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ENGG1050

Heat Engines, Refrigeration and


the Carnot Cycle

(C&B, Chapter 5)

1
ENGG1050 - 2005 1

The next 4 weeks

Week 9 { Carnot Cycle C&B Chapter 5


Rankine & Power Cycles C&B Chapter 9
Week 10 {
Refrigeration Cycles C&B Chapter 10

Week 11 { Simple Gas Cycles C&B Chapter 8


Combined cycles C&B Chapter 9
Week 12 { Multicomponent Thermodynamics
Distillation
Multicomponent Application

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Contents

Key questions
Thermal energy reservoirs
Heat Engines
Second Law statements
Refrigeration
Carnot cycle
Example designs

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Key Questions
Is the 1st Law all we need for thermodynamic
analysis of engineering systems?
How can we describe the 2nd Law of
thermodynamics in practice?
What extra information does the 2nd Law give
about the limits of performance?

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Thermal Energy Reservoirs
Source of heat Sink of heat
Q

Q Examples ?

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Heat Engines
TH
Converting work to heat easy
Converting heat to work hard QH
Heat
Examples: Engine Wnet

QL
TL

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A beam engine

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A heat engine

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Steam Power Plant (Heat Engine)

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Performance of a Heat Engine


Energy balance: E = Q W
= (QH QL ) Wnet
Wnet = QH QL

Efficiency: =
Wnet
QH
QL
= 1
QH

Issues: Typical efficiencies and QL = 0 ?

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Example Heat Engine

Wnet QH QL
Hot = =
QH QH
QH = 100 MJ

QL 45
Wnet = 1 = 1
QH 100
QL = 45MJ
= 0.55
Cold

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Limitations on Heat Engines


Q
2nd Law statement:
T
0 (Integral around the cycle)

n Qnet ,i (All net heat transfers around



i =1 Ti
0 cycle over absolute temperature
at the boundaries)
Hence for a real heat engine with hot and cold reservoirs:
2
Qnet ,i

QH QL
= 0
i =1 Ti TH TL
and for QL = 0 Inequality is never satisfied

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Limitations on Heat Engines
2nd Law statement requires some heat to be rejected into the lower
temperature reservoir.
The heat ratio is: QL TL

QH TH
Wnet Q
Hence: HE = = 1 L
QH QH
TL
HE 1
TH

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Second Law: Kelvin-Planck Statement

TH
This process is impossible!
QH
Heat
Engine Wnet = QH

It is impossible for any system to operate in a thermodynamic


cycle and deliver a net amount of work while receiving energy
from a single reservoir.

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Who were Kelvin and Planck?

Lord Kelvin (William Thomson) Max Planck


1824-1907 1858-1947
Scottish mathematician/physicist German physicist
Identified irreversibilities issue Developed quantum theory
I have not the smallest molecule of faith in aerial navigation other Nobel Prize 1918
than ballooningI would not care to be a member of the Aeronautical Society
(1895)

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Refrigerators and Heat Pumps


Refrigerators
Goal is to transfer heat from low to high
temperature reservoir, to maintain TL
Mainly vapour recompression systems
Air conditioning is a refrigeration system
Heat pumps
Transfer heat from TL to maintain a temperature
TH
Reverse cycle air conditioning is an example

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Examples of heat pumps

Refrigeration Heat Pump

Courtesy: Cengel & Boles

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Refrigeration the basics


Remove heat from a cold reservoir
Reject heat to a hot reservoir
Use work to do it
Components:
A compressor
A condenser
An expansion valve
An evaporator
A fluid or refrigerant

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Refrigeration Cycle

Courtesy: Cengel & Boles

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Coefficient of Performance - Refrigeration

Output QL
COPR = =
Input Wnet ,in
Wnet ,in = QH QL
QL 1
COPR = =
QH QL QH
1
QL

Note: COPR can be > 1

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Refrigeration example

An inventor offers you a new freezer unit that


operates at -37C and a COP of 4.0. If the
average room temperature in which the freezer
is located is 20C, is this a reasonable
purchase?

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Coefficient of Performance - Heat Pumps


Maintain a heated space by taking heat from a low
temperature reservoir

QH
COPHP =
Wnet ,in
QH 1
COPHP = =
QH QL QL
1
QH
COPHP = COPR + 1

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Heat pump example

A heat pump is used to maintain a dwelling at


20C during a severe winter where ambient
temperatures are down to -20C. If the heating
load is 20kW, what is the minimum work
needed for this application?

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Second Law: Clausius statement

Courtesy: Cengel & Boles

It is impossible to construct a system that operates


in a cycle to only transfer heat from a lower to
higher temperature reservoir.

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Entropy and irreversibilities

Entropy as a measure of irreversible


behaviour in the system.
Perfect or theoretical cycles the ideal case
The development of the Carnot Cycle gives a
benchmark to aim for.

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Types of Irreversibilities

Sudden gas expansions/compression


Chemical reactions like explosions
Heat transfer over at finite T
Mixing
Friction
Inelastic deformation

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Reversible Irreversible

Very small driving Finite driving force


force (T, P, etc.)
Fast process
Very slow process
Spontaneous
Quasi-equilibrium process
process

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An example (a high pressure gas)

Irreversible
process

Ssys = 0, Ssurr > 0

Reversible
process

Ssys = 0, Ssurr = 0

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Who was Carnot?

Sadi Carnot 1796-1832


Design of steam engines
First rigorous
mathematical analysis of
steam engines
Died of cholera aged 36

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Ideal Gas Carnot Cycle

PV = constant PVk = constant

We can do it in reverse: A D C B A
Reverse Carnot Cycle

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Carnot Cycle
Calculate the efficiency for one reversible cycle

4 Steps (each reversible):

AB Isothermal Expansion TH constant


BC Adiabatic Expansion Q=0
CD Isothermal Compression TL constant
DA Adiabatic Compression Q=0

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Working Fluid Ideal Gas


A QH Reversible heat
P addition at TH = Constant.

B Reversible work
Reversible work D transfer, Q = 0
transfer, Q = 0
C
QL
Reversible heat rejection
at TL = Constant. V
W = W AB + WBC + WCD + WDA
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Computing the terms of the cycle
For an ideal gas, we can calculate all the w and q
terms:

Path w q
AB + RTH ln (PA/PB) - RTHln(PA/PB)

BC + CV (TH-TL) 0

CD + RTLln(PC/PD) - RTLln(PC/PD)

DA + CV (TL-TH) 0

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W Wnett
C = =
QA B QH
TH TL T
C = = 1 L
TH TH

T is absolute (ideal gas) temperature.

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T-s Diagram
Q rev
1 dS =
T T
2 Q = T ds
Q rev = T ds

s
2
Area under curve =
1
T ds = Q rev , int

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Basic fluid processes T-s diagram


Iso-thermal Adiabatic (isentropic)

1
T T
1 2

s s

Qrev = Tds Q=0


S = 0
Note: Reversible processes!
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Carnot Cycle (T-s diagram)
T Isothermal heat transfer
QH
1 2

Adiabatic Adiabatic
compression. expansion

4 3
QL
Isothermal heat transfer
s

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Thermodynamic Temperature Scale

Independent of the properties of the substance

nth = f (TH , TL )
or QH / QL = f (TH , TL )
QH (TH ) TH
= = (absolute temperature)
Q L rev (TL ) TL
T
th = 1 L
TH

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Summary

Heat engines allow Q W (Heat to work)

TH, TL reservoirs
QH, QL heat flows
Wnet work produced
W
th = net 0 th 1
QH
Kelvin-Planck nth 1

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Summary
Refrigeration and heat pumps
Q from TL TH using Win
Vapour-compression cycles are common

QL 1 > 0
Efficiency: COPR = = 1
Win th > 1
Clausius statement:
QL(TL) QH(TH) not possible without Win
TH TL
Note: rev = c = irrev
TH

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Inventor #1 I. Cameron
TH = 600K 300 K
C = 1
TL = 300K 600 K
= 0.7 = 0.5

600K
10J
Cameron
Engine
7J

3J
300K

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TH = 600K
TL = 300K
= 0.7

600K
10J 14J
Carnot
Engine 7J Heat
Pump
3J 7J
300K

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600K Violates Clausius
statement
4J
W=0
4J
Cameron engine
300K is impossible

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Inventor #2 Engineering Student


Irreversible Engine

TH = 600K, TL = 300K, = 0.3

600K
10J
BE 3J
Engine
7J
300K

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2nd Law Summary
Definition of heat engines, refrigerators
2 statements (qualitative) of 2nd Law for Cycles
Define Carnot Cycle, c

T TL
rev = c = H irrev
TH
Absolute temperature scale
S for engines
T-s plot for processes and engines

Is all this consistent with general statement of 2nd Law?


i.e. Ssys + Ssupp 0

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Inventor #3 I.T. Cameron


Reversible Engine
TH = 600K
TL = 300K C = 0.5
= 0.3
600K
10J
ITC 3J
Engine
7J
300K

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Inventor No 2.
TH = 600K
TL = 300K
= 0.3 C = 0.5

600K
10J 6J
ITC 3J Carnot
Engine Engine
7J 3J
300K

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Inventor No 2.

600K Violates
Clausius
4J statement of
W=0 2nd Law

4J
300K

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Heat pump example

A room is to be kept at 22C using a heat


pump from ambient. Heat loss is 5kW per C
difference between the atmosphere and
building.
a) If the outside temperature is -5C, what is the
minimum power to drive the heat pump?
b) What is maximum ambient summer
temperature to be able to use the heat pump
to cool the room?

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