater retention during that period. They started Because of low permeability of soil, hill slope and the
to modify the traditional pattern of drainage pipeline plain of the valley water storage function, and natural
and design rainwater retention spaces in urban. At vegetation interception effect, the surface runoff was
the end of 1970s, the stormwater management was relatively slow and small, while the evaporation and
sprung up based on rainwater utilization and gen- rainfall infiltration amount was large. After Urban-
eral planning. During 1990s, the rainwater utilization ization, a large area of hard roof, street pavement
became matured and was considered as an effective and parking was applied instead of original forests
approach to create conservation of resources, beautiful and grassland, which destroyed natural water cycle
and sustainable living environment by source control, process. The urban rainwater infiltration reduced sig-
local retention method of surface runoff, increase the nificantly, runoff increased greatly, and at the same
rain delay of infiltration, restore natural water cycle time a large amount of rainwater drained off through
system, landscape planning and urban design (Debo the pipe into the urban water system, leading to the
2002). city water pollution and wildlife habitat destruction.
City road is one of the most important com- Considering these problems, natural drainage system
ponents of the city function and urban landscape. was studied by Seattle Public Utilities (SPU) to reduce
Urban drainage facilities are always designed with surface runoff by modifying street design. In 1999,

Figure 2. Bio-retention zone in SEA project.
Figure 1. Changes before and after SEA project.

SPU carried out a series of street drainage innovation

projects from a street to multi-districts.

2.2 Project design and practice

2.2.1 Street edge alternatives design
SEA (Street edge alternatives) project lies in residen-
tial district along Pipers Creek River, northwest of
Seattle, which is the most significant and success-
ful natural drainage modification case carried out by
SPU. SEA natural drainage modification project is one
part of the Urban Creeks Legacy Program (UCL), aim-
ing at protecting the water, forest and light resources.
In order to recover original function of rivers, the
UCL modified urban drainage system for better river Figure 3. Rainwater retention design on slope.
water quality. While the SEA mainly focused on reduc-
ing flood, controlling road runoff contaminate and
They could not only enhance rainwater retention and
protecting salmon habitat in Pipers Creek River. As
purification, but also upgrade the landscape level with
shown in Fig. 1, SEA changed the road into curves
their different color, flowering in different seasons.
rather than original straight line. Simultaneously, the
After these retention techniques were successful car-
wide of hard pavement was reduced for more rainwa-
ried out, larger rainwater retention space reduced the
ter retention space. In this way, street drainage became
width and linetype of roads, which lowered speed of
more natural.
cars, increasing the safety. Further, bio-retention zone
Bio-retention method was applied in SEA project.
separated the walking ways from car driving streets,
The method was first utilized by Prince George
providing even more safety space for human activity.
County, Marryland in 1990s, which is widely used as
In addition, SEA project also paid more atten-
landscape design element in America, Germany and
tion to education, management and encouragement
Australia (Debo 2002). It was employed chemical and
of natural drainage eco-design. In its practice, pub-
physical interaction among soil, plant and microor-
lic are encouraged to join eco-design education and
ganism for rainwater retention and water purification,
natural drainage management, which not only enhance
which had multi-functions of storage, transport, infil-
their awareness of environmental protection, but also
tration enhancement and rainwater purification. In
increase the communication between districts.
SEA street design, gravel and soil retention bed,
bio-retention ponds and bio-retention zone etc. were
applied as bio-retention facilities along street as shown 2.2.2 Broad green grid project
in Fig. 2. The fact that soil and gravel have good ability Broad green grid (BGG) project was a whole blocks
of penetration and absorption of pollutant in rainwater streets modification, which lied in northwest of
illustrated that bio-retention was a simple and effective Seattle, including 15 blocks. The design idea was
way. Soil could reduce 35%65% phosphorus pol- almost the same as that of SEA project, mainly focus-
lutant, 40%85% BOD and 80%90% lead of total ing on rainwater bio-retention zones along the streets.
rainwater (Marsh 2005). Besides, application of soil However, because the area of BGG project was much
and gravel retention zone could be formed various bigger than single street, BGG designed a whole
landscape according to different geomorphic status stormwater management system basing on each street
(in Fig. 3). At same time, a large amount of local and space in 15 blocks, whose structure is a green grid
vegetations was also applied for rainwater retention. connected with bio-retention zones (Fig. 4).

design reduced the runoff contaminates, such as harm-
ful gas, oil dirt, heavy metal, sediment and chemical
fertilizer, etc. Consequently, the design recovers the
natural drainage process and rainwater is recycled as
a real sustainable resource (Hurley & Wilson 2004).

3.2 Safety road

Since 20th century, functions of street have been
discussing. Jane Jacobs suggested that the main func-
tions of street are safety, communication and activity.
Figure 4. BGG grid system. He also indicated that wide and high speed road
destroyed the citys spirit (Jacobs1961). The street
natural drainage program modified the street, meeting
the requirements of transport and lowering the speed
at same time, which makes the walker and cycler even
safer. Simultaneously, the curved street also makes
landscape more special and humanized.

3.3 Public communication space

After urbanization, with the evolution of the people
living mode, people live in the reinforced concrete
without much more outdoor activities and commu-
nication with neighborhood which makes peoples
physical and mental health suffered serious adverse
effects. Canadas related survey reviewed that shelter
surrounding environment had close relationship with
childrens physical activity. If there is a park, green
Figure 5. HP rainwater retention landscape. of other public space near apartment, it will increase
a childs chance of outdoor activities, which helps
reduce their risk of obesity, be helpful for its healthy
2.2.3 High point residential project development. Seattle streets natural drainage project
High Point (HP) residential project is a residential provided colorful outdoor leisure, travel and commu-
development project of 129 acre in west of Seattle. nication spaces promoting the community residents
Comparing with the BGG, HP project also consisted health and play an active role. After SEA program
of a public rainwater park, a large rainwater retention completion, numerous residents are willing to spend
space (Fig. 5), upgrading the functions of retention and their free time to maintain vegetation and share public
recreation. rainwater retention garden.

3.4 Education function

2.3 Discussion
Kelvin Linch concluded that there were five major
It is the evidence that the natural drainage street design urban design elements, street, boundary, spot, region
of Seattle developed both urban design and rainwater and mark respectively (Lynch 2006). The street is
utilization. A street design (SEA project) was extended the most significant element of public area. Seattle
to multi-blocks modification (BGG project), among street natural drainage project design and implemen-
which technique and management methods were all tation created a desirable street landscape, forming a
employed according to geological features and size of high quality of the streets of the ecological landscape
spaces. The final design makes street landscape more image. It also improved the community residents
ecological and humanized. of the ecological and environmental protection con-
sciousness which has played a positive role of recessive

3.1 Utilization of rainwater resource REFERENCES

The environmental effect of the Seattle street natural Cheng, F. Y., 2000. The shortage of water resources: in the
drainage program is outstanding. The whole program 21st century China of challenge. Disaster Reduction in
has been monitored by University of Washington and China. (2):2829.
SPU for 3 years. The results show that 98%100% Debo, T. N. and Reese, A., 2002. Municipal Stormwater
rainwater was detained. Further, rainwater retention Management. CRC Press.

Hurley, S. & Wilson, M., 2004. Great (Wet) Streets: Merging Lynch, K. and Fang, Y. P., 2006. City Image. Beijing: Huaxia
Street Design and Stormwater Management to Improve press.
Neighborhood Streets America: Landscape Architecture, Marsh, W. M., 2005. Landscape Planning Environmen-
University of Washington. tal Applications 4th edition. America: John Wiley and
Jacobs, J., 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Sons Inc.
Cities. Vintage Books. Zhou, N. S. and He, B. G., 1995. City overview of hydrology.
Liu, Z. L. and Ouyang, Z. J., 1999. Climate change the influ- Nanjing: East China Normal University Press.
ence of water resources to Beijing. Beijing agricultural
science. (5):13.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Studies of urban construction and development strategy of

new villages Taking the construction planning of new village
in Wangji Town, Xinzhou district, Wuhan City for example

Qiuyue Hua
School of Electromechanical & Architectural Engineering, Jianghan University, China

ABSTRACT: This paper advances the planning concept and target location of urban construction from the
angle of unification of three plannings industrial planning, land planning and urban planning by analyzing
the present situation, development strengths and constraints of Wangji Town, based on the development guide-
line of new industrialization, agricultural industrialization and rural urbanization to promote the sustainable
development of urban economy and construction of new villages by taking the implementation strategies such
as space optimization, internal integration, rural community development and so on.

Keywords: new villages, unification of three plannings, new industrialization, agricultural industrialization,
rural urbanization

1 INTRODUCTION demonstration point for construction of new villages

Wangji Town, Xinzhou District, Wuhan City, we
The urban construction and development of new vil- have done some exploratory work to seek new solu-
lages reflects the overall development level of econ- tions. Combining with the present construction state
omy and society in rural areas directly and has an of Wangji Town as well as the status and development
impact on overall coordinated urban and rural devel- needs of the area where it is located, we re-examine the
opment [1]. Solve economic and social problems in industrial distribution, land adjustment, village build-
rural areas, with the guidance of scientific outlook on ing, professional township building and infrastructure
development, according to the general requirements development in Wangji Town from the angle of unifi-
on agricultural and rural work advanced by the Party cation of three plannings industrial planning, land
and state again: To improve peoples livelihood in rural planning and urban planning and adopt innovative
areas is the important content of adjusting the dis- strategies to promote the comprehensive construction
tribution pattern of national income; to expand the and development of new villages in Wangji Town.
demands in rural areas is the essential action to pro-
mote domestic demand; to develop modern agriculture
is the major task of transforming the economic devel- 2 PROJECT PROFILE
opment methods; to build new socialist villages and
promote urbanization is the lasting power to main- The object of planning is the provincial, municipal and
tain stable and rapid economic development, etc. In district-level key construction town Wangji Town,
the planning and construction of new villages, there Xinzhou District, Wuhan City. It has a total area of
are many new issues that must be studied in depth 153 square kilometers, two communitiesWangji and
and are looking for solutions. Solve the problems with Kongbu and 51 administrative villages, 1.27 million
urban construction in new rural areas by adopting sys- people in towns and 7.59 million people in rural areas.
tematic, comprehensive and sustainable development Wangji Town is located in the central part of
strategies, follow the development guideline of three Xinzhou District, Wuhan City, connecting Zhucheng
industrializations new industrialization, agricul- Street on the east, close to Yangluo Street and Cangbu
tural industrialization and rural urbanization, promote Street in the west, south to Zhangdu Lake Farm, bor-
the development of rural economy, urban infrastruc- dering on Liji Street in the north, as the middle hub of
ture facilities and social undertakings in rural areas connecting Zhucheng and Yangluo in Xinzhou Dis-
comprehensively and the coordinated development of trict. The terrain within the boundaries rises in the
economic, social and ecological benefits and take northeast and falls in the southwest with an altitude
the road of sustainable rural construction of new vil- of 2050 meters. Jushui River and Daoshui River are
lages. In the planning and design of Hubei provincial internally arranged in an east-west direction and run

through the land from north to south. It has conve- area of 13.7 square kilometers and developed farming
nient traffic conditions and is the main window for area of up to 70,300 acres and has already formed
rural areas in the north of Wuhan to the outside. suitable scale in Westlake Village, Taozu Village,
Fengpu Village, East Lake Village, West Lake Village
and so on and become one of the largest aquaculture
bases in Wuhan city.

3.1 Development strengths 3.2 Constraints in development

Location strengths: Wangji is located in the center of The problems of Wangji Town are very widespread in
Xinzhou district, main traffic artery Xinshi Highway small towns of central China that take agriculture as
passes through the town area, Zhucheng and Yangluo their leading industry, including single mode of agri-
inside the district are easy to contact and every quar- cultural economy, lagged infrastructure construction,
ter outside the district may be accessible. Taking the weak rural public facilities and shanty village and
inherent traffic advantages, it can not only take the town style. The industrial structure is irrational [2]
advantages of Zhucheng and enjoy the public service and the towns income mainly comes from farming
facilities offered by Zhucheng in politics and life in and aquaculture with small scares and low technical
the future development but is laden with Yangluo and content. The long-term mechanism for increasing the
undertake the industrial advantages of Yangluo Indus- production of grain and the income of farmers has
trial Park and Logistics Center; it can not just link not been established. The vulnerable situation of rural
Shuangliu Town and combine with the advantages in infrastructure and service facilities has not been fun-
ecological agriculture and aquaculture in Shuangliu damentally changed, the deep-seated contradictions
Town but enhance Liji Town and Cangbu Town and restricting agricultural and rural development has not
radiate to Liji Town and Cangbu Town. been eliminated and the rural outlook is still lagging
Advantage of roads: Four highways in planning behind.
and construction (Jiangbei Fast Road, Wuhan Outer
Ring Road, Wuying Highway, Xingang Highway) and
five municipal highways, three in longitudinal direc- 4 PLANNING CONCEPTS
tions and two in horizontal directions, form a highly-
accessible road system in Wangji, only 20 kilometers Based on the above analysis on composite factors,
away from Xindao Highway to Xinzhou Railway Sta- the development of this region must follow the sus-
tion; only 30 kilometers away from Wuhan Outer Ring tainable development model. The established planning
Road and Yangluo Port, only 20 minutes drive from concepts are as follows.
Wuhan Tianhe Airport, Wuhan city proper Hankou and
Qingshan can be reached within an hour and almost
all towns in Xinzhou District can be reached within a 4.1 Balanced development of urban
half hour, all of which create the unique advantages of and rural areas
Industrial advantages: it introduces industry- Take the road to develop small towns determine the
leading enterprises such as Wuhan Coland Group nature, functions and building land requirements of
and Hubei Lvquan Vegetable Food Co., Ltd with Wangji scientifically and develop all facilities inten-
an expected annual output of up to 5 billions in sively under the guidance of strategy balanced
which Coland Group has an annual processing capac- development of urban and rural areas and regional
ity of 90,000 mu aquatic products. It will pro- urbanization.
mote the industrialization development of agriculture
greatly by relying on two agricultural and side-
line products processing projects of Wuhan Coland
4.2 Combination of workers and peasants and
Group and Hubei Lvquan Vegetable Food Co., Ltd.
circular development
and promoting the made-to-order farming mode
of company + base + association + farmers. Tradi- The development of circular economy may be regarded
tional Wangji chicken soup and Taohe salted pre- as an important measure for sustainable development
served duck are well-known brands in Wuhan, Wangji and implementation of scientific outlook on develop-
chicken soup and Taohe salted preserved duck have ment, is beneficial to get rid of dual constraints of
won the gold medal of National Agricultural Fair many resources and environment and form the spread order
times and four gold medals of Food Fair consec- type by the combination of enterprises and farmers,
utively and are the well-known trademarks in Hubei intensive base type by the combination of enterprises
Province. and bases, share type by the combination of cooper-
Advantages of aquatic resources: the water in the atives and markets and other forms to promote the
lakes on Wangji Town possesses natural resources such formation of industrial chain and agricultural industry
as Anren Lake and Duigongzui Lake. It covers a water chain [3].

4.3 Development and protection and sustainable 6.1 Space optimization to create the polar nucleus
development and axis of development
Excellent ecological environment is the most valuable Gathering of industrial parks along traffic arteries,
resource that distinguishes rural areas from cities, the revelation of township style along road windows and
basis of eco-agriculture and eco-tourism and the basis building of demonstration communities along space
of cooperation of worker and peasants [4]. Implement nodes. construction relying on the corridor along
the ecological concept of development fully, pay atten- Xinshi Highway, strengthening of nodes, axis pro-
tion to the protection of environment in the vigorous motion, overall enhancement, formation of township
development of industries in villages and towns and center, spatial pattern of four agricultural areas along
lay special emphasis on the current sewage discharge Xinshi Highway, maximization of traffic advantages
and waste disposal to realize the virtuous circle of and logistics distribution function and connections
ecological environment. from any directions.

6.2 Internal integration to produce strong

4.4 Focused development of culture and spirit driving forces
The construction of villages is not only focused on the Seeing from internal factors, Wangji promotes the
construction of physical landscape but the construc- constitution of three support systems-formation of
tion of cultural landscape. The construction level of industry chains, land intensification and improvement
public service facilities is an important standard that of facilitates by relying on the internal integration of
defines urban modernization, an important indicator various advantages.
to measure the quality of urban living environment,
a strong guarantee for the improvement of village 6.2.1 Formation of industrial chain support system
styles and the fundamental measure for the long- by industrial leader and characteristic
term management of villages. Increase investment in agriculture
public service facilities, improve living environment If there is no industrial guidance and support, there
quality in small towns comprehensively in terms of would be no agricultural modernization and new
cultural landscape, community building and spiritual rural development. Promote the development of scale
outlook and infuse new life into the construction and agriculture and ecological agriculture industry chain
development of Wangji Soup Town. vigorously and take a new path of agricultural modern-
ization suitable for small towns in the central region
through the promotion of industrial plates to agricul-
5 TARGET LOCATION ture. Position Wangji Town as a provincial key town
based on aquatic products, green vegetables, soup
Planning focus to the industrial construction, the and fish deep processing, special planting and other
overall planning and land use planning based on com- industries and form industrial structure system with
bined town domain distribution of resources, adjust reasonable, complementary and mutually reinforcing
the industrial structure and layout, the protection of industrial structures.
basic farmland and ecological resources, emphasiz-
ing the function of space, and optimize village layout, 6.2.2 Formation of intensive-type land support
co-ordinate arrangements for the town of Victoria system by land planning and transfer
regional infrastructure and public service facilities, The serious shortage of public funds is the biggest
Wang set into a harmonious and prosperous, and the problem in the development of villages and towns,
charm of a new eco-towns. but the greatest strength in villages and towns lies
in their rich land resources. To promote the sustain-
able use of non-renewable land resources, guide the
6 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES optimized integration of urban ecological space and
industrial resources and achieve the intensive devel-
With the analysis of development advantages and opment of land, it must insist on reorganizing exist-
constraints, we can not simply consider the superfi- ing land for construction, upgrading land level and
cial problems in urban development, industrial layout, utilizing reserved land efficiently, integrate land
infrastructure construction and deal with them accor- resources by making use of technological policies for
dance to the simple model of problem-resolution, planning of villages in the area of towns and take full
and we must proceed from deeper problems such as advantage of economic policies for land replacement
urban spatial structure, urban internal mechanism and and transfer to achieve the intensive use of land.
sustainable development concept and bring up the
essential points, clear thoughts and put forward imple- 6.2.3 Formation of support system for
mentation strategies for guidance on all specific oper- infrastructure construction
ations from complex conditions for development by For a long time, the infrastructure lags behind and
the means of unification of three planning (industry can not meet the future development of industrial
planning, land planning and urban planning). parks, villages and towns. In the project planning

and construction process, whether the development of of industrial and agricultural industry chains is the
industries or the construction of villages and towns root of construction; to create node lines and gradu-
should adhere to the principle of giving priority to ally promote urban space optimization is the outbreak
the development of infrastructure with obvious eco- of construction; to give priority to more investment
nomic and social benefits. The main construction and promote the construction urban and rural infras-
lies in the increase of external road level (unblock- tructures is the guarantee for construction; to innovate
ing of traffic arteries), improvement of internal road land management and use methods and promote the
system, construction of sewage drainage and waste dis- improvement of land effectiveness is a sustainable
posal facilities and irrigation and water conservancy road; to fully implement the ecological concept of
facilities (basis of agricultural industrialization). development and improve the rural living environ-
ment is the recycling of vitality; to promote grass-roots
community work and strengthen cultural construction
6.3 Rural community building
in rural areas is the return of humanistic spirit and
Establish township-level and group-level community other implementation strategies. Promote the sustain-
service facilities system[5]. Build community con- able development of urban economy and construction
sulting service centers containing cultural and sports in new countryside.
publicity to provide consulting services on daily life,
work, education, health care, tourism and other aspects
for residents; establish community welfare centers to ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
provide high-quality, thoughtful and attentive services
for the older age groups in communities; provide a The planning and design work project is completed
peaceful, harmonious and stable living environment by with the strong support and assistance of Wangji
information-based and networking construction and Town Government, Wangji Town, Xinzhou District,
strengthening of safety facilities system of community Wuhan City, Hubei Province.
policing, early warning and so on for community life.
Provide comprehensive, high-quality, convenient com-
munity services and create good living environments
and enhance home awareness of residents through the REFERENCES
construction of complete, convenient and protective
community service facilities. [1] Wang Xiaofang. Analysis of Modernization Small
Towns in the Countryside of Henan Province. Agricul-
tural Archaeology. 2010(6): 266268.
[2] Chen Wenke, Liu Tianxi, Chen Hanhua. Analysis of
7 CONCLUSION Typical Patterns and Paths of Construction of New
Countryside in the Areas of China. Chinas Agricultural
The urban construction of new villages is a com- Economy. 2010(5): 314.
plex system engineering related to development of [3] Ren Yuehong, Practical Exploration in Ningbo with
rural economy, rational use of land, improvement Organic Integration of Urban System and Industrial
of rural living environment, highlighting of pastoral System. Economy of Special Administrative Regions
landscape features and other aspects. It must adhere (SAR). 2010(2): 5758.
[4] Liu Shuai, Niu Yanbin, Li Xinwang. Analysis of Devel-
to the concept of sustainable development and solve opment of Small Towns in Mountainous and Hilly
the problems in the urban development of new vil- Regions in East Hebei. Research on Water and Soil
lages comprehensively. In the construction planning Conservation. 2010(12): 246251.
and design of this project, to advance the development [5] Chen Junfeng. Research and Review of Center Towns in
of resources superiorities and promote the formation China in RecentYears. Urban Problems. 2010 (8):3136

Building materials
Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Damage velocity of compressively preloaded concrete under frost action

Sijia Chen, Xiaobing Song & Xila Liu

Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China

ABSTRACT: Most concrete structures in cold regions are subjected to both external loads and freezing-
thawing. The degradation of compressive strength of concrete under the simultaneous action of external loads
and freezing-thawing are experimentally investigated in this research. Air entrainment, different water/cement
(w/c) ratios and different compressive stress were taken into account in the experiments. In order to track the
strength degradation process, the nondestructive tests were carried out after each freeze-thaw cycle to get the
residual strength for each specimen. Based on the experimental data, a variable Kss is proposed to describe
the damage velocity. Experimental results indicate that the damage velocity increases with the increase of the
preloading levels and w/c ratios. The air entrainment decreases the damage velocity of concrete, although which
would reduce the compressive strength of concrete.

Keywords: damage velocity, compressive strength degradation, freeze-thaw cycles, preloading level

1 INTRODUCTION strength degradation of concrete were investigated

In cold regions, frost action is one of the main fac-
tors which influence durability of concrete (Mehta &
Richard 2001, Mehta 2006), and many researches have 2 EXPERIMENTAL
been conducted on frost resistance of concrete in recent
years (Moukwa 1990, Senbu & Kamada 1990, Yixia 2.1 Sample preparation
et al. 1994, Hao 1998, Alexander & Magee 1999, Wei
et al. 1999, Ru et al. 2002, Guangpu 2006, Benjamin & A Chinese standard (GB175-2007) 325# Portland
Jussara 2007, Alan et al. 2011). However, there are still cement (which has standard compressive strength of
some limitations of most existing researches. 32.5 MPa at the age of 28 days) was used in the
Firstly, most previous researchers focused on the experiment. River sand with fineness modulus of 2.3
freeze-thaw durability of concrete without external was used. Coarse aggregate was crushed stones with
loads. However, in practice, most concrete structures diameters from 5 mm10 mm. The proportions of the
in cold regions, such as bridges and pavements, are various concrete mixes and the major parameters are
subjected to both external loads and freezing-thawing. listed in Table 1.
Secondly, with regard to the influence of the exter- More than 130 concrete prisms with 40 mm
nal loads (Yixia et al. 1994, Wei et al. 1999, Ru et al. 40 mm 160 mm were made. Four types of concrete
2002), only the frost resistance of mortar or plain were studied: three types of non-air-entrained con-
concrete were discussed in the past. Comparing with crete with water-cement ratio of 0.47, 0.59 and 0.67
flexural load, it seems that the research on frost resis- (designated as E-0.47, E-0.59 and E-0.67 respectively);
tance of concrete under compression is more attractive one type of air-entrained concrete with 1.01 kg/m3
in engineering community. air-entraining agent and w/c = 0.47 (designated
Thirdly, the dynamic modulus of elasticity and E-0.47A).All specimens were demolded after 24 hours
weight loss were the main focuses for almost all of casting and cured in a condition of 20 3 and
previous researches. However, engineers are mainly 95 percent RH for 23 days. Thereafter, the specimens
concerned with the residual strength of concrete after were immersed in water for 4 days prior to the
freeze-thaw cycles, because it can directly affect the freezing and thawing cycles.
serviceability and safety of RC structures.
In the present work, specimens were compressed by
2.2 Preloading details
specially designed apparatus while suffering freeze-
thaw cycles, and their residual strength after each The specimens were subjected to uniaxial compres-
freeze-thaw cycle were obtained by nondestructive sion. For each type of concrete, the averaged compres-
tests. From the experiment data, the compressive sive strength was obtained by three testing samples

Table 1. Mix proportions and major parameters of concrete.

Coarse Air-entraining Compressive strength

Cement Water w/c Sand aggregate agent at 28 days
Series kg/m3 kg/m3 ratio kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 MPa

E-0.67 297 199 0.67 749 1125 0 27.1

E-0.59 320 189 0.59 749 1125 0 29.5
E-0.47 338 159 0.47 749 1125 0 32.1
E-0.47A 338 159 0.47 749 1125 1.01 30.1

Figure 1. Schematic description of the loading device.

before freezing and thawing, and the result was used Figure 2. Number of freeze-thaw cycles to failure.
as the basis for determining the preloading strength
level. The uniaxial compressive strength values are
given in Table 1. Before freeze-thaw testing, the con- order to accurately evaluate the concrete compres-
crete prisms were compressively preloaded, and the sive strength with this method, individual relationship
maximum load applied to each prism was adjusted to between concrete strength and ultrasonic velocity for
generate a maximum compressive stress of 0, 30, 50, each type of concrete should be obtained by prelimi-
and 80 percent (i.e. the stress ratios are 0, 0.3, 0.5 and nary tests.
0.8) of the compressive strength of the same prism.
According to each concrete mix proportion, three
specimens were measured. Preloading was generated 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
through a specially designed apparatus, as shown in
Figure 1. The applied force was controlled and checked 3.1 Resistance to freezing-thawing of preloaded
by the protected sensors (AVICI 2007) to prevent the specimens
stress relaxation under freeze-thaw cycles. The numbers of freeze-thaw cycles to failure under the
different preloading levels for four types of concrete
2.3 Freeze-thaw test are shown in Figure 2. From the experimental data in
Figure 2, it is found that preloading level influences
At the age of 28 days, tests of the concrete was carried the frost resistance of concrete.
out for suffering of the freeze-thaw cycles and external
loads according to ASTM C666 (ASTM 2003).
3.2 Definition of damage velocity
As shown previously, the number of freeze-thaw cycles
2.4 Ultrasonic method and preliminary test
to failure decreases with increasing of preloading
The residual compressive strength of each speci- level. However, it is not evident from the previous
men after every freeze-thaw cycle was obtained by results that the external load accelerates the dam-
ultrasonic method (Prassianakis 2004, Popovics 2007, age velocity. The dominant factor of failure for the
Gregor et al. 2009) with the concrete strength versus preloaded specimens in the experiments reported
ultrasonic pulse velocity relationship. It is known that herein is compressive stress induced by external loads.
many factors (age, porosity, composition, curing and So, a specimens compressive strength loss after
so forth) which influence concrete strength also inter- freeze-thaw cycles becomes the main factor to deter-
fere with the determination of concrete strength by mine whether the specimen fractures. For different
ultrasonic means (Popovics 2007). It is noted that in preloading level, the compressive strength loss of the

specimens needed to fail is different. For example,
the specimens subjected to a preloading level of 80
percent need only 20 percent of compressive strength
loss prior to failure; but, the specimens subjected to a
preloading level of 50 percent have to lose 50 per-
cent of their compressive strength before fracture.
Meanwhile, the experimental results show that the
specimens subjected to a preloading level of 80 percent
need fewer freeze-thaw cycles to failure than the spec-
imens subjected to a preloading level of 50 percent. In
other words, for the specimens subjected to preload-
ing level of 80 percent, they need less compressive Figure 3. Predicted compressive strength comparing to
strength loss and fewer freeze-thaw cycles to fail. That experiment data of ordinary concrete (Guangpu 2006).
is to say, for higher level preloaded specimen, fewer
freeze-thaw cycles lead to less compressive strength
loss, which cannot support that the higher preloading
level leads to higher damage velocity.
In order to understand the relationship between
preloading level and damage velocity, the residual
compressive strength (RCS) after each freeze-thaw
cycle was recorded by ultrasonic impulse method with
the formulas obtained in Table 2. The relative residual
compressive strength (RRCS) is the ratio of the RCS
value measured after each freeze-thaw cycle to that
before the freeze-thaw cycling. The RRCS loss in one
freeze-thaw cycle (designated Kss ) can be defined as
the damage velocity, which is the slope in the coordi-
nate system. The bigger the absolute value of slope is,
the more severe the damage is. So, Kss can be obtained
through the equation as follows:
Figure 4. RRCS versus number of freeze-thaw cycles for
different w/c ratio concrete.

where Kss(N ) = Damage velocity after a certain number

(N ) of freeze-thaw cycles; f(N ) = RCS after a certain
number (N ) of freeze-thaw cycles; and f(0) = Initial
compressive strength.

3.3 Average damage velocity

Most damage models (Lland 1980, Hao 1998, Jun
et al. 2003) based on the Strain Equivalence Principle
(Lemaitre 1992) focus on the variation of elasticity
modulus. Since Youngs modulus is not specifically
related to strength for a material, the damage models
cannot be used to evaluate the evolution of strength
under freezing-thawing. From the research of evo-
lution of concrete failure surface under freeze-thaw
condition (Guangpu 2006), it appears that the com- Figure 5. RRCS versus number of freeze-thaw cycles for
pressive strength could decline approximately linearly different stress ratio.
with the increase of freeze-thaw cycles before RRCS
reaches 0.3, as shown in Figure 3. Consequently, in is a good approach to derive the mathematical
order to understand the effect of external loads on relationship between the RRCS and the number of
damage velocity, using the approach of linear regres- freeze-thaw cycles.
sion on RRCS and freeze-thaw cycles to obtain the
average damage velocity (Kass ) is reasonable and
3.4 Effect of external loads on average damage
From comparison of the experimental results
and regression analysis in Figure 4, Figure 5 and The RRCS of concrete subjected to different stress
Figure 6, it appears that the linear regression analysis ratios (0, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8) at different number of

freeze-thaw cycles and the linear regression analysis
models are given in Figure 4. From the slopes of linear
regression analysis in Figure 4, the averaged damage
velocities of the RRCS of all concrete prisms increase
with increasing of the preloading level. So its evident
that the external loading accelerates the degradation
process of concrete, which exposed to freeze-thaw
cycles regardless of w/c ratios.
From macroscopic perspective, the damage of
concrete suffering freeze-thaw cycles and external Figure 6. Compressive strength loss of concrete with and
loads is a very complex fatigue process. In this dete- without entrained air.
rioration, the mechanical properties of concrete are
determined by freeze-thaw damage, load damage and Formula (2) indicates that damage increment of
the coupling effect, which is more complicated and concrete after per freeze-thaw cycle increases with
severe than that of the concrete under freeze-thaw the increase of the maximum hydraulic pressure. And
damage only. Internal hydraulic pressure caused by from the previous definition, damage velocity is simi-
freeze-thaw cycles is equally distributed tension in all lar to damage increment in the aspect of describing
directions. As concrete being compressed, the trans- the degradation velocity of concrete. Consequently,
verse strain due to the Poissons effect is tensile strain, it can be derived that damage velocity increases as
which can be added to the strain caused by inter- hydraulic pressure increases. According to Powers
nal hydraulic pressure to deteriorate the deterioration static hydraulic pressure hypothesis (Powers, T.C.
process. 1949, Powers, T.C. 1953, Hao 1998), also, higher w/c
At the mesoscale level, the compressive load can ratio causes more capillary pores in concrete, and
make the microcracks or microvoids in original con- more pore solution can be frozen to produce higher
crete to grow and coalesce, which can reduce the hydraulic pressure. As a whole, it is apparent that
load carrying capacity of concrete. So comparing to higher w/c ratio causes more severe damage of the
the same type concrete without being preloaded, the RRCS of concrete in one freeze-thaw cycle.
compressively preloaded concrete has lower strength Moreover, the higher the w/c ratio is, the lower the
and resistance. And, freezing and thawing also can tensile strength is, which means concrete with higher
decrease the strength and resistance of concrete.There- w/c ratio has lower resistance to freeze-thaw cycles.
fore, the preloaded concrete can be considered as Both of the previous analysis leads to the conclu-
having initial freezing-thawing damage. Also, from sion that the increasing of the w/c ratio causes an
some typical damage processes (Lland 1980, Yixia appreciable increase in the damage velocity of the
et al. 1994, Hao 1998, Wei et al. 1999, Ru et al. 2002), it RRCS.
is known that damage velocity increases as freeze-thaw
cycles increases. As a result, preloaded concrete has
higher damage velocity than the same type concrete 3.6 Effect of air entrainment on average
without preloading. damage velocity
In summary, based on the discussion given above, Figure 6 shows the RRCS and RCS versus number
it can be concluded that external load can signifi- of freeze-thaw cycles for non-air-entrained concrete
cantly raise the damage velocity of concrete exposed E-0.47 and air-entrained concrete E-0.47A at stress
to freeze-thaw cycles. ratio of 0.8. As the number of freeze-thaw cycles
increases, the RRCS and RCS of E-0.47A concrete
3.5 Effect of w/c ratio on average damage samples decrease at a slower rate than that of E-0.47.
velocity This may suggest that air entrained in concrete by
Figure 5 shows the influence of w/c ratios to the dam- air-entraining admixtures can slow down the damage
age velocities of the RRCS of the samples. From velocity of freeze-thaw cycles and improve the frost-
Figure 5, it is found that the averaged damage velocity resistance of non-air-entrained concrete. However, it is
of RRCS of concrete increases as w/c ratio increases. noted that air-entrained concrete (E-0.47A) has a lower
From Cai Haos model(Hao 1998), damage incre- compressive strength than non-air-entrained concrete
ment of concrete after per freeze-thaw cycle can be (E-0.47) with similar composition. Therefore, in prac-
expressed as follows: tice, the w/c ratio needs to be reduced to guarantee the
same strength.


where D = Damage variable; N = Number of freeze- In this paper, the concept of damage velocity was
thaw cycle; C,, E 0 = Material parameters for con- defined. In order to understand the relationship
crete; and max = Maximum hydraulic pressure in between preloading level and damage velocity, the
freezing process. variable Kss (RRCS loss in one freeze-thaw cycle)

instead of the number of freeze-thaw cycles to fail- Hao, C., 1998. Prediction model of concrete freeze-thaw
ure is proposed to represent the damage velocity. The durability(in chinese). Tsinghua University.
results indicate that the higher the preloading level or Jun, W., Hao, W.X. & Long, Z.X., 2003. Damage model of
the w/c ratio is given, the higher the damage veloc- concrete under freeze-thaw cycles. Journal Wuhan Uni-
versity of Technology, Materials Science Edition 18 (3),
ity of the RRCS of concrete is obtained. Also, air 4042.
entrainment can decrease the damage velocity. The Lland, 1980. Continuous damage model for load-response
effect of external loads on average damage veloc- estimation of concrete. Cement and Concrete Research
ity was explained from both macroscopic perspective 10 (3), 395402.
and mesoscopic perspective, while the effect of w/c Lemaitre, J., 1992. A course on damage mechanics Springer,
ratio and air entrainment on average damage velocity Berlin, Germany.
were explained by static hydraulic pressure hypothesis Mehta, K., 2006. Durability of concrete-the zigzag course of
and Cai Haos model. progress. Indian Concrete Journal 80 (8), 916.
Mehta, K. & Richard, B., 2001. Building durable structures in
the 21st century. Indian Concrete Journal 75 (7), 437443.
Moukwa, 1990. Deterioration of concrete in cold sea waters.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT Cement and Concrete Research 20 (3), 439446.
Popovics, S., 2007. Analysis of the concrete strength versus
The authors would like to thank the Natural ultrasonic pulse velocity relationship. American Society
Science Foundation of Shanghai, China, Grant for Nondestructive Testing.
No.11ZR1417400, for the financial support for this Powers, T.C, Year. The air requirement of frost-resistance
concrete. In: Proceedings of the Proceedings of Highway
project. Research Board, pp. 184202.
Powers.T.C, H.R.A., Year. Theory of volume change in
hardened porland cement paste during freezing. In:
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Board, pp. 285297.
Alan, R., Kathryn, C. & Jennifer, B., 2011. Freeze/thaw Prassianakis, 2004. Ultrasonic testing of non-metallic mate-
durability of concrete with recycled demolition aggregate rials: Concrete and marble. Theoretical and Applied
compared to virgin aggregate concrete. Journal of Cleaner Fracture Mechanics 42 (2), 191198.
Production 19 (23), 272277. Ru, M., Changwen, M., Xin, L. & Wei, S., 2002. Inter-
Alexander & Magee, 1999. Durability performance of con- action between loading, freeze-thaw cycles, and chlo-
crete containing condensed silica fume. Cement and ride salt attack of concrete with and without steel fiber
Concrete Research 29 (6), 917922. reinforcement. Cement and Concrete Research 32 (7),
Astm, 2003. Standard test method for resistance of concrete 10611066.
to rapid freezing and thawing. ASTM International. Senbu & Kamada, Year. Mechanism and evaluation method
Avici, 2007. A kind of corrosion-proof strain gage (in of frost deterioration of cellular concrete. In: Proceedings
chinese). China. of the Durability of Building Materials and Components,
Benjamin, G. & Jussara, T., 2007. Durability of an ultrahigh- Brighton, UK, pp. 241241.
performance concrete. Journal of Materials in Civil Wei, S., Mei, Z.Y., Dong, Y.H. & Ru, M., 1999. Damage
Engineering 19 (10), 848854. and damage resistance of high strength concrete under
Gregor, T., Franci, K. & Goran, T., 2009. Prediction of con- the action of load and freeze-thaw cycles. Cement and
crete strength using ultrasonic pulse velocity and artificial Concrete Research 29 (9), 15191523.
neural networks. Ultrasonics 49 (1), 5360. Yixia, Z., Menashi, C. & William, D., 1994. Effect of exter-
Guangpu, T., 2006. Research on durability evalution meth- nal loads on the frost-resistant properties of mortar with
ods of concrete structures under freeze-thaw conditions and without silica fume. ACI Materials Journal 91 (6),
(in chinese). Tsinghua University. 591601.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Ultrafine glass fiber vacuum insulation panel for building insulation

F.E. Boafo, Z.F. Chen, W.P. Wu, Q. Chen & B.B. Li

College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Nanjing, P.R. China

J.M. Zhou
Suzhou VIP New Material Co. Ltd, Suzhou, P.R. China

ABSTRACT: Thermal insulation of buildings has become a worldwide concern, to improve energy usage and
lessen heat losses. One of the most promising thermal insulation elements for both new and renovation buildings
is Vacuum Insulation Panel (VIP). VIPs offer very thin insulation thickness hence increased indoor space and
optimized land use, very low thermal conductivity, low effective weight, among others, which are far above
conventional insulation. Important properties, performance, as well as major challenges of VIPs as building
materials have been studied. Mitigation against mechanical stress prior to and during installation and providing
inner drying against condensation, have been discussed.

Keywords: Glass fiber, vacuum insulation panel, building retrofit, thermal insulation


The energy consumption in buildings has over the past

decades increased and in some countries, it reaches
almost 40% of the total energy use. Quite naturally, this
has prompted numerous efforts aimed at minimizing
energy losses in buildings and thus the use of highly
efficient insulations. Heat losses can be reduced by
lowering the heat transfer coefficient of building fab-
ric by applying insulation. Vacuum insulation panel
(VIP) is an energy saving and environmentally friendly
thermal insulation element that has been recently intro-
duced into the building industry. A VIP is a composite Figure 1. Section of VIP.
composed of a porous core material, enclosed in a
vacuum tight barrier envelope, and a getter and/or
desiccant. Generally, core materials include fibers, Mukhopadhyaya et al. 2011). A thermal improve-
foams and powders; with effective thermal conduc- ment of over 95% was realized by adding insulation
tivities of 0.0010.003 W/m K, 0.0030.007 W/m K boards containing 40mm thick VIPs; applied to a con-
and 0.0030.010 W/m K respectively (Kwon et al. crete wall (Nussbaumer et al. 2006). The construction
2010, Binz et al. 2005). of VIP is based on the physics that the absence or
Implemented building applications of VIP include reduction of gaseous pressure inside a porous material
installation on walls, floors and roofs, as well as increases its thermal insulation potential.
components of doors, windows and ceiling fittings
(Maclean et al. 2011, Glover & Rosen 2011, Binz
et al 2005). In addition to its low thermal conductiv- 2 VIP COMPONENTS AND PROPERTIES
ity, low effective weight and limited thickness, VIP
has 5-10 times higher thermal resistivity for heat The main components of VIP are an inner core mate-
flows perpendicular to the main faces compared to rial, metalized barrier envelope, and getter or desiccant
conventional insulation such as expanded polystyrene (Fig. 1). In this paper, the core material was ultrafine
foam, polyurethane foam and other gas filled pan- glass fiber while the barrier envelope was a 5-layered
els (Simmler & Brunner 2005, Alam et al. 2011, polymeric metalized envelope.

Figure 3. Cross section of barrier envelope.

Suitability of a material as an envelope film primar-

ily depends on the materials permeability to gas and
Figure 2. SEM micrograph of glass fiber core. water vapor. Additionally, a low thermal conductive
material is desirable.

2.1 VIP core material 2.3 Getter and desiccant

The glass fiber core material provides mechanical By inserting getters and desiccants in the core mate-
strength to support the pressure created on the sur- rial, residual gases and water vapor can be absorbed so
face of the envelope, especially when the core has as to keep the vacuum state of VIPs. These additives
been vacuum compressed. Again, the core provides whether tablet or powdery form, increase the service
the medium for thermal insulation. Ideally, a nano- life of VIP by preventing increases in thermal con-
structured core material combined with vacuum can ductivity. Getter sorption systems such as Ba-Li and
reduce gaseous conductivity at atmospheric condi- Ti-Zr-V have been synthesized (Xiaobo et al. 2011).
tions. That is, it must have an open or porous internal
structure, rendering small points of contact between
the structures, which minimizes heat transfer by con- 3 EXPERIMENTAL CYCLE
duction and radiation. The optimal shape is cylindrical
for glass fibers as shown in Figure 2. The VIPs were manufactured and provided by Suzhou
VIP New Material Company Limited., Suzhou
China. The core material was prepared by wet
2.2 VIP barrier envelope centrifugal-spinneret-blow process. The parameter
which affected the fiber diameter was service life of
A broad diversity of materials exists to be used as bar- centrifugal pan, fitted by the following equation:
rier envelope, ranging from single layer polymer films
to solid metal enclosures. Metal sheets would have
been a preferred material to create an impermeable
envelope; however it would yield immense heat loss where d is glass fiber diameter and is the service life
or thermal bridge at the edges of the pane, unless very of centrifugal pan. The mean fiber diameter and length
large panels were used. Conversely, polymer based of glass fiber were 10 m and 1012 mm, respec-
multilayer films create barrier films with reasonably tively. The glass fibers was then mixed with water
good barrier properties and relatively small thermal to form slurry, molded into exact thickness of 5 mm,
bridges. The barrier protects the core form mechan- dried at 300 C for about 20 minutes, and then molded
ical rubbing, abrasion, agitations, and any possible into exact size of 300300 mm2 . Metalized envelopes
effects of gas and moisture penetrations. The metal- were prepared by heat lamination and poly urethane
ized enveloped used in this paper can be categorized glue was applied in between the layers. The dried
into three distinct layers, namely: inner sealing layer of core materials were bagged in four fold in each enve-
polyethylene film; mid barrier layers of polyethylene lope and vacuum compressed to 0.1 Pa to form thermal
terephthelate, nylon and, aluminium foil; and an outer efficient vacuum insulation panel. The core materials
layer of glass fiber textile. The inner sealing layer, seals of deteriorated VIPs are recycled.
the core material at the flanges of the envelope bag by The thermal conductivity and resistance, as well as
thermal welding between two hot bars under pressure. density of VIPs were measured using Netzsch HFM
Three film metalized mid barrier layer obstructs mois- 436, and shown in Table 1. For the surface of the
ture and gas conduction. The outer glass fiber textile samples perpendicular to the heat flux direction, the
layer is used as a protective barrier against mechanical thermal conductivity of the sample is T calculated
rubbing and stress. It also serves as an anti-burning based on Fourier transfer formula:
material at high temperature. Figure 3 shows the cross
sectional view of the barrier envelope.

Table 1. Properties of VIP.

Thermal Thermal
conductivity resistivity Density
Parameter (W/m K) (m2 K/W) (kgm3 )

VIP 1 0.0043 1.8739 377

VIP 2 0.0043 2.2126 368
VIP 3 0.0045 1.8558 375
VIP 4 0.0047 1.6074 404
VIP 5 0.0046 1.7392 382

Figure 5. Cross section of wall retrofit.

The insulation panel was well protected in the

retrofit. Rill guttered mortar ensured minimum mois-
ture was in contact with the insulation. The gutters
also allowed vapor to move in either direction which
is important in order to maintain inward drying of the
insulated wall, as well as minimize adverse conden-
sation effects. In addition to protecting the insulation
panel from alkali attack, the fiberglass cloth or glass
felt also acts as a joiner material between the two mor-
tar layers; hence minimizing the area of thermal bridge.
Yet again, the felt impacted reinforcement strength
especially to the finishing mortar layer. A hole is pro-
vided for anchorage with mortar in cases where the
wall to be insulated is above 2 m.
1- Fixed mortar layer with rills of gutters
3.1.1 Installation concerns
2- Vacuum insulation panel
The in-service performance of VIP depends not only
3- Hole for anchorage
on the properties of the panels but the method or
4- Swiping plaster layer
manner in which they are installed. Major concerns
5- Alkali resistant fiberglass cloth or glass felt
include protecting the panels during installation and
6- External plaster layer
service form mechanical rubbing and condensation.
7- Wall aesthetic finishes
Prior to installation, protective packaging and pre-
fabricated assemblies protecting the VIPs during
Figure 4. Macrograph of wall retrofit. transportation are favorable. Mechanical rubbing
where Q is the centre-of-panel heat flow, d is sample VIPs are prone to mechanical damage when subjected
thickness, A is surface area of sample perpendicular to harsh handling and transportation conditions prior
to the heat flux direction, Th is the hot plate tempera- to installation. Mechanical rubbing can also occur due
ture, Tc is the cold plate temperature, and  is the heat to thermal expansion and contraction in response to
transmission coefficient of a sample. The schematic changes in the ambient outdoor temperature, and due
diagram and working parameters of Netzsch instru- to building shifting. Appropriate design of VIP enve-
mentation was reported elsewhere (Wu et al. 2012). lope and or adjacent material foam or glass wool in a
The evaluated thermal conductivity for thermal insu- retrofit can mitigate mechanical rubbing. Given this
lation materials is a key index, which can be used vulnerability, suitable material decisions should be
to evaluate the thermal insulation performance of the factored into VIP installation designs.
insulation materials. Condensation
Condensation is the result of moisture built up in an
insulated wall. It can be said that relative humidity
3.1 Installation of VIP
on both inside and outside of the insulation panel
VIP was successfully installed on an existing vertical will be very close to the relative humidity of the
wall. The constructed retrofit consisted of 8 mm rill immediate surroundings. The main source of mois-
mortar (mortar with rills of gutters), insulation, glass ture will most probably be rain water. Moisture built
felt and an outer mortar plaster. Sectional macrograph up in an insulated assembly will deteriorate the core
and cross sectional diagram of the retrofitted wall are material. Thermal conductivity will increase sporadi-
shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5 respectively. cally, decreasing the service life of the VIP. The key

to minimizing condensation is allowing vapor to move 5 PERFORMANCE ADVANTAGES
in the assembly in either direction, creating an inward
drying mode (Gudmundsson 2011). 5.1 Advantages of ultrafine glass fiber core
material Aging and durability
The quality of manufacturing processes, determine the Porosity: the porosity ratio and pore size diameter of
properties of VIP. At present, the production failure ultrafine glass fiber core material is about 92%98%
rate for high quality products is presumably well below and 1519 m, respectively. Hence, volume to weight
one percent. Also, the rate of change of thermal con- ratio of glass fiber core materials is smaller than that
ductivity as a function of variation in gas and water of conventional core materials. Excellent performance
vapor (two basic aging factors) inside the core mate- of the core material is attributed to the fiber diameter
rial is employed to predict the useful service life of VIP. and homogeneity by the wet processing method.
Gas pressure rise inside a VIP is fitted by Fouriers law High purification rate: purification rate can be as high
of heat conduction equation as follows: as 99%. The few impurity inclusions subside and
are removed.
Easy to mold: glass fiber core material, prepared by
wet method is easy to cut and mold.
Environmentally friendly: production of glass fiber
where for a gas i, Ji is gas flux through matter core materials is non toxic. No harmful gas(es) is
(mol/m2 s), Dij is diffusion coefficient in matter released during short or long term usage. The glass
(m2 /s), ci is gas concentration (mol/m3 ) and x is the core material is also recyclable.
position (m). Low cost raw materials: as compared to the starting
Whereas water vapor permeation can easily be material of some conventional insulation panels,
measured just by weighing, various methods have the raw materials of ultrafine glass fibers are cheap
been used for measuring internal pressure. Simmer minerals such as waste glass, kaolin, quartz and
et al. used a depressurization method (Simmler & boric acid. Waste glass fibers are also inclusive.
Brunner 2005). Other researchers used manometric Non flammable: glass fibers are not flammable
and electrochemical methods (Binz et al. 2005). according to French Standard NF P92-510, which
can be compared to no flammable label A1
conforming with the new European classification
4 PHYSICS OF HEAT TRANSFER norms EN 13501-1 (Baetens et al. 2010).

In porous and cellular materials, heat is transferred

through four distinct mechanisms: convection (c ), 5.2 Advantages of ultrafine glass fiber vacuum
solid conduction (s ), gas conduction (g ), and radia- insulation panel
tion (r ). Solid conduction occurs in the core material, Limited thickness: conventional insulation such as
that is, heat transfer through contact of core mate- expanded polystyrene requires a thickness of about
rial constituent particles. Its magnitude depends on 45 times larger than vacuum insulation panel. VIP
the density, external pressure on core and material therefore offers increased indoor space and optimum
structure. Gas conduction is heat transfer due to the use of land.
interaction between molecules in a gas. To prevent gas High thermal resistance or very low thermal con-
conduction, the mean free path of the gas molecules ductivity: owing to their high compressibility, glass
has to be longer than the pore size of the core mate- fiber core materials can be pressurized in vacuum to
rial. In such a material, the probability of a moving 0.1 Pa; suppressing gaseous conductivity to a negligi-
molecule striking the solid part of the material is ble level. Equation 5 reduces to:
larger than hitting another gas molecule. Radiation is
thermal energy transmitted by electromagnetic radia-
tion caused by temperature difference between bodies.
Convection occurs due to movement of moist air,
In effect, thermal conductivity decreases whiles
transferring thermal energy in the process. The equiv-
thermal resistance increases.
alent overall thermal conductivity (e ) is the sum
Aesthetic effect: the attractive surface of the barrier
of the four distinct modes:
envelope adds magnificence to the retrofit.

At ambient pressure, in porous silica materials, Currently, applications of VIP in building is pio-
convection is nonexistent. Equation (4) can therefore neered by Switzerland, Germany, Canada and China,
be reduced to: where most established institutions and laborato-
ries focus primarily on aging mechanisms, service
life, and alternative less costly thermal insulations.

It is important that such knowledge acquired through Baetens, R., Jelle, B. P., Thue, J. V., Tenpierik, M. J., Grynning,
research is properly documented and developed into S., Uvslokk, S. & Gustavsen, A., 2010. Energy and
VIPs. Buildings, Vol. 42 (2010), pp. 147172.
Aside the need for advanced materials, concepts and Glover, M. W. B. and Rosen, M. T., 2011. VIP system retrofits
of heritage buildings, IVIS 2011: 10th International
computer models experimented under realistic climate Vacuum Insulation Symposium, Canada.
conditions are required. All these will culminate to Gudmundsson, K. 2011. Heat and wall moisture conditions
earn and build on confidence of building constructors, in walls with VIP, IVIS 2011: 10th International Vacuum
architects, owners and other stake holders in vacuum Insulation Symposium, Canada.
insulation panels. Kwon, J.S., Jang, C.H., Jung, H. & Song, T.H., 2010.
Furthermore, quality assurance and proper decla- Vacuum maintenance in vacuum insulation panels exem-
ration of proven product performance data is very plified with staggered beam VIP. Energy and Buildings 42
important to all parties involved. Internationally stan- 590597.
dardized factory production controls and building Li, B., Chen, Z., Qiu, J., Chen, ZF. & Zhou, J.,
2012. Effect of service time of centrifugal pan on
application test methods are necessary. glass wool, Materials and Manufacturing Processes
Maclean, D., Korn, J. & Mukhopadhyaya, P., 2011. VIPs
7 CONCLUSIONS arrive in Northern Canada: Institutional building pilot
retrofit in Yukon, IVIS 2011: 10th International Vacuum
VIP is a highly efficient thermal insulation element Insulation Symposium, Canada.
which offers extremely slim thickness insulation in Mukhopadhyaya, P., Kumaran, K., Ping, F. & Normandin,
buildings as compared to conventional thermal insu- N., 2011. Use of Vacuum Insulation Panel in Building
lation materials. Envelope Construction: Advantages and Challenges,
National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada.
Carefully designed and efficient impermeable met- Nussbaumer, T., Wakili, G. & Tanner, Ch., 2006. Experimen-
alized barrier envelopes which minimize thermal tal and numerical investigation of the thermal performance
bridges and resistant to chemical attack is useful for of a protected vacuum insulation system applied to a
long term building applications. concrete wall. Applied Energy 83 841855.
An optimum service life of several decades can be Simmler, H. & Brunner, S., 2005. Vacuum insulation pan-
achieved with suitable installation system, combin- els for building application; Basic properties, aging
ing anti-stress techniques and inner drying to mitigate mechanisms and service life. Energy and Buildings 37
mechanical rubbing and condensation respectively. 11221131.
Wu, WP., Chen, ZF., Zhou, J. & Cheng, X., 2012. Effect
of Envelope Films on Thermal Properties of Vacuum
Insulation Panels with Glass Fiber, Advanced Materials
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Research 415417, 859864.
Xiaobo, D., Yimin, G., Chonggao, B. & Zhongan Ch., 2011.
The authors would want to thank the financial sup- On getters for Vacuum Insulation Panels, IVIS 2011: 10th
port of sixth major peak achievement from Jiangsu International Vacuum Insulation Symposium, Canada.
Province of China (NO 2011-JZ-016). Binz, A., Moosmann, A., Simmler, H., Ghazi, K.,
Bundi, R., Schwab, H., Heinemann, U., Cauberg, H.,
Tenpierik, M., Johannesson, G., Thorsell, T., Erb, M. &
REFERENCES Nussbaumer, B., 2005. Vacuum Insulation Panels-Study
onVIP-components and Panels for Service Life Prediction
Alam, M., Singh, H. & Limbachiya, M. C., 2011. Vac- of VIP in Building Applications, Subtask B, Report High
uum Insulation Panels (VIPs) for building construction Performance Thermal Insulation-IEA/ECBCS Annex 39.
industry A review of the contemporary developments
and future directions. Applied Energy 88-11 35923602.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Carbon nanotube coatings for building EMI shielding

Ping Li, Jin Lin, Ce Huang Poo, Aik Seng Low & Xi Jiang Yin
Advance Materials Technology Centre, Singapore Polytechnic, Singapore

Guat Choon Ong

School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Singapore Polytechnic, Singapore

ABSTRACT: Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding coatings can be applied over the interiors and
exteriors of buildings and installations to prevent both incoming and outgoing EMI. This paper investigates the
shielding effectiveness (SE) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coating on concrete panels. The reflectance loss and
SE of CNTs coating on concrete panels were measured. The CNTs coating has achieved a SE of more than 25 dB
(>99.68%) in the frequency range of 30 MHz to 5 GHz. The shielding mechanism was mainly absorption and
multiple reflections.

Keywords: damage Electromagnetic interface shielding; Building EMI shielding; Shielding effectiveness;
Absorbing loss; Nanocomposite

1 INTRODUCTION Z.W. Xu & F.Z. Fang 2009). These coatings can

be conveniently applied over the interiors and exte-
The need for electromagnetic interference (EMI) riors of buildings and installations to prevent both
shielding has evolved with tremendous growth of IT incoming and outgoing EMI. They also overcome the
and wireless products used in homes and workplaces drawbacks of conventional EMI shielding materials.
(Lelan H. Hemming 1992). EMI refers to the unwanted In this study, CNTs coating has been prepared and
disturbance caused by electromagnetic conduction and applied to concrete panels. The shielding effectiveness
radiation emitted from electronic equipment. Many (SE), absorbance and reflectance loss of CNTs coat-
electronic and IT products are sources of EMI which ing have been measured and the shielding function and
is known to cause malfunctions to medical, military mechanism have been discussed.
and aircraft systems, interferences to telecommunica-
tions, leakage of sensitive business information as well
as adverse health issues. Therefore, EMI is a serious 2 EXPERIMENTAL
problem of this electronic era. International directives
and global technical standards have been issued to 2.1 Materials and CNTs coating preparation
enforce the regulation of EMI emission. Today, shield-
ing against EMI is a common practice in governments, In this study, the CNTs coating was prepared using
militaries, private industries, medical facilities and CNTs, acrylic resin, solvent and other additives. The
R&D laboratories. diameter of CNTs was 8-10 nm and its length was
Conventional EMI shielding practices for build- 50 m. Acrylic resin was used as the coating matrix.
ings and installations make use of various metals and Alcohol was used as a solvent to disperse CNTs in the
alloys in the form of plates, foils, mesh and films. coating matrix. The liquor composite was prepared in
They are generally heavy and rigid. They are also dif- a mechanical mixer at 200 rpm to disperse CNTs to
ficult and expensive to install and maintain. They are polymer matrix completely at ambient condition.
prone to EMI leakages at joints, edges and overlaps. In The liquor CNTs coating was applied, layer by
addition, the use of different metals may result in dif- layer, onto concrete panels until a thickness of 1.6 mm
ferential corrosion and oxidation under hot and humid was reached. Each layer was dried under ambient
weather and marine atmosphere. Hence, there is a condition.
need to develop novel approaches to provide EMI pro-
tection that can be conveniently and cost-effectively
2.2 EMI shielding effectiveness measurements
applied to the surfaces of buildings and installations.
One of the approaches developed is the use of EMI The electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (SE) of
shielding coatings (A. Fletcher & M.C. Gupta 2010, the CNTs coating was evaluated according to ASTM

Figure 1. Planar material fixture measurement seup.

Figure 3. FESEM image of CNTs (x 60,000).

multiple reflections, gated-reflection-line (GRL) was

used to cut the signal with longer delay time from
that through sample. The noise from environment and
leakage power could be effectively removed. The noise
level could be obtained from measurement of the trans-
mission coefficient of a piece of metal plate, which is
supposed to perfectly isolate transmitter from receiver
[5]. The SE of samples data can be calculated from the
absolute value of transmission coefficient with unit
in dB.
The reliable measurement of EMI shielding effec-
Figure 2. Free Space Measurement setup. tiveness (SE) at the broad frequency range for
newly developed materials is crucial to determine
their properties and potential applications. Shield-
D493599 (ASTM Standard Designation 1999). The ing Effectiveness (SE) of coating developed can be
set-up consisted of a planar sample fixture with its measured. SE is in dB; an SE of 10 dB means 90%
input and output connected to a vector network ana- of EMI energy is blocked and 20 dB means 99% of
lyzer (VNA). The planar material sample fixture EMI energy is blocked.
was an enlarged coaxial transmission line with spe-
cial taper sections and notched matching grooves
designed to maintain a characteristic impedance of 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
50 throughout the entire length of the fixture. The
set-up produced a frequency of at least 30 MHz to 3.1 Characterization of CNTs
1.5 GHz to obtain a reliable measurement. The set-up
was calibrated and the measurement frequency was CNTs were characterized using a field emission scan-
increased to 5 GHz. The VNA was able to measure, ning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission
not only direct SE, but also determine the reflection electron microscope (TEM). Figure 3 illustrates a rep-
effects. The measurement setup for EMI shielding resentative FESEM image of the morphology of CNTs
effectiveness measurement is illustrated in Fig. 1. used. The FE-SEM (60,000x) image of morphology
of CNTs (Ref Fig. 3) shows that CNTs morphology
is of tubular shape with small diameter (D) and long
2.3 Free-space measurement length (L).
Free-space setup includes a pair of broadband trans- Figure 4 illustrated a representative TEM image of
mitting antenna and receiving antenna with working the morphology of CNT used. The TEM (400,000x)
frequency from 4 GHz to 20 GHz. They are connected image (Ref: Fig. 4) shows that CNTS has inner diame-
to vector network analyzer (VNA) by a pair of phase- ter 810 nm with 20 layers of multiwall configuration.
stable cable. The measurement setup for EMI shielding
effectiveness measurement is illustrated in Fig. 2.
3.2 Planar material fixture EMI shielding
The distance from antennas to sample is 50 cm. A
hole with diameter of 16 cm is cut in the center of
the sample holder. The size of sample is larger than According to ASTM D4935, SE is defined as the ratio
the hole, the diffraction from the edge of sample can of power received with the load specimen in place
be minimized effectively by the absorber. As for the (Pl) and with the reference specimen in place (Pr).

Figure 6. Shielding effectiveness (SE) for 9 wt. % CNTs
coating with thickness 1.60 mm.

Figure 4. TEM image of CNTs (x 400,000).

Figure 7. Reflection of CNT based coating using Free Space

Measurement method.

Figure 5. Reflection loss for 9 wt. % CNTs coating with

thickness 1.60 mm.

The transmission loss or SE of a planner material is

obtained from equation (1) (S. Y. Yang & K. Lozano

where SE is in dB; an SE of 10 dB means 90% of signal

is blocked and 20 dB means 99% of signal is blocked.
There are three mechanisms for EMI shielding: reflec- Figure 8. Shielding effectiveness of CNT based coating
tion (R), absorption (A) and multiple reflections (M) using Free Space Measurement method.
(M. H. Al-saleh & U. Sundararaj 2009). The SE mea-
surement was conducted using planar material method
in a frequency range from 30 MHz to 5 GHz. The
CNTs coating was measured and the results of SE,
3.3 Free-space measurement results
absorbance and reflectance are illustrated in Figures 5
and 6. The reflection, absorption and shielding effectiveness
The result (Figure 5) shows that the reflection loss in 4 GHz20 GHz were analysed according to Free
of the concrete panel with and without CNTs coat- Space Measurement of nano-carbon based coating as
ing were 3-10 dB. From Figure 6, the concrete with illustrated in Figure 7 and 8 respectively.
1.60 mm of CNTs coating has achieved more than The result (Figure 7) shows that the reflection loss
25 dB (99.68%) of SE in the frequency range 30 MHz of the concrete panel with and without CNTs coat-
to 5 GHz. The blank concrete panel has 35 dB of SE. ing were 12 dB. From Figure 8, the concrete with
The reflection loss has made less than 10 dB of contri- 1.60 mm of CNTs coating has achieved 2530 dB
bution to SE. The absorbance and multiple reflections (99.6899.9%) of SE in the frequency range 3 to
have made more than 15 dB of contribution to SE. 18 GHz.

4 DISCUSSIONS experimental results show that the CNTs coating has
achieved more than 25 dB (99.68%) of EMI SE. The
The reflection requires the mobile charge carriers results also demonstrate that the shielding mechanism
(electrons or holes) which interact with the electro- of CNTs coating is mainly EMI absorption and multi-
magnetic radiation. Thus the reflection tends to be ple reflections. The high SE of CNTs coating achieved
electrically conducting (S.Y.Yang & K. Lozano 2005). in this study is attributed to a high aspect ratio (>3000)
The SE of metal materials used in conventional EMI as well as a large surface and interface areas within the
shielding materials may be attributed by the mobile coating. CNTs coating shows good potential to be used
charge carriers. The absorption requires electric and/or for building and installing EMI shielding.
magnetic dipoles which interact with the electromag-
netic fields. The absorption tends to have high dielec-
tric constants or magnetic permeability and increases ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
with increasing frequency.
CNTs have electric and/or magnetic dipoles which The research has been supported by Ministry
absorb electromagnetic radiation. The multiple reflec- of Education (MOE) of Singapore under project
tions require a large surface or interface area and MOE2010-IF-1-018.
CNTs have large surface and interface areas. In addi-
tion, the EMI SE increases with increasing filler
content and aspect ratio of the filler (L. Vovchenko & REFERENCES
Y. Perets, P.C, in press, Ma & Naveed A 2010). Aspect
ratio is defined as the ratio of length to the diame- A. Fletcher, et al. 2010. Elastomer foam nanocomposites for
electromagnetic dissipation and shielding applications.
ter of the conductive fillers. CNTs have a high aspect
Composite Science and Technology, 70: 935958.
ratio and are able to form interconnected conduc- ASTM Standard Designation: D 4935-99. 1999. American
tive networks in the matrix more easily. The shielding Standard Test Method for Measuring The Electromagnetic
mechanism of CNTs coating in this study was found Shielding Effectiveness of Planar Materials.
to be mainly absorption and multiple reflections. Lelan H. Hemming. 1992. Architectural Electromagnetic
The use of CNTs coatings provides an attractive Shielding Handbook. New York: New York: Institute of
way to prevent both incoming and outgoing EMI Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
and overcome the drawbacks of conventional EMI L. Vovchenko, et al. 2012. Shielding coatings based on
shielding materials. Traditional metal based shield- carbonpolymer composites. Surface and Coating Tech-
nology. In press.
ing materials tend to corrode under hot and humid
M. H. Al-saleh et al. 2009. A review of vapor grown carbon
weather as well as marine atmosphere. Furthermore, nanofiber_polymer conductive composites. Carbon. 47:
metal plate and sheet shielding materials are heavy 222.
and rigid. EMI may leak at joints, edges and over- P.C. Ma, et al. 2010. Dispersion and functionalization of
laps. The use of CNTs coating can overcome these carbon nanotubes for polymer-based nanocomposites:
drawbacks. CNTs coatings are light weight and have A review. 2010. Composites, Part A, 13451367.
good resistance to corrosion. They can be applied to S. Y. Yang, et al. 2005. Electromagnetic interference shield-
any shapes of building surfaces and joints, edges and ing effectiveness of carbon nanofiber/LCP composites.
overlaps without EMI leakages. Composites Part A, 36: 691697.
Z.W. Xu, et al. 2009. Fabrication of carbon nanotube probes in
atomic force microscopy. Advanced Materials Research.
7678: 497501.

The shielding effectiveness and reflection loss of

CNTs coating on concrete have been investigated. The

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Experimental study on noise reduction characteristics of polymer

modified asphalt mixture

Lan Wang, Yong ming Xing & Liqing Pan

College of Civil Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Huhhot, China
College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Huhhot, China

ABSTRACT: The standing wave tube experiment is carried out for the AC-16I grading specimens of common
asphalt mixture (CAM) crumb rubber modified asphalt mixture (CRMAM) and SBS modified asphalt mixture
(SMAM) with 4% porosity. The absorption sound coefficient is measured at 1/3 multiples frequency to the
3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm specimens. The results show that the absorption coefficient increase with the thickness
increasing of specimen, and the sound absorption effect of crumb rubber modified asphalt mixture is the best,
the sccond is SBS modified asphalt mixture. In the meantime, the free falling bounce test for three kinds of
asphalt mixture plate specimens is carried out by damped vibration testing instrument. It is observed that, in
comparison with SBS modified asphalt mixture and common asphalt mixture, crumb rubber modified asphalt
mixture specimen vertical vibration damping ratio attenuation D and loss factor 1/Q becomes 2.3 and 3.1 times
as great respectively, and amplitude decays more faster. Therefore, crumb rubber modified asphalt mixture has
better damping characteristic and sound insulation fall function. Consequently the field test of noise is conducted,
it is paved that crumb rubber modified asphalt mixture has better characteristics of sound absorption.

Keywords: high polymer modified asphalt; noise reduction property; damping; absorption sound coefficient

1 INTRODUCTION mechanism. The molecular weight of polymer mate-

rial is big, and the molecular chain is long, which may
With the development of the auto industry and the pros- result in crimps and tangles. In the action of energy
perity of the transportation, more attention should be (stress or vibration), molecular chain change confor-
paid to the noise of the highway traffic. Highway traf- mation continually, cause sports slipping and solution
fic noise is mainly caused by the drive system and the bound, which lead to the internal friction, then the
friction between tires and road. At present, many coun- energy turn into heat energy and lost. If the stress or
tries have paid enough attention to deal with noise, and vibration disappears, macromolecular will return to its
low noise pavement appeared correspondingly. Gener- former state some or all. Viscoelasticity is not the only
ally low noise pavement structure use asphalt concrete mechanism of damping effect (Wang He-ping et al.
which have small size, large depth of the structure and 2002), damping effect also exist in dislocation, phase
porous structure. But in north area, porous asphalt mix- boundary, intergranular, all kinds of interface and so
ture will cause some problems because of the cold on. It is because when the energy effect, defects sec-
and sandstorm climate, such as frost heave and sand- tions will move slightly, and slight slippage will also
burying, so the application is limited. The basic ways happen on defects surface and other parts, so part of
to reduce the noise include sound absorption, sound energy is lost (lv dong 2006).
insulation and damping suspension, among which the
absorption and damping suspension are used widely 3 TESTING OF ACOUSTICS
(Li si-yuan & yang wei 2004). The crumb rubber mod- PERFORMANCESTANDING
ified asphalt and the SBS modified asphalt belong to WAVE TUBE METHOD
polymer modified asphalt, especially the crumb rubber
modified asphalt pavement, the existence of the rub- The acoustics performance is related with the den-
ber result in better characteristics of damping sound sity, modulus and mechanical properties (Pu wen-jing
absorption(Wang Lan et al. 2009). 2010). The standing wave tube experiment is carried
out for the AC-16I grading specimens of common
2 THE MECHANISM OF DAMPING SOUND asphalt mixture, crumb rubber modified asphalt mix-
ABSORPTION ture and SBS modified asphalt mixture with 4%
porosity. The absorption sound coefficient is mea-
The noise reduction of polymer modified asphalt sured to the 30 mm, 40 mm and 50 mm specimens,
is mainly based on damping effect of viscoelastic and the diameter is 100 mm. Standing wave is one

Table 1. Experimental date of Standing wave tube.

Sound absorption Frequency (HZ)

Group 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000

30 mm CAM 0.020 0.029 0.035 0.044 0.069 0.081 0.102 0.137 0.158 0.180 0.171
40 mm CAM 0.028 0.048 0.063 0.086 0.094 0.137 0.166 0.182 0.171 0.181 0.173
50 mm CAM 0.030 0.072 0.098 0.117 0.202 0.247 0.188 0.190 0.182 0.184 0.189
30 mm CRMAM 0.051 0.070 0.084 0.092 0.129 0.192 0.353 0.385 0.401 0.321 0.263
40 mm CRMAM 0.061 0.099 0.117 0.133 0.244 0.311 0.383 0.420 0.391 0.231 0.202
50 mm CRMAM 0.079 0.099 0.137 0.143 0.321 0.456 0.411 0.299 0.234 0.221 0.213
30 mm SMAM 0.031 0.053 0.042 0.069 0.099 0.106 0.174 0.231 0.259 0.243 0.209
40 mm SMAM 0.040 0.075 0.081 0.108 0.134 0.177 0.210 0.225 0.214 0.163 0.169
50 mm SMAM 0.035 0.078 0.109 0.128 0.278 0.267 0.199 0.194 0.179 0.186 0.193

of the characteristics of the sound wave transmit-

ting, which is added up from an incident sine plane
wave under normal incidence and an wave reflected
from the specimen (Wu shi-sheng 2005, GBJ88-85).
In order to learn the performance of sound absorption,
a important parametersthe absorption coefficient
is introduced, the expression is as follows (Hou
Lai-guang et al. 2006):

0 the absorption coefficient; L the difference

between maximum value of sound pressure Pmax and
minimal value of sound pressure Pmin. Unit is dB. Figure 1. Sound absorption coefficient of 3 cm.
The test method is standing wave tube experi-
ment, the connection of standing wave tube is: sig-
nal generatorpower amplifiertest tubespectrum
analyzer. Pmax and Pmin can be obtained by moving
the car, so L = Pmax Pmin, then put L into the
formula and calculate the absorption coefficient. The
lager absorption coefficient is, the better characteris-
tics of sound absorption is.

3.1 The results of test

The standing wave tube experiment is measured at 1
/3multiples frequency, the frequency of signal gener-
ator and the frequency of spectrum analyzer are same,
get 11 frequency altogether. The sound absorption
coefficient of three kinds of asphalt mixture specimens
Figure 2. Sound absorption coefficient of 4 cm.
are showed in Table 1.

crumb rubber modified asphalt mixture is outstand-

3.2 The influence of the specimens thickness
ing in the aspect of viscoelastic damping effect, as
The sound absorption characteristics curves of differ- a result, more sound energy turn into heat and lost.
ent thickness of the three specimens are showed in Whats more, from the three figures, we know that the
figure 1figure 3, from which we can draw the con- curves of different thickness specimens under differ-
clusion that the sound absorption coefficient of crumb ent frequency have a peak, which shows that different
rubber modified asphalt mixture specimens are the thickness specimens under different frequency result
biggest, followed by SBS modified asphalt mixture in better characteristics of sound absorption. The peak
specimens (same thickness). So crumb rubber modi- of sound absorption coefficient of 3 cm specimens
fied asphalt mixture has better characteristics of sound is between 1200 Hz and 1600 Hz, the peak of sound
absorption, this is because compared to SBS modi- absorption coefficient of 4 cm specimens is about
fied asphalt mixture and common asphalt mixture, the 1000 Hz, the peak of sound absorption coefficient of

Table 2. Free falling bounce tests data of tire/specimen


Specimen Damping ratio D Loss factor 1/Q

CRMAM specimen 3.785 7.621

SMAM specimen 1.677 3.326
CAM specimen 1.215 2.429

test is made on three kinds of specimens respectively

by using tire (Z. M. Wang & W. M. Lu 1999). Meridian
Figure 3. Sound absorption coefficient of 5 cm. 195/60R14 back tire is selected, and the tires pressure
is 250 KPa. Acceleration sensor is fixed on the spec-
imen using asphalt respectively, and tire falls freely
and vertically from the distance of 3cm to specimen.
Acceleration signal in vibration attenuation process is
picked up by acceleration sensor fixed on each mea-
suring point of specimen. Test results can be seen in
table 2.
From table 2, we see that the damping ratio D of
vibration subsidence and loss factor 1/Q of crumb rub-
ber modified asphalt specimen are the biggest, and the
free decay vibration amplitude is greatly attenuated,
and time for energy exhausted is the shortest. besides,
energy consumption is fast in the same time. The sec-
ond is SBS modified asphalt. This illustrates that the
Figure 4. Date of CRMAM. use of crumb rubber modified asphalt can obviously
reduce the tire vibration, thereby reducing the vibra-
tion of vehicle noise and reaching the goal of reducing
5 cm specimens is between 600 Hz and 1000 Hz. The traffic noise.
peak of frequency of the friction noise between tire
and road surface ranges from car to trucks, the peak of
car is between 800 Hz and 1800 Hz and that of trucks
is between 600 Hz and 800 Hz (Wang zuo-min & Lv
wei-min 1997).
5.1 The vehicle noise test
The sound absorption coefficient curves of the
crumb rubber modified asphalt mixture under dif- Figure 5 shows the noise contrast curve for car and cart
ferent thickness are showed in Figure 4, from which driving at different speeds in the two kinds of modi-
we can see that with thickness increases, the curve fied asphalt pavement. It can be seen, the noise of
move to low-frequency dirction slowly, improving the car and cart driving on the crumb rubber modified
sound absorption coefficient of low frequency, this asphalt pavement is less than that of SBS modi-
is because with thickness increases, the channel that fied asphalt pavement. Car driving noise on crumb
sound waves enter the pore is more long, the resis- rubber modified asphalt pavement is 4dB less than
tance also increases and more energy is lost, the that of SBS modified asphalt pavement on average;
sound absorption coefficient becomes bigger. At the Cart driving noise on crumb rubber modified asphalt
same time, we can learn that when the frequency of pavement is 3.6 dB less than that of SBS modified
crumb rubber modified asphalt specimens is more than asphalt pavement on average.
1200 Hz, it will result in poor characteristics of sound
absorption. But the frequency of car is usually under 5.2 The interior test of noise
1200 Hz, so crumb rubber modified asphalt mixture
shows better characteristics of sound absorption. Figure 6 shows the interior noise contrast curve for
car and cart driving at different speeds on two kinds
of modified asphalt pavement. We can see, the inte-
4 TESTING OF ACOUSTICS rior noise is significantly smaller than that of vehicle
PERFORMANCECHARACTERISTICS OF noise, and the interior noise of car and cart on crumb
DAMPING MATERIAL rubber modified asphalt pavement is less than that of
SBS modified asphalt pavement, but the difference
The specimens size of three kinds of mixture are all is very small. It shows low noise has more effect to
300 mm 300 mm 50 mm. The free falling bounce external environmental noise. This is because the car

Figure 5. Comparison of noise reduction of entire car
Figure 7. Comparison of noise reduction of idle speed
between CRMAM pavement and SMAM pavement.
between CRMAM pavement and SMAM pavement.

Rui et al. 2006). But the later two noise is not so obvi-
ous in car, so the noise measured value must be less.
Car driving noise on crumb rubber modified asphalt
pavement is 0.8 dB less than that of SBS modified
asphalt pavement; Cart driving noise on crumb rubber
modified asphalt pavement is 1.0 dB less than that of
SBS modified asphalt pavement.

5.3 The idle speed test of noise

Figure 7 shows the idle noise contrast curve for car and
cart driving at different speed on two kinds of mod-
ified asphalt pavement. As can be seen, the interior
noise is smaller than that of vehicle noise, and the inte-
rior noise of car and cart on crumb rubber modified
asphalt pavement is less than that of SBS modified
asphalt pavement. This is because the engine noise
decrease when the car driving idle. Car idling speed
noise on crumb rubber modified asphalt pavement is
4.7 dB less than that of SBS modified asphalt pave-
ment on average; Cart idling speed noise on crumb
rubber modified asphalt pavement is 4.1 dB less than
that of SBS modified asphalt pavement on average.

Figure 6. Comparison of noise reduction of entire car 6 CONCLUSIONS

between CRMAM pavement and SMAM pavement.
In order to understand the noise reduction characteris-
noise comes mainly from engine noise, vibration and tics of polymer modified asphalt mixture. The indoor
noise of automobile, air and body relatively high speed and field tests are conducted. The results indicate that
of aerodynamic noise caused by the campaign and the the absorption coefficient increase with the thickness
interaction between tire and road surface noise (Zhang increasing of specimen and crumb rubber modified

asphalt mixture has better damping characteristic and Pu wen-jing.Relationship study of the mechanical behavior
sound insulation fall function. of polymer dynamics and sound absorption performance
[J]. Master Dissertation. National University of Defense
Technology, 2010.10.
REFERENCES Wu shi-sheng. Low-noise asphalt pavement design and con-
struction of conservation [M]. Beijing, China Communi-
Li si-yuan, yang wei. Polymeric noise reduction composites cations Press, 2005.4.
and their applications [J]. Engineering plastics applica- GBJ88-85. Sound-absorbing coefficient of Standing wave
tion. 2004(32), 5: 7073. tube method and acoustic impedance measuring standard
Wang Lan, Tang Bao-li1, Xing Yong-ming. Experimental Hou Lai-guang etc. Analysis of influence factor of ceramic
study on sound absorption of crumb rubber modified wates sound absorbend material [J]. Journal of Ceramics,
asphalt mixture with large porosity [J], Engineering 2006, 27(1): 710.
Mechanics, 2009, 26 (S1) (181184). Wang zuo-min, Lv wei-min. Theory of low-noise asphalt
Wang He-ping; Zhang Ju-sheng; Zhang He-xin etc. Study pavement acoustic characteristics [J]. Journal of Tongji
situation of modern high sound- absorbing damping com- University, 1997, 25(4): 109110.
posites[J]. Journal of Natural Science of Heilongjiang Z. M. Wang, W. M. Lu. The acoustical character of low
University, 2002(19), 4: 106108. noise asphalt pavements [J]. Chinese Journal of Acoustics.
lv dong. The preparation of damping materials and its 1999, 18(2): 136141.
performance study [D]. Journal of Natural Science of Zhang Rui etc. Investigation and Analysis of Tunnel Noise
Heilongjiang University, Beijing University of Chemical [J]. Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and
Technology, 2006. Development, 2006, 23(10): 2931.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Influence of mineral admixtures on anti-permeability of

mixed aggregate concrete

Junfang Huo & Detian Song

School of Civil Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, China

Hui Yang
Hohhot Railway Bureau Research Institute, Hohhot, China

Weiling Li
School of Civil Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, China

Jinshuai Li
Hohhot Railway Bureau Research Institute, Hohhot, China

ABSTRACT: The compressive strength and anti-permeability of mixed aggregate concrete under the influence
of mineral admixtures only mixing fly ash, double mixing fly ash and silica fume, slag powder, limestone powder
were studied. The results show: mineral admixtures double mixing can enhance effectively the mixed aggregate
concrete compressive strength of 28 d than only mixing. But the later strength results were not positive effect,
the 56 d compressive strength under the influence of double mixing fly ash and silica fume is higher. The mineral
admixtures can improve anti-permeability of mixed aggregate concrete. Double mixing was more obvious than
only mixing. The optimal group of anti-permeability was double mixing fly ash and silica fume. Double mixing
fly ash and silica fume was one of important ways that made the high performance mixed aggregate concrete.

Keywords: Mixed aggregate; Mineral admixtures; Compressive strength; Anti-permeability

1 INTRODUCTION concrete[4] . The activator and fortifier were permeated

into fly ash concrete to improve the early strength and
The concrete structure with high strength, lightweight, durability[5] , but activator and fortifier were usually
high performance, multi-function durability and other alkaline materials, it was easy to produce alkali aggre-
higher requirements were put forward with the needs gate reaction and damage to the service life of the
of society and the rapid development of the build- concrete, so the method of improving the early strength
ing industry. The normal concrete and light weight of concrete by activator and fortifier is not wise.
aggregate concrete had a series of technical and eco- In this paper, the effect of mineral admixtures(Ad)
nomic problems that were large weight, brittle, low about only mixing fly ash (FA), double mixing fly
elastic modulus and large deformation, etc. The mixed ash and silica fume (SF), slag powder (SP), limestone
aggregate concrete was the transitional concrete based powder (LS) in the concrete was compared, the com-
on the development of normal concrete and light pressive strength of the concrete was measured, the
weight aggregate concrete, it was light weight aggre- anti-permeability of the concrete was measured by
gate instead of coarse aggregate of ordinary, and the the combined method of gradual inflating and water
volume density between 1950 kg/m3 2200 kg/m3 ,the seepage height.
strength between 40 MPa80 MPa of high strength
concrete[12] . The durability of concrete was closely
related with anti-permeability, if anti-permeability
was insufficient, some harmful liquid and gas perme-
ated into the concrete, concrete structure have been
2.1 Materials
affected. The best way to enhancing the durability of
concrete was that some cement was instead with active The ordinary aggregate used was gravel (G) with a
material[3] , but a lot of research was showed, the con- continuous grading of 5 mm25 mm, the lightweight
crete with poor early performance, low strength and aggregate used was pumice (P) with a continuous
durability cannot satisfy the requirement of engineer- grading of 5 mm25 mm, physical properties was
ing when a large number of fly ash was permeated into showed in Table 1, chemical composition was showed

Table 1. Physical properties of coarse aggregate. Table 5. Mixture proportions of mixed aggregate concrete.

Bulk Apparent Water Cylinder Crush Material of the concrete/(kg/m3 )

density density absorption pressure value Ratio/
Aggregate (kg/m3 ) (kg/m3 ) (%/h) (MPa) (%) Name Form % W/B G P OPC Ad FDN-Y S W

G 1420 2660 5.4 NPC FA 0 0.39 648 389 447 0 4 800 175
P 690 1593 16.44 2.97 39.6 CFA FA 30 0.39 648 389 313 134 4 800 175
CSF FA:SF 20:10 0.39 648 389 313 134 4 800 175
CSP FA:SP 20:10 0.39 648 389 313 134 4 800 175
CLS FA:LS 20:10 0.39 648 389 313 134 4 800 175
Table 2. Chemical composition of pumice coarse aggregate.

SiO2 / Al2 O3 / CaO/ MgO/ Fe2 O3 / Ignition loss

% % % % % %
SP, and LS were added to the mix aggregate con-
48.88 12.90 8.70 6.10 14.00 1.82 crete. Mixing proportions of concrete about C35 was
confirmed which was showed in Table 5.

Table 3. Physical properties of P.O 42.5 ordinary Portland 3 METHODS

3.1 Compressive strength test
Setting Compressive/ Flexural/
Ignition time/h MPa MPa According to the standard test method of ordinary
Density loss Fineness concrete mechanics performance, the concrete spec-
(kg/m3 ) (%) Initial Final (%) 3d 28d 3d 28d imens of 100 mm 100 mm 100 mm were used
and maintained about 28 d in standard conditions, the
3100 1.02 2:15 2:55 1.2 26.6 54.8 5.2 8.3 compressive strength was measured on hydraulic uni-
versal testing machine, the results that was multiplied
by 0.95 were the compressive strength of concrete.
Table 4. Chemical composition of raw materials.
3.2 Test of resistance to water penetration
SiO2 / Al2 O3 / Fe2 O3 / CaO/ MgO/ Na2 O/ K2 O/ SO3
Materias % % % % % % % % According to the long-term properties and durabil-
ity of the test method of ordinary concrete, test
OPC 22.06 5.13 5.25 64.37 1.06 2.03 anti-permeability specimens of the 175 mm in upper
FA 52.54 33.62 7.05 3.56 0.36 0.31 0.50 0.68 diameter, 185 mm in under diameter and 150 mm
SF 85.16 0.06 7.04 0.56 1.10
in the height were used, the specimens were main-
SP 32.5 15.3 2.55 43.56 7.85 0.89
LS 1.33 0.58 53.37
tained about 56 d in standard conditions, the anti-
permeability level of mixed aggregate concrete was
tested by method of gradual compression, a group
had six specimens; water pressure was applied from
0.1 MPa to 0.9 MP and increased 0.1 MPa in every
in Table 2. The river sand (S) with Fineness modulus of 8 h. Water seepage of end face was ascertain when
2.9, and the mud with a proportion of less than 0.4% pressure was stopped. The specimens were split on
was used. The grade 42.5 Ordinary Portland cement hydraulic test machine, the average height of water
(OPC) was used, manufactured by zhonglian cement was measured, and the permeability coefficient was
company of Inner Mongolia, Physical properties was calculated.
showed in Table 3. The fly ash of I level, the silica
fume, slag powder , and limestone powder were used in
this study, their chemical compositions were showed in 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Table 4. The Air-entraining water reducer FDN-Y used
was produced by the Beiteng engineering material 4.1 Analysis of compressive strength in the
company of Inner Mongolia, and its water-reducing influence of admixtures
rate was 16% and gas containing 1.2%. Ordinary tap
water (W) in Hohhot was used. As was shown in Figure 1, the early strength of concrete
was significantly reduced in group of only mixing
fly ash, but the increasing speed of later strength was
faster. The 56 d strength of NPC group was increased
2.2 Mixing proportions of concrete
7% than 28 d, which mainly depended on the fly ash
According to research experience previous, volume effect, secondary hydration reaction occur between
replacement rate of pumice replacing gravel was 50% SiO2 and Al2 O3 on vitreous surface and Ca(OH)2 in
which can be confirmed. Mineral admixtures FA, SF, cement hydration products, The low alkaline hydration

Table 6. The result of water pressure method.

Final Water Pressure

value(H) height(h)/ time(t)/ Anti-permeability
Number MPa mm h level(P)/

NPC 0.9 33.3 72 >P8

CFA 0.9 23.1 72 >P8
CSF 0.9 12.6 72 >P8
CSP 0.9 19.1 72 >P8
CLS 0.9 22.4 72 >P8

Figure 1. Compressive strength of mixed aggregate Table 7. Anti-permeability level of waterproof concrete.
Buried depth (m) Anti-permeability level
products were generated. The dense vitreous surface
<10 P6
was located in outer surface of fly ash, it hindered 1020 P8
the fly ash second hydration, the activity effect was 2030 P10
represented in the later[6] . 3040 P12
The early strength of double mixing groups was
improved in some degree, the order of early strength
increased was CSF group, CSP group and CLS group,
the composite mineral admixtures were added to con-
crete, the gel effect was composite in processes of of high performance concrete cannot reflect different
hydration, activity of silica fume are higher than penetration, the anti-permeability was evaluated with
the slag powder and limestone powder. In the later, permeability coefficient and water height.
the strength growth speed was equal to NPC group, the
strength of CSF group was higher than NPC group.The 4.2.1 Influence of water height on only fly ash
strength of CSP group was higher than CLS group, but mixed
they were lower than NPC group, and CLS group were The fly ash only mixed 30% in concrete can greatly
lower than CFA group. About mineral admixtures, the reduce water height and improve effectively anti-
order of surface area from large to small was silica permeability, the results were shown in Table 6, water
fume, slag powder, fly ash and limestone powder, all height of only mixing fly ash can reduced to 69% of
kinds of different particle size of mineral admixtures the NPC group. The fly ash can improve the anti-
were filled with each other, so mineral admixtures permeability, because filling effect and volcanic ash
were stacked before mixing. reaction of fly ash reduced porosity in paste and
The silica fume and slag powder in concrete can improved pore characteristic of concrete. The increas-
produce volcanic ash reaction, the hydration was stim- ing CSH and C4AH9 generated in secondary hydration
ulated with each other to produce compound gel reaction of fly ash plug up pore canal[8] . The fly ash
effect. In a compound gel system, the cement always reduce significantly large pore content and total poros-
produced hydration firstly, the CSH and CH were gen- ity in the concrete, so anti-permeability of concrete
erated to enhance hydration. The hydration activity and mixed with fly ash was improved greatly. The results
surface energy of silica fume were high than slag pow- of the study showed that[9] , secondary hydration reac-
der and fly ash, so the response speed was fast. The tion happened with Ca(OH)2 after fly ash replaced part
exhalation CaO in slag powder can promote formation of the cement, which reduced porosity and the content
of CSH and AFt around fly ash, so as to promote the of Ca(OH)2 crystal, and narrow crystal size in inter-
dissolving of aluminum and silicon in fly ash particles facial transition zone, so as to extend effectively pore
and increase hydration process of silica fume and slag channel.
powder[7] . Composite effect of limestone powder with
fly ash was relatively weak, lime stone early strength 4.2.2 Influence of water height on double fly ash
was enhanced, but long-term strength promoted of and silica fume mixed
concrete was not obvious. The anti-permeability of concrete was affected observ-
ably by double mixing fly ash and silica fume, the
results were shown in Table 6, water height of CSF
4.2 Experimental of results anti-permeability
group was 38% of NPC group and 55% of CFA
As was shown in Table 6, the anti-permeability level group, and was lower than other double groups, the
of each group were greater than P8, according to permeability coefficient of CSF was the smallest in
the technology standard of underground engineer- Figure 2.
ing waterproof, in Table 7, anti-permeability of each Fly ash and silica fume were mixed in concrete,
group level was higher, but anti-permeability level silica fume can participate in hydration reaction to

anti-permeability of concrete. However crystal effect
of limestone powder was weaker than silica fume and
slag powder. In mineral admixtures of double mix-
ing, the filling effect of limestone powder was more


(1) The 28 d compressive strength of mixed aggregate

concrete was significantly reduced when only fly
ash was mixed, but later strength can return.
(2) The double mixing mineral admixtures can
Figure 2. Permeability coefficient of water pressure improve 28 d compressive strength in some
method. degree, but the influence of later strength was not
all positive effect, the later compressive strength
generate more hydration products and reduce poros- of double mixing fly ash and limestone powder
ity, and generate more hydration aluminum acid salt was low.
and its derivatives with the second hydration reaction. (3) The mineral admixtures can significantly improve
The literature[10] thought silica fume to replace part of anti-permeability of mixed aggregate concrete,
cement, porosity and pore of concrete decreased obvi- composite effect of double mixing mineral admix-
ously. Because silica fume accumulated in aggregate tures was better than only mixing fly ash. The
surface and eliminate the wall effect, prevented direc- anti-permeability of double mixing silica fume
tional growth of large CH crystal, and changed the and fly ash was optimal and an important way to
microstructure in the interface area. The silica fume make high permeability concrete.
made concrete connected space to become irregular, (4) The mineral admixtures effect in concrete can be
anti-permeability was improved. summed a interaction of volcanic ash and micro
In addition, shape and size of silica fume were spe- aggregate effect.
cial, surface area was smaller, because of the filling
effect of mineral admixtures, silica fume particles not
only fill in cement particles, but all kinds of particles ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
accumulated more closely and distributed more evenly
through the composite effect. The double mixing fly This work was supported by a grant from Inner Mon-
ash and silica fume was one of effective ways that made golia Natural Science Foundation (No. 2011BS0707).
high performance concrete of mixing aggregate[11] .

4.2.3 Influence of water height on double fly ash REFERENCES

and slag powder mixed
[1] Zhang Baosheng, Kong Lijuan, Ge Yong, 2006. Sum-
The water height of CSP group was 57% of the NPC
marize of mixed aggregate concrete. concrete 199,
group, less than only mixing fly ash, and higher than 2023 (In Chinese)
double mixing fly ash and silica fume. The surface area [2] Chu Jianjun, Huo Junfang, 2011. Experimental study
of slag powder was greater than cement and less than on frost resistance durability of mixed aggregate con-
silica fume, the filling effect of slag powder was poor crete. Building science 27(1), 2224 (In Chinese)
than silica fume. The slag powder surface area of initial [3] P Nath, P Sarker, 2011. Effect of Fly Ash on the Dura-
hydration products was larger than cement. Hydra- bility Properties of High Strength Concrete. Procedia
tion calcium silicate had large specific surface area, Engineering 14, 11491156
ettringite and Ca(OH)2 gathered around fly ash parti- [4] Cahit Bilim, Cengiz D Atis, Harun Tanyildizi, Okan
Karahan, 2009. Predicting the compressive strength of
cles, play the role of the crystal nucleus, and improved
ground granulated blast furnace slag concrete using
the anti-permeability. The mechanism of the slag artificial neural network. Advances in Engineering
powder having high surface area was same as silica Software 40(5), 334340
fume, but the effects of slag powder was weaker than [5] Wang A Q, Zhang C Z, Tang M S, et al, 1999. ASR
silica fume. in Mortar Bars Containing Silica Glass in Combina-
tion with High Alkali and High Fly Ash Contents.
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and limestone powder mixed [6] Smith Songpiriyakij, Teinsak Kubprasit, Chai Jatu-
The water height of CLS group was 67% of the NPC rapitakkul, Prinya Chindaprasirt, 2010. Compressive
group, and it was the highest in the three kinds of strength and degree of reaction of biomass- and
fly ash-based geopolymer. Construction and Building
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lowest, although CaCO3 had crystal effect and made [7] Bing Chen, Juanyu Liu, 2008. Experimental appli-
Ca(OH)2 crystal to grow in its particles surface, lime- cation of mineral admixtures in lightweight concrete
stone powder play a role of crystal in C3 S hydration with high strength and workability. Construction and
reaction, enhanced the bond of interface, and improved Building Materials 22(6), 11081113

[8] Ji Xiaoxia, Huo Junfang, Li Jinshuai, 2010. Effects of [10] Xie Youjun, Liu Baoju, Liu Wei, 2004. Influence of
fly ash content on the resistance to chloride permeabil- mineral admixtures on anti-chloride permeability of
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[9] Pei Xinyi, Zhao Peng, Wang Weihe, etc, 2008. [11] S A Barbhuiya, J K Gbagbo, M I Russell, P A M
Microstructure and the property of cement hydration Basheer, 2009. Properties of fly ash concrete modi-
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Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Corrosion resistant performance of a chemical quenched rebar

Jie Wei, Junhua Dong & Wei Ke

State Key Laboratory of Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Shenyang, China

ABSTRACT: A new type of low cost chemical reagent FM was used as the quenching medium during cooling
of the hot-rolled rebar aiming to improve the corrosion resistance of water-cooled rebar. The corrosion resistance
performance of the FM-cooled rebar was evaluated comparing with water-cooled rebar both in atmosphere and
concrete. According to the 60 cycles of dry/wet alternated corrosion tests, the corrosion resistance of FM-cooled
rebar in atmosphere is much better than that of water-cooled rebar. Furthermore, after one year accelerated
corrosion in concrete immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution, EIS results show the polarization resistance Rp of
FM-cooled rebar is about 30 times than that of water-cooled rebar. By applying FM-cooling process, the corrosion
resistance performance of rebar has been improved by optimizing the quality of the scale.

Keywords: scaled rebar; corrosion resistance; atmosphere; concrete

1 INTRODUCTION was evaluated comparing with water-cooled rebar both

in atmosphere and concrete containing chloride ions.
In order to improve the mechanical performance of The surface morphology of oxide scale on two kinds
rebar and maintain a low cost of production, water- of rebar was also compared.
cooling instead of air-cooling and adding strengthen-
ing alloy elements has been employed in the cooling
process after hot rolling. The grain size of rebar 2 EXPERIMENT
can be refined by water-cooling, which improves the
strength of rebar [1] (DU et al. 2006). Neverthe- 2.1 Material and procedures
less, the rebar produced with water-cooling tends to
rust during storage and transportation, which would 2.1.1 Rebar samples preparation
destroy the appearance of the rebar severely [2, 3] The steel used in the experiment was a commercial
(Almusallam 2001, Zitrou et al. 2007). Furthermore, if 20SiMn hot-rolled rebar. The chemical composition
the rusted rebar is embedded in concrete, the corrosion (wt,%) is: C 0.170.25, Si 0.400.80, Mn 1.201.60,
resistance of rebar and the combining force between P 0.050, S 0.050. The rebar samples were machined
rebar and concrete would also be impaired [47] into cylinders and the surfaces were polished using
(Al-Tayyib et al. 1990, Novak et al. 2001, Auyeung 1200# sand paper. The preparation process of water-
et al. 2000, Capozucca 1995). Therefore, the scale on cooled rebar and FM-cooled rebar is as follows: (1)
the water-cooled rebar is usually requested to descale the machined samples were heated to 1000 C for 10
before it is embedded in concrete. However, descal- minutes in the pipe furnace under an anti-oxidizing
ing of rebar will increase the cost and complicate the flux protection. (2) the high temperature samples were
working procedures for the construction, which limits quenched by water and chemical reagent FM for 1s,
the manufacture and use of water-cooled rebar. Thus, respectively. (3) after quenching, the samples were
it is important to improve the corrosion resistance of cooled in air to the room temperature. The compo-
water-cooled rebar. nents of FM are: H2 O2 10%, NaBO3 5 g/l, Na2 SiO3
As corrosion of rebar occurs on rebar surface, the 0.45 g/l, MgSO4 0.45 g/l.
quality of oxide scale on rebar surface, especially the
compactness of the oxide scale, affects the corrosion 2.1.2 Concrete samples preparation
resistance of rebar greatly. Therefore, the corrosion Reinforced concrete samples ( 80 mm 80 mm)
resistance of rebar can be improved by optimizing the were cast according to the standard experimental pro-
quality of scale. cedures using ordinary Portland cement 42.5 (with a
In the present work, a new chemical reagent named water/cement ratio of 0.5 and cement/sand ratio of
FM was used as the quenching medium during cooling 1/3). The schematic diagram of the electrode sys-
of the hot-rolled rebar instead of water. The corro- tem is shown in Figure 1, and all the length units
sion resistant performance of the FM-cooled rebar are in millimeter. A three-electrode cell was used in

2.2 Dry/wet alternated accelerated
corrosion test
60 cycles of dry/wet alternated accelerated corrosion
test were carried out to evaluate the corrosion resis-
tance of two kinds of rebar in atmosphere environment.
The test process are as follows: (1) wetting sample sur-
faces with 3.5%NaCl solution; (2) drying the samples
in a chamber maintained at 30 C and 60% RH for 8
hours; (3) wetting the samples in the chamber main-
tained at 40 C and 95% RH for 16 hours; (4) repeating
the above steps from (1) to (3) until 60 cycles.

2.3 Long-term immersion accelerated

corrosion test
Long-term immersion tests were carried out to
accelerate the corrosion of rebar in concrete. Firstly,
the concretes containing two kinds of rebar were
immersed in de-ionized water to reach a constant
weight, then immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution and
carried out the electrochemical measurements.

2.4 Electrochemical measurements

During the long-term immersion tests, Ecorr and EIS
were measured at different immersion time, using
a PAR 273 potentiostat and a PAR 5210E lock-in
amplifier. EIS measurements were performed at the
open-circuit potential with a 10 mV perturbation from
100 kHz to 10 mHz.All the measurements were carried
out at room temperature (25 C).

2.5 SEM analysis

The surface morphologies of two kinds of rebar
were observed using the HITACHI S3400N scanning
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the electrode system for electronic microscope.
reinforced mortar samples. (a) side sectional view, (b) top
sectional view.

3.1 Dry/wet alternated accelerated corrosion test

this experiment. The working electrode (WE) was
the machined rebar sample. Both ends of the rebar After 60 dry/wet cycles simulating the atmosphere
were coated with dense epoxy, leaving an exposed environment, two scaled rebar exhibit different cor-
length of 40 mm. The rebar was positioned at the cen- rosion resistance, as shown in Figure 2. It is obvious
ter of the concrete sample with a cover thickness of that the water-cooled rebar had been corroded severely
35 mm. The reference electrode (RE) was Cu/CuSO4 on the whole surface. However, there were only a
electrode which was positioned 5 mm near the work- few rust spots on the surface of FM-cooled rebar.
ing electrode to reduce the IR drop between WE and Therefore, the corrosion resistance of rebar in atmo-
RE. In order to distribute the electrical signal uni- sphere environment has been improved significantly
formly, a 60 mm height annular graphite electrode using FM-cooling instead of water-cooling.
was used as the counter electrode (CE), which was
positioned in the concrete with the cover thickness 3.2 EIS spectra of long-term immersion test
of 11 mm. After demoulding at one day after cast-
ing, the concrete samples were cured in a standard According to the electrochemical theory [8] (Cao
curing chamber at 20 1 C and 95% RH for 28 2001), a simple electrochemical electrode system may
days. In order to avoid the non-uniform penetration be described by an equivalent circuit (as shown in
of solution, both ends of the concrete samples were Figure 3 (a)), in which Rs represents the solution
coated with epoxy resin leaving 40 mm height profile resistance; Cdl represents the capacitance of the elec-
exposed. tric double layer; and Rp represents the polarization

Figure 2. Corrosion of two rebar under wet/dry cyclic
accelerated corrosion environment. (a) FM-cooled rebar,
(b) water-cooled rebar; 1initial, 260 day.

Figure 4. Impedance modulus plots for two rebar in mortar

as a function of immersion time. (a) FM-cooled rebar, (b)
water-cooled rebar.

is assumed equal to Rs , and the value of impedance

modulus at low frequency of 10 mHz is assumed equal
to the sum impedance of Rs + Rp . Consequently, Rp can
be calculated.
Figure 5 shows the evolution of Rp with immer-
sion time. The change tendency of Rp value for two
kinds of rebar is similar. Rp value decreases during
the initial period of immersion, which indicates the
increase of corrosion rate. Then it keeps constant after
immersion for 100 days. However, the Rp value of two
Figure 3. Schematic diagram of a simple electrochemical kinds of rebar differs significantly. The Rp of water-
electrode system. (a) equivalent circuit, (b) modulus plot of cooled rebar is only about 12 k during initial period
EIS spectra. of immersion, and it drops to 2 k after about one year
immersion. However, the initial Rp value of FM-cooled
rebar is more than 500 k , and after one year immer-
resistance caused by charge transfer reaction. Figure sion, it is more than 30 times compared to water-cooled
3(b) shows the modulus plot of EIS spectra corre- rebar. Therefore, the protection performance against
sponding to Figure 3 (a). The Rs corresponds to the corrosion of FM-cooled rebar is much better than that
highest frequency impedance, and Rs + Rp corresponds of water-cooled rebar in concrete.
to the lowest frequency impedance. In the case of rebar
embedded in concrete, because the rebar was covered
by both oxide scale and corrosion product when corro-
3.3 Evolution of Ecorr of the rebar in concrete
sion proceeds, Rp consists of film resistance (Rf ), rust
resistance (Rr ) and charge transfer resistance (Rct ) [9] The ASTM C876 standard [10] (ASTM C876-91) has
(Mansfeld 1990). The protective performance of scale determined three Ecorr levels to identify the corro-
can thus be described by Rp . sion probability of rebar in concrete. That is, when
Figure 4 show the impedance modulus plots of two Ecorr > 0.20 V (vs. CSE), the corroded probabil-
kinds of rebar samples in concrete immersed in 3.5% ity of rebar in concrete is less than 10%; when
NaCl solution for different immersion time. The value Ecorr < 0.35 V (vs. CSE), the corroded probability
of impedance modulus at high frequency of 10 kHz of rebar in concrete is more than 90%; when it locates

Figure 5. Evolution of Rp with immersing time for two kinds
of rebar.

Figure 7. Surface morphology of the scale formed by

different processes. (a) FM-cooled rebar, (b) water-cooled

it decreases gradually to the high corrosion probabil-

ity region, which indicates the initiation of corrosion.
However, the initial value of Ecorr for water-cooled
rebar locates in the high corrosion probability region,
which implies water-cooled rebar has been corroded
during the curing period. Therefore, the Ecorr result
also indicates that the corrosion initiation time of
FM-cooled rebar is much later than that of water-
cooled rebar.

3.4 Morphology of the scale

According to the above results, it can be summarized
that the corrosion resistance performance of FM-
cooled rebar is much better than water-cooled rebar. As
the breakdown of the surface scale will accelerate the
corrosion of rebar, the quality of the scale influences
the corrosion resistance of rebar. The morphology of
Figure 6. Change of Ecorr with immersion time of two kinds the outer surface of the scale is shown in Figure 7. It
of rebar. was observed that the FM-cooled scale is compact and
smooth which is beneficial to block off the transporta-
tion of the corrosive medium to the matrix. However,
in the middle, the probability is uncertain. Therefore, the outer surface of the water-cooled scale looks loose
the corrosion probability can be judged by Ecorr . and porous. Therefore, the FM-cooled scale is more
The evolution of Ecorr with immersion time for beneficial to resisting corrosion.
both rebar is shown in Figure 6, which is corre-
sponding to the EIS result. The initial value of Ecorr
for FM-cooled rebar locates in the middle corrosion 4 CONCLUSIONS
probability region, and it keep stable during the for-
mer 15 days. This implies that the FM-cooled rebar is According to the accelerated corrosion tests simulat-
in passive state during the former immersion. Then, ing corrosion of two kinds of rebar in atmosphere

and concrete environment contaminated by chloride [4] Al-Tayyib, A.J., Khan, M.S., Allam, I.M., Al-Mana,
ions, It were proved that the corrosion resistance A.I., 1990. Corrosion behavior of pre-rusted bars after
of FM-cooled rebar is much better than that of placement in concrete. Cement Concrete Res 20(6),
water-cooled rebar. By applying FM-cooling process, 95560.
[5] Novak, P., Mala, R., Josk, a.L., 2001. Influence of pre-
the corrosion resistance performance of rebar has rusted on steel in concrete. Cement Concrete Res 31,
been improved by optimizing the compactness of the 589593.
scale. [6] Auyeung, Y., Balaguru, P., Chung, L, 2000. Bond
behavior of corroded reinforcement bars. ACI Mater
J 97(2), 214220.
REFERENCES [7] Capozucca, R., 1995. Damage to reinforced concrete
due to reinforcement corrosion. Constr Build Mater
[1] Du, L.X., Sun J.L., Yang H.F., 2006. Strengthening 9(5), 295303.
Mechanism and Microstructure of 500 MPa Ultra-fine [8] Cao, Ch.N., Zhang, J.Q., 2002. Introduction of
Grain Steels. Materials for Mechanical Engineering Electrochemical Impedence Spectra. Beijing: Science
30(6), 3033. Press, 3744.
[2] Almusallam, A.A., 2001. Effect of degree of corro- [9] Mansfeld, F., 1990. Electrochemical Impedance Spec-
sion on the properties of reinforcing steel bars. Constr troscopy (EIS) as a new tool for investigating methods
Build Mater 15(8), 361368. of corrosion protection. Electrochimica Acta 35(10),
[3] Zitrou, E., Nikolaou, J., Tsakiridis, P.E., Papadimitriou, 15331544.
G.D., 2007. Atmospheric corrosion of steel reinforc- [10] ASTM C876-91, Standard Test Method for Half-
ing bars produced by various manufacturing processes. Cell Potentials of Uncoated Reinforcing Steel in
Constr Build Mater 21, 11611169. Concrete [S].

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Experimental study of photocatalitic concrete products for durability of

reinforced concrete

Alessandra Fiore, Giuseppe Carlo Marano & Pietro Monaco

Department of Science of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Technical University of Bari, Bari, Italy

Alessandro Morbi
Italcementi Group S.p.A, Bergamo, Italy

ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the topic of durability of reinforced concrete structures. The aim of the
presented study is to use the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide in order to create a photocatalised system
which, applied on the external surface of reinforced concrete structures, can constitute a protective barrier. To
this purpose suitable experimental tests have been carried out able to verify the efficacy of the photocatalytic
activity with respect to the durability of reinforced concrete elements in terms of carbonation of concrete and
corrosion of reinforcing steel.

Keywords: reinforced concrete, durability, photocatalytic cement products, carbonation, reinforcing bar

specializes in the durability design of concrete struc-
Reinforced concrete (RC) has been used as the main tures. The objective is to identify agreed durability
structural material in the construction industry for related models and to prepare the framework for
many years. Nevertheless in the last decades the rapid the standardization of performance-based durabil-
deterioration of RC structures due to alkali-aggregate ity design approaches. According to this innovative
reaction, chloride-induced corrosion and carbonation approach, structural design should take into account
has caused engineers to seek new ways to rehabilitate environmental actions leading to the degradation of
aging structure and to improve durability properties of concrete and embedded steel.
concrete under aggressive environments. In this framework this paper presents the results
Among the countermeasures adopted against the of a systematic study on assessing the effectiveness
deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, the of photocatalytic concrete products in improving the
use of composite materials has shown great poten- durability of reinforced concrete. Until now photocat-
tial in the area of durability of RC structures. The alytic materials have been applied on concrete pave-
cementitious-polymeric composite materials are used ment surfaces and external building surfaces mainly to
for the modification of concrete surfaces and include reduce air pollution in urban areas. In fact the nature
finish coatings, barrier penetrants, linings, liquid- of the cement matrix is particularly suitable for incor-
applied membrane waterproofing materials and per- porating titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) powders and other
manent forms, which allow to eliminate or control photo-oxidation products. The use of titanium dioxide
chemical degradation factors in RC structures. Con- as photocatalyst allows the photochemical conversion
siderable research has been carried out on concretes of nitrogen oxides (NO) to low concentrated nitrates
containing binary cements based on fly ash or sil- due to heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation. A vari-
ica fume which have shown advantages such as ety of products containing TiO2 are already available
improved durability. Polymer-coated reinforcing bars, on the European market and their capacity to mitigate
including epoxy-coated reinforcing bars, FRP rein- air pollution is widely proven (Chen & Poon 2009,
forcements and continuous fiber reinforcing materials, Hsken et al. 2009).
are employed as corrosion-resistant materials (Chajes Otherwise this paper presents the results of
et al. 1995). experimental tests carried out in order to evaluate
Recently also technical codes have introduced the durability properties of photocatalytic concrete
the durability and reliability issues, which both products focusing on carbonation of concrete and
rank amongst the most decisive structural perfor- corrosion of reinforcing steel (Bertolini et al. 2004,
mance characteristics. In particular Model Code 2010 Balayssac et al. 1995).

Table 1. Mixture proportions of CEM 32.5R II-A/LL
Portland Cement.

Weight Weight
Mix components (%) (Kg/m3 )

CEM 32.5R II-A/LL Matera 100.0 300

Sand (04) VC 58.0 983.1
Fine aggregate (410) VC 13.0 225.6
Course aggregate (1020) VC 29.0 489.6
Water 0.70 210

Figure 1. Measurement of the average depth of the colorless

2 EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS phenolphthalein region.

2.1 Concrete mix and casting of test specimens

Sixteen cubes (10 10 10 cm, Type A specimen)
and three reinforced slabs (20 10 5 cm, Type B
specimen) were cast for this experimental investiga-
tion. Type CEM 32.5R II-A/LL Portland Cement was
used in the concrete mix for the test specimens. Table 1
gives the chemical properties of the concrete.
After casting, the sides of eight cubic specimens
and of one slab were covered with cement (N) mortar
and the sides of eight cubic specimens and of one slab
were covered with photocatalytic (TX) cement mortar,
with thickness of 3 mm (s1 ) for all specimens except
Figure 2. Concrete carbonation test.
for two Type A specimens with cement mortar and
two with TX mortar, for which a thickness of 5 mm In the carbonated part of the specimen where
(s2 ) was adopted. Type FINICEM 6 BIANCO IDRO the alkalinity of concrete is reduced, no coloration
mortars containing 25% white cement were produced. occurred (Chang & Chen 2006). According to code
In the TX mortars a 5% TiO2 content was added. On UNI EN 13295:2005, the average depth of the color-
the third slab (TQ) no finish coatings were applied. less phenolphthalein region was measured from three
points for each side, on both the two edges of the
split face, about one hour after spraying the indicator
2.2 Accelerated carbonation (Fig. 1).
After curing for six days, the specimens were trans-
ferred to a sealed chamber and subjected to accelerated 3.1 Results and discussion
carbonation at 35 C in temperature, a CO2 concentra- Figure 2 shows the results obtained for the two Type
tion of 5% and relative humidity varying between 30% A specimens with N mortar and the two with TX mor-
and 80% every 12 hours. The aim was to reproduce tar taken out of the carbonation chamber at 14 days.
the alternate wet and dry conditions characterizing The corresponding carbonation depths are reported in
aggressive marine environments. Tables 25.
The test specimens were taken out of the carbon- It is evident that carbonation is more intensive
ation chamber at 14, 21 and 28 days, in order to in specimens without TiO2 . The carbonation depth
investigate the evolution in time of deterioration. of specimens with TX mortar is approximately on
average 5/6 the depth of specimens with N mortar.
3 CONCRETE CARBONATION TEST At 21 days the surfaces of all the other speci-
mens have been fully carbonated; this result is due
The following test specimens were taken out of the to the highly aggressive conditions created in the
carbonation chamber at 14 days: two Type A speci- carbonation chamber.
mens with N mortar (with s1 thickness) and two Type
A specimens with TX mortar (with s1 thickness). All 4 TEST OF REINFORCING BAR CORROSION
the other Type A specimens were taken out of the
carbonation chamber at 21 days. The corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete exposed
After splitting the concrete specimens, the freshly to aggressive environment leads to cracking of
split surface was cleaned and sprayed with a phenolph- concrete and subsequent loss in the load-carrying
thalein pH indicator. In the noncarbonated part of the capacity of a reinforced concrete member (Trejo and
specimen, where the concrete was still highly alkaline, Monteiro 2005). In the experimental study herein
a purple-red color was obtained. presented the corrosion mechanism of reinforcing

Table 2. Average depth of the colorless phenolphthalein Table 4. Average depth of the colorless phenolphthalein
region for specimen 1 N. region for specimen 1 TX.

Carbonation test 14th day Specimen 1 N Carbonation test 14th day Specimen 1 TX
Right section dk,13 (mm) Right section dk,13 (mm)

a1 = 36.60 b1 = 35.21 c1 = 45.95 d1 = 43.37 a1 = 33.36 b1 = 38.23 c1 = 30.22 d1 = 34.05

a2 = 31.45 b2 = 33.50 c2 = 46.41 d2 = 39.18 a2 = 31.69 b2 = 32.67 c2 = 29.8 d2 = 31.19
a3 = 33.52 b3 = 35.95 c3 = 50.60 d3 = 47.60 a3 = 34.53 b3 = 31.36 c3 = 31.21 d3 = 37.81
dk,a = 33.85 dk,b = 34.88 dk,c = 47.65 dk,d = 43.38 dk,a = 33.86 dk,b = 34.08 dk,c = 30.41 dk,d = 34.35
dk(ad),right = dk,right = 39.94 mm dk(ad),right = dk,right = 33.17 mm
Left section dk,13 (mm) Left section dk,13 (mm)

a1 = 37.67 b1 = 37.36 c1 = 43.92 d1 = 51.81 a1 = 40.1 b1 = 35.98 c1 = 33.93 d1 = 35.34

a2 = 33.67 b2 = 33.01 c2 = 40.96 d2 = 47.98 a2 = 30.51 b2 = 31.17 c2 = 30.51 d2 = 34.16
a3 = 34.23 b3 = 37.03 c3 = 44.61 d3 = 51.01 a3 = 34.99 b3 = 37.53 c3 = 31.52 d3 = 34.84
dk,a = 35.19
 dk,b = 35.80 dk,c = 43.16 dk,d = 50.26 dk,a = 35.2
 dk,b = 34.89 dk,c = 31.98 dk,d = 34.78
dk(ad),left = dk,left = 41.10 mm dk(ad),left = dk,left = 34.21 mm
dk = 40.52 mm dk = 33.69 mm

Table 3. Average depth of the colorless phenolphthalein Table 5. Average depth of the colorless phenolphthalein
region for specimen 2 N. region for specimen 2 TX.

Carbonation test 14th day Specimen 2 N Carbonation test 14th day Specimen 2 TX
Right section dk,13 (mm) Right section dk,13 (mm)

a1 = 33.87 b1 = 37.34 c1 = 38.48 d1 = 35.40 a1 = 32.16 b1 = 31.31 c1 = 31.48 d1 = 33.01

a2 = 32.00 b2 = 33.44 c2 = 31.88 d2 = 33.41 a2 = 30.89 b2 = 28.56 c2 = 30.45 d2 = 30.44
a3 = 33.70 b3 = 35.32 c3 = 36.08 d3 = 41.69 a3 = 32.6 b3 = 29.95 c3 = 33.14 d3 = 31.59
dk,a = 33.19 dk,b = 35.36 dk,c = 35.48 dk,d = 36.83 dk,a = 31.88 dk,b = 29.94 dk,c = 31.69 dk,d = 31.68
dk(ad),right = dk,right = 35.22 mm dk(ad),right = dk,right = 31.29 mm
Left section dk,13 (mm) Left section dk,13 (mm)

a1 = 36,36 b1 = 35.18 c1 = 35.33 d1 = 35.7 a1 = 31.37 b1 = 31.72 c1 = 35.96 d1 = 31.3

a2 = 33.19 b2 = 35.59 c2 = 33.38 d2 = 31.24 a2 = 28.72 b2 = 29.02 c2 = 30.11 d2 = 29.81
a3 = 33.53 b3 = 37.45 c3 = 37.84 d3 = 34.76 a3 = 32.92 b3 = 34.06 c3 = 33.71 d3 = 33.26
dk,a = 34.36 dk,b = 36.07 dk,c = 35.51 dk,d = 33.9 dk,a = 31.003 dk,b = 31.6
 dk,c = 33.26 dk,d = 31.45
 dk(ad),left = dk,left = 31.83 mm
dk(ad),left = dk,left = 34.96 mm
dk = 35.09 mm dk = 31.56 mm

no coloration occurred. The progress of corrosion

bars induced by carbonation of concrete has been was evaluated by observing on reinforcing bars the
investigated. colorless phenolphthalein region.
Steel embedded in good quality concrete is chem-
ically protected by the high alkalinity of pore water,
4.1 Results and discussion
while the dense and relatively impermeable struc-
ture of concrete provides the physical protection. The Figure 3 shows the results obtained with reference to
alkaline compounds, mainly calcium and to a certain the TQ slab. It is evident that the level of corrosion
extent potassium and sodium, in the cement contribute decreases as the concrete cover increases.
to the high alkalinity of the pore solution, which in the Figure 4 shows the comparison between the three
presence of oxygen, passivates the steel. The loss of Type B specimens with reference to all the c1 c4
alkalinity due to carbonation of concrete can destroy concrete covers. The corrosion propagation rate of
the passive film. reinforcing bars is visibly lower in the TX slab with
The test has interested the three Type B speci- respect to the TQ and N ones.
mens described in 2.1. Each specimen contained In particular in correspondence of the concrete
four 12 mm diameter reinforcing bars with four dif- cover c4 the non-passivated region in the bar of N slab
ferent concrete covers (c1 = 1.5 cm; c2 = 2.0 cm; is about half the one of the TX slab case.
c3 = 2.5 cm; c4 = 3.0 cm). The three slabs were taken The test results also indicate that the reinforcing
out of the carbonation chamber at 21 days and sprayed bars in the TQ specimen are more susceptible to local-
with a phenolphthalein pH indicator. On the non- ized corrosion than the bars in the N slab. This attests
passivated steel a purple-red color was obtained; the effectiveness of using mortar finish coatings in
similarly when the passive layer was broken down order to improve the durability of RC structures.


The experimental study herein presented deals with

the design topic of durability of reinforced concrete
elements. In this field, the effects of applying con-
crete surface layers incorporating a photocatalytic
material have been investigated, analyzing the effi-
ciency in terms of carbonation of concrete and cor-
rosion of reinforcing bars. For sake of clearness, the
results obtained on specimens covered by photocat-
alytic cement mortar have been compared with the
ones obtained on specimens simply covered by cement
mortar. The results of the experimental tests have
shown that the concrete carbonation depth can be sig-
nificantly reduced by adopting photocatalytic surface
layers. The results have also indicated that the appli-
cation of Titanium Dioxide modified cementitious
materials on the external surface of reinforced concrete
elements improves the corrosion performance of rein-
Figure 3. Test of reinforcing bar corrosion for TQ Type B forcing bars in presence of carbonation of concrete.
specimen. In particular it emerged that the corrosion propagation
rate of reinforcing bars decreases as the concrete cover


Prof. Marcello Di Marzo and Ing. Enrico Vitobello

are gratefully acknowledged for their contribution and
advices during the experimental program.

Balayssac, J.P., Dtrich, Ch.H. & Grandet, G. 1995. Effects
of curing upon carbonation of concrete. Construction and
Building Materials 9 (2): 9195.
Bertolini, L., Elsner, B., Pedeferri, P. & Polder, R. 2004. Cor-
rosion of steel in concrete: prevention, diagnosis, repair.
Editor Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
Chajes, M.J., Thomson, T.A. & Farschman, C.A. (1995).
Durability of concrete beams externally reinforced with
composite fabrics. Construction and Building Materials
9 (3): 141148.
Chang, C.F. & Chen, J.W. 2006. The experimental investiga-
tion of concrete carbonation depth. Cement and Concrete
Research, 36: 17601767.
Chen, J. & Poon, C.S. 2009. Photocatalytic activity of tita-
nium dioxide modified concrete materials Influence of
utilizing recycled glass cullets as aggregates. Journal of
Environmental Management 90: 34363442.
fib Bulletin 55 2010. Model Code 2010, First complete draft.
Hsken, G., Hunger, M. & Brouwers, H.J.H. 2009. Experi-
mental study of photocatalytic concrete products for air
purification. Building and Environment 44: 24632474.
Trejo, D. & Monteiro, P.J. 2005. Corrosion performance of
conventional (ASTM A615) and low-alloy (ASTM A706)
reinforcing bars embedded in concrete and exposed to
chloride environments. Cement and Concrete Research
35: 562571.
UNI EN 13295:2005. Products and systems for the protec-
Figure 4. Test of reinforcing bar corrosion for TX, N and tion and repair of concrete structures Test methods
TQ Type B specimens at 21 days: a) with c1 concrete cover; Determination of resistence to carbonation.
b) with c2 concrete cover; c) with c3 concrete cover; d) with
c4 concrete cover.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Research on the durability of Reactive Powder Concrete in marine

corrosive environment

Ming-zhe An, Y. Wang, Q. Lu & Run-dong Liu

School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China

ABSTRACT: Reinforced concrete structure actual service conditions are severe in marine environment. The
damage of structure caused by the coupling of multiple factors is extremely serious. As a new composite material,
Reactive Powder Concrete has high durability, high strength, especially suitable for using as main structure
material and protective material in marine environment. Through the simulation of the actual environment, sea
water freeze-thaw and dry-wet cycles tests for Reactive Powder Concrete are carried out. After dry-wet and
freeze-thaw cycles, the mass and elastic modulus variation of damaged and nondestructive Reactive Powder
Concrete is clarified and its rules are also discussed. The protective components are simulated by the thin plate
test, which provide the theoretical basis for Reactive Powder Concrete structure design and protection component
design in complex service environment.

Keywords: Reactive Powder Concrete; Marine environment; Freeze-thaw cycles; Dry-wet cycles; Sulfate;

1 INTRODUCTION super plasticizer, steel fiber (The diameter is 0.22 mm,

the length is 1215 mm) and water are used in the
With the development of infrastructure construction in preparation of Reactive Powder Concrete. Anhydrous
China, the critical structure in harsh environment, such magnesium sulfate, anhydrous sodium chloride, anhy-
as coastal areas, saline-alkali soil and cold regions, drous sodium sulfate and plastic piece are used for
has also been developed rapidly. In marine structures, simulating the marine environment. The mix propor-
the service environment of concrete is much more tions used for Reactive Powder Concrete are given
complex, the corrosions of concrete and steel bar at Table 1, and R-D represents for damaged concrete
are often influenced by multiple factors, especially in proportion. High performance concrete proportion is
the splash and tidal zone. Concrete structure simul- given at Table 2 for comparative test.
taneously suffers from sulfate erosion, penetration of
chlorine, dry-wet cycles, freeze-thaw cycles, etc. The
corrosion damage of reinforced concrete is extremely
serious, the wrapped or coated materials are commonly 3 METHOD
used as the protection methods currently, this method
in some extent delays the corrosion of concrete struc- According to the analyze results of sea water sam-
ture, but the service lives of these materials are very ples, the major constituents of sea water have been
short, which is generally less than 10 years. obtained as follows: Chloride ion: 19.3 g/kg, sulfate
Reactive Powder Concrete can be used as main ion: 2.71 g/kg, and Magnesium ion: 1.29 g/kg. With
structure material or protective structure in marine the actual ion content expanded 5 times get practical
environment, due to its high strength and durability. In solution ratio to simulate the real sea water condi-
recent years, the researches of Reactive Powder Con- tion, which is 96.5 g/kg chloride, 13.6 g/kg sulfate ion,
crete have focused on the single factors influence on 6.5 g/kg magnesium ion.
durability [16]. The report of durability affected by The Reactive Powder Concrete are prepared as
multiple factors has not been seen. The durability of 100 mm 100 mm 400 mm prism specimens and
Reactive Powder Concrete under the action of multiple 50 mm 400 mm 400 mm thin plate specimens.
factors has become an urgent scientific subject. The cover thickness of reinforced concrete usually is
1550 mm, and the thickness of thin plate specimens
is 50 mm which cover thickness is considered to be
2 MATERIALS 25 mm as all its surfaces are exposed in the corro-
sive environment. So the thin plate specimens are used
42.5 ordinary portland cement, silica fume, quartz for simulate protection structure. High performance
sand (The range of particle size is 0.160.25 mm), concrete test is made on 100 mm 100 mm 400 mm

Table 1. Mix proportion of Reactive Powder Concrete (kg/m3 ).

Mixture Silica Quartz Steel Super Plastic

code Cement fume sand fibre plasticizer Water piece

R 706 160 1249 160 74 122

R-D 704.6 159.7 1246.7 159.7 73.9 121.8 4.76

*The volume fraction of plastic piece is 2.5% in proportion R-D.

Table 2. Mix proportion of high performance concrete (kg/m3 ).


Mixture code Cement Coarse Fine Sand Fly ash Mineral powder Water Admixture

50 308 565 565 693 88 44 132 5.3

prism specimens. Sea water freeze-thaw cycles test is Table 3. The results of prism specimens after dry-wet
based on GB/T50082 (Test Method for Rapid Freez- cycles.
ing and Thawing), which sulfate solution is replaced
by sea water. The dynamic elastic modulus and mass Relative dynamic elastic
Dry-wet modulus (%) Mass (kg)
are measured in every freeze-thaw cycle 50 times. The
dry-wet cycle period is 24 hours. The specimens are (times) R-D R C50 R-D R C50
soaked in the prepared solution for 12 0.5 h and then
natural drying for 12 0.5 h. The mass of different 10 100.0 100.0 100.0 10.14 10.04 9.91
specimens is tested before the specimens are soaked, 20 100.2 100.3 99.8 10.15 10.05 9.90
and it is tested every 10 times. 30 99.5 96.3 100.2 10.15 10.03 9.89
Plastic pieces are added to some of the specimens in 40 101.7 96.8 100.7 10.15 10.12 9.88
order to simulate the internal defects and initial dam- 50 100.3 96.3 100.2 10.15 10.10 9.87
age of Reactive Powder Concrete (R-D). The material 60 96.2 10.13
of plastic piece is PVC, with 1 mm in its thickness and 70 95.5 10.12
0.9518 g/cm3 in density. The PVC plastic pieces are
made into 10 mm width, 1020 mm length.


4.1 Prism specimens dry-wet cycles test

The relative dynamic elastic modulus and mass results
of prism specimens R-D and R after dry-wet cycles
are given at Table 3.
After dry-wet cycles in sea water, the steel fibers
on the surface of the specimens have been corroded.
And in the specimen surface many white punctiform Figure 1. The morphology of specimen surface precipita-
precipitation have formed, as shown in Figure 1a. In tion after dry-wet cycles.
the same condition, the solution is replaced by 5%
sodium sulfate solution, while after the action of dry-
wet cycles in sodium sulfate solution, there are white specimens, the result is 9.91 kg and 9.87 kg. All of the
reticular precipitations on the surface of specimens, results fluctuate in a very small range.
as shown in Figure 1b. It is concluded that the surface The relative dynamic elastic modulus variations of
precipitate of samples in sea water are different with prism specimens after dry-wet cycles are shown in Fig-
that in sodium sulfate solution. ure 2. The relative dynamic elastic modulus of prism
Through general analysis of Table 3, the mass of R-D damaged specimens slightly increases and then
prism specimens under dry-wet cycles of sea water decreases with dry-wet cycles increasing.The dynamic
changed a little, the maximum is 10.15 kg and the min- elastic modulus increases to 101.7% after 40 dry-wet
imum is 10.03 kg for R-D damaged specimens; for R cycles, and then gradually reduces to 95.5% after 70
specimens, the result is 10.12 kg and 10.03 kg; for C50 cycles. The relative dynamic elastic modulus of prism

Table 4. The results of prism specimens under freeze-thaw

Freeze- Relative dynamic elastic

thaw modulus (%) Mass (kg)
(times) R-D R C50 R-D R C50

50 100.0 100.0 100.0 10.01 9.90 10.02

100 103.6 100.6 101.6 10.01 9.91 10.05
150 105.6 99.8 101.6 10.04 9.91 10.03
200 101.4 100.8 96.1 10.03 9.92 10.04
250 105.3 76.8 10.04 10.05
300 100.8 40.9 10.03 10.07

Figure 2. Relative dynamic elastic modulus variation of

prism specimens after dry-wet cycles.
specimens. Due to the good bonding between cement
base and aggregate, even in a crack condition, nothing
R specimens gradually reduces after dry-wet cycles. falls off either. For this reason, the mass of specimens
After 50 dry-wet cycles, the relative dynamic elastic almost doesnt change. The relative dynamic elastic
modulus decreases to 96.3%. However, after dry-wet modulus of damaged specimens R-D in this test is
cycles, the elastic modulus of C50 high performance greater than 100.0% within 300 freeze-thaw cycles,
concrete specimens slightly increases, its maximum a maximum of 105.6%; but for nondestructive speci-
is 100.7% and minimum is 99.8% within 50 cycles, mens R, the relative dynamic elastic modulus fluctu-
which is almost unchanged. ates around 100.0% within 200 freeze-thaw cycles.
It is shown in Figure 2 that in the early The maximum is 100.8%, and minimum is 99.8%,
stage of dry-wet cycles, the influence of dry-wet which almost has not changed. The relative dynamic
cycles presents that damaged specimens R-D < C50 elastic modulus of C50 high performance concrete
specimens < specimens R. This may be because of specimens increases first and then reduces gradually
Reactive Powder Concrete internal compact structure. with the increase of freeze-thaw cycles. The relative
The initial damage and defect in the surface of dam- dynamic elastic modulus is 100.6% after 100 and 150
aged Reactive Powder Concrete is filled by crystal freeze-thaw cycles. After 200, 250 and 300 cycles, it
substance which is produced in the initial stage of wet- is 96.1%, 76.8%, 40.9%, respectively. On the surface
dry cycles, and it has a positive effect to the structure, of damaged and nondestructive Reactive Powder Con-
relative dynamic elastic modulus slightly increases. crete specimens white punctiform precipitations have
The filling effect of crystal substance is less than its formed under freeze-thaw cycles, steel fibers have
damage effect after 50 dry-wet cycles, which makes been corroded. But for C50 specimens, except for the
the dynamic elastic modulus reduces. Contrast with white punctiform precipitation on the surface, there
nondestructive specimens R, the increase of dynamic have been many obvious cracks, the specimens are
elastic modulus doesnt exist at the early stage. The destructed. But the mass loss is 0.5%, therefore, the
crystal substance has a damage eff ect on Reactive mass loss of high performance concrete should not be
Powder Concrete after 30 dry-wet cycles, which makes individually considered as an evaluation index of the
the relative dynamic elastic modulus reduces. In C50 durability.
high performance concrete, the filling effect and dam- The relative dynamic elastic modulus variation
age effect are approximately equilibrium during the of prism specimens under the action of freeze-thaw
early stage of dry-wet cycles; which leads to a steady cycles is shown in Figure 3. After 200 sea water freeze-
relative dynamic elastic modulus. thaw cycles, the maximum value of relative dynamic
elastic modulus is damaged specimens R-D, the value
is 105.3% and 100.8% after 250 and 300 cycles respec-
4.2 Prism specimens freeze-thaw cycles test
tively. Nondestructive specimens R relative dynamic
The relative dynamic elastic modulus and mass results elastic modulus changes little; however, the value of
of prism specimens R-D, R and C50 after freeze-thaw C50 specimens have begun to decrease at 200 times
cycles are given at Table 4. and dramatically reduce, 250 times of 76.8%, 300
It is shown in Table 4 that the mass of prism times drop to 40.9%, which means the specimens are
specimens changes a little after sea water freeze- already broken. The adhesion of PVC plastic piece
thaw cycles. The mass loss of Reactive Powder Con- and concrete matrix are the weaknesses of damaged
crete is insignificant. It is mainly because that the Reactive Powder Concrete, its content in this test is
action degree of the cement in C50 high perfor- 2.5%, but the relative dynamic elastic modulus of
mance concrete and Reactive Powder Concrete is high. the specimens after 300 freeze-thaw cycles is nearly
Few cement slurry covers on the surface of speci- not influence. The initial crystal substance filled the
mens, which causes no cement slurry falls off from internal defects in concrete surface layer, the relative

Table 5. The results of thin plate specimens after freeze-
thaw cycles.

Relative dynamic elastic

Freeze-thaw modulus (%) Mass (kg)
(times) D C D C

50 100.0 100.0 19.82 20.52

100 100.5 101.3 19.81 20.50
150 99.4 99.1 19.76 20.51
200 99.0 99.3 19.82 20.52
250 99.8 99.4 19.80 20.52
300 99.3 99.5 19.82 20.52

Figure 3. Relative dynamic elastic modulus variation of

prism specimens after freeze-thaw cycles.

Figure 4. Thin plate specimens.

dynamic elastic modulus has slightly increased; Reac-

tive Powder Concrete material has a good durability in
the action of sea water freeze-thaw cycles.
Figure 5. Relative dynamic elastic modulus variation of thin
plate specimens after freeze-thaw cycles.
4.3 Thin plate specimens freeze-thaw test
The thin plate specimens have been shown in Figure 4. freeze-thaw cycles. The minimum relative dynamic
The relative dynamic elastic modulus and mass results elastic modulus of damaged and nondestructive spec-
of thin plate specimens R-D and R after freeze-thaw imens is 99.0% after 300 freeze-thaw cycles. The rel-
cycles are given at Table 5. ative dynamic elastic modulus tends to be stable after
The mass of damaged and nondestructive thin plate 150 300 freeze-thaw cycles. After 300 freeze-thaw
specimens has changed little within 300 sea water cycles, the relative dynamic elastic modulus minimum
freeze-thaw cycles. The maximum mass of damaged value of prism damaged specimens is 100.8%; and the
specimens is 19.82 kg and the minimum is 19.76 kg. relative dynamic elastic modulus minimum value of
The relative mass loss is only 0.3%. For nondestructive damaged thin plate specimen is 99.0%. Due to the
specimens the maximum mass is 20.52 kg and mini- shaping process of specimens inevitably lead to sur-
mum is 20.50 kg. The relative mass loss is 0.1%. The face defections, thin plate specimen with 50 mm in
relative dynamic elastic modulus of thin plate speci- thickness has more weakness in thickness direction,
mens increase firstly, then reaches a steady value. The which will lead to more damage in the same corrosion
relative dynamic elastic modulus of damaged thin plate conditions.
specimens is 100.5% after 100 freeze-thaw cycles, By comprehensively considering the influencing of
and then fluctuated between 99.0%100.0%. Nonde- dry-wet cycles and freeze-thaw cycles on the dynamic
structive specimens relative dynamic elastic modulus elastic modulus variation of Reactive Powder Con-
increases to 101.3% after 100 freeze-thaw cycles, and crete thin plate specimen, 50 mm thick plate has good
then tends to be stable. The value after 150, 200, 250 durability. Wang Ziwei [7] did a life prediction of
and 300 cycles are 99.1%, 99.3%, 99.4% and 99.5%, Reactive Powder Concrete, its life can be up to 100
respectively. years which the cover thickness is 10 mm. Reactive
The relative dynamic elastic modulus variation of Powder Concrete is suitable for concrete structure pro-
thin plate specimens after the action of freeze-thaw tective component. As a kind of protective structure,
cycles is given at Figure 5. its not only suitable for the permanent template of
Reactive Powder Concrete thin plate specimens concrete structures, but also can be precast at factory
have a good performance under the action of sea water and assembled on the existing structure.

5 CONCLUSIONS (4) The corrosion resistance of Reactive Powder Con-
crete is remarkable. Therefore, Reactive Powder
(1) The mass of Reactive Powder Concrete speci- Concrete is suitable for permanent templates or
mens with and without initial damage is hardly assembled as protective component in marine
changed after the action of sea water dry-wet and engineering concrete structure.
freeze-thaw cycles. The losing rate is about 0.1%.
The relative dynamic elastic modulus of C50 high
performance concrete declines below 60% after REFERENCES
300 freeze-thaw cycles, however, it presents small
increases in mass. Therefore, the mass loss of high [1] Li Zhong, Huang LiDong. Study on durability of
performance concrete should not be individually steel fiber reactive powder concrete. China Concrete
considered as an evaluation index of the durability. and Cement Products, 2005 (3): 4243.
(2) After 70 sea water dry-wet cycles, the Reac- [2] Shaheen Ehab, Shrive Nigel G. Optimization of
tive Powder Concrete prism specimens with 2.5% mechanical properties and durability of reactive
PVC plastic have the relative dynamic elastic powder concrete. ACI Materials Journal, 2006, 103
modulus changed to 95.5%. After 300 sea water (6):444451.
freeze-thaw cycles, the relative dynamic elastic [3] SONG Shao-min, WEI Cui-xia. Durability of the
modulus of damaged Reactive Powder Concrete Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC). Concrete, 2006,
prism specimens is 100.8%. The prism specimens (2):7274
of damaged Reactive Powder Concrete are not [4] Lee MingGin, Chiu ChuiTe, Wang YungChih, The
severely affected by coupling effect of sea water study of bond strength and bond durability of reac-
dry-wet and freeze-thaw cycles. tive powder concrete. Journal of ASTM Interna-
(3) After 300 sea water freeze-thaw cycles, the Reac- tional, 2005, 2 (7):485494
tive Powder Concrete thin plate specimens with [5] Liu SiFeng, Sun Wei etc. The preparation and dura-
2.5% PVC plastic have the relative dynamic bility of the high performance concrete with natural
elastic modulus reduced by 0.7%; however, the ultrafine mixed material. Journal of The Chinese
relative dynamic elastic modulus of undamaged Ceramic Society, 2003 (11):l0801085
Reactive Powder Concrete thin plate specimens [6] Wei CuiXia, Song ShaoMin. Study on durability of
reduce only 0.5% after 300 sea water freeze-thaw high content fly ash active powder concrete. New
cycles. The results of thin plate specimens indi- Building Materials, 2005 (9):2729
cated that Reactive Powder Concrete are slightly [7] Wang ZiWei. Study on anti-chloride ion penetration
affected by coupling effect of sea water dry-wet of RPC. Beijing: Beijing Jiaotong University, 2011
and freeze-thaw cycles.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Review and exploration of river sand substitutes for concrete production

in Asian countries

Chun-pong Sing & P.E.D. Love

Department of Construction Management, Curtin University, Western Australia, Australia

Chi-ming Tam
Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, City University, Hong Kong

ABSTRACT: Concrete is a stone like material obtained by carefully proportioned mixture of cement, fine
sand, aggregate and water, hardened in the forms of shape and dimensions of the desired structure. High quality
concrete mixture can only be produced with a proper choice of fine sand with requisite fineness module. The
natural river sand is the cheapest option due to the ease of acquisition and in a well-grade nature. However,
excessive excavation of river sand creates a serious environmental problem in Asian countries such as China,
Thailand and India. Thus, natural river sand substitutes have to be explored urgently.

Keywords: concrete, natural river sand, substitutes


Quality of concrete production is highly dependent on

the constituents and their optimum ratio. Fine sand and
coarse aggregates generally occupy 60% to 75% of the
concrete volume and thus strongly influence its hard-
ened properties, mixture proportion and economy. The
engineering properties of fine sand are highly related
to the relative proportions of different sizes of particles
presented. Natural river sand is commonly used as fine
sand in concrete production as it is the cheapest natu-
ral material. Such sand is well-graded in nature with
well-distributed particle sizes under mechanical and
chemical weathering. However, worldwide unbridled Figure 1. River sand consumption for concrete production
in Hong Kong (CEDD, 2009).
urbanization is fuelling the growth of the construction
sector, which has resulted in excessive mining of river used in Hong Kong has been mainly imported from
sand.According to Joel (2010), severalAsian countries mainland China and in 2009, it was reported to be
such as India and Singapore are experiencing severe 1,800,000 (tonnes). Figure 1 shows that almost 24%
shortage of natural river sand to meet the increasing of the river sand imported was used for concrete
needs for infrastructure development. In addition, the production.
excessive excavation of river sand has caused seri- China is the major supplier of river sand to
ous environmental problems. For example, in India Hong Kong. The Chinese government has warned
and Thailand, riverbeds are becoming uneven and their the environmental impact of uncontrolled extraction
landscape is dramatically changing (Khamput, 2004). and export of natural sand for some time. For exam-
To deal with this challenge, it is important to consider ple, in 2007, the Ministry of Commerce (MOC) in
alternative materials or substitutes. China has announced to ban export of natural sand.
Under this policy, only Hong Kong and Macau have
been exempted from this forbiddance. A Hong Kong
2 CASE STUDY: HONG KONG importer should apply for the permit called Export
License of the Peoples Republic of China for Natural
River sand was one of the major constituent materi- Sand from the Mainland Authority for importing nat-
als used in the production of concrete in Hong Kong. ural sand from the Mainland. In addition, Indonesia
According to the CEDD (2009), the natural river sand has banned export of natural river sand to Singapore.

3 REVIEW OF THE MOST WIDELY USED Nagamani, 2007). Quarry rock dust is defined as a
RIVER SAND SUBSTITUTIES residue, tailing or other non-valuable waste materials
after the extraction and processing of rocks to form
The world consumption of natural river sand as fine fine particles less than 4.75 mm. Manufactured sand
aggregate for concrete production is very high and sev- is seen as an appropriate substitute for natural river
eral countries have encountered shortage of natural sand. In Malaysia, as much as 20% quarry waste is
fine sand. As a result, river sand has become increas- being used as a replacement for natural river sand in
ingly expensive and also scarce (Raman et al., 2007). the production of concrete (Safiuddin et al., 2007).
Most importantly, good sand may be not readily avail- However, to ensure the performance of concrete, strict
able in every riverbed (Ilangovan & Nagamani, 2007). control should be placed on items such as the surface
The sand available in a riverbed is sometimes very texture, elongated particle shape and size graduation
coarse and may contain a high percentage of silt and of the manufacturer sand.
clay. The presence of clay and silt in sand reduces the In Australia, OFlynn (2000) reported that the clo-
strength of concrete as it holds dampness. In addi- sure of the Brisbane River to extractive dredging and
tion, the quality and composition of river sand from the exhaustion or limitation of other sand sources have
riverbed can even vary significantly and its quality caused the industry shifting to manufactured sand for
cannot be guaranteed. Some Australian manufacturers concrete fine aggregate. It is reported that fine aggre-
advocate the use of 100% manufactured fine aggregate gate is produced from 12 of the major hard rock
for concrete to ensure its quality (CCAA 2008). quarries in southeast Queensland. Companies have
According to the guidelines published by Cement, achieved only partial replacement of natural sand, to
Concrete & Aggregate Australia (CCAA) in 2008, around 40% of the fine aggregate component in their
Japan has been developing and applying new tech- concrete mixes. While improved technology and man-
nology for producing manufactured sand, since their agement will further reduce the amount of natural
natural sand resources were depleted. In Canada river blend sand required, river sand is unlikely to be fully
sand is still abundant, though alternatives are being replaced in the foreseeable future. There is still a large
developed. Alternative sources for river sand are: (a) room for exploring the possibility to enable 100%
crushed and screened waste glass, (b) crushed rock manufactured aggregate for substituting natural river
sand, in the form of granite dust, (c) crushed rock sand, sand.
in the form of quarry rock dust, (d) recycle copper slag
and (e) sea sand. (d) Recycled copper slag
The vast amount of copper slag, a by-product obtained
(a) Crushed and screened waste glass during smelting and refining of copper, was for many
In the United States (US), research has shown that years, treated as a waste with no further use thereafter
crushed and screened waste glass may be used as a (Al-Jadri et al., 2009). Asias countries like Singapore
sand-substitute in concrete and cement mortar produc- and Japan have found a novel way of encapsulating
tion (NAHB Research Centre, 2001). Nearly all waste copper slag into concrete, reducing the use of natural
glass can be used in concrete applications, including fine sand in cement production and avoiding land fill-
glass that is unsuitable for recycling. In Australia, field ing, which used to be the common way of disposing
and laboratory tests have demonstrated that crushed this waste.
and screened waste glass is robust and economical
when used as a sand-substitute in concrete production. (e) Sea sand
In addition, the use of waste glass helps keep material Many countries have begun to utilizing sea sand in
out of landfills. place of natural river sand for concrete and cement
mortar production (Jayawardena & Dissanayake,
(b) Crushed rock sand, in the form of granite dust 2006). Sea sand is extracted from below around 15 m
The dust produced from granite crushers is one of deep of ocean (e.g. beyond the surf zone). However,
the alterative materials for river sand. In Singapore the saltiness of sea sand (or called chloride level) with
and New Zealand, for example, crushed rock sand, in respect to the enhancement of corrosion to reinforced
the form of granite dust, is often used as fine aggre- steel has been the greatest concern on deterring it to
gate to replace natural sand in various proportions replace river sand.
(Malagavelli & Rao, 2010). It has been demonstrated The above reviews have explored the alternatives
by Malagavelli & Rao (2010) in their laboratory tests that have been significantly applied for substituting
that it is technically feasible to replace sand with natural river sand in concrete production. In addition,
crushed rock to produce concrete. key factors listed as following should be critically
(c) Crushed rock sand, in the form of quarry rock (a) Supply of raw material: the availability within the
dust (classified as manufactured sand) region is a significant economic benefit to the
The utilization of quarry rock dust, which can be called regional construction industry.
manufactured sand, has been accepted as an eco- (b) Economic consideration: any additional benefit
nomic alternative to river sand in countries such as of using alternative materials, for example: using
Australia, Germany, Japan and the UK (Ilangovan & crushed glass waste would lead to (i) reduce the

concrete unit cost, (ii) lower the freight cost and sand. Asian countries such as as Hong Kong and
(iii) avoid landfill cost. Singapore face several challenges as a result of short-
(c) Accessibility: transportation costs of the raw mate- age of river sand. There are several types of fine sand
rial should be critical for selecting the river sand substitutes such as crushed waste glass. However, sev-
substitutes. eral key factors such as supply sources of substitutes
(d) Environmental impact: use of any recycled mate- and accessibility should be considered for develop-
rials as substitutes of river sand would help keep ing the use of substitutes in the region. In addition,
the material out of landfills. Recycling practices the specification of river sand substitutes for concrete
can also decrease the environmental impact. production with reference to those currently adopted
(e) Suitability for local construction works: for exam- in local and foreign construction works should be crit-
ple, whether the sand substitutes are suitable for ically examined. A set of well-defined guidelines for
producing a high strength concrete. the use of river sand substitutes for local industry need
to be established.


Al-Jabri, K. S., Hisada, M., Al-Oraimi, S. K. & Al-Saidy,
A. H. 2009. Copper slag as sand replacement for high
Current specifications/ guidelines for the use of the performance concrete. Cement & Concrete Composites,
river sand substitutes include: 31, 483488.
Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia (CCAA). 2008.
New Zealand Guide to the Specification and Use of Manufactured Sand
The New Zealand Standards Association has incorpo- in Concrete, Australia.
rated a performance-based specification for concrete Civil Engineering and Development Department. 2009.
aggregate, which allows the substitution of river sand Quantity of Natural Sand from Mainland used in Hong
Kong Construction Industry. Civil Engineering and
in concrete production. There is no specified grading
Development Department, Hong Kong.
limit imposed. Alternatively, there are some criteria on Ilangovan, R. and Nagamani, K. 2007. Application of quarry
controlling the flow time and void content of the sand dust in concrete construction High Performance Con-
substitutes using flow cone tests in accordance with crete, [Online]Avaiable at http://knowledge.fhwa.dot.gov/
New Zealand Standard. cops/HPCX.nsf/docs/07F20FC8D988B6D7852572D000
4F48C0?OpenDocument [Access 3 June 2012].
Singapore Jayawardena, U. D. S. & Dissanayake, D. M. S. 2006. Use of
Singapore Standard (SS) 31: Specification for aggre- quarry dust instead of river sand for future constructions
gates from natural sources for concrete permits the use in Sri Lanka. The Geological Society of London, 38, 14.
Joel, M. 2010. Use of crushed granite fine as replacement
of crushed rock sand to totally replace natural sand to river sand in concrete production. Leonardo Electronic
for concrete. However, the grading requirements of Journal of Practices and Technologies, JulyDecember
crushed rock sand must be in accordance with SS31. (17), 8596.
Khamput, P. 2004. A study of compressive strength of con-
Europe crete using quarry dust as fine aggregate and mixing
According to European Standard EN12620 (2002), with admisture type E. Thailand: Department of Civil
definitions for concrete are given for: fine aggregates, Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology.
the smaller aggregate sizes with diameter less than Malagavelli, V., and Rao, P. N. 2010. High performance
concrete with GGBS and ROBO sand. International
or equal to 4mm. Fine aggregate can be produced Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 2(10),
from natural disintegration of rock or gravel and/ or 51075113.
by the crushing of rock or gravel or processing of NAHB research centre, 2001. Concrete Aggregate Substi-
manufactured aggregate. tutes: alternative aggregate materials. [Online]. Avail-
able at: http://www.toolbase.org/Technology-Inventory/
Australia Foundations/concrete-aggregate-substitutes [assessed 5
An amendment was made in 1998 to Standard June 2012]
Australia AS2758.1, which increased the acceptable OFlynn, M. L. 2000. Manufactured sands from hardrock
quarries: environmental solution or dilemma for southeast
level of <75 m size to 20% of the crushed fine aggre- Queensland? Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 47(1),
gate, in contrast to natural sand where the limit is 5%. 6573.
Raman, S. N., Safiuddin, M. & Zain, M. F. M. (2007).
Non-destructive evaluation of flowing concretes incorpo-
5 CONCLUSIONS rating quarry waste. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering
(Building and Housing), 8(6), 597614.
Natural river sand has played an important role in con- Safiuddin, M. D., Raman, S. N. & Zain, M. F. M. (2010).
crete production. Riverbeds have been over-excavated, Utilization of quarry waste fine aggregate. Leonardo
Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, July
which has caused serious environmental impact in
December (17).
many countries such as China and Indonesia. As a
result they have begun to cease exporting natural river

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

New insulating material: Binderless particleboard from durian peel

S. Charoenvai
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of
Technology Thanyaburi, Thanyaburi, Pathum Thani, Thailand

ABSTRACT: This study aims to develop a green alternative material for insulating products with good
energy conservation characteristics and to investigate the effectiveness of dried durian peel powder as binding
adhesive in particleboards in place of formaldehyde so as to reduce dependence on the hazardous in particleboard
manufacturing and thereby reducing its emission into the atmosphere. It was found that dried durian peel powder
could replace formaldehyde-based resin in particleboard manufacturing. This research studied the electron
structures and chemical composition of dried durian fiber and dried durian powder, both of which were used in
combination to produce the sample particleboards and the latter of which acted as the natural binder. The
performance of the particleboards was assessed in terms of physical properties, i.e., moisture content and
thickness swelling; and thermal property, i.e., thermal conductivity. The green particleboards, i.e. those made
from durian peel fiber and bound together with durian peel powder-based adhesive, have the advantages of
being a good energy conservation building material and of being formaldehyde-free, rendering them a suitable
alternative for indoor applications.

Keywords: Insulation Material, Thermal Conductivity, Scanning electron microscopy, Chemical composition

1 INTRODUCTION Table 1. Thermal conductivity and bulk density of certain

fruits (Khedari et al, 2002).
Agricultural waste utilization in building materials
with energy conservation properties is one promis- Thermal
ing alternative to meeting the challenges of disposing Bulk density conductivity
Types (kg/m3 ) (W/m K)
agricultural waste and to adding economic value to
such new building materials. Many research studies Pineapple 660 0.1149
(Asasutjarit et al, 2007, 2008, 2009) and (Khedari et al, Rambutan 636 0.1031
2002, 2003, 2004, 2005) experimented with various Durian 472 0.0921
raw materials and processes with the main emphasis on Young coconut 330 0.0779
finding the new materials with low thermal conductiv- Pummelo 670 0.1240
ity suitable for use in energy-saving buildings. A wide Mangosteen 580 0.1119
range of technologies have been employed to manu-
facture building materials from agricultural waste so
as to reduce dependence on natural wood and substi-
tute the building materials commercially available in and bulk density of certain fruit peels are shown in
the marketplace. Located in the tropical zone, Thailand Table 1.
can grow many kinds of fruits and therefore produces a Khedari et al (2002) found that coconut coir and
huge amount of fruit peels annually. Furthermore, agri- durian peel respectively have low thermal conductivity
cultural waste is anticipated to increase in the future, of 0.0779 W/m K and 0.0921 W/m K as shown in
and if we are unable to efficiently dispose of the agri- Table 1. Hence, Khedari et al (2002) could be regarded
culture waste, it will lead to social and environmental as Thai inventors who innovated the material with low
problems. The goal is thus to use agricultural waste thermal conductivity produced from coconut coir and
to manufacture energy-saving building materials with durian peel fibers.
low thermal conductivity so as to reduce heat transfer Khedari et al (2003) produced durian peel
into the building (Charoenvai, 2005), thereby decreas- particleboards using synthetic binders, i.e., Urea-
ing energy consumption of electrical appliances, e.g. Formaldehyde (UF), Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF), and
air conditioner, inside the building. By so doing, not Isocyanate. Formaldehye-based adhesives, such as UF
only is the operation cost of the business slashed but and PF resins, currently dominate the wood adhesive
the environment is protected. Thermal conductivity market. However, formaldehyde, regarded by many

Table 2. Chemical composition of durian fiber and durian

Durian Peel Durian Peel

Chemical Fiber Powder
Composition (%) (%)

Ash content 3.87 4.20

Alcohol-benzene solubility 22.0 18.9
Hot-water solubility 38.2 37.6
1% NaOH solubility 56.0 56.7
Lignin (ash corrected) 10.1 9.89
Holocellulose 48.6 47.2
Hemicellulose 10.2 9.63

Figure 1. Durian fruit (Top-Left), fresh durian peel

(Top-Right), dried durian peel (Bottom-Left) and dried durian
as a toxic air contaminant, is a human carcinogen fiber (Bottom-Right).
that causes nasopharyngeal cancer. Besides cancer-
causing hazard, exposure to formaldehyde causes
non-cancerous health problems, such as eye, nose,
and/or throat irritation (Hashim et al, 2011). Further-
more, formaldehyde emission and its non-renewable
nature have become a matter of increasing concern.
Environmentally-friendly adhesives from renewable
resources and free of formaldehyde therefore are now
being developed to replace the UF and PF binders
(Widsten and Kandelbauer, 2008). The objectives of
this study are to produce and evaluate the new insu-
lation material; binderless durian particleboards,
using durian peel powder as adhesive.

Figure 2. Durian peel powder (Left) and durian peel fiber
2.1 Chemical composition of durian peel, durian (Right).
peel fiber and durian peel powder
The results of chemical analysis of durian peel fiber was subsequently used as the natural adhesive. A 60-
and durian peel powder conducted according to the mesh sieve machine was also employed in removing
TAPPI standards are shown in Table 2. excess fines to obtain the durian peel fiber.
It can be seen from Table 2 that both durian peel
fiber and durian peel powder possess similar chemi-
cal composition and contain lignin and hemicellulose.
Durian peel fiber and durian peel powder have high 2.3 The electron structure of durian peel fiber and
1% NaOH solubility, which is hot alkali solution to durian peel powder
extract low-molecular-weight carbohydrates consist- The structure and shape of the natural fibers are
ing mainly of hemicellulose and degraded cellulose in important factors affecting fiber-based composites.
wood and pulp. Lignin, an aromatic amorphous sub- The scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation
stance containing phenolic methoxyl, hydroxyl and of the durian peel fibers is shown in Figure 3. The
other constituent groups, is a member of incrusting length and diameter of dried durian fibers are approx-
materials forming part of the cell wall and middle imately 2 mm and 300 m, respectively. The fiber cells
lamella in wood (TAPPI Standards). are linked together by means of middle lamellae, which
are made up of hemicelluloses and lignin. Hemicellu-
2.2 Durian peel powder and durian peel fiber lose consists of polysaccharides, mainly xylos; and is
preparation typically found in the middle lamella and the outer
layer of the fiber cell wall, i.e. the primary wall. The
Durian peel powder was prepared by first by cutting lignin is chiefly found in the middle lamella (Gram,
the fresh durian peel into smaller pieces of approxi- 1983).
mately chip size. The chip size pieces were oven-dried The electron micrograph of durian peel powder is
at 80 C for 8 h. and the dried durian peel chips were shown in Figure 4. As seen, the durian peel powder is
hammermilled. The milled chips were then sieved with not spherical but has irregular shapes and large surface
an 80-100-mesh screen for durian peel powder which areas.

Table 3. Mixing Ratio (Fiber: Powder:
Water) and Drying temperature.

Mixing Ratio
Board and Drying Temperature

1 1:1:1 (80 C)
2 1:1:1.5 (80 C)
3 2:1:1.5 (80 C)
4 2:1:2 (80 C)
5 1:1:1 (90 C)
6 1:1:1.5 (90 C)
7 2:1:1.5 (90 C)
8 2:1:2 (90 C)
9 1:1:1 (100 C)
10 1:1:1.5 (100 C)
Figure 3. SEM observation of the shredded durian peel 11 2:1:1.5 (100 C)
fibers (Magnified 30 X). 12 2:1:2 (100 C)

Figure 4. SEM observation of the durian peel powder

(Magnified 30 X).
Figure 5. Binderless particleboards from durian peel.
2.4 Particleboard preparation
The specimens were prepared by first weighing durian 3 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
peel fiber, durian peel powder and water according to
the ratios in Table 3 and mixing well. The blended par- 3.1 The physical and thermal properties
ticles were gradually, manually placed layer-by-layer The physical and thermal properties of the twelve par-
into a 250 mm 250 mm mould to form the final mats ticleboards are shown in Table 4. It was found that the
which were then pressed at a platen temperature of optimum mixing ratio (durian fiber: durian powder:
150 C. Pressure of 10001500 psi was applied to the water) was 2:1:1.5 with drying temperature of 100 C
boards. After the hot pressing, the boards were dried for 24 hr, of which the particleboards exhibited the best
for 24 h to completely cure before being trimmed and physical properties but lowest thermal conductivity.
cut into test specimens. Testing of the specimens was
afterward carried out to determine their physical and
thermal properties.
3.2 The electron structure of the binderless durian
particleboard at the optimum ratio of 2:1:1.5
2.5 Specimen preparation for testing
and drying temperature 100 C
Testing of specimens was carried out according to JIS
3.3 Comparison between UF, PF, and IC-based
A 5908-2003 (Japanese Industrial Standards, 2003)
particleboard and binderless particleboard
for physical properties, i.e., density, moisture content,
thickness swelling. Thermal conductivity of the parti- A comparison of density and thermal conductivity of
cleboards was measured using a thermal conductivity the particleboards with UF, PF or IC as adhesive and
analyzer NETZSCH Model HFM 436 Lamda accord- the binderless particleboards is shown in Table 5. As
ing to ASTM C 518 (American Society for Testing and seen in Table 5, the densities of the synthetic adhesive-
Materials). based particleboards are not different from that of the

Table 4. Physical and Thermal Properties of Particleboards. Table 5. Comparison between durian peel particleboards
using synthetic adhesives and durian peel powder-based
Moisture Thickness Thermal adhesive.
Density Content Swelling Conductivity
Board (g/cm3 ) (%) (%) (W/m K) Thermal
Types of Density Conductivity
1 0.76 19.96 70 0.110 Adhesives (g/cm3 ) (W/m K)
2 0.80 19.68 60 0.137
3 0.80 14.88 60 0.141 Urea
4 0.87 18.87 50 0.137 Formaldyhyde (UF) 0.907 0.1513
5 0.77 12.5 60 0.101 Phenol Formaldyhyde (PF) 0.822 0.1854
6 0.80 17.81 50 0.117 Isocyanate (IC) 0.881 0.1854
7 0.80 10.03 50 0.119 Durian Peel Powder-based 0.809 0.1090
8 0.75 13.36 50 0.088 adhesive (2:1:1.5 drying
9 0.80 8.39 40 0.084 temp at 100 C)
10 0.82 10.75 30 0.100
11 0.82 8.809 30 0.109
12 0.80 10.34 30 0.081
structures than the synthetic adhesive-based boards. In
addition, durian peel fiber and powder have high 1%
NaOH content. Self-bonding of binderless board can
be achieved by chemical activation reaction and phys-
ical consolidation of particles under applied heat and
pressure, in which the bonding takes place by cross-
linking carbohydrate polymers with lignin, resulting
in hydrogen bonding. As covalent bonding in synthetic
adhesive-based boards is stronger than hydrogen bond-
ing in binderless board, the formers strength indicates
that the atoms are difficult to separate. In addition,
the strong bonding is associated with efficient shar-
ing or transfer of electrons between the participating
atoms, giving rise to high thermal conductivity. As
such, the binderless boards is more ideal for energy-
saving buildings due to its low thermal conductivity
than the synthetic adhesive boards.

Figure 6. SEM observation of the binderless durian parti-

cleboard (Magnified 1000 X) (Surface). 4 CONCLUSION

It was found that dried durian peel powder could

replace formaldehyde-based resin as adhesive in
particleboard manufacturing. Compared with those
of the boards with synthetic-based adhesives, i.e.,
UF (0.1513 W/m K), PF (0.1854) and IC (0.1854),
the thermal conductivity of the board with durian
peel powder-based adhesive was significantly lower
(0.1090). The optimum mixing ratio (durian fiber:
durian powder: water) was 2:1:1.5 dried at 100 C for
24 hr. The obtained particleboards possessed the best
physical properties while yielding the lowest thermal
conductivity. Due to their low thermal conductivity
and thereby good energy conservation, the greater
use of the particleboards as a component in the con-
struction panels in the building industry should be
Figure 7. SEM observation of the binderless durian parti-
cleboard (Magnified 1000 X) (Cross Section).

binderless particleboards. However, the thermal con- The author would like to express sincere appreciation
ductivity value of the binderless particleboards is less to the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT)
than those of the synthetic adhesive-based particle- for the financial support of this research; and deep
boards because the binderless particleboards contain gratitude to Dr. Sorapong Pavasupree for his invaluable
a greater number of air voids in the supramolecular and useful suggestions.

REFERENCES Hashim, R., Nadhari, W., N., A., W., Sulaiman, O.,
Kawamura, F., Hiziroglu, S., Sato, M., Sugimoto, T.,
Asasutjarit, C., Charoenvai S., Hirunlabh J., Khedari J., Seng, T., G., Tanaka, R., 2011, Characterization of raw
2009 Materials and mechanical properties of pretreated materials and manufactured binderless particleboard from
coir-based green composites, Composites Part B: Engi- oil palm biomass, Material and Design, pp. 246254.
neering, Vol. 40, Iss. 7, pp. 633637. Khedari, J., Watsanasathaporn, P., Hirunlabh, J., 2005,
Asasutjarit, C., Charoenvai S*, Hirunlabh J., Khedari J., Development of fibre-based soil-cement block with low
2008,Effect of pretreatment on properties of coir-based thermal conductivity, Cement & Concrete Composites,
green composite, Advanced Materials Research, Vols. volume 27, Pages 111116.
4750, pp. 678681. Khedari, J., Nangkongnab, N., Hirunlabh, J. and Sombat
Asasutjarit, C., Hirunlabh J., Khedari J., Charoenvai S., Teekasap, 2004, New Low-Cost insulation particleboards
Zeghmati B., Cheul Shin U., 2007, Development of from mixture of durianpeel and coconut coir, Building
coconut coir-based lightweight cement board, Journal of and Environment, Vol. 39, pp. 5965.
construction and building materials, Volume 21, Issue 2, Khedari, J., Suttisonk, B., Pratintong, N., Hirunlabh, J. New
Pages 277288. Lightweight Composite Construction Materials with Low
Charoenvai, S, J. Khedari, J. Hirunlabh, C. Asasutjarit, B. Thermal Conductivity, Cement and Composites 2002; 23:
Zeghmati, D. Quenard and N. Pratintong, 2005, Heat and 6570.
moisture transport in durian fiber based lightweight con- Khedari, J.,Charoenvai, S. and Hirunlabh, J., 2003, New
struction materials, Journal of Solar Energy, Volume 78, insulating particleboards from durianpeel and coconut
Issue 4, April 2005, Pages 543553. coir Journal of Building and Environment, Vol. 38,
Gram, H. E., 1983, Durability Fibre reinforce concrete nat- Issue 3, pp. 435441.
ural fibres sisal coir, improvement durability, Swedish Widsten, P., Kandelbauer, A., 2008, Adhesion improvement
cement and concrete research institute, Stochkholm. of lignocellulosic products by enzymatic pre-treatment,
P.255. Biotechnology Advances. pp. 379386.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Durability of reactive powder concrete under the action of sulfate

dry-wet cycles

Y. Wang, M.Z. An & S. Han

School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China

ABSTRACT: Reactive Powder Concrete is suitable for the harsh service environment protective structure due
to its high density and less internal defects. After the sulfate dry-wet cycles, the compressive strength, flexural
strength and mass of Reactive Powder Concrete with different fiber contents of 1.0% and 1.5% are investingated
in complex environment. It is concluded that the compressive strength increases firstly and then decreases after
50 dry-wet cycles, the flexural strength presents decrease-increase-decrease phenomenon in 60 dry-wet cycles,
however, the changing value is very small. The maximum mass loss is 0.08% during the action of dry-wet cycle
60 times. In general, Reactive Powder Concrete presents good performance of resistance to sulfate erosion.

Keywords: Reactive Powder Concrete; Dry-wet cycles; Sulfate; Durability


As a new kind of cement-based composite material, 2.1 Materials

Reactive Powder Concrete has high mechanical prop-
42.5 ordinary portland cement (28d mortar strength:
erties, good ductility and satisfactory durability. The
55 MPa), silicon fume (SiO2 content: 82%), quartz
research on the durability of Reactive Powder Concrete
sand (Particle size: 0.160.25 mm), super plasticizer
is insufficient at present. The researches reported by
(Water-reducing rate: 29%), steel fiber (Diameter:
Bonneau etc. showed that the mass loss of two kinds of
0.22 mm, length: 1215 mm) and water are used in
Reactive Powder Concrete which were mixed by truck
the preparation of Reactive Powder Concrete. The mix
mixer and blender was very low under the action of
proportions are given in Table 1, steel fiber volume
freeze-thaw cycle and salt frozen, and it was far lower
fractions are 1.0% and 1.5% respectively.
than the standard requirement. The electric flux below
10 coulomb [1]; The researches by SONG ShaoMin
etc. showed that Reactive Powder Concrete has good
anti-carbonate, anti-chloride ion penetration, corro- 2.2 Methods
sion resistance and durability [2]; The study by SHI R1.0 and R1.5 were formed 100 mm 100 mm
HuiSheng etc. showed that the chloride permeability 100 mm specimens seven groups and 100 mm
of Slag Reactive Powder Concrete reduced with the 100 mm 400 mm specimens seven groups respec-
increase of slag powder content, fiber improved the tively, which are used for sulfate dry-wet cycles tests.
permeability performance [34]. In order to carry out the sulfate dry-wet cycles test
But in the current studies [17], the test methods are of damaged specimen, artificial preload was used
conventional durability methods that only considering to simulate the damage, the mixing proportion of
single factor, the research for the durability of Reac- damaged specimens was same with R1.5, which is
tive Powder Concrete under the coupling effect of the 40 mm 40 mm 160 mm, eight specimens of each
environmental factors (Such as: sulfate, freeze-thaw group. Damage is defined as the degradation process
cycles, damage, wet-dry cycles) has not been seen. of the material or structure caused by the develop-
In this research, we consider the coupling effect of ment of microscopic defects under the action of load
sulfate, dry-wet cycles, damage, and other factors. The and environment [8]. To improve the precision of the
compressive strength, flexural strength and mass of damage simulation and reduce the discreteness, com-
Reactive Powder Concrete under the action of sulfate pression test was used on five of the eight specimens
dry-wet cycles are investigated, which provides certain along the length direction, then five destructive load
reference for the life-time design of Reactive Powder values are measured, the average of these five results
Concrete structure. is the ultimate load value. Preload the rest of the three

Table 1. Mixing proportion of Reactive Powder Concrete Table 3. The results of compressive and flexural strength.
(kg/m3 ).
Compressive Flexural
Mixture Silica Quartz Steel Dry-wet strength (MPa) strength (MPa)
code Cement fume sand fiber Plasticize Water cycles
(times) R1.0 R1.5 R1.0 R1.5 D1.5
R1.0 706 160 1329 80 74 122
R1.5 706 160 1289 120 74 122 0 114.72 116.46 18.97 20.51 23.56
10 116.67 118.22 15.28 16.76 25.56
20 117.38 121.70 15.17 22.97 25.09
30 116.25 119.64 19.43 23.35 24.39
40 112.44 118.82 22.04 23.51 24.18
Table 2. The results of mass loss (%). 50 107.40 115.52 19.09 20.28
60 16.26 18.52
Dry-wet R1.0 R1.5
cycles D1.5
(times) Cube Prism Cube Prism Prism

0 3.2 Results analysis

10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
20 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
3.2.1 The analysis of mass loss results
30 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 Through a general analysis of Table 3, it is seen that
40 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 R1.0 and R1.5 Reactive Powder Concrete which steel
50 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 fiber mixing content is 1.0% and 1.5%, for R1.5 cube
60 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 and prism specimens after 060 dry-wet cycles, their
mass loss are 0.00%. The mass loss of R1.0 cube speci-
mens is 0.00%, but the mass of prism specimens begins
to decline after 10 dry-wet cycles. The mass loss after
dry-wet cycle 20 times, 30 times, 40 times is 0.01%,
specimens with 80% of the ultimate load to simulate 0.08% and 0.08% respectively, the mass loss reduces
damage, get the damaged specimens which mixture to 0.05% after 50 dry-wet cycles, and the value after
code is D1.5. 60 cycles is only 0.02%. The change rule is that rise
The sulfate dry-wet cycle period is 24 hours: The first and then drop. The mass loss of D1.5 specimens
specimens are soaked in 5% sodium solution for after dry-wet cycle 040 times is 0.00%.
12 0.5 h, natural drying for 12 0.5 h. The mass is For R1.0 specimens, prism specimens surface-to-
measured after each cycle using mass loss test. The volume ratio is 45 (1/m), cube specimens surface-to-
compressive strength and flexural strength are deter- volume ratio is 60 (1/m), because the cube specimens
mined when the dry-wet is cycle 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, surface-to-volume ratio is greater than prism speci-
50 and 60 times respectively. Strength test is done mens, its surface crystallization is greater than prism,
according to GB/T50081 requirements, the corrosion thus its mass loss is less than prism, and they are all
resistance coefficient of compressive strength and 0.00%.
flexural strength is calculated according to GB/50082. The mass loss of R1.0 prism specimens after dry-
wet cycle 10 times is 0.00%, mainly because the sur-
face crystal and mass loss was in a balance. The mass
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS loss is 0.01% after dry-wet cycles 20 times. The sulfate
has begun to crystallize when dry-wet cycle is 10 to
3.1 Results 20 times. The crystal substance filled the pore in the
surface of Reactive Powder Concrete, but the mass of
3.1.1 The results of mass loss crystal substance was less than the loss of the speci-
The results of mass loss of R1.0 and R1.5 under sulfate mens mass. So the mass loss increases to 0.08% when
dry-wet cycle 0 time, 10 times, 20 times, 30 times, dry-wet cycle is 30 times, this may be because of the
40 times, 50 times, 60 times and the results of mass continuous accumulation of crystal substance, crys-
loss of D1.5 under sulfate dry-wet cycle 0 time, 10 tallization pressure increased, and the internal pore
times, 20 times, 30 times, 40 times are given in Table of Reactive Powder Concrete was rarely, crystalliza-
2. tion pressure began to have an effect on it. The result
was that it produced certain damage in the surface
3.1.2 The results of compressive strength and of Reactive Powder Concrete, its mass reduced, and
flexural strength compressive strength decreased.
The results of compressive and flexural strength of The mass loss still maintains at 0.08% when dry-
R1.0 and R1.5 after sulfate dry-wet cycle 0 time, 10 wet cycles reach 40 times, it may be because the mass
times, 20 times, 30 times, 40 times, 50 times, 60 times reduced due to the damage and the mass increased due
and the results of flexural strength of D1.5 after sulfate to the crystal substance were keeping in a balance.
dry-wet cycle 0 time, 10 times, 20 times, 30 times, With the increase of the dry-wet cycles, the internal
40 times are given in Table 3. pore of Reactive Powder Concrete increased, a great

Table 4. Corrosion resistance coefficient of compressive
strength (%).

cycle times 10 20 30 40 50

R1.0 101.74 102.35 101.39 97.99 93.64

R1.5 101.46 104.46 102.66 101.97 99.14

Figure 1. The compressive strength of the specimens.

amount of crystal substance was accumulated, and the

mass reduced due to the damage was less than the
mass increased due to crystal substance, mass loss is
reduced, 60 times reduces to 0.02%.

3.2.2 The analysis of compression strength results

The compressive strength of the R1.0 and R1.5 speci-
mens according to the dry-wet cycle times are shown
in Figure 1, compressive strength corrosion resistance
coefficient results are shown in Table 4.
Through an overall investigation of Figure 1, it is
seen that with the increase of dry-wet cycle times, the Figure 2. The flexural strength of the specimens.
compressive strength of R1.0 and R1.5 specimens first
increases, then decreases. The compressive strength of [9]. The Reactive Powder Concrete has good sulfate
R1.0 specimens increases from dry-wet cycle 0 time corrosion resistance. The compressive strength of R1.5
to 20 times, the value is 114.72 MPa at 0 time and specimens decreases by 0.86%, and R1.0 specimens
increases to 117.38 MPa at 20 times. After 20 dry- decreases by 6.36%.
wet cycles the compressive strength began to drop, the It is concluded that the durability of Reactive Pow-
value at 30 times, 40 times, 50 times are 116.25 MPa, der Concrete with 1.5% steel fiber mixing content is
112.44 MPa, 107.40 MPa, respectively. The compres- obviously better than the Reactive Powder Concrete
sion strength of R1.5 specimens also increases from with 1.0% steel fiber mixing content. The steel fiber
0 to 20 dry-wet cycles, the value is 116.46 MPa at number in unit volume is more for Reactive Powder
0 time, and increase to 121.70 MPa at 20 times. The Concrete which steel fiber mixing content is 1.5%,
compressive strength begins to drop, after 20 times, 30 the restriction effect produced by steel fiber is more
times, 40 times, 50 times, the values are 119.64 MPa, apparent, its durability is higher.
118.82 MPa, and 115.52 MPa, respectively.
This may be mainly because the sulfate began to 3.2.3 The analysis of flexural strength results
crystallize at the early stage of dry-wet cycles, and the The flexural strength of R1.0 and R1.5 specimens with
crystal substance filled the pore in the surface layer of the increase of dry-wet cycle times are shown in Fig-
Reactive Powder Concrete which made the concrete ure 2, flexural strength corrosion resistance coefficient
much denser. As a result, the compressive strength results are given in Table 5. And the flexural strength
began to increase. With the increase of dry-wet cycle of D1.5 specimens with the increase of dry-wet cycle
times, crystal substance was accumulated. However, times is also given in Figure 3.
the pore in Reactive Powder Concrete was rare, and According to the Figure 2, flexural strength of
then crystallization pressure acted on the pore wall, R1.0 and R1.5 specimens presents reduce-increase-
which made the Reactive Powder Concrete damaged reduce phenomenon along with the dry-wet cycles. For
and the compressive strength reduced. R1.0 specimens flexural strength gradually reduces to
Through the analysis of the compressive strength 15.17 MPa from 0 time to 20 times, then gradually
corrosion resistance coefficient, it is seen that the increases to 22.04 MPa from 20 times to 40 times,
values of compressive strength changes little. The and reduces gradually to 16.26 MPa from 40 times
compressive strength corrosion resistance coefficients to 60 times. The flexural strength of R1.5 specimens
of R1.0 and R1.5 are 93.64% and 99.14% after 50 dry- from 20.51 MPa at 0 time decreases to 16.76 MPa at
wet cycles. The test results by LiFuHai etc. showed that 10 times, then increases gradually from 10 times to
the compressive strength corrosion resistance coeffi- 40 times, 40 times reaches 23.51 MPa, 40 times to
cient of C30 concrete was 64% after 50 dry-wet cycles 60 times gradually reduces to 18.52 MPa. But flexural

Table 5. Corrosion resistance coefficient of flexural filled the pore and the crack, the flexural strength
strength (%). increased. The crystallization pressure increased with
the continue accumulating of crystal substance, and
Dry-wet the crack develops, the flexural strength decreased.
Through a general analysis of Table 5, it can be seen
times 10 20 30 40 50 60
that dry-wet cycles have a great influence on the flexu-
R1.0 80.52 79.93 102.39 116.17 100.64 85.71 ral strength of Reactive Powder Concrete. The flexural
R1.5 81.71 111.98 113.87 114.63 98.90 90.29 strength of R1.0 and R1.5 specimens decreases at 10
D1.5 108.94 106.85 105.50 97.65 dry-wet cycles, and it achieves the maximum flexu-
ral strength at 40 cycles, which increases by 16.17%
and 14.63% respectively. The flexural strength of D1.5
specimens began to decrease at 40 dry-wet cycles, but
the change is not big, reduces by 2.35%. The flexural
strength of R1.5 specimens reduces by 9.71% after the
action of 60 dry-wet cycles, but the flexural strength of
R1.0 specimens reduces by 14.29%. The sulfate ero-
sion resistance of Reactive Powder Concrete with steel
fiber mixing content 1.5% is better than that of steel
fiber mixing content is 1.0%.


(1) The mass loss of Reactive Powder Concrete which

steel fiber mixing is 1.0% and 1.5% is close to
0.00%, and its maximum is 0.08% after 60 sulfate
dry-wet cycles.
(2) The compressive strength of Reactive Powder
Figure 3. The flexural strength variation of D1.5. Concrete first increases then decreases under the
action of 50 sulfate dry-wet cycles, but the change
strength of the D1.5 specimens presents increase- is small, the compressive strength corrosion resis-
reduce phenomenon in the process of dry-wet cycles. tance coefficients are close to 100%. Reactive
23.56 MPa at 0 time, increases to 25.56 MPa at 10 Powder Concrete has a remarkable performance
times, reduces to 24.18 MPa from 10 times to 40 times. for sulfate corrosion resistance.
For R1.0 or R1.5 the flexural strength change rule has (3) The flexural strength of Reactive Powder
an obvious difference with D1.5. Concrete presents reduce-increase-reduce phe-
The reason is that in the early stage of dry- nomenon under the action of 60 sulfate dry-wet
wet cycles, there was crystal substance produced cycles, they all reaches the maximum at 40 times,
in the surface layer of Reactive Powder Concrete, increases by 16.17% and 14.63% respectively, and
while the crystallization pressure was not enough to the change is larger. However, the flexural strength
make the Reactive Powder Concrete cracked, but it of damaged Reactive Powder Concrete increases
truly influenced the adhesion between steel fiber and first then decreases under the action of sulfate
matrix, matrix and aggregate. For Reactive Powder dry-wet cycles, it presents an obvious difference.
Concrete the adhesion between steel fiber and matrix The impact of sulfate solution to Reactive Powder
has an obvious influence on the flexural strength, so Concrete flexural strength should not be ignored.
the flexural strength decreased. The crystal substance (4) The Reactive Powder Concrete which steel fiber
increased with the continuation of dry-wet cycles, and mixing content is 1.5% is better than that the steel
the interaction between the matrix and crystal sub- fiber mixing content is 1.0% in sulfate erosion
stance has formed, the crystallization pressure still resistance performance.
was not enough to make the Reactive Powder Concrete
cracked, so the flexural strength increased. While crys-
tal substance increase continuously, it produced great REFERENCES
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Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

The new conception of rare earth compounds used as asphalt modifier

Haixiao, Rui Fu, Ruisheng Hu, Shumin Zhang & Minchao Zhang
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China

ABSTRACT: In the view of the destructions of present asphalt pavement, government authorities and paving
contractors seek to improve road life in the face of increased traffic. Herein, we simply analysis the existing
modifiers and sum up their advantages and disadvantages, based on this, we propose new conceptions of modified
asphalt of rare earth compounds and fly ash. In addition, we also compare them with other modifiers at the end
of this article.

Keywords: asphalt; modifier; rare earth compound; fly ash


Bitumen is a natural derivative of distillation of crude 2.1 Synthetic polymerstyrenebutadienestyrene

oil, which is particularly suitable as a binder for road block (SBS)
construction. Now asphalt has been widely used as
SBS copolymer is one of the most widely used poly-
pavements building (Gonzlez et al. 2004). Unfortu-
mers in the preparation of modified asphalts (Chunfa
nately, high-temperature rutting and low temperature
2005). Studies show (Airey 2003, Haiying 2007) that
cracking of asphalt cement or coating layer, due
the physical and rheological properties of asphalt are
to severe temperature susceptibility, limit its further
improved by means of SBS copolymer modification
application (Feng et al. 2011). In addition, the increase
and SBS can contribute to asphalt strength and elastic
in traffic loading and the number of vehicles together
properties in a wide range of temperature by blend-
with the adverse environmental conditions conduce
ing SBS with asphalt. But several issues of polymer
to a rapid structural damage of pavements (Larsen
modifiers, such as high cost and finite asphalt perfor-
et al. 2009). To deal with these situations, a modi-
mance improvement, have limited the production and
fied bitumen should be used in paving applications.
application of these kinds of modifiers (Changqing
Hence, different blends of bitumen with a large vari-
ety of materials have been studied. Among them,
Unfortunately, SBS is destined to separate from the
synthetic polymers seem to be the ones that have
asphalt when stored at high temperature and the high
worked outstandingly, due to the fact that polymer
economic cost of its limit the applications in the road
addition may result in both a more flexible bituminous
binder at low in-service temperature and enhanced
properties, which significantly prevent the pavement
from being deformed at in-service high temperature
2.2 Waste plasticsethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)
(Garca-Morales et al. 2006). In spite of the small pro-
portion of synthetic polymer added to the binder, the Presently, packaging materials have brought seri-
high cost of those materials may cut down the use of ous environmental problems when making significant
modified bitumen in the road building and synthetic contributions to economic development. Plastics are
polymers are tend to separate from the asphalt when the main packaging materials and the white pollutions
stored at high temperature, which is the major obsta- (Changqing et al. 2012). Now, it is widely using the
cle to the application of synthetic polymer-modified ethylene (vinyl acetate) copolymer (EVA) as the modi-
asphalts for paving. But the rare earth compounds have fier to improve the properties of asphalt. Studies show
a good compatibility with polymers and have strong that EVA can improve the performance of asphalt road
absorption features, so do fly ash. For that reason, we (Airey 2002). But EVA shows a lower susceptibility
proposed the concept to use rare earth compounds and to temperature, have a tendency to separate from the
fly ash as asphalt modifiers. asphalt when stored at high temperature, which is the

major obstacle to the application of EVA-modified Preparation and characterization of nano rare earth
asphalts in paving. compounds (CeO2 ).
Preparation of modified asphalts with different
blending ratios of nano rare earth compounds.
2.3 Montmorillonite (MMT) Measurement and comparison of modified bitu-
men and asphalt pavement performance.
Recently, nanomaterials have emerged to be promising Determination of the optimum mix proportion of
candidates for modifier due to their magical surface, nano rare earth compounds in modifiers.
volume, quantum size and macroscopic quantum tun-
neling effects (Changqing et al. 2012). It has been well Through a number of characterization methods to
recognized that montmorillonite (MMT), which has a determine the mechanism of nano rare earth com-
fairly large aspect ratio, intriguing multiscale struc- pounds in modifiers for pavement, such as XRD, SEM
ture and low cost, could be used to improve properties and Uv-DRS and so on.
of asphalt (Baochang et al. 2009). Presently, studies The nano rare earth compounds modifiers have
have shown that Nano montmorillonite is an effective following advantages through comparison with
method to improve the performances of asphalt. The modifiers mentioned above:
prominent features of MMT modified asphalt concrete Firstly, the atomic radius of the rare earth elements
are significant for prolonging the service life of asphalt is larger than the atomic radius of the asphalt, it is
pavement (Xinde 2011, Zhanping & Justin 2011). But easy to fill in the asphalt grain and defects, and gener-
so far, this technology is still immature. ate a membrane that can hinder the grains continue to
grow, so that the asphalt grain refinement to improve
the performance of asphalt (Airey 2002). Secondly, the
rare earth elements can absorb ultraviolet and infrared
radiation, adding rare earth compounds in asphalt can
greatly slow down the aging life of the asphalt pave-
ment (Airey 2002). Thirdly, the asphalt modified by
3.1 Rare earth compounds used as asphalt modifier
nano rare earth compounds modifier has particularly
Most asphalt molecules, primarily is consisting of good compatibility through mechanical mixing with
carbon and hydrogen, also contain one or more of physical diffusion and chemical diffusion occuring
the elements sulfur, nitrogen and/or oxygen. Within simultaneously, as a result, it can formed symmetri-
asphalt, heteroatoms typically replace carbon atoms in cal mixed system in the base asphalt. Fourthly, rare
the asphalt molecule; the interaction of heteroatoms earth modifier has strong absorption features. Mixed
and the hydrocarbons leads to the unique chemical with modifier, asphalt can be easily adsorbed on the
and physical properties of various asphalt mixtures. surface of the modifier particles, thus forming a bind-
Asphalt molecules are classified in two major frac- ing material with high viscosity and strong adsorption,
tions based on solubility. These fractions are the which combined bonded aggregate lead to forming a
asphaltenes and maltenes. Both the asphaltenes and high-strength asphalt pavement.
maltenes constitute the non-volatile high-molecular- Above all, rare earth compounds modified asphalt
weight fractions of petroleum. But the maltenes used in asphalt pavement not only enhance the adhe-
constitute the fraction of asphalt which is soluble in sion of mixture, the water stability, thermal stability,
n-alkane solvents such as pentane and heptane. The wear resistance and slip resistance of road surface, also
three basic types of molecules in asphalt are aliphatic, prevent the plastic flow of asphalt, reduce or eliminate
cyclic, and aromatic. these destructions caused by road weeping, squeezing,
Rare earth elements can react with carbon, hydro- rutting and so on.
gen, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen and other elements in To sum up the above arguments, application of rare
the asphalt and combine to form a high melting point earth modified asphalt in highways will has broad
compounds, also so far, rare earth compound as an market prospects.
asphalt modifier to improve the performance of asphalt
pavement are rarely reported in the literature and the
3.2 Fly ash used as asphalt modifier
related studies are few. At the same time, by compar-
isons with those above mentioned modifiers, we find Fly ash (FA) is a by-product generated during com-
that the rare earth compounds owning lower price and bustion of coal and has caused serious environmental
high economic benefits. So we propose the concep- concerns (White & Golden 2010). Thermal power
tion to use rare earth compounds as asphalt modifier. plants are the main sources for fly ash in China and
That is by using chemical method of preparing rare it have already reached about 30 percent in the total
earth compound as modifier, blending it into road coal-fired. FA produced in 2010 about 700 million
asphalt, and testing the performance of base asphalt tons, 2020 Chinas annual emissions for the fly ash and
and modified asphalt. We think blending rare earth the current total amount of already accumulated will
into asphalt can improve the thermal stability of the reach more than 30 tons, so rational utilization of fly
asphalt. The proposed experimental ideas of prepara- ash, to reduce the environmental and socio-economic
tion of Modifiers and test of modified asphalt (Xiao burden has become a pressing problem (Ruisheng
2010, Fu 2010): et al. 2012).

Usually, fly ash (FA) is utilized as a filler, for Changqing, F., 2009. Optimization of the Modification
example used as a silica replacement for reclaimed Technologies of Asphalt by Using Waste EVA From
rubber powder composite (Ramamurthy et al. 2009). Packaging. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology
Recently, as far as the moisture damage of asphalt 15(3), 199203.
Changqing, F., Ruien, Y. & Jingbo, H., 2012. Combined
pavements, scientists have studied out (Jun et al. 2012) modification of asphalt with polyethylene packaging
a filler which combined with coupling agent and fly waste and organophilic montmorillonite. Polymer Testing
ash, and it was named compound fly ash modifier 31(2012), 267281.
(CFAM), to solve the moisture damage of asphalt pave- Chunfa, O.Y., Shifeng, W., Yong, Z. & Yinxi Z., 2005.
ments and fly ash is a kind of valorization of waste. Preparation and properties of styrene-butadiene-estyrene
So we propose the conception to use fly ash as asphalt copolymer/kaolinite clay compound and asphalt modified
modifier to enhance the adhesion of mixture, the water with the compound. Polymer Degradation and Stability
stability, thermal stability, wear resistance and slip 87(2005), 309317.
resistance of road surface. Feng, Z., Jianying, Y. & Jun, H., 2011. Effects of thermal
oxidative ageing on dynamic viscosity, TG/DTG, DTA
The proposed experimental ideas of preparation of and FTIR of SBS-and SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.
modifiers and test of modified asphalt same as the rare Construction and Building Materials 25(1), 129137.
earth compounds modifier. Garca-Morales, M., Partal, P., Navarro.F.J. & Gallegos, C.,
The fly ash modifier has the following advantages 2006. Effect of waste polymer addition on the rheology of
through comparison with modifiers mentioned above: modi?ed bitumen. Fuel 85(78), 936943.
Firstly, fly ash has a good compatibility with poly- Gonzlez, O., Munoz. M.E., Santamaria, A., Garcia-Morales,
mers, so when blending it with asphalt, it can form M., Navarro. F.J. & Partal, P., 2004. European Polymer
symmetrical mixed system in the base asphalt. Sec- Journal 40(2004), 23652372.
ondly, fly ash has strong ability of selective absorption Haiying, F., 2007. Storage stability and compatibility of
asphalt binder modified by SBS graft copolymer. Con-
(Baoping et al. 2012), high strength (Palomo et al. struction and Building Materials 21(7), 15281533.
1999), and good thermal stability (Usta 2011). Thirdly, Jun, X., Shaopeng, W., Ling, P., Juntao, & L., Zuhuang, Z.,
preparation of modified asphalt of fly ash is a new 2012. Influence of surface treated fly ash with coupling
approach of comprehensive utilization with uncom- agent on asphalt mixturemoisture damage. Construction
plicated process, while the cost of economic is also and Building Materials 30, 340346.
rational. Fourthly, application of fly ash can not only Larsen, D.O., Alessandrini, J.L., Bosch, A. & Cortizo, M.S.
solve its accumulation problem also can protect the 2009. Micro-structural and rheological characteristics of
environment. Fifthly, utilization of fly ash is a mature SBS-asphalt blends during their manufacturing. Construc-
technology. tion and Building Materials 23(8), 27692774.
Palomo, A., Grutzeck, M.W. & Blanco, M.T., 1999. Alkali-
To sum up the above arguments, application of activated fly ashes: A cement for the future. Cement and
fly ash modified asphalt in highways will has broad Concrete Research 29 (1999), 13231329.
market prospects. Ramamurthy, K., Kunhanandan Nambiar, E. K. Indu Siva
Ranjani, G., 2009. A classification of studies on proper-
ties of foam concrete. Cement & Concrete Composites
ACKNOWLEDGMENT 31(2009), 388396.
Ruisheng, H., Yulin, L., & Yaqin, B., 2012. The basis of
This work was supported by 211 Engineering Inno- modern coal chemical industry.
vation Talents Training Project of Inner Mongolia Usta, M., 2011. Investigation of Fire Behavior of Rigid
Polyurethane Foams Containing Fly Ash and Intumes-
University. cent Flame Retardant by Using a Cone Calorimeter. Wiley
Online Library 124(4), 33723382.
White, P. & Golden, J.S., 2010. Modeling climate change
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Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

The application technology of warm mix of ultra-thin cover face

in urban road maintenance

Yuanyuan Li, Xiaoyan Song, Jianyong Sun & Yapeng Zhang

Tianjin Municipal & Highway Engineering Research Institute, Tianjin, China

Yanchun Li
Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, China

ABSTRACT: Described the comprehensive advantages combination of the Warm mix of ultra-thin cover faces
characteristics; makes the mix design of the Warm mix of ultra-thin cover face, and compared to verify the high
temperature performance, low temperature performance and water stability with the Hot mix of ultra-thin cover
face; finally, based on the test road project, summed up the mix of ultra-thin cover faces construction technology,
and confirmed by testing that its skid resistance and water permeability is well. Warm mix of ultra-thin cover
face adapted to the new era of urban road construction and maintenance needs, should be promoted.

1 INTRODUCTION of the environment, and reduce the health hazard of

urban road surrounding residents and staff body[4] ;
Ultra-thin cover face of which used for pavement (2) Because of the mixing lower temperature, stone
preventive maintenance or mild, moderate disease of and bitumen heating temperature reduced, which
surface treatment, can realize the recovery of the anti- used to heat the fuel costs can drop about
sliding pavement performance, improve quality, cor- 20%50%, and the mechanical consumption is
rection driving surface defects, increase safety features also the corresponding drop.
(including improve sliding and drainage), reducing (3) Using warm mix of ultra-thin cover face the advan-
noise and increase the intensity of the roadfunction[1] . tage of thin,can make up for warm mix asphalt
Warm mix asphalt technology is a technology that mixture due to add heating mix agent at the same
between hot mix asphalt mixture and cold mix asphalt time introducing partial moisture content is not
mixture technology. In the same composition design easy to notch and affect performance defect;
conditions, by adding warm mix agent,realize mixing (4) Solve traditional asphalt road surface easy cooling,
temperature lower about 30 C, and asphalt mixture go against compaction, thin asphalt road surface
quality (using performance) dont fall[23] . structure function cover fully guarantee;
Warm mix of ultra-thin cover face technology is an (5) Warm mix of ultra-thin cover faces temperature is
organic combination of the warm mix asphalt technol- lower rolling after completing, can quickly open
ogy and Ultra-thin cover face technolog, it is a new the traffic (will be able to resume traffic about 20
pavement maintenance technology up development minutes after the paving), reduce the construction
in last two years. Application warm mix of ultra- work of urban traffic interference;
thin cover face technology can effectively improve (6) Warm mix of ultra-thin cover face of technology
the way-use performance and surface function of city with low heat emissions, can reduce the quantity
road, meet the new period urban road construction and of heat of the whole citys total emissions, alle-
maintenance needs. viate the increasingly serious urban heat island
effect, be helpful for maintaining the city thermal
2 COMPREHENSIVE ADVANTAGES OF environment of the healthy balanced.
Warm mix of ultra-thin cover face can play two techni-
cal superiority in a body, form a kind of comprehensive
Based on the surface active agent,the mixture ratio
technology advantagelow carbon emissions, energy
design of warm mix of ultra-thin cover face do not
saving, environmental protection, economic, easy to
need to independently initiate a new set of mix design
realize. Specific lie in the following aspects:
system, warm mix of ultra-thin cover face with the
(1) Reduce the emissions of CO2 , SO2 , asphalt smoke, mixing hot mix of ultra-thin cover face the same
harmful gas, dust emissions, reduce the pollution asphalt mixture ratio design method.

Table 1. UTA-10 gradation each screen hole passing (%).

Sieve holes (mm) 13.2 9.5 6.7 4.75 2.36 1.18 0.6 0.3 0.15 0.075

Gradation cap 100 100 50 40 36 30 25 20 12 8

Gradation median 100 90 40 30 27 22 17.5 13.5 9 6
Gradation floor 100 80 30 20 18 14 10 7 6 4

Table 2. UTA-10 Marshall test results of asphalt mixture.

Oil stone ratio Gross volume VV VMA VFA Stability Flow value
Serial number (%) relative density (%) (%) (%) (kN) (0.1 mm)

1 4.5 2.429 7.3 17.5 58.1 9.6 35.6

2 5.0 2.450 5.8 17.2 66.1 10.4 37.4
3 5.5 2.473 4.3 16.8 74.6 11.2 38.2
4 6.0 2.481 3.2 16.9 80.9 10.9 41.6
5 6.5 2.494 2.0 16.8 88.1 10.7 48.2

3.1 The materials and technology raw material

The selection of raw materials is one of the key
links to influence the performance of asphalt mix-
ture. Through the strict screening for raw materials
and comprehensive detection, the final determination
of basic raw materials are PG76-22 the SBS mod-
ified asphalt, 510 mm basalt coarse aggregate in
zhangjiakou, 03 mm basalt fine set in zhangjiakou
and tianjin jixians limestone ore powder, and inspec-
tion results show that the above materials conform to
the standard requirements.
Warm mix additives is active surface agent.

3.2 Mixture gradation design

Warm mix of ultra-thin asphalt concrete mixture as
surface layer, demand to has a good performance
against sliding, coarse aggregate gradation is broken
open type on the one hand has the gradation struc-
ture, so good prevent slippery minimization of noise
performance; In addition, its composition structure is
close-grained structure, so it is also a good waterproof
properties. Combining with the function and structure
thickness characteristic, this study chooses UTA-10
aggregate gradation. In order to ensure the accuracy
of the test results, mineral mixture gradation design
Figure 1. Marshall test parameters with oil-stone ratio
all take the water of the single particle size after dry- variation curve.
ing aggregate. The aggregate gradation composition is
shown in table 1. mixture mixing process of asphalt spray 35 seconds
delay, then began to gush into the mix agent, warm
mix agent of time control in spray 810 seconds or
3.3 The optimum proportion determined
less, and must ensure that the asphalt spraying com-
By Marshall design method, ascertain the optimum pleted before the end of the warm mix agent spraying,
proportion of warm mix of ultra-thin cover faces including warm mix agent: asphalt content in 5%:
asphalt. The specimen processing conditions: double 95%15%: 85% of scope.
compaction 75 times; the asphalt mixture mixing tem- UTA-10 asphalt mixture test results were see table 2.
perature is 130140 C, the compaction temperature is Marshall test parameters with the change of the Oil
120130 C; And as the conventional heat mix asphalt stone ratio is shown in figure 1.

Table 3. UTA-10 type of asphalt mixture performance verifying test results.

Remnants stability Freeze-thaw splitting Dynamic stability Rut depth Flexural strain
Mixture types (%) strength ratio (%) (times/mm) (mm) ()

WMA UTA-10 99.9 87.2 3927 1.759 1579

HMA UTA-10 98.5 85.4 1530 1.893 895.6

Research using 4.5% as UTA-10 ultra-thin asphalt 5.1 Construction craft

mixture Objective void. From the figure 1 can see,
Based on the Highway asphalt pavement construc-
in the asphalt content range, density does not appear
tion technology standard (JTG F50-2004) and the
peak, therefore, the target porosity 4.5% correspond-
technique characteristics, through the experimental
ing asphalt-aggregate ratio 5.4% as OAC1 , and all the
sections summarizes in construction, its basic con-
indexes meet the technical standard pitch range from
struction procedure is as follows:
5.2% to 5.9%, therefore, OAC2 = (5.2% + 5.9%)/2 =
5.55%, comprehensive consideration of the OAC1 and (1) Located in paving the road for related to before
OAC2 , choose 5.5% as UTA-10 of the the optimum index detection, milling planer later, with cutting
proportion of asphalt mixture. machine to pit slot outside edge nap, avoid the
(2) Production warm asphalt mixture, control with
agent in asphalt content of 5%15% and control of
4 COMPARISON TEST AND VERIFY OF spray agent time in 810 seconds or less, and must
WARM MIX OF ULTRA-THIN COVER ensure that the asphalt spraying completed before
FACES PERFORMANCE the end of the agent spraying, asphalt mixtures
mixing temperature between 130140 C.
In order to validate the rationality of warm mix ultra- (3) Clean the original road surface, spray sticky layer,
thin cover faces mixing ratio design, research the then pave the warm mix ultra-thin asphalt concrete.
high temperature stability, the low temperature crack (4) Paving with non-contact balance beam control
resistance and water stability properties under the opti- mode. Paver screed must joining together closely,
mum of the gradation and the optimum proportion of forbid to entities aperture, prevent the grain of
asphalt[5] . At the same time, comparative validate the material pull out stripe pavement. Paving speed
performance with the hot mix ultra-thin cover faces for 3 to 4 m/min.
under the same gradation and asphalt proportion. (5) The initial rolling temperature control is 120
Research use low-temperature bending test, rutting 130 C, the second rolling temperature control is
test, retain Marshall test remnants stability experi- 90110 C, eventually rolling temperature control
ment and freeze-thaw splitting test to evaluate the is 6090 C, complete rolling temperature control
performance. Performance test data is shown in is 5060 C.
table 3. (6) The compaction paver exits, the road temperature
Performance test results showed that: (1) warm dropped to below 50 C, painting line, the road
mix ultra-thin cover faces high and low temperature without overloading of the car in case, can open
performance and water stable performance index is up the traffic.
good, meet with the warm ultra-thin cover way-use
performance requirements. (2) warm mix ultra-thin
cover faces high temperature performance is superior
than hot mix asphalt mixture,and other performances 5.2 Application effect
are equal.
After construction warm mix of the of ultra-thin cover
face, direct visual observation of the results: roller
compaction line is in the same basic elevation with the
5 PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF WARM MIX original road, the surface is close-grained, no shine,
OF ULTRA-THIN COVER FACE scratches and wheel track phenomenon; The longi-
tudinal and transverse crack cohesion smooth, color
In order to verify with the reality application effect uniform appearance; And other installations cohesion
of the warm ultra-thin cover, combined with the tian- smooth, no pollution; rough surface, no threshing, no
jin urban road maintenance plan, take a city road of take off the piece of phenomenon.
tianjin as the test road for a warm mix ultra-thin cover In addition, choose a stage 20 observation point
face maintenance, through the construction and testing to detect the slide resistant properties and permeable
for observation, detection, determined the warm mix performance in the different timeconstruction just
ultra-thin cover face special construction technology, completed finished and open the traffic in 30 days[68] ,
and make the test evaluation to its effect. the test results shown in table 4 and figure 2.

Table 4. Warm mix of ultra-thin cover face detection data. (2) Production temperature of the warm mix of ultra-
thin cover face must be strictly controlled: mixing
Tectonic Set Permeability temperature is 130140 C, the second rolling
Project depth value coefficient temperature is 90110 C, eventually rolling tem-
detection (mm) (BPN) (ml/min)
perature is 6090 C, complete rolling tempera-
ture is 5060 C.
Before construction 0.58 45 46
Construction just 1.19 50 24 (3) After paving the warm mix of ultra-thin cover face,
completed the slide resistant properties and permeable perfor-
Open the traffic in 30 days 1.08 49 22 mance are improved, and attenuation lesser after
open the traffic in 30 days
(4) The warm mix of ultra-thin cover face can play
two technical superiority in an organic whole,
have low carbon emissions, energy saving, envi-
ronmental protection, economic, easy to realize
comprehensive technical advantage.
(5) The warm mix of ultra-thin cover face has signif-
icant social and economic benefits, adapted to the
new time city road construction and maintenance

Figure 2. Warm mix of ultra-thin cover face detection data REFERENCES

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stability are equal.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Studies of construction quality based on distributed fiber optic monitoring

of mass concrete

Feng Jin
State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
College of Hydraulic & Environmental Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China

ABSTRACT: Temperature control of concrete in heavy construction is one of the key factors to determine
construction quality and progress. Using the construction of a large hydropower project in summer hot weather
as a case study, this research focused on the real-time online monitoring and feedback analysis of concrete
conservation status and new and old concrete interfaces temperature changes using distributed optical fibers.
During the concrete pouring process, drastic temperature changes can lead to the shrinkage of concrete and cause
tensile stress at concentrated areas between new and old concrete interface, resulting in project quality risks.
Monitoring data and analyzing results provide a basis for optimizing the construction design.

Keywords: Distributed fiber optic monitoring; Construction quality; Mass concrete

1 INTRODUCTION temperature measurement technology. Authors of this

paper participated in the planning and implementation
Currently, when construction firms carry out heavy of this new technology in the project. More than three
construction projects during the summer hot weather, years of practice demonstrated that the technology is
the common concern is pouring temperature control feasible and effective with satisfactory temperature
and maintenance. Few studies have been done to eval- control outcomes. It also helps to reduce the temper-
uate the early impact of pouring low-temperature fresh ature control costs. The application of optical fiber
concrete onto the underlying and the surrounding older temperature measurement technology in this project
concrete. Risk assessment has been lacking regarding has achieved great economic benefits and is one of
the formation of local cracks triggered by the concen- the most successful examples to use the technology to
tration of local tensile stress which in turn was caused control concrete temperature in dam construction.
by drastic temperature difference between new and old At the project location, under the hot weather in
concrete. In fact, measures to lower the pouring tem- summer sunlight, the surface temperature of pouring
perature mainly through controlling the temperature positions typically goes up to 35 C. The aggregate pre-
rise from heat of hydration can lead to cold shock to cooling is one of most important temperature control
the older concrete. The reality is, when the tempera- measures for concrete pouring in hot seasons. Accord-
ture difference reaches 1220 C, the resulting tensile ing to design requirements for dam construction,
stress is sufficient to cause fully constrained concrete the pouring concrete placing temperature in summer
to break apart[1] . Current technique for pouring sur- should be 9 C and the pouring temperature should be
face conservation is to use rotating sprinkler. However, 11 C. Apparently, pouring 11 C concrete on top of
during hot summer days, water evaporation is fast the older layer is equivalent to the old concrete suffer-
and the rotating sprinkler conservation method in ing a sudden drop in temperature (or cold shock). At
extreme hot weather cannot meet the deck insulation this point, the old concrete surface temperature drop
requirements. In this paper, we studied the hot summer in a short period is so dramatic that creep of con-
weather deck maintenance issues as well as cold shock crete cannot be achieved, thus increasing the risk of
caused by temperature change through the use of fiber cracking.
optic thermometry.
A river dam for a hydropower hub station employs
a concrete hyperbolic arch type construction with 2 THE FUNDAMENTALS OF DISTRIBUTED
around 560 104 m3 of concrete. It was difficult to FIBER OPTIC TEMPERATURE
control the concrete temperature due to high con- MEASUREMENT
struction intensity. This project utilized optical fiber
temperature measurement technology (line temper- Distributed fiber optic temperature measurement sys-
ature measurement) to partially replace the point tem (also known as DTS) usually consists of a laser

Figure 1. The optical fibersbased temperature measure-
ment mechanism.
Figure 2. Fiber elevation layout diagram below the 16#26
bin surface (Figure AG each point should avoid small angle
light source, a sensing fiber (cable), and a detec-
tion unit which is an automated monitoring system[2] .
light and Stokes light and temperature is shown in
Temperature measurements using this system are
equation (2).
based on the backward scattering principle when light
is transmitted through optical fibers, i.e. when a cer-
tain energy and width of the laser pulses is introduced
into optical fibers, the laser pulses can travel along
the optical fibers while continuing to generate back-
ward scattering light waves. The state of these light where as = Anti-Stokes light; s = Stokes light;
waves is affected by the temperature change at the a = temperature correlation coefficient; h = Planck
optical scattering point. After the scattering light was coefficient (J s); c = speed of light in vacuum (m/s);
wavelength division multiplexed, detected and demod- = Raman shift (m1 ); k = Boltzmann constant (J/k);
ulated, it is fed into the signal processing system which t = absolute temperature.
transforms temperature signals to real-time probability According to equation (2) and the ratio between
of concrete cracking. Thus, distributed optical fibers Stokes light and the Anti-Stokes light, the temperature
can be used to conduct real-time online monitoring and can be calculated in equation (3).
feedback analysis of cold shock process when fresh
concrete is poured to pouring position[3] . The informa-
tion can be displayed and located by the transmission
speed of light waves in the fiber and back echo time.
The fiber optic temperature measurement system
launches a bunch of fiber pulsed light. This pulsed
light will travel at the speed slightly lower than the
speed of light in vacuum, while emitting scattering 3 THE EXPERIMENTS BETWEEN THE NEW
light to the surrounding[4] . Part of the scattering light AND OLD CONCRETE INTERFACE
will travel along the fiber and return to the incident MEASURED BY DISTRIBUTED OPTICAL
side, as shown in Figure 1. FIBERS AND RESULTS ANALYSIS
Measure the time between the incident point and
the reflected light T , as well as the distance between 3.1 Experimental scheme
the incident point of scattering light and the launch
point X , such as equation (1). This experiment uses four rows of steel framework fab-
ricated on site. After the steel framework was banded
with optical fibers as shown in Figure 2, 3, it was laid
vertically underneath the concrete surface of Position
26 of Section 16# (below referred to as 16#26).
In Figure 2, temperature-measuring optical fibers
were arranged longitudinally in 4 layers. They are
where C = speed of light in the fiber; C = C0 /n; below the 16#26 surface by 0.1 meters, 0.3 meters,
C0 = speed of light in vacuum; n = refractive index 0.5 meters, and 0.7 meters, respectively. On each layer
of the fiber. effective temperature can be measured 4 meters long.
Among the light reflected back into the incident Based on the characteristics of temperature-sensing
side, there is a type known as the Raman scatter- optical fibers, 34 temperatures may be taken and
ing light. The Raman scattering light contains two average temperature was calculated at each layer.
components: the Stokes light and the Anti-Stokes During the intermission period, surface concrete
light. Stokes light is independent of temperature, and curing conditions is monitored from the four mea-
the Anti-Stokes light intensity varies with tempera- suring points GJ at 0.1 m below the 16#26 inner
ture. The relationship between the ratio of anti-Stokes surface.

Table 1. Statistics of temperatures measured at 0.1 m
below the concrete surface of 16#26.

Time 13-Jul 14-Jul 15-Jul 16-Jul 17-Jul

The highest temp. 35.19 37.17 36.12 36.16 35.78

at 0.1 m below the
surface ( C)
The lowest temp. 25.98 26.14 24.48 24.86 25.44
at 0.1 m below the
surface ( C)
The highest ambient 40.61 41.43 42.92 42.71 42.11
temp ( C)
The lowest ambient 25.19 27.51 25.51 26.22 25.41
temp ( C)

Figure 3. Optical fiber site construction picture.

Figure 4. Duration curve of temperature at each optical Figure 5. Duration curve of optical fiber temperatures at
fiber measuring point at 0.1 m below the 16#26 concrete different depth below the concrete surface of 16#26.
Table 2. Eigenvalue Table of typical temperatures at differ-
Post-intermission, after the concrete began pouring ent depth below the concrete surface of 16#26.
at Position 27 of Section 16# (referred to as 16#27,
above 16#26), using optical fibers to measure temper- The first blank 14 h after
atures, real-time cold shock impact of 16#27 position Measuring New concrete layer for placing pouring
pouring concrete on the lower 16#26 position will start. location Temp.( C) completed ( C) ( C)

0.1 m below 35.05 24.52 22.47

16#26 surface
3.2 Experimental results 0.3 m below 31.60 26.93 24.61
16#26 surface
3.2.1 Concrete curing condition monitoring results 0.5 m below 26.45 27.64 26.87
Concrete pouring at position 16#26 was completed 16#26 surface
on June 17. The experimental optical fibers were 0.7 m below 25.45 26.52 26.83
embedded in the sixth blank layer of the steel frame. 16#26 surface
On-site construction picture is shown in Figure 3.
Deck maintenance work began afterwards. In mid-
July, the rotating sprinkler conservation method was
mainly used while the corner parts of the deck were eigenvalue of typical time temperature is shown in
maintained by handheld sprinklers. The temperature Table 2.
duration curve obtained from sensors 0.1 m below the
16#26 surface are shown in Figure 4. The statistics
between these temperatures and ambient temperatures 3.3 Results Analysis
are shown in Table 1. 3.3.1 Concrete curing condition monitoring results
Optical fiber provides a real-time duration record of
3.2.2 Cold shock monitoring results the concrete surface temperatures. From the temper-
New concrete at position 16#27 began to pour at ature duration curves of different measuring points
17:00 on July 20. The fiber optic thermometer moni- G, H, I, J, it was found that surface conservation is
tors temperature distribution of time-varying process not uniform with temperature variance at different
at positions below the concrete surface of 16#26. measuring points up to 7.7 C. The temperature dif-
The monitoring results are shown in Figure 5. The ference between day and night averages 10.7 C and

can be as much as 11.64 C. This shows that when Table 3. Basic materials parameters in the simulation.
average temperature reaches over 40 C in summer,
the rotating sprinkler conservation method cant meet Dam
the conservation needs. Running water conservation or Category concrete
installation of thermal insulation cover should be used.
Adiabatic temperature rise 0 ( C) 26.0
Rate of increase of heat of hydration n (d) 2.45
3.3.2 Cold shock monitoring results Thermal conductivity (kJ/(mh C)) 7.704
The optical fiber provided a real-time duration record Coefficient of thermal conductivity a (m2 /d) 0.069
of the temperature change near the old concrete sur- Density (kg/m3 ) 2663
face which was subjected to low temperature concrete Specific heat c (kJ/(kg C)) 0.86
cold shock. From the fiber optic temperature measure- Coefficient of linear expansion (106 / C) 7
ment duration curves at different depths of 16#26, it Poissons ratio (no unit) 0.17
is clear that when concrete began pouring to 16#27 at Modulus of elasticity E0 (MPa) 45330
around 17:00 on July 20, cold shock effect was very Modulus of elasticity parameters 0.16
significant. After the first blank layer placement is
completed, the temperature measured by optical fiber
(4) reaches 1.51 MPa, which indicates that the inner
at 10 cm below the surface dropped from 35.05 C to
surface of the concrete position 16#26 changes from
24.52 C within six hours, a decline of nearly 10.53 C.
the compression state prior to the pouring of new con-
14 hours after pouring, the temperature went as low
crete to tension state after the pouring with a tensile
as 22.47 C, a decline of 12.58 C. Afterwards, the
stress of 1.51 MPa. Because great elastic modulus,
temperature began to rise.
small creep, and small ultimate tensile strain of the
The eigenvalue table shows that the impact of the
concrete, the sudden temperature drop of the old con-
new concrete placing on temperature of the old con-
crete near the surface aggravated concrete stress. The
crete increases when moving further below the surface
local maximum stress has exceeded the ultimate ten-
of the old concrete and the temperature change rate
sile strength of concrete, which increases the risks of
decreases gradually. After the completion of the first
forming local cracks within the concrete at early stage.
blank layer of concrete pouring of 16#27, tempera-
ture decrease at 0.1 m, 0.3 m, 0.5 m and 0.7 m below
the 16#26 surface are 10.53 C, 4.67 C, 1.19 C,
1.07 C, respectively. Thus, the pouring of new con-
crete affects greatly temperatures within 0.3 m of the
(1) During hot summer days, high surface temperature
surface of the old concrete.
and fast evaporation rate make rotating sprin-
kler conservation method insufficient to meet the
3.4 Feedback analysis of the optical fiber requirements of deck concrete. Running water
temperature measurements conservation or installation of insulation covers
Based on optical fiber temperature measurement data, should be adopted.
due to the pouring of new low temperature concrete, (2) During hot summer days, the cold shock resulted
temperatures at top 0.1m of 16#26 dropped by up from new concrete pouring onto the underlying old
to 12.59 C in 14 hours, which is equivalent to the concrete is significant. The underlying old con-
impact when the first cold wave hits. As the temper- crete surface temperature may drop too fast with
ature change is limited to a very shallow area below up to 12 C decrease. The resulting tensile stress
the surface and new concrete was at flow state early will be more than 1.5 MPa. Due to the short dura-
on, there are little constraints on the surface of con- tion of temperature change, shallowness of the
crete 16#26, which allows the analysis of the stress impacted area, and the serious constraint on tem-
using elastic creep of a semi-infinite body[6] . Full con- perature deformation, there is significant risk of
straint is expected at levels 0.1m below the surface.The forming local cracks within the old concrete. The
maximum flexibility creep temperature stress can be construction design should consider these factors
calculated with the following formula (4). and avoid pouring concrete when the temperature
is at the highest in a hot summer day.
(3) Since concrete at pouring positions with long inter-
mission period has greater elastic modulus and
smaller creep, conservation and cooling should be
well planned. Pouring new concrete during high
temperature periods should be avoided and night
operations are preferred.

Concrete thermal parameters are shown in Table 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Based on field data, the intermission period for
position 16#26 was up to 33 days, thus Age = 33d. This work was financially supported by National
Temperature stress calculated according to equation Natural Science Foundation of China (51079079).

REFERENCES of Civil Infrastructure Systems, 2426, October,
1994, Chongqing University Press, 121128.
[1] Zhu Bofang. Mass concrete temperature stress and [4] Cai Desuo. Application of Optical Fiber Sensing
temperature control [M]. Beijing: China Electric Technology in dam project [M]. Beijing: China
Power Press, 1999. Water Power Press, 2002.
[2] Measures R M, Alavie T, Maakant R et al. Bragg [5] Zhou YiHong, Zhou Jianbing, Huang Yaoying. Con-
grating fiber optic sensing for bridge and other crete Low-temperature Placing Monitoring Experi-
structure. Second European Conference on Smart ment and Feedback Analysis Based on Distributed
Structures and Materials, Glagow, Scotland, 1214, Optical Fiber [J]. WATER POWER, 2012, 38(2):
October, 1994d, SPIE, 1994D:162167. 2527.
[3] M. Au fleger, Th. Strobl, J. Dornstadter. Fibre Optic [6] Zhu Bofang, Zhang Chaoran. Research on the struc-
Temperature Measurements for Dam Monitoring tural safety of high concrete arch dams [M]. Beijing:
[C]. International Conference on Health Monitoring China Water Power Press, 2010.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Pozzolanic characteristics of palm oil waste ash (POWA) and

treated palm oil fuel ash (TPOFA)

Nurdeen M. Altwair
School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Merghab University, Al-Khums, Libya

M.A. Megat Johari

School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

A.M. Zeyad
School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sciences and Technology, Sanaa, Yemen

S.F. Saiyid Hashim

School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia

ABSTRACT: This work presents the results of the processing of palm oil waste ash (POWA) under controlled
burning conditions in order to obtain materials with good pozzolanic properties. Palm oil waste samples were
burnt in an aired electric furnace at 800 C and 1000 C for 6 and 2 h, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of
palm oil fuel ash is also discussed. Ground palm oil fuel ash (GPOFA) was treated by heating at 450 C for
90 min. Both of the ashes were characterized by means of chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) and strength activity index (SAI). Results obtained confirm that POWA burned at
800 C and 1000 C have properties indicative of very high pozzolanic activity. Moreover, no influence of heat
treatment was observed on the pozzolanic properties of the treated POFA.

Keywords: Palm oil waste ash, Palm oil fuel ash, XRD, SEM, XRF, Pozzolanic activity index

1 INTRODUCTION 2010). After the combustion in the steam boiler, there

is around 5% of ash, known as palm oil fuel ash
Palm oil industry plays a major role in the economic (POFA), being produced (Sata et al., 2004). Given
development of several tropical countries. Malaysia that the quantity of ash continues to increase, there-
was the second largest producer of palm oil with fore more ash could lead to potential environmental
around 40% and 41% of the total world supply in years problem when it is disposed as landfill materials due
20082009 and 20092010 respectively (Chandara, to the limitation of its utilization (Safiuddin et al.,
2011). Based on the statistics of the Malaysian Palm 2011). To get a solution for this potential environ-
Oil Board (MPOB), the fresh fruit bunch yield is mental problem, many research studies have been
around 20.18 and 19.2 tons per hectare in year carried out to examine the feasibility of using the ash
2010 and 2011, respectively with the total produc- as mineral admixture in blended cement. The begin-
tion of fresh fruit bunch around 90,566,927 tons and ning was by Tay (1990), whereby ash from palm oil
90,070,272, tons in the year 2010 and 2011, respec- mills was used to partially replace Portland cement
tively (MPOB, 2010). Generally, for every 100 tons of and showed that it had low pozzolanic property. Later
fresh fruit bunches processed, around 20 tons of nut many researchers showed that POFA can be success-
shells, 7 tons of fibers, and 25 tons of empty bunches fully used as a supplementary cementitious material
are discharged from the mill (Tay & Show, 1995). in mortar or concrete (Megat Johari et al., 2012;
As the oil price increases, it becomes costly to con- Nurdeen et al, 2011a; Nurdeen et al., 2011b;
tinue relying on diesel generators to provide power Jaturapitakkul et al., 2007; Rukzon & Chindaprasirt,
supply. For this concern, the shell, fiber and empty 2009; Safiuddin et al., 2011; Sata et al., 2004; Sata,
fruit bunch of palm tree are used extensively as a fuel Jaturapitakkul, & Rattanashotinunt, 2010). The partial
to produce steam for electricity generation and dur- replacement of Portland cement with POFA can lower
ing the palm oil extraction process (Sheng & Kwang, the production costs and improve the engineering

2.2 Treatment of POFA
Un-treated POFA produced from the burning palm
wastes (shells, husks and fibers) in boiler at tempera-
ture ranging between 800 C to 1000 C was obtained
from a nearby mill. This ash was black in color because
it contained unburned materials such as fibers and
nutshells as well as unburned carbon as the major con-
stituent. For removing these materials, the POFA was
dried in an oven at 100 C for 24 h and then sieved
using a set of sieves (3 mm, 600 m and 300 m)
to remove unburned materials which are coarser than
300 m. The ash was then ground in a ball mill to
Figure 1. Palm oil waste (POW) before crushing. reduce the particle size for improving the reactiv-
ity. The mean particle size of POFA before milling
was about 74.29 m with the specific surface area
of around 0.054 m2 /g. For differentiating the ground
properties and durability of concrete. Furthermore, the palm oil fuel ash it was designated as GPOFA. To
utilization of POFA can increase the ecological prop- remove unburned carbon, the GPOFA was heated by
erties of concrete, contributing to a healthier and more low heat treatment at temperature of 450 C for 90
sustainable environment. minutes; for which case the sample was designated
This paper presents the research conducted at as treated ground palm oil fuel ash (TGPOFA).
Universiti Sains Malaysia, aimed to determine the
characteristics of palm oil waste ash produced under 2.3 Pozzolanic activity index of ash (SAI)
controlled condition at 800 C and 1000 C for 6 and
2 h, respectively. The treatment of palm oil fuel ash Pozzolanic activity of POWA was evaluated based
which was taken directly from the plant boiler was on compressive strength according to ASTM C311
also addressed. (2005). For the test mixture, 20% replaced of the mass
of cement used in the control mixture was replaced by
the same mass of the ash sample. The control mix-
ture was prepared with 1500 g of Portland cement,
2 METHODOLOGY 4125 g of graded sand and 726 ml of water. The test
mixture was prepared with 1200 g of cement, 300 g of
2.1 Production of POWA ash, 4125 g of graded sand and the required quantity
of water to obtain flow of 110% to 115% of the con-
Palm oil waste (POW) (Fig. 1) was collected from a trol mixture. Fifty-millimeter cubes were cast for this
near-by palm oil mill and it was first dried in an oven experiment. After molding, the molds were placed in
at 105 C for 24 h. The POW was crushed using the a moist room at 27 2 C. After 24 h, the specimens
crusher machine followed by milling to the average were stored in saturated lime water. The compressive
particle size of 600 m. The ground POW was burnt strength was determined on three specimens of the
at 800 C and 1000 C for 6 and 2 hours, respectively, control and the test mixtures at ages of 3, 7, 14 and
in an aired electric furnace. 28 days.
Before testing for chemical characteristics of the
palm oil waste ash (POWA), the samples were sub-
jected to dry grinding followed by sieving in sieve
No. 200 (75 m). X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used
to verify the chemical compositions of the ash. The
3.1 POWA characterization
X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to
identify differences in the formation of amorphous or The ash color sometimes depends on the impurities
crystalline silica. Morphologies, particle shapes, and and chemical compositions of the ash. In this study, it
particle agglomeration were studied using a scanning was observed that the temperature and burning time
electron microscope (SEM). A laser diffraction par- affected the optical properties of ash. After burning
ticle size analyzer was used to measure particle size the ground raw materials to a temperature of 800 C
distribution and specific surface area. The ash samples for 6 hours, the ash color became light gray to brown
were labeled with appropriate combination of symbols with earthy texture. The same observations could be
i.e. T and t which correspond to burning temperature seen for the burning temperature of 1000 C, the ash
( C) and burning time (hour), respectively. For exam- color became light black and dark brown for 2 hours.
ple, the ash sample prepared by grinding raw materials The ash texture changed from coarsely to earthy tex-
at 800 C with a burning time of 6 h was designated as ture. However, at burning temperature of 800 C and
POWA8006 with T = 800 and t = 4. As well as the 1000 C for 6 and 2 hours resulted in POWA8006
ash which was ground after burning was designated as and POWA10002 with low loss on ignition of 4.02%
GPOWA8006 with G = ground. and 6.2%, respectively.

Figure 2. XRD patterns of POWA: Q quartz, S amor- Figure 3. SEM of POWA samples; (a) before grinding
phous silica, P potassium gallium silicate, I Iron chromium (b) after grinding.
oxide, H hematite.

Table 1. Chemical compositions of ash.

Chemical compositions (%)

Palm oil waste ash Palm oil fuel ash

Oxides POWA-8006 POWA-10002 GPOFA TGPOFA

SiO2 50.6 51.9 62.74 66.9

Al2 O3 16.2 17.1 5.32 6.44
Fe2 O3 15.5 14.4 4.87 5.72
CaO 1.4 1.5 4.94 5.56 Figure 4. Particle size distribution of POWA samples.
MgO 2.3 2.01 2.51 3.13
Na2 O 0.19 0.2 0.15 0.19
K2 O 5.5 4.8 4.69 5.20 Un-ground POWA contained very low carbon par-
SO3 0.41 0.14 0.26 0.33 ticles of irregular shape. There was no agglomeration
LOI 4.02 6.2 10.13 2.3 of particles in the unground POWA, thus it seems
that agglomeration did not occur during the burn-
ing period. After grinding, irregular particles with
a smaller, crushed size and free of carbon with the
The XRD patterns of POWA samples are shown average particle size of 0.5 m were observed. The
in Figure 2. There was no significant crystalline grinding process reduced not only the particle size but
phase could be detected by the XRD. The POWA8006 also the porosity of POWA. In addition, the grind-
showed that the main peaks were represented by - ing led to the increase of specific surface area from
quartz at peaks of 2 of 21.7 , 27.1 , 35.9 and 68.5 . 0.45 to about 8.5 m2 /g. The present results indicate
Iron chromium oxide was detected at peaks of 2 of that the amount retained on 45 m sieve were less than
49.7 and 63.4 . While amorphous silica was detected 15% and 5% for Un-ground POWA and ground POFA,
between 2 of 22.3 to 30.2 and 37.5 to 48.8 . The respectively (Fig. 4).
XRD pattern of POWA10002 showed that the small
peak of -quartz was detected at two peaks of 2
3.2 Treated POFA characterization
of 27.1 and 42.3 . It was clear that the majority of
the main phases were represented by amorphous silica The color of the treated ground palm oil fuel ash
which was detected from 17.5 to 70.2 . (TGPOFA) was light brown to grayish red due to
Table 1 shows the chemical compositions of the ash. most of the unburned residual has been removed.
The activated products were mainly formed by silica, Table 1 shows the chemical compositions of GPOFA
alumina, and iron oxide. The chemical compositions and TGPOFA which exhibit that it contains 10.13% of
of POWA samples was limited under the conditions LOI before the heat treatment but after the treatment
required for the specification of fly ash; where all the LOI decreased to around 2.3%. The decrease in
POWA presented in Table 1 were found to be under LOI value for TGPOFA is compensated by the increase
the Class F as specified in ASTMC618 (2005). The in mass percentage of other component. The differ-
total main oxides of POWA8006 and POWA10002 ence in chemical composition between GPOFA and
were up to 82.3 and 83.4%, respectively. TGPOFA is due to the difference in their unburned
Figure 3 shows SEM photograph of un-ground carbon. The main oxides of the treated ash complied
POWA and ground POWA. It was found that unground with the specifications of ASTM C618 class F, with
POWA at both temperatures had angular and irreg- SiO2 + Al2 O3 + Fe2 O3 of 79.07%.
ular particles with median size of about 20 m and Mineral compositions of the TGPOFA did not
most particles had a porous texture. Furthermore, change much due to the heat treatment. XRD pro-
small particles of carbon were observed with the files showed that the agglomeration and crystallization
average particle sizes of about 15 m. of glassy phase of POFA particles which influence

Figure 5. XRD patterns of POFA before and after treatment
(Q Quartz; C Cristobalite; S Amorphous silica; K
potassium aluminum phosphate.

Figure 8. Strength activity index of GPOWA and TGPOFA

mortars at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days.

It can be observed that the SAI of TGPOFA-cement

mortar at all ages were higher than the minimum
requirement of 75% as specified in ASTM C 618.
At the early ages of 3 and 7 days, strength devel-
Figure 6. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM); (a) GPOFA opment of the mortar sample containing OPC with
(b) TPOFA. 20% TGPOFA was mainly contributed by pure cement
hydration; hence, the compressive strength was less
than the reference. At the early ages of TGPOFA-
cement mortar, only the high fineness of POFA par-
ticles plays a role in strength development filling the
voids between the pastes and the sand. At 28 days,
the compressive strength of TGPOFA-cement mortar
was higher than the reference mortar strength. At later
ages, the amorphous silicates or aluminates react with
Ca(OH)2 generated by the hydration process of cement
to produce product of mainly calcium silicate hydrate
(C-S-H), thereby improving the compressive strength.
GPOWA mortars gave higher SAI than control at
all ages. The SAI for mortars with GPOWA8006 and
GPOWA10002 at age of 28 days increased to be
Figure 7. Cumulative particle size distribution curves of 117.61% and 118.75%, respectively. This may due to
GPOFA and TGPOFA. their high surface area, smaller particle size and amor-
phous conditions. The compressive strengths of mortar
the pozzolanic property did not take place during the with GPOWA10002 developed comparatively slightly
treatment (Fig. 5). higher compared to mortar containing GPOWA8006 at
GPOFA particles were irregular in shape with all ages. This could be due to difference in the amount
a porous texture. The unburned carbon particles and type of amorphous phase. GPOWA10002 contain-
were irregular in shape. The unburned particles were ing a greater amount of SiO2 and Al3 O2 in amorphous
observed in the GPOFA but were absent from the form. Both of these oxides play a very important role
TGPOFA. This indicates that the unburned carbon had in the pozzolanic reaction because they can react with
been removed by heat treatment of GPOFA (Fig. 6). calcium hydroxide, which is released from the hydra-
The average particle size of GPOFA and TGPOFA tion of OPC, to produce mainly products of calcium sil-
was about 2.87 m and 2.96 m, respectively, indicat- icate hydrate (C-S-H) and calcium aluminium hydrate
ing that there was no significant change in the average (C-A-H) The SAI of mortar containing GPOWA is
particle sizes of POFA before and after treatment. greater than TGPOFA at all storage ages. This may
This also proves that the heat treatment did not result be attributed to the fact that the GPOWAs have been
in the agglomeration of particles (Fig. 7). The specific produced under controlled conditions. In addition,
surface area of GPOFA and TGPOFA were around raw materials of GPOWAs did not contain strange
1.683 m2 /g and 1.521 m2 /g, respectively. organic materials. Based on ASTM C618, the chem-
ical and physical requirements of chosen GPOWA
samples were superior compared to TGPOFA sample.
3.3 Strength activity index of GPOWA and TGPOFA
The total main oxides of TGPOFA, GPOWA8006 and
Strength activity index for all mortars containing GPOWA10002 were 79.07%, 82.30% and 83.40%,
TGPOFA and GPOWA are shown in Fig. 8. respectively. The average particle size of TGPOFA,

GPOWA8006 and GPOWA10002 were 2.99, 0.29 and REFERENCES
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an amorphous ash with high specific surface area concrete containing palm oil fuel ash. Construction and
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burning at these temperatures. Megat Johari, M. A., Zeyad, A. M., Muhamad Bunnori, N., &
(2) After 28 days, up to 117% of SAI can be achieved Ariffin, K. S. 2012. Engineering and transport properties
when burning the POW at a temperature of 1000 C of high-strength green concrete containing high volume
and 800 C for 2 and 6 h, respectively. This indi- of ultrafine palm oil fuel ash. Construction and Building
cates the presence of the required properties that Materials, 30(3): 281288.
characterizes the pozzolanic materials. In addition, MPOB. 2010. Malaysian Polm Oil Board,Economic and
statistic [Online] Available: http://mpob.gov.my/economy/
at all storage ages, the SAI of POWA mortars was annual/stat [Accessed 25th May 2010].
higher than that of OPC mortars. Nurdeen MA, Johari MAM, Hashim SFS. 2011a. Influence
(3) POFA obtained by heating at 450 C for 90 min of Calcination Temperature on Characteristics and Poz-
resulted in loss on ignition significantly lower than zolanic Activity of Palm Oil Waste Ash. Australian Journal
that of the untreated POFA. Hence, the treated of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(11): 10101018.
POFA was free from carbon and other organic Nurdeen MA, Johari MAM, Hashim SFS. 2011b. Strength
matter. In addition, the treatment process yielded Activity Index and Microstructural Characteristics of
POFA with high specific surface area, preserv- Treated Palm Oil Fuel Ash. International Journal of
ing the amorphous characteristic related to poz- Civil & Environmental Engineering, 11(5):100107.
Rukzon, S., & Chindaprasirt, P. 2009.An Experimental Inves-
zolanic activity of POFA and free from particle tigation of the Carbonation of Blended Portland Cement
agglomeration. Palm Oil Fuel Ash Mortar in an Indoor Environment.
(4) SAI of POFA-cement mortar fulfilled the require- Indoor and Built Environment, 18(4): 313318.
ments of pozzolanic materials as per ASTM C618. Safiuddin, M., Salam, M. A., & Jumaat, M. Z. 2011. Utiliza-
The SAI confirmed that after 28-day curing time, tion of palm oil fuel ash in concrete: a review. Journal of
the strength of treated POFA was greater than that Civil Engineering and Management, 17(2): 234247.
of the reference cement (100.7%). Hence, strength Sata, V., Jaturapitakkul, C., & Kiattikomol, K. 2004. Utiliza-
increased as curing time progressed because of the tion of palm oil fuel ash in high-strength concrete. Journal
consumption of Ca(OH)2 by the TGPOFA. of materials in civil engineering, 16(6): 623628.
Sata, V., Jaturapitakkul, C., & Rattanashotinunt, C. 2010.
(5) At all storage ages, the SAI in the case of GPOWA Compressive strength and heat evolution of concretes
mortars was higher than that of the TGPOFA. containing palm oil fuel ash. Journal of materials in civil
engineering, 22(10): 10331038.
Tay, J. H. 1990. Ash from Oil Palm Waste as a Concrete
ACKNOWLEDGMENT Material. Journal of materials in civil engineering, 2: 94.
Tay, J. H., & Show, K. Y. 1995. Use of ash derived from oil-
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Universiti palm waste incineration as a cement replacement material.
Sains Malaysia for providing the financial sup- Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 13(1): 2736.
port through the Research University (1001/PAWAM/
814103) Grant Scheme for undertaking the research
work. Special thanks are due to United Palm Oil
Industries for providing the palm oil fuel ash.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Investigation of accelerating effects of mineral admixtures

by hydration heat and thermal analysis

Huashan Yang, Shengjin Tu & Fei Gao

State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China

ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation is to study the accelerating effects of minerals admixtures by
hydration heat and thermal analysis. Three fillers (limestone, tuff, and volcanic), and two pozzolans (fly ash
and phosphorous slag) were used. Hydration heat of moderate-heat Portland cement with 30% of fillers and
low-heat Portland cement with 30% pozzolans, were examined. The accelerating effects of mineral admixtures
were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry (DSC/TG) under nitrogen flux after
28 days. It is shown that either fillers or pozzolans have an accelerating effect on cement hydration, which
may be important or even more significant than the pozzolanic effect. And the pozzolanic activity of pozzolans
could be promoted by fillers with high surface areas.

Keywords: Accelerating Effects; Mineral admixture; Hydration heat

1 INSTRUCTION cement mortar with 30% of FA at all ages. This shows

that there is a synergy effect between PS and FA. P.K.
Nowadays, the incorporation of limestone (LS) filler Mehta and O.E. Gjorv also reported this phenomenon.
and fly ash (FA) in concrete as partial replacements for They found that if the low reactive pozzolan, such as
Portland cement continues to increase. These mineral FA, was used together with a high reactive pozzolan,
admixtures can improving concrete durability, reduce such as silica fume (SF), the pozzolanic activity of the
the risk of thermal cracking in mass concrete and lower low reactive pozzolan could be promoted (Mehta and
the energy and environmental cost (Mehta, 1999). The Gjorv, 1982). However, it could be observed that the
effects of LS on the hydration of Portland cement high reactive pozzolan consumed more CH than that
have been previously addressed (Lothenbach et al., of low reactive pozzolan (Yang et al., 2011). Therefore,
2008; P. Raay et al., 1999; Ye et al., 2007). From a the investigation of the phenomenon will be the subject
chemical point of view, limestone filler does not have of further research.
pozzolanic properties, but it acts as the nucleus for The present work aims at a fundamental insight into
the precipitation of CH. These simultaneous effects the accelerating effects of nonpozzolanic fillers and
produce an acceleration of the hydration of cement pozzolans by hydration heat and thermal analysis.
grains (Bonavetti et al., 2003). The effect is essen-
tially the same for all the fillers, irrespective of their
chemical composition (Heikal et al., 2000). However,
fillers, such as tuff (TF) and volcanic (VC) with high 2 EXPERIMENTAL
crystallinity have not been fully investigated.
Small particles of pozzolans such as, FA and 2.1 Materials
phosphorous slag powder (PS) are less reactive than Two Portland cements were used: a low-heat Port-
Portland cement. When dispersed in the paste, they land cement (LHC), and a moderate-heat Portland
generate a large number of nucleation sites for the pre- cement (MHC). Three nonpozzolanic fillers and two
cipitation of the hydration products. Therefore, FA and pozzolans were used. The oxide compositions of the
PS will also accelerate the hydration of cement. mineral admixtures as given in Table 1 were deter-
As (Yang et al., 2011) showed, the strength of mortar mined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Figure 1 presents
with 30% of PS was lower than that of mortar with 30% the XRD pattern of LS, TF, and VC. According
of FA at all ages, although the pozzolanic activity of PS to the pattern, LS mainly consists of calcium car-
was higher than that of FA. This is probably due to the bonate, whilst TF and VC had varying amounts of
physical effect of FA, which is important or even more anorthite. LS, TF, and VC have little pozzolanic prop-
significant than the pozzolanic effect. In addition, the erties because of its high crystallinity. A commercial
strength of ternary blend mortars with FA and PS had limestone powder labeled LS0 was used as the refer-
higher flexural strength and compressive strength than ence material. Calcium hydroxide (CH) is commercial

Figure 2. Particle size distribution of mineral admixtures.

Table 1. Oxide compositions of mineral admixtures (wt.%).


SiO2 4.38 55.89 56.97 39.32 52.46

Al2 O3 1.56 16.57 16.67 3.51 30.86
Fe2 O3 0.76 7.30 7.09 1.63 3.97
CaO 48.00 5.30 5.38 47.84 3.60
MgO 0.49 4.35 3.95 0.70 0.70
SO3 / / / 1.29 0.47
P2 O5 0.03 0.44 0.46 3.85 0.39
Loss 44.17 2.32 1.72 / 3.04
others 0.27 7.86 7.88 1.70 3.52

2.2 Specimen preparation and experiment

The hydration heat of the pastes with the mineral
admixture replacements of 30% were tested according
to GB/T 12959-2008 (Chinese standard). The mix-
ture proportions of all specimens are summarized in
Table 2. The dosage of the water was adjusted to give a
standard consistency for the cement mixtures. Hydra-
Figure 1. XRD pattern of limestone, tuff and volcanic. tion heat is calculated: q = Qt/G or q = Qt /GC . Where,
Qt is the total liberation heat of the binder paste at t
high-grade (98.8%) product. The particle size distri- hours. G is the mass of the MHC with 30% of mineral
bution of mineral admixtures was measured by laser admixture and GC is the mass of MHC. The exother-
granulometry and the results obtained are shown in mic rate can be obtained through differential of the
Figure 2. It can be seen from Figure 2 (a) that the par- hydration heattime curve.
ticle size distribution curve of the LS is very similar to To study the accelerating effects of mineral admix-
but slightly finer than that of TF. VC shows a coarser tures by thermal analysis, CH and PS in a 1:3 weight
distribution than LS in size smaller than 30 m. As proportion were mixed. PS was partially replaced
shown in Figure 2 (b), FA is finer than PS, but still with 50% of LS0. The paste containing LS0 was
much coarser than LS0. compared to the reference paste without LS0. The

Table 2. Proportions of the specimens.


MHC (g) 200.0 186.7 186.7 186.7 / / /

LS (g) / 80.0 / / / / /
TF (g) / / 80.0 / / / /
VC (g) / / / 80.0 / / /
LHC (g) / / / / 186.7 186.7 186.7
FA (g) / / / / 80.0 / 40.0
PS (g) / / / / / 80.0 40.0
S (g) 800.0 533.3 533.3 533.3 533.3 533.3 533.3
W (mL) 60.8 68.8 76.0 72.0 69.9 69.9 69.9

Table 3. Proportions of the pastes.

Constitute PS/CH PS/LS0/CH

CH (%) 25 25
PS (%) 75 37.5
LS (%) / 37.5
W/S 0.4 0.4

proportions of the pastes prepared in this study are

listed in Table 3. Afterwards, distilled water was added
to achieve a water/solid ratio of 0.4. The paste was
thoroughly blended and stored in sealed mould. After
time intervals of 28 days, the specimen was tested by
differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry
(DSC/TG) under nitrogen flux.


3.1 Effect of filler on the hydration heat of MHC

Figures 3 (a), (b) illustrate the hydration heat and
exothermic rate curves of MHC and MHC with 30% of
fillers. Hydration heat is calculated: q = Qt /G. Where,
G is the mass of the MHC with 30% of fillers.
As expected, fillers can decrease the hydration heat
and exothermic rate due to cement substitution. The
amounts of heat evolved from the different mixtures
in 168 h are 260.7 J/g (MHC), 186.5 J/g (MHC_LS), Figure 3. Effects of fillers on the hydration heat of MHC.
191.0 J/g (MHC_TF), and 199.2 J/g (MHC_VC). It Hydration heat is calculated: q = Qt /G. Where, G is the mass
can be noted that the reduction in heat evolution was of the MHC with 30% of fillers.
smaller than the reduction in cement content due to the
filler replacement. A 30% LS replacement resulted in
28.5% reduction in the cumulative heat evolution, a separated. It can be seen from Figure 4 (a) that MHC
30% TF replacement resulted in 26.7% reduction in released the smallest hydration heat in 168 h, imply-
the cumulative heat evolution, and a 30% VC replace- ing that LS, TF and VC accelerate the hydration of
ment resulted in 23.6% reduction in the cumulative cement. As shown in Figure 4 (b), the MHC with
heat evolution. These results indicate that the addition 30% of fillers differ in that the exothermic rate sur-
of fillers increases the amount of heat evolved during passes that of MHC at about 5.0 h, and the second peak
the setting and hardening of the cement. (about 15.0 h) is higher than for MHC. This suggests
Figures 4 (a), (b) illustrate the effects of fillers on that fillers increase the second exothermic reaction.
the hydration heat of MHC. The hydration heat was Therefore, effects of fillers on the hydration heat and
calculated on the basis of a unit weight of MHC, exothermic rate may be attributed to its physical effects
thus, the contributions from LS, TF and VC can be on the cement hydration process.

Figure 5. Hydration heat of LHC with FA and PS. Hydration
Figure 4. Effects of fillers on the hydration heat of MHC. heat is calculated: q = Qt /G. Where, G is the mass of the LHC
Hydration heat is calculated: q = Qt /GC . Where, GC is the with 30% of FA and PS.
mass of the MHC.

3.2 Hydration heat of LHC with FA and PS

Figures 5 (a), (b) illustrate the hydration heat and
exothermic rate curves of LHC with 30% of poz-
zolans. Hydration heat is calculated: q = Qt /G. Where,
G is the mass of the LHC with 30% of pozzolans. It
can be seen that LHC_FA released the largest hydra-
tion heat than that of LHC_PS and LHC_FAPS at 7
days, although the pozzolanic activity of FA was lower
than that of PS. It could be observed that PS has a
higher pozzolanic activity than that of FA (Yang et al.,
2011). Also, the maximum hydration exothermic rat
of LHC_FA was much higher than that of LHC_PS
and LHC_FAPS. This phenomenon might be due to Figure 6. DSC/TG curves of specimens.
the additional surface area provided by FA and PS,
which may accelerate LHC hydration. As shown in DSC curve presents an endothermic peak at about
Figure 2 (b), FA is finer than PS. When dispersed in 450 C that is attributed to the decomposition of CH,
the paste, FA generates much more nucleation sites a second one at 750 C due to the CO2 release by the
than that of PS for the precipitation of the hydration CaCO3 decomposition. Table 4 shows the weight loss
products. Therefore, the physical action enhances the of the compounds (C-S-H, CH and CaCO3 ) detected
chemical one, and the hydration heat is increased. in PS/CH and PS/LS0/CH systems as it is determined
by the TG analysis.
The bound water and residue of CH are also listed
3.3 Hydration heat of LHC with FA and PS
in Table 4. As it can be appreciated, the main reaction
Figure 6 shows DSC/TG curves of the PS/CH sys- products of both specimens are very similar, although
tem and PS/LS0/CH system hydrated for 28 days. the amount of PS in PS/LS0/CH system is only half

Table 4. Weight loss of compounds, bound water and (3) If a pozzolan, such as PS, was used together with a
residue of CH at 28 days. nonpozzolan with high surface area, such as lime-
stone, the pozzolanic activity of the PS could be
Specimen PS/CH PS/LS0/CH promoted.
C-S-H dehydration (%) 1.43 1.50
CH Dissolution (%) 4.75 4.79
CaCO3 Dissolution (%) 1.80 20.27 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Bound water (%) 1.43 1.50
Residue of CH (%) 19.53 19.71 The authors wish to thank the Fundamental Research
Funds for the Central Universities for funding support.

of that in PS/CH system. This fact confirms that the REFERENCES

presence of LS0 particles contributed to accelerate
Bonavetti, V., Donza, H., Menndez, G., Cabrera, O. &
the hydration of PS particles, yielding more hydrated Irassar, E.F., 2003. Limestone filler cement in low w/c
products. As shown in Figure 2 (b), LS0 is finer than concrete: A rational use of energy. Cement & Concrete
PS. LS0 generates more quantity of nucleation sites Research, 33(6): 865871.
to begin the hydration reactions, and the final result Heikal, M., El-Didamony, H. & Morsy, M.S., 2000.
would be a higher amount of hydrated products and, Limestone-filled pozzolanic cement. Cement & Concrete
consequently, higher calcium hydroxide consumption. Research, 30(11): 18271834.
Lothenbach, B., Le Saout, G., Gallucci, E. & Scrivener, K.,
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analysis, the following conclusions can be made: cement concrete containing fly ash & condensed silica-
fume. Cement & Concrete Research, 12(5): 587595.
(1) Nonpozzolans, such as LS, TF, and VC with high
P Raay, J., Husson, S. & Guilhot, B., 1999. Influence of
crystallinity behave not only as filler to improve finely ground limestone on cement hydration. Cement &
microstructure of cement mortar, but also as a Concrete Composites, 21(2): 99105.
promoter of cement hydration. The hydration heat Yang, H., Fang, K. & Tu, S., 2011. Pozzolanic reaction of
and exothermic rate of cement may be related to supplementary cementitious materials and its effects on
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hydration of cement. Accelerating effect of poz- Ye, G., Liu, X., De Schutter, G., Poppe, A.M. & Taerwe,
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Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Estimation of asphalt mixture mechanical property by digital image

correlation method

Yanan Cui, Lei Feng & Lei Wang

College of Civil Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Huhhot, China

ABSTRACT: Asphalt mixtures are heterogeneous multiphase composite, with complex mechanical proper-
ties. Non-contact full-field testing technique is better than traditional techniques for measures the deformation
of specimens made of these composites. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method has used to study the
displacement and deformation field of asphalt mixture beam in this article. The results indicated that the defor-
mation of the heterogeneous material is very complex; and that the aggregates and asphalt matrix have very
different deformation statement; the maximum tensile strain occurred between large aggregate particles near the
beam bottom, where first crack normally appear. It is concluded DIC method is a practical and an economical
method for studying the deformations of asphalt mixtures.

Keywords: Asphalt mixtures; Digital Image Correlation; mechanical property

1 INTRODUCTION reinforced polymer mortars. But, DIC has seldom been

used for measuring asphalt mixture deformations.
Asphalt mixtures are multiphase reinforced composite, Therefore, the purpose of this work is to inves-
consisting of irregularly shaped and randomly oriented tigate the displacements and strain distribution of
elastic particles embedded in an inelastic matrix that asphalt mixture beam specimen using the DIC method,
is known to degrade with time and under mechani- which provide a new test method for measuring the
cal, thermal, and environmental loads. These types of mechanical properties of asphalt mixture.
composites generally exhibit extremely complicated
mechanical behavior and numerous damage modes[1] .
Traditional testing methods are unable to easily 2 PRINCIPLE OF DIGITAL IMAGE
reveal the relationship between macro-mechanical CORRELATION METHOD
properties and microstructure of such materials. Digi-
tal image analysis of composite surface is an important In the DIC technique, two grayscale images of objects
non-contact method for investigating the relation- before and after deformation are captured and they
ship. Due to image analysis, both from the micro- are expressed as f(x, y) and g(x, y), respectively. The
scopic and macroscopic perspective, systematic and main idea of digital speckle correlation calculation is
accurate measurements have become possible. This the selecting of a sub-region (usually rectangular) in
method has emerged as a practical tool in experimental the field f(x, y) before deformation, and then using
mechanics[23] and is often used to evaluate concrete grayscale information locate the same sub-region in
and rock properties[47] , and also to measure the shear the deformed image field g(x, y). By locating pairs
bands in soil[8] . of points and computing the distance between them
Digital image correlation (DIC) method involves a before and after deformation, specimen displacements
combination of modern image processing technology and strains are easily calculated. A distinct advantage
and optics mechanics[911] . The basic measuring pro- of this method over traditional measuring techniques is
cess is that two digital gray fields obtained through that the deformations can be measured in any direction
a/d conversion, which is provided by speckle patterns and over any gauge length without much extra cost and
of the test specimen before and after deformation effort.
taken by CCD camera, the correlation coefficient Fig. 1 shows the position relationship of the sub-
extreme value point to obtain corresponding displace- region center and any point P, Q in the sub-region
ment and deformation after the related operations before and after deformation at. We observe that P and
on the two digital gray fields[12] . Nunes[13] used the Q move to their new locations P * and Q* after defor-
digital image correlation (DIC) method to determine mation. Therefore, the displacements of these points
crack-tip-opening displacement fields of glass fiber in X direction and Y direction, respectively, can be

Figure 2. Three-point bending test specimen.

By equation (2) and (3), it is known that the corre-

sponding point of Q after deformation is Q* (x*, y*),
Figure 1. The movement of a point in sub-section and its which coordinates can be expressed as:
relation positions before and after deformation.

expressed as u and v, and these displacements and

their first and second derivatives can be calculated as


The X0 * and Y0 * coordinate of P* are: The three-point bending test was used to measure the
flexural strength of an asphalt mixture at a specified
temperature and loading rate. The test specimen and its
dimensions as well as the loading scheme are shown
in Fig. 2. The image method was used to observe the
entire process of the specimen deformation, including
the formation of cracks and its ultimate failure, using
where X0 and Y0 are the coordinates of P before
the DIC acquired date, the displacement and strain
deformation, Let point Q(x, y) be any point of the sub-
field of the specimen was analyzed, and the mechanical
region be related as follows before deformation, whose
properties of the asphalt mixture was evaluated.
position relative to the center point P is be given by:
The asphalt binder was crumb rubber modified
asphalt produced by a company in China. The mix
gradation met dense graded mix requirement of the
Chinese standard AC-13. All beams contained 5.6wt%
asphalt, as a percentage of the total mix. This percent-
age corresponds to the optimum asphalt content as
where, x and y are the x and y components, respec- determined by the Marshall method.
tively, of the vector going P to Q. If the sub-region The three-point bending test was performed at
deformed such that P(x0, y0) moved to P*(x0 *, y0 *), room temperature 20 C using a WDW-100A eclec-
and Q(x, y) to Q*(x*, y *). That the coordinate of point tic universal testing machine, and a low-load rate
Q * can be expressed as: (0.15 mm/min). A CCD camera was set up directly in
front of the specimen and a computer for capturing and
processing the images every 20s (Fig. 2). The images
of the specimen have a resolution of 748 570 pix-
els. The inset on Fig. 2 shows the region captured by
camera, and image correlation method was carried out
using the coordinate system shown in the figure.
According to continuum mechanics, the displace-
ments components of point Q(x, y) can be expressed
in terms of displacement of P(x0 , y0 ) components and
their increment. Based on continuum mechanics, the 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
displacement components of Q can be expressed in
form of Taylers series as: 4.1 Displacement field
In Fig. 3, the first column in the figure shows pictures
of the target region at various times after loading, while
the contours in the second and third columns show
the regions lateral and vertical deformation contours,

Figure 3. Contours of deformation at different loading

At the beginning of loading, although the aggregate Figure 4. Contours of lateral normal strain exx at different
and the asphalt binder have good interface contact, loading stage.
nevertheless the major different between the mechan-
ical properties of the two materials are evident by the macro crack appears in the specimen when loaded to
difference in the extent of deformation that each expe- the 1400 s.
rienced, so the local deformations of the specimen was
very complex and the deformation field is highly irreg-
4.2 Strain field
ular (Fig. 3a); On the other hand, it appears that voids in
the mixture can survive in the loading process, but they The contours of lateral normal strain in specimen are
are compacted and deformed, which make the changes showed in Fig. 4. In the preliminary stage of load-
in the mix properties even more complex. After load- ing, because of interaction between asphalt binder
ing to 600s, the deformation field followed essentially and aggregates, aggregates might adjust their location,
the three-point bending deformation pattern, and the both pressure and tension existed in the mixture, the
aggregates and asphalt binder compression, while at strain of the mixture presented a complex condition,
the same time the volumes of remained voids stable and there was not a uniform strain field; Along with the
(Fig. 3c); With further increase in load, the deformation loading time, mixture gradually presented a obvious
pattern became more regular, shows compression in pressure in top and tension in bottom state; As load
top and tension in bottom of the specimen; The largest continue to increase, several larger tensile strain areas
vertical deformation occurred under the loading point appeared in the bottom of the specimen; when loaded
and the deformation contours were almost symmet- to 1400s (Fig. 4g), the tensile strain peak appeared
ric around, deformations were compatible. Finally, between the two big aggregates at the beam bottom,

Figure 5. Contours of shear strain exy at different loading
Figure 6. Contours of vertical normal strain eyy at different
loading stage.

there was the place coming to crack. In Fig. 4h, the

contours have sharp change in the crack region. The
strain values when destroyed were all more than 1%, 4.3 Contrast to test result
which illustrated significant fluidity. The maximum tensile strain of asphalt mixture speci-
The shear strain contours in Fig. 5 show similar men favorably matches the test data shown in Fig. 7.
behavior to normal strain. Irregular shear strain distri- It was found the initial strain preformatted linear
bution can be noticed in the preliminary loading stage; increase trend until 1200 s. After loading 1400 s, strain
but upon increased loading, they show that the aggre- growth become rapidly, that means, asphalt mixture
gate and the asphalt binder deform in a compatible was cracking.
manner. At 1600s after loading, the shear strain con-
tours become discontinuous at some location where
the tensile strain changes sharply. This indicates the
formation of cracks. 5 CONCLUSION
Fig. 6 presents the contours of vertical strain in the
specimen. At 1600 s, the contours for this also exhibit a According to the results obtained above, we can realize
shape change between the aggregate particles near the that image correlation method can reflect the displace-
bottom of specimen, which ia indicative of the beam ment and deformation of asphalt mixture specimen
cracking at this stage. in bending process; the displacement and strain field

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[1] Kim YR, Allen DH, Seidel GD. Damage-induced deformation analysis, Image and Vision Comput-
modeling of elastic-viscoelastic randomly oriented ing 1986; 4: 143150.
particulate composites. Journal of Engineering [13] Nunes LCS, Reis JML. Estimation of crack-tip-
Materials and Technology 2006; 128:1817. opening displacement and crack extension of glass
[2] Sharpe WN. Hand book of experimental solid fiber reinforced polymer mortars using digital
mechanics. LLC New York: Springer Science and image correlation method. Mater Des 2012; 33:
Business Media; 2008. 248253.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

The manufacturing of floating decks using grancrete and reservoir sludge

W.C. Liao, S.Y. Tsai, C.S. Tsai & J.W. Lin

Department of Civil Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan

ABSTRACT: Cement block made of grancrete, waste sludge, and expansive agents were fabricated to produce
light weight floatable deck material. Sandwich panel made from grancrete and sludge is tested for its bending
rigidity. Kevlar mesh with or without the thickness-wise stitches was inserted in between the face sheet and core
foam of this sandwich panel to investigate the bending and shear rigidity improvement of sandwich panel. The
flexural bending ability of sandwich panel is evaluated through a series of three point bending tests.

Keywords: floating deck, grancrete, reservoir sludge, sandwich panel

1 INTRODUCTION material. The basic material properties of grancrete

will be evaluated through the compression test of
This study uses the reservoir sludge, waste construc- grancrete made cement block with different grancrete
tion materials, expansive agent and grancrete to make water ratios. Mixing of grancrete, reservoir sludge, and
a floating deck for amphibious house. This float- expansive agent to produce lightweight panel is studied
ing deck requires good durability, floatable in water, by different proportioning of its constituents. Several
materials that can be fetched from local area and expansive agents such as baking soda powder, laun-
economic in cost. Grancrete is a kind of cerami- dry detergent and nano-calcium carbonate are tested
crete blending of ceramics and concrete together. to make a cement cube or panel to measure their unit
The material is produced using a mixing process weight, compressive strengths.
very similar to that used to produce concrete. Wagh A sandwich panel made of grancrete and sludge
et al. (1997a, 1997b) developed the grancrete mate- is tested for its bending rigidity. Several layers of
rial which has good binding effect with the industrial Kevlar grid or mesh with or without the thickness-wise
by-products such as slag and fly ash. This chemically stitches were inserted in between the face sheet of this
bonded phosphate ceramic can also stabilize and solid- sandwich panel to investigate their bending and shear
ify the hazardous and radioactive waste (Wagh et al. rigidity improvements. The flexural bending ability of
1998, 2001, 2003). Grancrete is a mixture of mag- sandwich panel is evaluated through a series of three
nesium oxide, phosphate powder and water. Without point bending tests.
clinkering process, the manufacturing of grancrete is
environmentally friendly.
In 2005, the Hurricane Katrina attacked the 2 MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Louisiana state of USA, which caused the deaths
of 1800 people, and 81 billion of property dam- First grancrete was mixed with different expansive
age. Since then the hurricane center at Louisiana materials such as nano-calcium carbonate, baking
state university has developed several floating founda- soda, detergent, NaHCO3 and Styron-sphere to evalu-
tions for amphibious house. Recently a Low-Income- ate their specific gravities and compressive strengths.
Flood-proof Technology (LIFT) house project was A 5 cm5 cm5 cm cube was fabricated with the des-
performed at Bangladesh (Amphibious house, 2011). ignated constituents for each mixed design. Table 1
The LIFT design can prevent lateral movement but shows the corresponding results. The compressive
allow the house to move up and down on stilts during strength is proportional to the
flooding. In Taiwan, many reservoirs were designed density of the cube. The nano-calcium carbon-
for flood discharge in the typhoon season. Yet, lots of ate grancrete has the lowest density and compressive
river sediment or muddy debris from the upper stream strength, while the 30% laboratory use NaHCO3 has
silted up the basin of the dam, and form the excessive the highest compressive strength in the entire specimen
reservoir sludge problem. tested. However, none of the cube can float in the water.
In order to handle the sludge waste, the grancrete In order to overcome the problem of higher density for
material is proposed to mix with the sludge and unfloatable material, a sandwich panel with Styrofoam
other expansive agents to produce usable construction as the core material, and grancrete/sludge as face sheet

Table 1. Compressive strengths of grancrete and expansive
agents (grancrete:water = 1:0.2).

Specific strength
Mix gravity (kg/cm2 )

nano-calcium carbonate 1.34 198

water: baking soda (0.3:0.1) 1.84 679
10% detergent 1.48 188
Styron-sphere 1.68 460
10% baking soda 1.9 565
20% baking soda 1.66 456
30% baking soda 1.76 741
10% NaHCO3 1.94 834
20% NaHCO3 1.92 1030
30% NaHCO3 1.95 1139
10% NaHCO3 and hot water 1.94 636

Table 2. Design of sandwich panel of grancrete and expan-

sive agents (grancrete:water = 1:0.2).
Figure 1. Manufacturing of grancrete panel, (1a) Kevlar
Type of face sheet mesh with stitches, (1b) Vibrating table, (1c) the finished
top face sheet, (4) the penetrated grancrete paste from the
Total Stitched other side.
Thickness Kevlar pitch Specific Ultimate
(cm) grid sludge (cm) gravity load (N)

4.52 n n n 0.730 138

4.637 160
4.86 y n n 0.833 237
4.81 264
4.80 239
4.43 n n 3 0.838 348
4.43 320
4.47 344
4.43 y n 1.5 0.862 373
4.52 367
4.39 371
4.92 y y 3 0.955 237
4.71 148
5.09 162

Figure 2. Three point bending test set-up for grancrete

sandwich panel.
material was designed to verify their densities and
bending strengths. The design of the face sheet mate- the panel was cut into several 5 cm wide strips for
rial is listed in Table 2. In some of the sandwich panel, the bending specimens. A 25 tones MTS was adopted
the Kevlar mesh (or grid) was loosely adhered to the for 3-point test. The specimen has a simply supported
top and bottom surfaces of the 28 mm thick Styrofoam. span of 28 cm. During the bending test, both displace-
In order to increase the through-thickness stiffness of ment and load at the mid-span was recorded through
the Styrofoam, Kevlar strands with stitched pitches of MTS. However, an additional load cell was used to
1.5 cm and 3.0 cm in both directions were applied in measure the small range loading (Fig. 2). The last spec-
some specimens (see Fig. 1a). This stitched Styrofoam imen set was made of grancrete/sludge Kevlar mesh
was placed above a vibrating table as shown in Fig. 1b. and 3 cm stitched pitch. The grancrete: water: sludge
The grancrete or grancrete/sludge paste was poured proportioning is 1:0.25:0.25 by weight.
into the mould; the vibrating shaker can force the air
going out from the paste (Fig. 1c). After one face sheet
was hardened, the panel was turned over to do the same 3 CONCLUSIONS
fabrication process. It is noted that some of the hard-
ened grancrete can be seen in the other side (Fig. 1d) An environmental friendly material grancrete was
of the sandwich panel, since the stitches will produce applied to bind with the reservoir sludge and expan-
lots of holes in the core foam. After a 5 day curing, sive agents to produce light weight material. The cube

Figure 3. The force displacement at mid-span for Figure 6. The force displacement at mid-span for
grancrete/core/grancrete sandwich panel. grancrete/Kevlar/core/ Kevlar/grancrete sandwich panel with
3.0 cm stitch pitch.

Figure 4. The force displacement at mid-span for

grancrete/Kevlar/core/ Kevlar/grancrete sandwich panel. Figure 7. The force displacement at mid-span for
(grancrete -sludge) / Kevlar / core / Kevlar / (grancrete-sludge)
sandwich panel with 3.0 cm stitch pitch.

Figure 8. The surface of a grancrete-sludge sandwich panel

(8a) and the failure mode (8b).

material can be used as floating deck for amphibi-

ous house. The three point bending test results reveal
Figure 5. The force displacement at mid-span for
grancrete/Kevlar/core/ Kevlar/grancrete sandwich panel with that the grancrete/Kevlar mesh/core with 1.5 cm stitch
1.5 cm stitch pitch. pitch has the highest bending capacity, since the Kevlar
layer an increase the in-plane stiffness, and the through
compressive strengths test shows that the strength is thickness Kevlar stitch can improve the shear rigidity
proportional to its density, and most of the propor- of the sandwich panel as well. The face sheet made
tioning in this study cannot float in the water. Only of grancrete-sludge with a 3 cm Kevlar stitched panel
the sandwich structure with Styrofoam as the core has rugged surface, lower bending strength. However,

it is still higher than the grancrete/core/grancrete sand- Wagh, A.S., Jeong, S.Y. and Singh, D. July 1997b. High-
wich panel without Kevlar stitch. If the workability of Strength Phosphate Cement Using Industrial Byproduct
grancrete/sludge sandwich panels can be controlled Ashes, eds. A. Azizinamini, D. Darwin, and C. French,
during the mixing process, their flexural capacity will Proceedings of the first International Conference on High
Strength Concrete, American Society of Civil Engineers,
increase. Reston, VA, pp. 542553.
Wagh, A.S., Singh, D. and Jeong, S.Y. 1998. Method of waste
stabilization via chemically bonded phosphate ceramics,
REFERENCES U.S. Patent No. 5, 830, 815.
Wagh, A.S., Singh, D. and Jeong, S.Y. 2001. Chemically
Amphibious houses float out of trouble in Bangladesh, 2011. bonded phosphate ceramics for stabilization and solid-
Source: Sci Dev. Net, Jul. 27. ification of mixed wastes, Hazardous and Radioactive
Floating Foundation, English, E.C. PhD, Louisiana Hurricane Waste Treatment Technologies Handbook, CRC Press,
Center. Boca Raton, FL., pp.
Wagh, A.S., Jeong, S.Y. and Singh, D. July 1997a. High- Wagh, A.S. Jeong, S.Y. Lohan, D. and Elizabeth, A. 2003.
strength phosphate ceramic (cement) using industrial Chemically bonded phosphosilicate ceramics, U.S. Patent
by-product ash and slag, Proc. of International Conference No. 6, 518, 212.
on High-Strength Concrete, Kona, HI.

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

The finite element analysis of behavior for reactive powder concrete-filled

circular steel tube stub columns under axial compression

Hua Luo, Wenyu Ji & Zhigang Yan

Department of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China

ABSTRACT: Experiments on Reactive Powder Concrete-filled steel tube stub columns under axial compres-
sion are analyzed based on the researches of concrete-filled steel tube and Reactive Powder Concrete at home
and abroad. Finite element analyses on some specimens are carried out with ABAQUS. The results show that
the rising part of load-strain curves are in good agreements with experiment results before the peak point. The
nonlinear analysis models of two confined concrete models and two steel models are established with ABAQUS,
one of them has the best agreements with the experimental results whose concrete model is presented by Han
linhai and steel model is tri-linear stress-strain model.

Keywords: Reactive Powder Concrete-filled steel tube; stub column; finite element analysis; failure mode

1 INTRODUCTION the behavior of RPC-filled steel tube circular stub

columns, the main three components of these columns
Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) is a relatively new are modeled, which are considered as confined con-
cement based material, which is composed of cement, crete, steel tube and interface between concrete and
ultra-fine reactive powder, high-quality fine aggre- steel tube. In addition to these parameters, the choice
gate, and so on. Through the elimination of coarse of the element type and mesh size is also important in
aggregates and reducing the water-to-cement ratio, simulating structures with interface elements.
RPC shows the unique properties of ultra-high com-
pressive strength and excellent durability. The applica- 2.2 Material modeling of steel tubes
tion of RPC-filled steel tube columns is increasing in
modern structures, which provides high strength, high Two kinds of stress-strain curves for steel tubes are
ductility, high stiffness and full usage of construction adopted in this study.
materials. The fragility performance of RPC will be 1. The multi-linear stress-strain curves are adopted
improved by cooperative service of RPC and steel, in this study. The experimental measured yield
the steel tubes surrounding the RPC columns elimi- stresses (fy ) were 291.4 MPa, 321.5 MPa and
nate permanent formwork which reduces construction 316 MPa for steel tubes with nominal plate thick-
time(Hong & Ri 2003, Wenjun & Yuhang 2007). Steel nesses of 4 mm, 5.0 mm and 6.0 mm respectively.
tubes not only assist in carrying axial load, but also The first part of the multi-linear curve represents
provide confinement to the concrete. This paper aims the elastic part up to the proportional limit stress
to perform a nonlinear analysis of RPC-filled steel with a measured Youngs modulus of 205 GPa and
tube circular stub columns under axial compression. Poissons ratio equal to 0.3.
Previous available test results are used in the present 2. The tri-linear stressstrain curves are also used to
study to establish consistent FE modeling technique model the circular steel tubes. The main defining
using ABAQUS, where nonlinear material behavior, parameters for the tri-linear stressstrain curve are
enhanced strength corner properties of steel, and ini- the experimental measured yield stresses (fy ), the
tial geometric imperfections are included. Using the ultimate stresses (fsu ). The experimental measured
FE model, the results obtained from the model were yield stresses (fy ) were 291.4 MPa, 321.5 MPa
verified against the results of the tests. and 316 MPa, and the ultimate stresses (fsu ) were
487 MPa, 460 MPa and 490 MPa for steel tubes
with nominal plate thicknesses of 4 mm, 5.0 mm
2 FINITE ELEMENT MODELING and 6.0 mm respectively.

2.1 General 2.3 Material modeling of confined concrete

ABAQUS software package was employed through- The concrete strength is considerably improved as a
out the FE analysis. In order to accurately simulate result of the confinement of steel tube. In this study, it

where fl is the lateral confining pressure imposed by
the circular steel tube. The lateral confining pressure
(fl ) depends on the D/t ratio and the steel tube yield
stress (fy ). The approximate value of (fl ) can be cal-
culated from empirical equations given by Hu et al.
(Hsuan Teh et al 2003). The factors (k1 ) and (k2 ) are
taken as 4.1 and 20.5, respectively. Knowing (fl ), (k1 )
and (k2 ), the values of the equivalent uniaxial con-
fined concrete strength (fcc ) and the corresponding
confined strain (cc ) can be determined using Eqs. (9)
Figure 1. Equivalent uniaxial stress-strain curves for con- and (10). To define the full equivalent uniaxial stress
fined and unconfined concrete. strain curve for confined concrete as shown in Fig. 1,
three parts of the curve have to be identified. The first
part is the initially assumed elastic range to the pro-
is intended to develop a confined concrete model. Two portional limit stress. The value of the proportional
kinds of confined concrete models are also adopted limit stress is taken as 0.5(fcc ) while the initial Youngs
in this study (Linhai 2004, Wenping et al. 2009). modulus of confined concrete (Ecc ) is reasonably well
The stress-strain curves for confined concrete are calculated using the empirical Eq. (11) given by ACI
expressed as follows. and the Poissons ratio (cc ) of confined concrete is
taken as 0.2:
1. Han linhai confined concrete model

The second part of the curve is the nonlinear por-

tion starting from the proportional limit stress 0.5(fcc )
and going to the confined concrete strength (fcc ). This
part of the curve can be determined from Eq. (12)
Where which is a common equation proposed by Saenz. This
equation is used to represent the multidimensional
stress and strain values for the equivalent uniaxial
stress and strain values. The unknowns of the equa-
tion are the uniaxial stress (f ) and strain () values
defining this part of the curve. The strain values ()
are taken between the proportional strain, which is
equal to (0.5fcc /Ecc ), and the confined strain (cc ),
which corresponds to the confined concrete strength.
The stress values (f ) can be easily determined from
Eq. (4) by assuming the strain values ():

where RE and R values are calculated from Eqs. (13)

2. Saenz confined concrete model and (14), respectively:
Fig. 1 shows equivalent uniaxial presentations for
the stressstrain curves of unconfined and confined
concrete, where fc is the unconfined concrete cylinder
compressive strength .The corresponding unconfined
strain (c ) is taken as 0.003. The confined concrete
compressive strength (fcc ) and the corresponding con-
fined stain (cc ) can be determined from Eqs. (9) and
(10), respectively, proposed by Mander et al. (Mander
et al. 1988): while the constants R and R are taken equal to 4. The
third part of the confined concrete stressstrain curve
is the descending part from the confined concrete
strength (fcc ) to a value lower than or equal to rk3 fcc

with the corresponding strain of 11cc . The reduction Table 1. The ultimate loading capacity of specimens.
factor (k3 ) depends on the D/t ratio and the steel tube
yield stress (fy ). The reduction factor (r) takes into Dt L fc fy Nu
account the effect of the concrete strength. The value cm specimen MPa MPa MPa kN
of r is taken as 1.0 for concrete with the cube strength
(fcu ) equal to 30 MPa, while the value of r is taken 121 6 450 G-1 75.2 316 0.977 1905
G-2 75.2 316 0.977 1905
as 0.5, as recommended by Mursi and Uy (Mursi & A-11 100 316 0.733 2169
Uy 2003), for concrete with fcu greater than or equal A-12 100 316 0.733 2169
to 100 MPa. Linear interpolation is used to determine 102 4 450 G-3 75.2 291.4 0.692 1162
the value of r for concrete cube strength between 30 G-4 75.2 291.4 0.692 1162
and 100 MPa. A-13 100 291.4 0.519 1300
A-14 100 291.4 0.519 1300
1525450 G-5 75.2 321.6 0.626 2945
2.4 Concretesteel tube interface G-6 75.2 321.6 0.626 2945
A-15 100 321.6 0.470 2916
The contact between steel tube and concrete is mod- A-16 100 321.6 0.470 2916
eled by interface elements. The interface elements
consist of two matching contact faces of steel tube
and concrete elements. Surface-based interaction with
a hard contact model in the normal direction and a
penalty model in the tangential direction to the sur-
faces between the steel tube and core concrete is used
in FE model. The friction between two faces is main-
tained as long as the surfaces remain in contact. The
interface element allows the surfaces to separate under
the influence of a tensile force. However, the two
contact elements are not allowed to penetrate each

2.5 Mesh and load application

In this study, solid elements were proved to be more
efficient in modeling both steel tube and concrete.
A fine mesh of three-dimensional eight-node solid
elements (C3D8) is used. Loading was applied in a
displacement control mode at the top of a stub column
to simulate the axial loading condition. The ends of the
stub column were fixed against all degrees of freedom
except for the vertical displacement at the top.


3.1 Ultimate loads Figure 2. Failure modes of experimental results and finite
element results for specimens.
Table 2 shows a comparison of the ultimate loads of the
concrete-filled steel tube circular columns obtained
experimentally and numerically using the finite ele- not fully prevent its concrete core from shear failure,
ment model. It is shown that good agreement has although the circular tube obviously provides higher
been achieved between two sets of results for most confinement on the concrete core. It also can be seen
of the columns. A maximum difference of 9% was that the deformation of steel tube is more uniform
observed between experimental and numerical results when the D/t value is smaller. This can be explained
for column specimens G-5 and G-6. that the local buckling of steel tube is not obvious for
the specimens with smaller D/t, and the steel tube can
provide stronger confinement to its core concrete. For
3.2 Failure modes
the specimen with bigger D/t, the deformation of the
Failure modes of the stub columns were shown in Fig. 2 steel tube is not uniform and the local deformation is
respectively. Concrete core was compressed to failure relatively evident. An explanation is, for the specimens
due to shear splitting according to the experimental with bigger D/t, the steel tube separated from core
results, which caused a shear failure of the outer steel concrete and buckled subsequently due to extrusion
tube and shear failure modes were observed. It seems of the crushed concrete. For FE results, the buckling
that the confinement exerted by the circular tube could happened to be in the middle of the columns.

Figure 3. Load-strain curves of experimental results and finite element results for specimens.

3.3 N curves steel and the increasing confinement to the concrete

compensate the strain-softening of the concrete, and
Fig. 3 shows the N curves for different columns.
lead to the second aforementioned ascending branch,
FE1 are numerical results whose concrete model is
at a later stage the load carried by the steel tube
presented by Han linhai and steel model is tri-linear
decreases significantly. As can be seen, FE2 have
stressstrain model; FE2 are numerical results whose
more agreements with the experiment results.
concrete model is also presented by Han linhai and
steel model is multi-linear stress-strain curves model.
The experimental N curves were compared with
the numerical results, and good agreement had been 4 CONCLUSIONS
achieved in the rising part before the peak points.
The curves are generally similar in shape before the Several accurate nonlinear finite element models for
ultimate strength. However, in the post-peak stage, it the analysis of RPC-filled steel tube circular stub
appears slight differences. In the post-peak stage of columns have been presented. The confined concrete
the experimental curves, the hardening effect of the model has been accurately introduced. The measured

stressstrain curves for steel tubes were used to sim- of Railway of the Peoples Republic of China (No.
ulate the actual material of the steel tubes. The load 2007G030) and Ministry of Education of the Peoples
axial shortening curves and deformed shapes of the Republic of China (No. 200800041019).
columns predicted with the finite element model are
compared with the experimental results. The follow-
ing conclusions can be drawn based on the results of REFERENCES
this study:
Hong, B. & Ri, G., 2003. The Application of Reactive Pow-
1. The nonlinear analysis models of two confined der Concrete in Engineering Construction(in chinese).
concrete models and two steel models are estab- Building Science 19 (4): 5155.
lished with ABAQUS and one of them is proved to HsuanTeh, H., ChiungShiann, H., MingHsien, W. & YihMin,
have best agreements with the experimental results, W., 2003. Nonlinear analysis of axially loaded concrete-
whose concrete model is presented by Han Linhai filled tube columns with confinement effect. Journal of
Structual Engineering 129(10):13221329.
and steel model is tri-linear stressstrain model.
Linhai, H., 2004. Concrete-filled Steel Tubular Structures
2. For experimental results, concrete core was com- from Ttheory to Practice(in chinese). Beijing: Science
pressed to failure due to shear splitting, and thus Press
caused a shear failure of the outer steel tube and Mander, J.B., Priestley M.J.N. & Park, R., 1988. Theoreti-
shear failure modes were observed and the smaller cal stressstrain model for confined concrete. Journal of
the D/t value, the more uniform is the deformation Structural Engineering 114(8):180426.
of the steel tube. For the specimen with bigger D/t, Mursi, M. & Uy, B., 2003. Strength of concrete filled steel
the deformation of the steel tube is not uniform and box columns incorporating interaction buckling. Journal
the local deformation is relatively evident. For FE of Structural Engineering 129(5):62639.
Wenjun, Q. & Yuhang, Q., 2007. A Review of Study and
results, the buckling happened to be in the middle
Application of Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) (in
of the columns. chinese). Structual Engineering 23(5):8692.
3. The load-strain curves are in good agreements in Wenping, W., Bingsheng, H. & Jianhui, F., 2009. Research
the rising part before they arrive the peak point. on three stress-strain relationships of concrete-filled steel
However, it shows slight differences in the post- tube(in chinese). Si chuan Building Science 35(6):1923.
peak stage.


The authors wish to acknowledge the support and

motivation provided by scientific fund of Ministry

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Review of water desorption test methods

C. Ince
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecutre, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey

Y. Ozturk, M.A. Carter & M.A. Wilson

School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, UK.

ABSTRACT: The water retaining ability of fresh mortar is described by a well-defined parameter, desorptivity.
To date various methods have been developed and introduced to measure desorptivity. Desorptivity can be
measured in four main ways; Capillary Suction Time (CTS), Suction Test, Filter Paper Plate, American Pertoleum
Institute (API) Pressure Cell. All test methods for water desorption have the same working principle. The quantity
of desorbed water at specified time intervals is measured by creating a potential difference in water pressure.
This potential difference can be realised in different ways depending on the method. This paper investigates the
four main test methods for desorptivity herein. The review of the test methods show that the desorptivity results
of pressure cell is much more meaningful than the results of the CTS, paper plate and suction method as the
pressure cell uses pressures equivalent to suction of brick.

Keywords: desorptivity, mortar, capillary suction pressure

1 CAPILLARY SUCTION TIME The cylindrical container is of 25mm internal diam-

eter and the filter paper is of 185 mm diameter. The
The capillary suction time test (CST) method was wet mix in the cylinder is of depth H and the thick-
devised by Gale and Baskerville (1967) according to ness of filter paper is h. The porosity of the filter
Meeten and Smeulders (1995). The devised method paper should be determined. To measure porosity, the
was a small-scale and convenient filterability measur- amount of water absorbed into a fixed volume of paper
ing method without needing any external source of should be recorded. Afterwards, the cylindrical con-
pressure or suction (Meeten and Smeulders, 1995). tainer filled with wet mix is placed on the surface of
The CST method (BS EN 14701-1:2006) relies on the the dry filter paper as shown in Figure 1. The water
capillary pressure of a filter paper (British Standards is withdrawn by the capillary pressure of the filter
Institution, 2006a). The filter paper withdraws filtrate paper. The water withdrawing process causes a radial
from a wet mix. A small cylindrical reservoir holds the wet front to advance across the filter paper. To deter-
wet mix in contact with the surface of the filter paper. mine the capillary suction time, the time for the wet
The experimental arrangement is shown schematically front to travel between two concentric rings, which is
in Figure 1. the distance between a0 (the side of the cylinder) to a (a
predetermined fixed point), is measured. The desorp-
tivity, R, of the wet mix is calculated from the gradient
of a plot (a4 a40 )1/2 versus t 1/2 . Carter et al. (2003)
reported that varying the container height enables pres-
sure variations in CST measurements. (i.e. the shorter
H , the longer the capillary suction time). Furthermore,
Carter et al. (2003) showed that the maximum pressure
exerted by the filter paper is about 16.5 kilopascal
(kPa). It should be noted that this is a single point
measurement method.


Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the capillary suction time The American Society for Testing and Materials
test apparatus (Carter et al., 2003). (ASTM) Suction test (ASTM C1506 09) method

The vacuum gage should be capable of reading at
least 9 kPa pressure in 0.1 kPa increments. Follow-
ing mixing, the initial flow of the mortar or plaster is
determined by using a flow table. Immediately after
carrying out the flow test, the mortar or plaster on the
flow table is returned to the mixing bowl and remixed
for 15 seconds at medium speed. After remixing, the
perforated dish is quickly filled with mortar/plaster to
slightly above the rim. The material is tamped 15 times
with the tamper. The stopcock is turned on to apply
the vacuum to the funnel. After 60 seconds dewatering,
the stopcock is quickly turned off to expose the funnel
to atmospheric pressure. Immediately, the dewatered
mix is removed from the apparatus and a second flow
test carried out to determine the flow after dewatering.
The water retention as a percentage is calculated from
the following equation:

where A = flow after dewatering (the final flow);

B = flow immediately after initial mixing (the initial
Figure 2. Apparatus assembly for the ASTM water retention It should be noted that this is a single point mea-
test (ASTM, 2009). surement method. This standardised test method was
used by Sbabi et al. (2003) and Patural et al. (2011).
However, Sbabi et al. (2003) and Patural et al. (2011)
only used the standardised apparatus and did not fol-
provides a means for determining the ability of
low the test procedure stated in the standard. In their
mortars and plasters to retain water under suction
procedure, the perforated dish was filled with freshly
(ASTM, 2009). The standardised method is specifi-
mixed mortar and weighed. Afterwards, the apparatus
cally designed to determine the water retaining char-
was exposed to a vacuum of 7.0 0.4 kPa for 15 min-
acteristics of hydraulic cement-based mortars and
utes before weighing again. This is also a single point
plasters. The experimental apparatus comprises a tam-
measurement method. As the mass of the empty dish
per, a straightedge, a flow table, a mixing apparatus
including the filter paper was known, the mass of the
and a filtration assembly. This method needs an exter-
sample was calculated easily, together with the mass
nal source of suction. A vacuum pump connected to
of the mixing water. The water retention capacity, WR,
the bottom of a perforated dish is used to generate the
is calculated from the following equation:
pressure difference (p1 p2 ).
The filtration assembly and its details are shown in
Figure 2. The apparatus shown in Figure 2 consists of
eight main components: (i) a perforated brass dish; (ii)
a filter paper; (iii) a funnel; (iv) three-way stopcock;
(v) a 1-L flask; (vi) a vacuum gage; (vii) a vacuum where W0 = the initial mass of mix water; W1 = the
regulator; and (viii) a vacuum pump or aspirator. mass of mix water lost after suction.
The perforated dish rests on a funnel which is
connected to a vacuum flask by using a three-way
stopcock. It is indicated in the standard that mate- 3 FILTER PAPER PLATE
rial of the perforated dish should be a metal, which
cannot be damaged by masonry mortar or plaster. The filter paper plate method (BS EN 459-2:2010) also
The requirements for the metal base of the perfo- relies on the capillary pressure of a filter paper (British
rated dish are given in Figure 2. Its thickness should Standards Institution, 2010a). The water retention of
be 2.0 0.3 mm. The diameter of the stopcock bore a freshly mixed mortar is expressed as that percent-
should be 4.0 0.5 mm and the inner diameter of the age of water which remains in the mortar after a short
connecting glass tubing should be minimum of 4 mm. suction time on a filter paper. The standardised appara-
It is also indicated in the standard that there should be tus is shown and described in Figure 3. The apparatus
an airtight seal between the funnel and the dish dur- shown consists of four main components: (1) two plas-
ing the test. The filter paper used in the test should tic plates of dimensions 200 mm 200 mm 5 mm;
be a hardened, smooth and not rapid filter paper. The (1) conical plastic ring, of 140 mm smaller and 150 mm
diameter of the filter paper should be 150 mm. The larger inside diameter, 12 mm in height; (2) a filter
perforations in the dish should be completely covered paper plate of dimensions 190 mm 190 mm 2 mm,
by the filter paper. and (3) a nonwoven tissue, 185 mm in diameter. In

from the mortar (W4 ) is calculated from the following

where W4 = the relative loss of water from the mortar,

in percent. The water retention (WR) as a percentage
is calculated as WR = 100 W4 . The individual values
are stated and the mean of two individual values to the
nearest 0, 1%. It should be noted that this method is a
Figure 3. Test arrangement for filter paper plate method 1: single point measurement. In the opinion of the author,
plastic plates; 2: plastic ring; 3: filter paper plate; 4: nonwoven the terminology for this test is very confusing.
tissue; 5: fresh test mortar. Dimensions are in mm (British
Standards Institution, 2010).

addition, a balance which is capable of weighing to 4 AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE

the nearest 0,1 g and a steel straightedge are required. PRESSURE CELL
To determine the water retention, a mortar of known
water volume fraction (W1 ) is used. The dry filter The pressure cell for filtration of slurries is commonly
plate together with one of the two plastic plates (m17 ) used in sewage treatment research, mineral process-
are weighed. A piece of nonwoven tissue is placed on ing, research into the dewatering of mining sludge, in
the filter plate, the plastic ring, with its smaller opening the oil industry, and in geotechnics. This method com-
downwards, is placed on top of this, and the assembly promises expelling water from a mortar/slurry placed
(m18 ) is weighed. in a thick-walled stainless steel cylindrical vessel (the
The test is commenced 15 seconds after the com- pressure cell) via the action of pressurised gas.
pletion of the mixing process. The mortar is placed Previous studies have reported desorptivity mea-
into the plastic ring as quickly and uniformly as pos- surements on muds and bentonite clay suspensions
sible and levelled with a straightedge immediately. in the oil- and mineral-processing industries (Meeten
Following that, the assembly is weighed again (m19 ), and Sherwood, 1994; Sherwood and Meeten, 1997).
covered with the second plastic plate and left to stand More recent studies have reported desorptivity mea-
for 5 min. Then the test arrangement is inverted and surements of cement mortars and grouts (Green et al.,
removed and the lower plastic plate with the filter plate 1999; Carter et al., 2003; Bolton and McKinley, 1997,
weighed (m20 ). McKinley and Bolton, 1999). In their studies, Green
If the mass of water absorbed by the filter plate, et al. (1999) and Carter et al. (2003) used a stan-
W3 = m20 m17 , exceeds 10 g, the test must be repeated dard American Petroleum Institute (API) pressure
using two or more filter plates, selecting the number cell designed for oil well cements and drilling flu-
of filter plates used, n, so that the ratio W3 /n 10 g. ids (API, 1998). Most recently, Ince et al. (2011)
The water retention (WR) is calculated on the basis of have reported desorptivity values of lime and cement
the following formulae. The water fraction of the test mortars. A modified API pressure cell was used by
mortar (W1 ) is calculated from the equation: Ince et al. (2011).
A schematic diagram of the pressure cell is shown in
Figure 4. To determine the desorptivity, R, the freshly
mixed mortar is placed in the cell and the amount of
desorbed water from the freshly mixed under the action
where W1 = the water volume fraction of the test mor- of a pressurised gas is measured. It is assumed that
tar; m21 = the total mass of water in the fresh mortar, desorption of water by using appropriate gas pressures
in grams; m22 = the mass of dry mortar, in grams. The is equivalent to the suction of water from the mix by an
water content of the mortar in the plastic ring (W2 ) is absorbent substrate materials such as brick. Desorbed
calculated as W2 = m23 W1 , where W2 is the water liquid from the mortar is collected on a top loading
content of the mortar in the plastic ring, in grams; m23 balance. This balance is connected to a computer with
is the mass of mortar in the plastic ring, in grams; m18 dedicated software. The software records the mass of
is the mass of the plastic plate, filter plate, nonwoven desorbed liquid at any designated time interval.
tissue and plastic ring, in grams; m19 is the mass of the The desorptivity, R, of the freshly mixed mortar at
plastic plate, filter plate, nonwoven tissue and plastic a given gas pressure is then determined from the gra-
ring with mortar filling, in grams. dient of a plot of the cumulative desorbed volume of
The mass of water absorbed by the filter plate (W3 ) water per unit area, i, plotted against the square root
is calculated as W3 = m20 m17 where W3 is the mass of time, t 1/2 .
of water absorbed by the filter plate, in grams; m17 is A low desorptivity, R, value corresponds to a mortar
the mass of the dry filter plate and the plastic plate, in mix which is very water retaining. A high desorptivity,
grams; m20 is the mass of the soaked filter plate and R, value corresponds to a fresh mortar mix which is
the plastic plate, in grams. The relative loss of water very water releasing. This test procedure produces a

Smeulders, 1995). Moreover, it is a single point mea-
surement method. On the other hand, the CST method
is rapid and inexpensive.
The review shows that another method with a lim-
ited use by its pressure range is the pressure plate
method. The maximum pressure exerted by the fil-
ter paper is 20 (kPa). Compared with the capillary
suction pressure of a brick (100200 kPa), this is a
very low suction value. Furthermore, this is a sin-
gle point measurement method. However, the pressure
plate method is rapid and inexpensive and is adequate
for comparative measurements, even though no value
of desorptivity, R, given.
The ASTM suction tests have limited range of
pressures as well. The maximum pressure difference
that can be realised with the ASTM suction test is
atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa). Another problem
with this method is that it measures water retention by
using flow tests which has nothing to do with desorp-
Figure 4. Schematic diagram of the pressure cell method. tivity. Furthermore, it is a single point measurement
method. The advantage of the ASTM suction is the
Table 1. Comparison of pressures exerted by all test easy setup which is available in a large number of
methods and brick (1000 kPa = 1 MPa). construction material laboratories.
The maximum pressure limit of the API pressure
Test Maximum Pressure (P) cell is determined by its safe operating limit. The API
pressure cell can be used to dewater freshly mixed
Capillary Suction Time 16.5 kPa mortars over a pressure range comparable with the
ASTM Suction Test 101.325 kPa capillary suction of clay brick substrates. Previous
Paper Plate 1020 kPa studies have showed that API pressure cell is a rapid
API Pressure Cell >500 kPa
Brick 100200 kPa
and accurate technique (Green et al., 1999; Carter
et al., 2003). Carter et al. (2003) and Ince et al. (2011)
highlight that API pressure cell can apply a range of
pressures equivalent to the suction produced by a clay
brick or any other block masonry material. Another
number of data points rather than a single point mea- advantage of the API pressure cell is the easy pressure
surement. This method can produce pressures higher control. Furthermore, this is not a single point mea-
than 500 kPa. surement method. Previous and current studies have
used pressures higher than 500 kPa. Therefore, pres-
sures that mortars encounter in real life practice can
It is clear from Table 1 that none of the tests except
Four different methods were explained. The maximum API pressure cells can achieve the capillary suction
pressures that can be released or exerted by these pressure of a brick. The CST and paper plate methods
methods are summarised and the capillary suction are dependent on a filter paper and they are a single
pressure of a clay common brick is given in in Table 1 point measurement method. However, the maximum
for comparison. pressure exerted by the filter paper is far lower the
It is very apparent that the CST method has very pressure values exerted by an absorbent substrate. Fur-
limited use by its pressure range. Carter et al. (2003) thermore, compared to pressure cell methods, the CST
showed that the maximum pressure exerted by the filter and paper plate methods have far lower pressure val-
paper is about 16.5 kilopascal (kPa). ues. The ASTM suction test is at the lower limits of the
Absorbent substrate materials such as brick on pressure values exerted by an absorbent substrate and
which freshly mixed mortars are placed exert a capil- the pressure cells. However, these tests are of value
lary suction pressure. Ioannou et al. (2003) highlights because they produce comparative results.
that capillary suction pressure of a clay common brick The results of pressure cell tests will be more mean-
is in the range of 0.10.2 MPa (100200 kPa). How- ingful than the results of the CST, paper plate and
ever, the pressure in CST method is a very low suction suction method as the pressure cell method uses pres-
pressure value when the substrates for masonry mor- sures equivalent to suction of brick. The pressure cell
tars are in consideration (e.g. clay brick). Furthermore, method is not standardised yet. However, measuring
several studies have revealed that the CST method desorptivity in this way could become a valuable stan-
has limited use by the means of testing fresh mor- dard test method which would help to design mortar
tars (Carter et al., 2003; Meeten, 1993; Meeten and mixes and asses their water retaining properties based

on the capillary suction pressure of the absorbent Green, K. M., Carter, M. A., Hoff, W. D. & Wilson, M. A.
substrate to which they will be applied. 1999. The Effects of Lime and Admixtures on the Water-
The main limitation of all the methods discussed Retaining Properties of Cement Mortars. Cement and
here is their inability to fully dewater a freshly mixed Concrete Research 29(11): 17431747.
Ince, C., Carter, M., Wilson, M., Collier, N., El-Turki, A.,
mortar. Even though the API pressure cell can match Ball, R. & Allen, G. 2011. Factors Affecting the Water
the pressure of a brick, it dewaters the mix from the Retaining Characteristics of Lime and Cement Mortars in
bottom upwards only until gas breakthrough and it is the Freshly-Mixed State. Materials and Structures 44(1):
not possible to obtain a fully dewatered mortar for any 509516.
other test such as strength testing. However, the API Ioannou, I., Hall, C., Wilson, M. A., Hoff, W. D. &
pressure cell is still the best method for measuring Carter, M. A. 2003. Direct Measurement of the Wetting
desorptivity because it can apply pressures equivalent Front Capillary Pressure in a Clay Brick Ceramic. Journal
to the very high suctions produced by typical brick and of Physics D: Applied Physics 36(24): 31763182.
block masonry materials and gives a numerical value McKinley, J. D. & Bolton, M. D. 1999. A Geotechnical
Description of Fresh Cement Grout Filtration and Con-
of desorptivity, R. solidation Behaviour. Magazine of Concrete Research
51(5): 295307.
Meeten, G. H. & Sherwood, J. D. 1994. The Hydraulic Perme-
REFERENCES ability of Bentonite Suspensions with Granular Inclusions.
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American Petroleum Institute 1998. API Specification 10. Meeten, G. H. & Smeulders, J. B. A. F. 1995. Interpre-
Washington: API. tation of Filterability Measured by the Capillary Suc-
American Society For Testing and Materials. 2009. ASTM tion Time Method. Chemical Engineering Science 50(8):
C1506 09 Standard Test Method for Water Retention 12731279
of Hydraulic Cement-Based Mortars and Plasters. West Patural, L., Marchal, P., Govin, A., Grosseau, P., Ruot, B. &
Conshohocken, PA: ASTM. Deves, O. 2011. Cellulose Ethers Influence on Water
Bolton, M. D. & McKinley, J. D. 1997. Geotechnical Prop- Retention and Consistency in Cement-Based Mortars.
erties of Fresh Cement Grout Pressure Filtration and Cement and Concrete Research 41(1): 4655.
Consolidation Tests. Geotechnique 47(1): 347352. Sebaibi, Y., Dheilly, R. M. & Queneudec, M. 2003. Study
British Standards Institution. 2006a. BS EN 14701-1:2006 of the Water-Retention Capacity of a Lime-Sand Mortar:
Characterization of Sludges. Filtration Properties. Capil- Influence of the Physicochemical Characteristics of the
lary Suction Time (CST). Milton Keynes: BSI. Lime. Cement and Concrete Research 33(5): 689696.
British Standard Institution. 2010a. BS EN 459-2:2010 Sherwood, J. D. & Meeten, G. H. 1997. The Filtration
Building Lime. Test Methods. Milton Keynes: BSI. Properties of Compressible Mud Filtercakes. Journal of
Carter, M. A., Green, K. M., Wilson, M. & Hoff, W. 2003. Petroleum Science and Engineering 18(12): 7381.
Measurement of the Water Retentivity of Cement Mortars.
Advances in Cement Research 15(3): 155159.
Gale, R.S. & Baskerville, R.C. 1967. Capillary suction
method for determination of the filtration properties
of a solid/liquid suspension. Chemistry and Industry 9:

Advances in Civil Engineering and Building Materials Chang, Al Bahar & Zhao (Eds)
2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-64342-9

Lightweight aggregates produced from mixtures of high silica heating

microscope procedure

S. Al-Bahar, S. Al-Otaibi, M. Taha, A. Al-Arbeed, A. Abduljaleel, F. Al-Fahad & S. Al-Fadala

Building and Energy Technologies Department Environment and Urban Development Division,
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait

ABSTRACT: Aggregate wash (AW) mix with argillaceous materials, are suitable raw material for light weight
aggregate (LWA) production, characterized by its bloating ability (bloatability) as well as its thermal insulating
properties as a building material. The purpose of this study is look at the effect of high silica content on the
melting behavior and bloating characteristics, of AW mixtures with gatch, and with or without bloating agent. The
bloating ranges of raw materials were evaluated using the Heating Electron Microscope (HEM) technique,
at temperatures ranging from 25 to 1600 C. A monitoring camera captured the images of melting modes at
different phase structures. HEM techniques affirmed the suitability of AW for LWA production in a mixture with
argillaceous materials, of low silicon oxide percentage, supported by bloating agents such as sewage sludge, SS
and lube oil.

Keywords: Heating electron microscope, aggregate wash, argillaceous materials, Riley, lightweight aggregate,

1 INTRODUCTION data of the captured images continuously and plots

them in a graph. From these measurements bloating
To check the raw materials suitability for synthetic temperatures can be determined with accuracy and
aggregates production, and to evaluate their melting relative precision, as the indicated temperatures assist
behavior and bloating characteristics, the chemical in identifying start and end of gas liberation.
analysis of all raw materials need to be assessed, To understand the effects of high SiO2 on the ther-
(Al-Bahar et al. 2012 and Hamlin and Templin 1962). mal behavior and the LWA production of a mix with
Chemical analysis is carried out by the X-ray fluores- high SiO2 , three different mixes were prepared with
cence (XRF) method. The results of oxide analysis of different percentages of SiO2 , with and without a bloat-
the raw materials and raw mixtures (XRF) are evalu- ing agent. All the mixes were prepared with the same
ated and loss free oxides (LOI) are grouped into major fineness. The results were compared withthat of the
oxides (SiO2 and Al2 O3 ) and other fluxing oxides. LWA produced from burning AW alone and the AW
Oxide percentages are plotted on Rileys diagram, with lube oil (LO) or with solid sludge (SS); as bloating
(Riley, 1951) to locate their position with respect to the agents. These mixes are:
tertiary area of successful bloating, which implies that
A mix prepared from: 70% aggregate wash (AW)
materials are fired to a mass viscous enough to ensure
and 30% gatch (G); without any bloating agent,
good bloatability. Mineralogical analysis (XRD) of
A mix prepared from: 70% AW and 30% G with
the raw materials is also conducted, to highlight the
5% LO. The bloating agent was added to this mix
presence of fairly good amounts of clay minerals.
to accelerate the bloating process and its formation.
Furthermore, the bloating ranges of raw materials
A mix prepared from: 50% AW and 50% G with
and their mixtures are evaluated using the Heating
5% LO.
Electron Microscope technique, (Dee and Reeves,
2002), which added to the acceptability of bloating The thermal behavior of the above three mixes was
characteristics of the raw material. With the heating first evaluated by the heating microscope then fol-
microscope technique, the samples are heated at a lowed by burning the prepared dried pellets of the 50%
temperature ranging from 25 to 1600 C. A monitoring AW and 50% G with 5% LO in the rotary kiln. These
camera gives the images of the raw materials melting heating microscope results were compared with that
phase at different temperatures, the computer software obtained by burning the AW with and without LO and
registers, evaluates, and manages the measurement AW with SS.

Table 1. Summary of the results of the rotary kilns Table 2. The percentage of SiO2 and the flux oxides of the
operations (lab and pilot) of the AW and the mix of 50% main raw materials and 50% AW + 50% Gmix.
AW + 50% G + 5% LO.
50% AW +
Product Water Percentage AW Gatch 50% Gatch
Materials Density Bloating Absorption
Used (g/cm3 ) Ratio (%) SiO2 66.41 87.04 76.72
Al2 O3 19.16 7.02 13.09
AW 0.81 1.29 4.3 Total Flux 14.43 5.95 9.99
AW + 1.12% LO 0.68 1.46 17.4
AW + 4% SS 0.45 1.63 21.8
50% AW + 50% 1.34 1.02 16.8
G + 5%LO


2.1 Rotary Kiln operation

Bloating of high grade of LWA was produced by burn-
ing AW; with or without bloating agents. Even mixing
the AW with Kuwaiti argillaceous materials, such as
red clay (RC) produced high grade of LWA. Mixing the
AW with gatch (either with or without bloating agent)
did not produce LWA by burning the mix at 1200 C.
Bloating of such mixes was not examined at tempera-
tures higher than 1200 C, due to the limitation of the
kilns. But, as it is expected higher temperatures are
required to obtain a certain bloating (Table 1).
The aggregate with the highest density (1.34) and
the lowest bloating ratio (1.02) is that produced from
the mix with 50% AW + 50% gatch and 5% LO. It Figure 1. Rileys composition diagram of major oxides
shows the lowest water absorption, due to its higher showing the AW with argillaceous mixtures of RC lay within
density. This is in comparison to the LWA produced the area of possible bloating, while AW with high silica
from AW alone with a density of 0.81 and a bloating mixture lay outside the area.
ratio of 1.29. Aggregate wash with 4% solid sludge
shows the lowest density, higher bloating ration and 2.2 Chemical composition of the materials and
water absorption. mixes
The mix where the gatch is one of the components
is characterized by: The gatch is characterized by high silica and low flux
materials contents, in comparison to the AW. Accord-
Hindering and slowing the reaction between all the ingly, the 50% AW + 50% G mix has higher silica
oxides of the mix, content (by about 10%) and low flux materials (by
Minimizing and/or preventing the formation of the about 10%) in comparison to the AW. The presence
bloating at a temperature of 1200 C, in contrast of high silica, which is mainly quartz; and the low
to the mixes that contain AW. It does not produce flux materials, which attributes to the bloating forma-
LWA, and tion at lower temperature; are the main reasons for the
Requires high temperature to show some properties non-bloating process of the 50% AW + 50% G.
for bloating. Although 5% LO was added to the mix 50%
To understand the behavior of the gatch mixes AW + 50% G, it did not help in producing the bloat-
during the burning process and elaborate of the non- ing. Therefore, to produce LWA it is necessary to keep
bloatability of the gatch mixes, it is necessary to the mix composition inside the bloating area of Rileys
evaluate such mixes from two different angles. triangle (figure 1).
The chemical composition of the materials and the
mixes, to understand the percentage of the oxides
contents of the each material used, specifically SiO2 2.3 Heating microscope
and the flux, and lastly the results of the heating Heating microscope manufactured by Hesse-
microscope analysis on these four different mixes; Instruments, Germany, was used for documenting all
to understand the characteristic morphology of each the chemical and physical changes during heating each
mix. It is worth to mention here that the maximum of the four different samples. Heating was carried
temperature of the heating microscope is 1600 C. out from 25 C1600 C. The machine documented the

Figure 2. Picture analysis data sheet of 70% AW + 30% G.
Figure 3. Picture analysis data sheet of AW + 1.12% LO.
picture analysis results by measuring the temperature
of each of the chemical and physical changes. The
morphology of the sample, including area, shape fac- Generally, the sample undergoes the following series
tor, height, width and corner angles are documented. of reactions.
The picture at each change is also taken and presented. First the calcination phase occurs, where carbon
The heating microscope experiment, shown in pic- dioxide is evolved and generally this occurs at about
ture analysis of figures 2, 3, 4 and 5 , was carried out 760 C. The degree of calcination depends on the per-
on four different samples. These are: centage of the carbon dioxide in the sample. The
Sample 1: AW + 1.12% LO aggregate wash by itself has a higher percentage of
Sample 2: 70% AW + 30% G carbon dioxide in comparison to those where the
Sample 3: 70% AW + 30% G + 5% LO gatch is added. As a result of the calcination, a slight
Sample 4: 50% AW + 50% G + 5% LO reduction in the sample volume occurred.
The sintering phase is the chemical reactions
among the different oxides starts. It is enhanced by
2.4 Experimental tests
the presence of the flux materials, bloating agents and
The experimental tests for all the samples were carried the suitable percentage of silica to react with the other
out under the same condition and the heating profile ingredients.
was constant for all the four samples: At the deforming phase the liquid phase starts
resulting in the area reduction. Usually this happened
Heating rate of 60 C/min from the room tempera-
at a lower temperature and with a higher deforming
ture till 900 C
percentage than that of mixes with high silica con-
Heating rate of 10 C/min from 900 C till 1600 C
tent. High flux materials produce high liquid phase
Heating the cylinder sample by the heating micro- and improve the cohesion between the particles and
scope causes it to undergo several chemical reactions. the ability of shaping in the rotary kiln.
These reactions depend mainly on the chemical and At a higher temperature, the liquid phase and reac-
mineralogical compositions and the particle size dis- tion are increased and the gases evolution results in a
tribution of the sample. As it is mentioned earlier, these uniformly distributed pore structure. This is the sphere
reactions are hindered by the increase of the silica con- phase. Due to the increase of the liquid phase, the
tents and by increasing the particle size distribution. gas bubbles enter inside the body sample causing a

Figure 5. Picture analysis data sheet of 70% AW + 30%
G + 5% LO.

The aggregate wash sample has the lowest sintering,

deformation, sphere, hemisphere and flow tempera-
Figure 4. Picture analysis data sheet of 50% AW + 50% tures in comparison to the other three samples. This
G + 5% LO. is mainly attributed to the low silica content of the
first sample and high flux composition. Introducing
remarkable increase in the area. Resulting in produc- the gatch in the mix results in slowing all the reac-
ing lightweight material with low density that contains tions and a higher temperature, even with the addition
uniformly distributed different sizes of pores. During of 5% waste oilso that the reaction can be completed
the cooling process of the sphere phase, the surface of between all the chemical ingredients.
the aggregate is verified. The deformation range of the aggregate wash sam-
The hemisphere phase is characterized by increas- ple is about 120 C, while the other three samples
ing temperature leading to increased viscosity of the deform in a higher range. They deform in a range
liquid. Also, the gases, that form the pores, are evolved varying from139, 189 and 262 C, respectively.
and the area percentage is reduced. The more use of gatch in the mix, the higher
Flowing Phase is the last process and occurs when the start of the deformation temperature and the
increasing temperatures cause the sample to be more deformation range.
flattened and reduced in the shape and the area. The The flow of the liquid starts at 1297 C and ends at
degree of the flatten and area reduction are higher 1366 C (i.e. within a range of 69 C) for the aggregate
in the case of AW only, in comparison to that which sample with the 1.2% waste oil, while the liquid starts
are mixed with the gatch. This is mainly attributed to to flow at 1349 C and ends at 1500 C (with a range
the silica and the liquid phase contents. Samples with varies from 139 to 262 C) for the other samples that
lower silica and higher liquid contents flatten more contain gatch. The higher the gatch percentage, the
and the area is more reduced in comparison to those higher is the temperature range of the liquid flow.
of high silica content and low liquid phase. Again, the aggregate wash sample starts bloating at
a lower temperature and its range of bloating is also the
lowest in comparison to the other three samples. Addi-
tion of the waste oil partially helps in minimizing the
bloating range, sample 4 in comparison to sample 3.
The picture analysis of the heating microscope of
3.1 Heating microscope
the four different samples were evaluated and ana-
Table 3 shows the sintering temperature and the tem- lyzedto understand the behavior of burning the mixes
perature characteristic at which the different shape with high silica content. This was extracted from the
morphologies occurred for the four different samples. parameters of the heating samples, as the heating

Table 3. Sintering temperature and the temperatures of the in the case of sphere and hemisphere phases; due
shape morphology for the four different samples. to the gas evolution, pores and bloating formatio