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RON MILLER

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I
CONTENTS

CHAPTER I: MELODY
Melody Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 c
-I ne Elcrncnrs o i s Meloby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
A . Sourze Materrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;z
6. Thernr ani- Dewiopmen: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i 6
C . Melodic Contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
. .
D.Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
E. Poinr of Ciimax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I?
F.MelodicForm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
G . Melodic Rnythm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1_a .
K . Pzrformance D ~ e c i o n s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
I .Tess~turdKey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -22
Stvle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Meiaaic S y l Analus15
~ ........................................... 24
Nan-Romanric Melod! . samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -2E
k . Idramatic Angular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -16
3.Idioma~icReferenda1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
C . IdiomaU: Proyammacic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?-
.-f

~omanric~vlebodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -30
Examples of ~kteUse of Romanxic Melody Wriring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
f i e PratorypicaT Romanric/ldeal Meiody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -34
Examples ofRarnan.cic:'Melodic Jarz Composic~ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -35
Conclusion n i Cnap:er I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Sugg~stedkxtrc~ses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -38
Special Pro-ieci: Folk MUSIC Sunley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Meioa~cAfialwis Refemnce Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -40
Recordings an2 Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -42

CHAPTER It: REHARMONIZATION


Harmoni~cion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
The preplannzd Meihod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -4
.
~ h t ~ r o c e d. .u. ~
............................................ -4.4

G e m n g S ~ a ~ e .d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
. .
Harmonlz~ng
Gwen Meludies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Rehamonirar~on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
The JZ Composer's Preoicamenr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4E
TheTechniaues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Substitux Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -51
A . Diatonic Substrru~ions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

E Chmmzric Substitutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -53


c.styie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
D . tfarrnonic Rhphm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -56
Reharmoniza~ianofCadenrial Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -3
1.Cadences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >C
- .-
2 . Cvcles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5F
2-Turnarounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5uostrrutc 5ynmrtr1: P a ~ e r n s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-52
Cnanglng the Yarrnon~cRhytnm ef Nov-Cadanrial Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -56
Arrangrng Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . .-a
J ---
Reharmon~zarlonExamples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1'
Fkworkin~ The Melocy . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7e
Conclus~onorChaoie- ll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Suggesreti Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Recoraln~5an5 Reahngs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
CHAFTER Ill: P=N7lTObtlCS

Pentatonic Composrrlons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
De~crr?tionand Deiln~rion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SS
K~ndsof Fpntacan~cCorn3osi:rons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
~ c n a r o n i ct+4.-lodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Crear~ngPen~atonicSource Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X9
Symrnemc Penxconic Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .?I
FormandStylr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Harmonizarion and ilarmonic Rhythm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 9 6
. Cnord Selection!Harmonic Rhychm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -96
Carnpos~tronExarnnles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 01
Extan1 Melodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Folt Influenced Composiaons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Miscellaneous Pert:aronic Compos~tioss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Concius~onof Cnaoter 11 I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Recordings and Readlngs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Concluston and Flral Cornmencs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -108

Appendix1 ...................................................... 110


M o ~ f i r D w l o p m e n i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710
hrticulations and E%cu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 53
Appendix11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Trirone Subsrrrurion and Acousrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
. Stamng Chords - Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 7
kdciitiona! Reharmonizarion - N e w Melodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -118
Appendix Ill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722
Lls: o f Af! Usable Pzntztonic Scales ............................... -122
Lis: o f AIL Usabic Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -126
Lan~uageLisr~ng. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -134
Mrsceltaneocs Marerials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -737
Palm X,piano 5core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

Abou: ;he Author .............................................. -141


Thc zeal a: Volume 2 of Mohllt Camposztzon and 3arnall7- 1s ro conanue rhe disscmlna-
tlon of ~niormatlonthar npresens a paen of study for the xpirin: composer. Krnerc
J'olurne 1 05 rhe book emphzslzed he preparation of a modal harmonic foun&tlar.. r h ~ s
volume will inrroduce concepm of melody ulnang and a xtudrr of che s+s of i- <om-
posidons char are = inrnnslc addi~ionto &e c o n t e m p ? JZZZ cornpos~,r'sreperroire. Of
lnterzst to tin: cornposer:arranger wi11 be thc chap~eron harmacizatlon and rtharmoniza-
nor; rechniques, x many of the cancepu prescnred reflec: ar influence of Gii Evans. Ddce
o n Charles M i n u s as n.elj as chose of Her-bie Hancock. Addrriondl!.. much OF the
E l l ~ n ~ a;ld
harmonic infornzuon of thar &apier is baed on f i e diztonic n-1' sysccm provtding both
ar: in.croducr~onco: and review of h e subiecr
Those ~nccrestedIn securing a new venue ofmpress~onwill fsnd h e cha?tcr or, ?enzronlc
h are m q - e x t a r pen-mtoGc runes mailable ro
runes of pamculz 1nreres.l M ~ h o u ~here
die jizz pdorncr &re +re nor man!.-~hata t e hamanrzeb with a modem mocial h ~ m o n i c
ioun&uon =ce?uns a fm :hat have been connihu~edby R72!me Shortc-
.45 wish Voiumc 1 3 5 t h e book. an a~oendi,:
.. wrirh addirional p e r ~ ~ h e i ainfomatlo3
l is
included for rhe smdenr deslnnE rheorerical explanarinn and additional examp!es. Thls
volurnt will differ From \;olurne 1 br che inclusion of srrggested recordins m d rea51n~sar
the en6 of mil chapter uzrh specific conlposlrions Tor Ilstenin_r w~rhlnche tei. AS
-ihere arr sus~esredassignmen= 2nd wcsnses ~ncludedat the end of each ~hapter.
Ho?cblly, hzwng corn~lecedthe smdy of h e marenals of both i~olumesof L!C book, rhe
srudenr wiU reaiize that &e informarion is presented to form a holisnc smci?~, Ewln:
mzsrered the mod& harmonic foundzrion of Volume 1 rhe srudenr should next stud!. melo-
dy n ~ h concepx
~ ~ g which c a n &en be apphed to the creaman of rneiodies in a vane? of
styles.l r 1s adciiuonal!v Important char rhi.le jap and pop composer be abit ro wnrc a roman-
uc melody - rhc su'qjec; 1s covered at iengrh in Chapter I
F ~ r r d y .che meiod!. wnr1ungprocedures are a ~ p h e dto t h e composing of Fenram:onic m e s ,
which are aiso I:a-manrted ~vihthe karmnnlzarion techn~ques@vm In Chapter 11.
To repeat from Voiume 1.:he auzhor's bale intcnuon is cc prowde i;lfomanon in rhe pnnt-
ed format &ar nil1 =pose and dcvelap rht smdent's iatenc ciearive abihum s we11 a: aliou~
him-;'herselfr~ u n h a s h e d y express a m e love of m c s ~ -
c 2nd of course to f~dfilthar t&ich
he/she go; into mmic io; ro begn uith - have fun!
Chapter I

WORDS O R CONCEPTS TO K N O W

I Folk/Ar: Specrrum
Melodic Elernenrs
~rlronic:~e;rato??ic/penratoniC
Earmanic Reference
poini
Guide~oies!P~vo~
Mocrfic Deveioamen;
Me\odic Contour
tompress~on/~smansion
Melod~cGalance
Melodrc Rhyrhm
Melod~cCadence
Syncop--
,ton
5i.zremen~lResponse
F.ntecedcnt/Consequenr~ai
ISI 0 rnaric A b s ~ r a ~
ldiorntt~cPrngrammar~t
Rornan~lrrI d ~ a l
Meiod~c
Fiornan:~~
binary blelody Co:m
C Y W7CR I. M E L ~ D Y

MELODY WRITING

7.
rrom a ? e d a p _ ~ i c a?ornt
l or'vlew. meiady utrrtxng 1s thr mosr :orn;liec of fn? bz51: skilis of
cmposet - there are man); rex5ow why this 15 SO

h4douy searlor. 1:. rhe mosr ?ersona] of composit~ona?acrivitics md shows t h e icasr degree

--
o'.iuccess b11 rhe implemenm;anonof p e d z n t ~ cmeti~a&.Although there arc "rules" given in
.,k1rional
Pl tex: 3 o o h for uaa.zysof crca;ing melo6ies. the!, in thc ions run end to inhib~t
person;! expressron rather h a g prornow free crtativq. However. h e r e are man!. merhocis
for dcvelop~n,na meiod~c,cia [ha: when crafthdi~~rnplernenred,c n develop caps, the mosr
e 2 m u s d end product The rnosr: usable pechgopcal systems -ake
uninspired F e r n ~ d into
in:^ ap?i+oachConstdenng h e tnomou5 varittq- of rndahc expression, ~t:s undersrandable
rhtr mosr theorisr/awrhors OFslpificance tend LO for90 2 cornprehe3siw presentation or'
mdody alrltin? procedures. As a point of r-ferencc. one of the sugzested wzs In \;olume 1
of rhls book is T13e Crafi of Mimca! Cote?onhor: by Pau! Hmdemirh. Of the 233 pzrcs of h e
boak. 26 are 9 v e n io rhe discussion crfmelody rr.nong n x h Lie ~ernaining2c75 pzges dcvor-
ed rro concepts OF harmony and a c o ~ ~ tThii ~ u .one exampie is q ~ p r danti un6ersmdabie.
S r ~ c he e ernphzsls ol'rhis baolc is or;j n composltior., :he problem L\ n a ~ n ~ v i
ends:1 SCO??
2nd worl;able ~fiidrlincsfor melody a r i ~ n gcan be e s r ~ b ~ i s h e.knother
d rons~derador!
u - h c h 1s certainly open to crmclsrn s: the 5el1eFrhar of the crcanw acuvlties of tfif corn-
p i e r , mclc>dyw r i t l n ~IS ihe o n e mos: dependent upon Innart musical rdm:

THE ROOTS Of MELODY CREATION


Music m general and rne1ody ct-raaon s~ecfilcaljrrcan be rraced zo a root q r e s s l o n oi&e
human condlaon b o ~ has urntrance (speech/siilgin~]2nd bod!. movemen: (dancq'rhyt;~rn).
PE c h ~ spnmerd music evolved, he pa& became more diverse wr<! aspecrs of each raking
a : ~ U E that became further scpaiited mrcr pazhs which a r e now categanzcd In general as
fork music an6 art mllsic. .4l~hou_cheach parh has 11s tres to rhe orjg~ralerrpresslon 2s speech
or dance, ar: rnuslc shouls 2 sxonser connettlor, co z voca! qaality with folk music sholving
2 frtuominanz ne tc hod!. movement expression. Thls 1s c e r a n i ? . a generzlizadon as there
is art m dance and there are many arc compos~rionsthar ate bzsed on a premise of r h y r h i c
dc.ciopmenc ofcourse, mart!. of h e s e a r e baUec music
Popular (folk) music in the samt way incorporare5 the qualities char are zssoclatcd with he
se?d development of arr rnwlc. LXT afI!ricrsm. romanriclsm and "sennusness.'

3AZZ AND POPULAR MUSIC


I= is 2 ~ U I C h a t evolved From popula. r n ~ s i and
c has lncr~nsrctles to foll; music, popu-
lzr rnuslr 'nern_~the conremporary form of folk muslc. -4norher wzy of describing h e d~fier-
e n t e s beween art m u 3 c and folk music is rhar falk mr?sicis crcarlon. rradit~onand crrolu~ion
15 carried our h r amateur or rn:nlmall!j m n e d musinans. T2e converse for art music IS :liar
i~ crcarors are h ~ g h l yrrarned ant expenc much of their Ilfc's ener-9 on h e study and pro-
duztlon of rn~slc-iazz srnce the 1950s h u been wwlv~ngmm zn ar: music: fils is m evidence
31-im drop m popuiuin. from that time onward With rhe deveiorrnen; O'JZ q an u r
z
muslc came rhe reqmrcrnenr o<excensive serious srudy by the asplrrnglazz rnusic:m - as any
srudenc reaciin~rhis :ext uill attest.

.4lr'nougE:ja72 has evolved to ZIY arr music lwei ~ r connecooi?


s m folk music cannor be
denled wlthour t h e milslc lcsinE I= ~ n h e r e n pzssion
r or ~ r Iucenr
s expressive and c a a m m i -
=rive quai~ues..4lf5ou$1 ,ZT hzrrnony has a dlrecr referenc? LC Europear. art music. 1ts
r k r h m i r developmenr and y o r e ~mporranrij.h r this chapter. r n x y o f rtr melodic mzreri-
21s hme sa.or_sand inpor:mr rles 10 folk music T h e most crvcrt oi&esr fo!l< reRrcnccs a r e
to cht- fall: musics of .4friGi E r a i l 2nd t;?r Brrrish Isles. As jazz e\rolves and the world's cul-
cures Sesome more unified, rhere are a n d rvill be more o v e n references.

wl~h thr above 1n mind. t h e scrlous c o n c e m p o t y l a z composer >zeds LO miriare s cam-


' s muslcs Dnc shaul3 pry pamcular z:_rrcnclon :o scalar
~;c.t'e~x.sn~c of :he ~ ~ o r l ?iolE;
snarie rnaceiid. moniic developma c. phr=inc. znZ most irr,po:-~~nri\~ thr or~antzaclonof
z x c j ~ d5
j :.1:s staternei~: 2nd ses?onse forrnuiu. Thrrc are man\-addl~lona:eiemcnts oTa
mflodr rhar zrc ro be cons~iered2nd r h ~ r 1nlI. br yvcn and discussed l a w In this chzprcr
MELODY WRmNG

JAZZ AND ART MUSIC


As smted earlier, dthough jazz evolved from folk music. there are many exampIes wherethe
rnelod~ccontent of a jazz composidon closely compares with thar of a n art muslc rnelod!r.
At [he point in time where jazz compos~tionstarted its e ~ d u t l o ncoward becoming an art
music, much of irs compositional structure u.as based on the popular music of rhe dme
which we now call the ''~*md&rd''repcnolrc. These songform cornpositions were modeled
an rhe art music of perhaps a centurjrearlier: the Rornanuc era, and show a direct influence
both harmonically and melodically of rhe music rhat is typical of Rachmaninoff and
~chaikovsk!,.ro state obvious examples. In fact. many of che themes of these great compos-
ers, being %borrowedm by popular music's brigand producers became populx music themes
- examples include "Srran~ersIn Parad~se,"based on a theme from Borodin's "Polovers:an

Qances." "This is My Beloved" and "Bangles, Baubles and Beads,' borh based on themes
from the "Srring Quarter In D,'' ayain by Borodsn. "Full Moon and Empy Arms," is dmost
a direct extracrion of a main theme from Rachmaninoff s Piano Concerto N o . 2. There are
many more warnples rhat can be cited based o n the works of Tchaiko\psky, Chopin and
orhers The point is that the expressions of rhe Romantic composers are ve?. much a part of
the jazz composer's lexicon zs a result ofjazz music's ries to the popular music of rhe 1930s
t h r o u ~ hthe 1950s.

THE SPECTRUM
The essence of the above is that che rnelod~esof the world's culmres and for our interest. iazz
melodies fall somervhere ~virhina speccnrrn described by the peripheral limits of Art Music
w ~ t hrornmuc. Iyncal melodies ar one end painr and single-pitched dancc. oriented melodies
at the opposite. In addirion. d~fferentphrases or secdons of a melody tan be described as
being at opposite paints of the spectrum, providing a clear sense of conmast and develop-,
m e n t This concept 4 1 be discussed and illustrated in more d e ~ a i later
l In the chapter.

STYLE
Referring particularly to jazz rnelod)?wnnng, rhe composer, when defining h ~ melodic
s goals
needs to clarifi. <he general style of the intended melody. Sryle refers 10 the implementation
of the d e r n e n ~ sof a melody to conform ra an historic, frhnic or idiomaric description. In
addirion, the 5q3e of a melody \\ill pred~ctIIS placement within the artifolk specmum- TO
state dl of the above conciszIy, the composer, whether crearing a melody or analyzing an
excanr melody niusr cons~derin randern che s+e ofa melod!. as defined by an historic refer-
ence. an ethnic/folk reference, an idiomat~creference as to che me'lodic perfomancc, and ar
what point in chc art/foIk spectrum [he melody can be $aced.
An hisronc xferencc sefets ro rhe creation of a melody that shouls an application of the ele-
ments of rnciody rwiung in a rvay chat confoims co the srandard practice ofa particular musi-
cal e n Conaasrin~examples would be the styles of contemporary pop ballads and hardbop
melodies. An ethnic reference is to r h e creaclon of a melndy following rhe s d a r , phrsm_c and
statement/rrsponse formulas peculiar to an crhnic sourcc: basing a meld!? on a model of
Japanese or Bulpian folk- melodies is typical. And tardy. devising a melody that 1s abstrax,
well as one that takes advanrage of the performance characteristics of a pardcular Instrument.
is an idiomaric approach to melociy writing.
CHAPTER I: HELODY

THE ELEMENTS OF A MELODY

The elements of a melody are cornpr~scdof the following groups: source rna~erials.a m m s
of crea~onand development. phrase oryanizat~on,rcssirura, contour and expressive devices.
In adddon, a zoaI and point of climax should be dwlsed for cach section at phrase of a
melody.

A. SOURCE MATERIALS
Melodies may be based on any of Ehe follouin,0 sources:
1. Single notes
2. Tritonic scale f r a p c n t s
3. Tetraronic scale fragments (terrachords - see Vol. I )
4. Pentatonic scales
(a) diatonic
(b) alrrred
(c) add note (sextaronlc)
(d) blues scales
5- Diatonic and altered hatonic modes (septaronic)
6. Symmetric scales
7. H m o n i c references
(a) qaeggiations/piderones
(b) common tones/pivor pdnts
, (c) leadng ronesfnei~hbortones
8. Quotes
9. Non-western scales (ocratonic and more)

A rneldic source is h e pird? orgmizadon of a motif, phrase, section. or any area ofa melody
that shows musical u n i ~A. group of qmmemcally orpnizcd pitches numbering four or
more in a scalar format can impIy a modality and its perceived emotional quality (see VoL 1,
Chaprer I!?).
I f an example is nor scalar - having consecutive skips - in mast cases it will have notes in
common W I ~ aI particular modatin. Jt is possible that if the phrase is long enough, more
than one scalar source can be detected. In addition, the modal quality of rhe motif or phrase
can be enhanced or obscured by its relarionship to the harmonic foundation of that partic-
ular area

EXAMPLES OF MELODIC SOURCE MATERIALS


The following, like most of t h e samples found in rhe remainder af the book, are mcerprs,
of a l e n g h suficient to i l l u s ~ a t crhe defined concept. To put t h e cample in concexq it is
s u g g e s ~ dthe smden: refer to rhe recommended listenings and readings found at thc end of
che chapcer as a source of scores and recordings for furrher study.

1. SINGLE N O I T
T h e starcing poinc o f t h e categories of melodic sourcc materials, havlng no pitch cornpari-
son it is a melodic device in which the rhythmic deveIopmenr of the motif or phrase creaces
musical cohesion. VCF effective in jazz melodies, it 1s a demce that Horace Silver and Joe
Henderson use cxtcnsivcIy.

Example 1-la: "Caribbean Fire Dance" (B section) byJoe Henderson


THE ELEMENTS OF A MELODY

Example 1 .I b: "Sweet S w e e y Dee" (A section) by Horace Silver

Fi /A 7
- > w

-
n I L I I L
2
I I I > I
1 I
IWI* 1 L I I U
I L I ! I., [ I
I/
4'' * - -em i, ?-m---'c'
I
I
I/.

-4 3-noce scale fragment, it is the basic strvcture of chc pentatonic scale. Prirnwal and pure,
1~ use is found rnosdy in primluixe and children's s o n g or in rhe more rhyrhmic sections of

jazz compositions.

Example 1 . 2 ~
"Caribbean fire Dance" (A section) by Joe Henderson

Example 1.2b: T h e Girl From Ipanema" [A section) by Antonio Carlos Jobim

3. TETRATONIC ORTETRACHORDIC
A 4-note scale fragment long enough to imply a m o d d i y ifthe pitches are scalar (see VoL I,
Chapter U).

b r n p l e 1.3a: "Rhapsodic Espagnole" by Maurice Ravel

Example '1.3b: "Firebird" by Igor Stravinsky

4. PENTATONIC
A 5-note scde consrructed by the cornbinatron of nvo mconic s c d c Fragmenw. These
scales ndl be covered in derail rn Chaprer LU.

"Gibraltar" byJosef Zawinul


Example 1 . 4 ~
CHkPfER I: MELODY

Example 1.43: Symphony No. 6 (main theme) by Peter I. Trhaikovsky

5. DlATONIC AND ALTERED DIATONIC MODES


These are rhe most well known scalar somces and should need little explanation. Those not
familiar with the altered diamnic modes should refer cu 1701. 3 of this book.

6. SYMMETRIC 5 C A B
Scales whose tone/semitone Formulas show a pattern of s y m r n e ~These
. are used pri~nariIy
for effect or colorariion due to their hasrnon~cand melodic obscuriry. Included 13 this group
are the chromatic scale and materials derived by 12-cone techniques.

Exampie 1.5a: 'Touchstone" by Ralph Tamer

Example 1.Sb: ' ' k t Illusion" by Ron Miller

F A ? Z ~(F+~ Scale)

7. H A R M O N Y REFERENCED MELODIES

Arpeggiatians
This is an arm ofa melody char simply outlines parr if nor a11 ofa parricular chord wr chords
of a section of a composition. Only the most gifted of composers can use this dcvlcc musi-
cally. Pianisrs and other chord oriented composers are ar nsk of averusing arpeggiarion as a
means of melody creation.

Example 1.6a: "Ask Me Now" by Thelonious Monk

Guide tones
This m e l d c somcc, based on rhe voice-leading ofa particular harmonic rnwrrnenz is useful
for o b l i ~ mmelodies bu: Iilce arpegpanon, should bf used nich discretion for main melodltu.
Common tones
Cornmon-tone melodies collsist of a single pitch found In common over a numher of chord
changes. C a d e n d in nature. the!. can be eirhcr sustained or haile rhyrhmic de\relopment
(sec Val. I. p. 45).
THE ftEMMTS OF A MEtODY

Pivot Point
Pjvor poinr refers to a common pitch t b x the melod?- r e t u r n ro every fen, ilotes in a motif
or phrase. A pivot polnt could be wi~ithinor without thc marific shape or phrase. Pivot poinr
d s e afiects a melody's shape or conrour as a d be described later.

Example 1.6b: "Prince o f Darkness" by Wayne Shorter

N.C. P D7sus
P P
0 - w-0
I I
C
h r g r pitch C a marked "P.p

Leading Tones and Neighbor Tones


These nave harmonic ~nfemncesdue to their resolution rcndencies. A Ieading cone is rhe
pirch a semitone below the rargeted cadence pirch; a neighbor tone 1s usually a semitone
above the cadence pitch but could also be a whole tone found either above or beloar. Their
relevance will be given in later examples.

This rders to rhe use of extant material usually in the form of a motif or short phrase.
Quotes show a &sect extraction from a documenred source and are usually personalized by
che subsecluent cornposet-
CIichPs can be quotes but are generally recognized as common melodic figures that are
found in many melodies by many composers usually contained within a syle carepry. Due
m their reference to a syIc period and ~ h c i roveruse, they are considered clichis. Examples
would include melodic figures that are found in abundance by many different composers sf
bebop melodies, fusion and pop melodies of a particular era, or of the melodic figures found
in common to many hard bop runes.
It will be pointed out in examples found Iarer when quotes or clichks are found in the
melody.
Example 1 . 7 Scherzo
~ No. 1 (ms. 16-1 7) by Frederic Chopin

Example 1.7b: "JCon the Land" by Ron Miller

b r n p l e 7.7~:
"JC in the Cit)?' by Ron Miller

9. NON-WESTERN MELODlC SOURCES


These are scales uzhose oc:ave divisions produce pitches rhar are nor Ln conformance wirh
h e tempered tuning system. They are recommended as s o u r c ~marerids For further ~nvesri-
gation for rhe eclecclc srudent. As most ofrhese scalar sources are nor pl;l).able by f i e d pitch
instruments, their w e can be limited but are imporcant nonerhekss.
* 15 *
CHAPTER I: MELODY

B.THEME AND DNELOPMENT


The basic premise of a melody is the c me1odtc ci canon that is sub-
A rnotiFls ~ h seed
ofthe follouGng means:
sequently given m u s i d credence by a?.
Repetition
Sequence
Inversion
Retrograde
. Reno-gradeInversion
Isorhythrn
Isoarr~cralation
Truncation/Extension
D~splacement
Mutat~on

The pra<ous terms will be $ven Fur&cr definition by their u s e in specific cxampies found
later in all chapters of t h e book. For those %.he desire a re~liewor a clarificarion of the res-
minolog, there are definirions and examples on page 110 of the appendix. And for those
\r.hosc backgrounds requlre a more complete study, there are suggesred books ar the end of
this chzpcer
IKshould bc pointed o m nowrhat for all melodic anal!zarions found in sh~sbook. rhe main
point of inrercst is in what the composer did to create the beautiful and classlc melody rhar
m i l l bc included in h e foUou.ing examples. Being overly demiled and scientific in an analy-
sis is of less impormnce than gecEing to the core of rhe composer's creauve and develop-
mental effom with sufficient understanding of EEle process to successfully affect our OR^
efforts.

C. MELODIC CONTOUR
Contour refers ro the "shape" of a melody whether describing ~ t direcnon,
s irs intervdic
mend or I Unote values. Melodic contour is of particular importance KO chis chapter because
of its clear definirion of the emononal contenr of a melody. As wilI be shown later, a
melody's shape will show changes that were derived either by a s t a r k or dynamic means.
The follou~ingare the dements of a melody thar refer to irs contour:
1. Direction
2. Incervd
(a) diatonic
Ib) chromacir
(c) sktps
3. Nore Value
(a) augmenrauon
(h) d~minution
(c) c~rnpression
(d) expansion
fc) articulations
4. Balance

"411of the above affect t h e emotional qwlq of a melody in tandem. Keep in mind that for
the follou~lngdescnpdons. any melod!. has a number of the elements listed. As an example,
the direction of a melody ha5 certain qualities char arc enhanced or sofrened depending on
whether the melody is larzely skips or steps in addiuan to its modal source, ressitura,
rhythm and other elements.

1. DIRECTIONAL CONTOUR
In general, a phrase or section of a melody thar has an upward movement wi1I show an
ernphzsis of rhe emotional descriprions of lrs elements: increased modaI definition. increx-
ed tension, and enthusiasm.
In general. a phrase or se&on of a melody h a t has a downward movemenc will tend toward
relaxation and f i n a l i ~or rcsolurlon Altbourh the modal qualiv of thr melody is not affect-
ed significantly: rhe remaining ehments tend to be de-emphasized.
THE ELEMENTS O F A MELODY
- -
2. lNTERVALlC CONTOUR
En general, a phrase Q r secnon of a melo* that is diatonic is the most defined by in modal-
iy and is relaovely neutral in affecting the other elements of a melody. The ather elernenrs
also have a less dramatic effect on diaronic melobes.

A phrase or sechion ofa melody that is chromatic has increased tension and is darker wirh
obscured modaliy.
A phrase ar section of a meIody that has skips of a P4 or more u d I mongly emphasize the
will
osher dements, will be very active, will induce tension and be veqr dramanc. 11s m o d a l i ~
be somm?hat obscured depending on iu cadenti4 pitches.

3. NOEVALLJECONTOUR
A change in note valurs of a secnon or phrase has subrle emotional effects as well as a being
a means ofmelodic and motific dwelopmenr. The note value change can be by either a smr-
ic or a dynamic ratio. Of irnporcance is the change in rnelohc rhythm relauve to h e pulse
af the harmen~crh,ythrn.
A sraric rario is one in which all note values are c h a n ~ e dby the same amount; a dynamic
ratio has changing note values by increasing or decreasing amounts. T h e fallouring, probably
Familiar ro all is given purely as a farm of review and KO mainrain a continuity of presenta-
cion.
A u g m m b o n and dimmutian are examples of changing nore values by a sratic rario. Alrhough
h e y are rradirionall!, I~stedunder examples of motific developmenr. they are included here
became of their abiliy to affect an mational change in the melody and as a point of com-
parison with compression and expansion.
Augmenarion is the changing of the note values of a motif or phrase by increasing t h e
amount uniformly. The emotional effect, alrhough subtle, is ofrelaxation.

Dimination is rhe opposite. with h e note values uniformly de-ed causing a subtle
increase in tension

Example 1 .&: Scacic Ratios


a. augmentmion

G Phrygian E alt c Aeolian BLI 1

@
motif incrcmen; by 1/8 motif decrement by 118

Comjwmi'on and expansion arc Iikc the above but with the note value mxeased or decreased
by a progressively changing amount. Both show a dear emotional effecr and can also be a
Corm oimetific development.
Com,msion is the dynamic decrease of the note values of a phrase and shorvs an Increase of
tension wlth an emphasis of t h e effefecrs of the other elements of a melody.

Example 1.9: "Seventh Sign" by Ron Miller

+
n Y,.

a m
A

'n
- L
I
" L
'I I
I
I
I
5

- +?
8 Y : r, I
.L --G-,,' 0 r Y ' u
t:
Bears; 3 2 2 3 :/2
* $
+
'+
,3

Expansion is rhe opposite of rhe above, it i s the increase of che note values of a phrase by a
dvnamlc amount. LE cfftct LS t h x of relaxation and repose.

' 17
CHAPTEG I' MELODY

Example 1 .I 0:"Kepler's Dream" by Ron Miller

1; -------------------
@ Copyright 1997 Ronjam MUSIC.
BMI

Arriculacions have &cbe effecc of changing note values althou$ the nore's placement in the
melodic rhychm dms nor change. For instance. rhc dceration of a p u p of legato marked
nores to s r a c c w has an effect similar 10 diminution.
LxampIes m d definitions of a r d d a t i o n s are indudedl in che appendix for further review-.

D. BALANCE
Balance in a melody refers to rhe aesthenc sequlrement thac a c h a n y take place arhecher in
hreccion, intenlalic quaLy, rneloclic r h y ~ h mor any of the elements of a melody char have
becn implemented for a Iengh of nme.
There are a number of rules given in madition4 text books for balancing a melody - an
example is thac one should cl~angedrection d t e r three consemrive skips. The problem with
rules is char h e y aren'~always applicable to a specific aestheric requiremcnr. I t 1s better to
look ar melodies thaz stand the test of dme and see how the composer solved any musical
problems that mayhave occurred in rhar parucuIar example
Essenudly, balance can be thought of as a means otworking with tension and release. As
stated above. most of the melodic devices are emotion affeccine and there is a point where a
melody as motif, phrase or section musr change irs direcrion, its rhythm, its modaliy or a n y
of the remaining elements rhat have been m use for a time in order t~ allott. a cathartic
response from the listener. Libran in concepr, b a l a n c ~exemplifies complimentary proce-
dures - the 1-w and Fang of mdody writins.
The best way to creare a balanced melody is by relying upon ones inruirive skills when
making she decisions that dererrninc the acsrhcric result Also, how 2 meIody is balanced, at
t h e basic rnatific Iwel, to the overall form, is the most imponant concept t o consider and
understand u~henanalpzing a given rndody.
Sutement and rrspunse i s an example ofthe use of balance rvirh the response being the release
of the staremenr Tne same can be said of antecedent and consequenrial p h m i n ~The
. con-
. cept of balance IS essential ro dl she aestherir aspccrs of composition: harmonic rhythm,
modal contour:rh~-chmicderrelupment and of course. melodic materials.
Thc levels of mclodic balance are from the smallest, the rnonf, to the tomi form. It is with
mclodic rhyrhm thar well chought-out balance is mast critical As we will see in subsequent
examples. if 2 motifbegins with fasr melodic rh!~hrn, ir should be balanced wich a concrasr-
ing slow response co its cadence polnt - phrases should be treated the same way.
W E ELEMENTS OF A MELODY
E. POINT OF CLIMAX
There is a point in t h e melodic contour where the ernotionaI intensity is w its peak, usually
&our 4/5 through the composition. There are mathemadcal formulae to plot where h i s
point shouId be but ir is recommended thar rhc composer derermlne rhe poinr of climax by
relying on Iistcning experience and inruitive skills. The point of climax and its subsequent
release could be cons~deredrhe grand statement and response of rhe composirion and r h e
ultimate balancing of the compositional form. Point of climax will be dtscussed more in h e
analysis of melodies to cornc later in rhe chapter.

f: MELODIC fO&M

I. V A E M E N T AND RESPONSE
,410ng uirh h e phrase qudiq. of a j a u melody. r h e most imporranr aspect is its use of srate-
ment and response. With wolutionq ties to African folk music, phrarin~a melody by a call
and response formula, whether in a jazz cornposlnon o r an improvisation, indicates a clear
sense of melodic development uhilc rnaintainlng a placernenr of che melody at a point
ro\vards FoIk area of the folk/art spectrum. Additlond15 it prorides an efFecuve means of
balancing a motif.
Of course, this technique is not important only for jazz compositions: its use will show clear
development in any melody wherher pure foIk or pure art In its descriprion. Sraternenr and
response will be further defined by ~ r exrensive
s use in rhe many examples thar niIl follorr. in
all chapters of the book.

2. PHRASE Q U A L m
T h e m a n inwrest in the phrase qualities of the melodies i n this book wdl include t h e
descriptions of their sysnmetr).: whether the composition or a section of it shows a phrase
organbation that is symmetric or asymmerriq and if there is phrase balance by rhe use of
antecedenr/consequenrial organization. Usuall!~there is a carrelanon between a cornposi-
[Ion's harmonic style, its harmonic r h j ~ h mand i s melodic phrasing. Song form and p h d u
modal compositions rend ra have symmetric phrasing. wirh ~ ~ m ' cmau& l!, lznedr modal and
throughc~mposedforms having asymmetric phrasing (see VoL 1,Chapcer If.
y may find exceptions t o chis, and the mixing and contrasuns of melodic and
C e r ~ d one
harmonic styles may be a method of a e a u n ~uniqueness in a composirion. Overall, a
melody's phrase quality wiU be relative to its posinon in rhe folk/arc spectrum 14th the har-
monic content having a q u a l i of
~ izs o m .
Most of the melodies chat uilI be a n a l y d in chis book will show a symmetry of phrasing
because of the kinds of compositions and their harmonic macerials rhat are the emphasis of
this volume. More will be said regarding symmetric phrasing at rhat time.
Melodies with asymmetric p h r a s ~ nusually
~ do nor show a usc of antecedens/consequenriaI
organizarion and in general are vocal, melismatic, and have a through composed qualiv -
all descrlpticlns of a linear melodic sty1e.

G. MELODIC RHTTHM

1. TEMPO

Melodic rempo refers to how fast or slow rhe p~tchcsof a melody change relative ro the har-
monic rhythm. Melodic tempo is one ofthe syle defining elements ulhcrhcr historic or har-
monic. As an examp]?, many bluegrass, countq and Irish folk melodies have extended 8th
nore phrases over relatively slo~r-harmonic rhythm or a sinslc chord (hornpipe), dernon-
straung thejr common des.
As with prcklous descriptions, there can be a h v e r s l y of mclo&c rempi wirhin a composir-
ion wrh perhaps a fast rnonng rnclod!. far the A secdons and contrasting slow melodic
rhyrhm in chc B section I t all comes down to c l ~ rimportance of rhe concept of balance,
varicy, and contour in all aspem of rhe compositional process. Due to I= musical impor-
cance. balance will be refwred to repearedl!? in this tcxr.
CHAPTER I: HELODY
2. CADENCE
Meloclic cadence is defined as the point where the mdodic movement comes to a srop:
etther by sustaining the last note or b r ~simply ending the mouf or phrase and fillins che rest
of h e secdon with a rest. Working in accordance with melodic and harmonic tension and
release+melodic cadence is rhe puncmarion point of motific and phrase organization.
The chosen pirch For the cadence point can affect t h e overall syle of rhe phrase or s e m o n
a?well as t h e modal definition and resolution qualit?.. The following order of cadence note
cholces is from rhe most relaxed to mosr tense. Orders of modal dcfinrrion c a n bc found an
various pasts of Volume 1.

ORDER OF CADENTIAL NOTE CHOICES

Relaxed Root
P5 (perfect fifrh)
, M3 (major third}
b3 (minor rhird)
1
M6 (majorsixth)

M2 (malor second)
m2 (minor second)
M i (majot seventh)
b7 (minor swmrh)
P4 (perfecr fourth)
Tense $4 (65)

As an example, if rhc r n o d a l i ~of rhe phrase were Ionian, the most relaxcd note choices
wauId include the root, 5th and 3rd with rhe M7 or P4 having the most modd dehition.
Were the p h m e in chc Phrygian mode: b2 would have the most modal definiuon with the
met or the fifth being the most cadential. There is much to mns~derwbcn selecdng a
cadence note pitch and the best _guide is probably to let thc melodicvoice-leading take precc-
dence in note selec&n.

3. CADENCE NOTE DURATION


A cadence note's duration can be used in a way that compliments rhe m o d a l i ~of che har-
monlc foundation of a secnon. For instance, the cornposiduns "Maiden Voyage" (Herblc
Hanwck). "FwlIon.I'our Heart" Oohn h4cLaugblin) -d "JCo n the Land" (Ron Miller) are
composirlons based largely on Mixolydian sus4 chords. Lisrenina, t o rhese will m e a l that
their melodies are balanced with acrive, rerse melodic smrcrnencs folIou~dby sustained
cadenria1 notes - melodic devices [hat compliment the quahties of the Mu;oIyd~anmode.
In addir~onro usins long-held cadence notes to compliment a modality, they work well as
common-tonepivot points chat connect a group of chords and focus the lisrener's atrention
to the harmonic movement of the composinon.
As a form of melodic and harmonic b&qce, long held cadence point pitches are paraicular-
lYaffective. Usually. rhere is active meIodic macerial which sets up a degree of tension which
is effectively released by the held cadence picch. Wayne Shoner is a master of chis concept
and uses ~tquite often m a variery of his cornposirions from r h e e v l i c s t to his most recent.
One recording that has many clear examples is Speak N o Evil
THE ELEMEMS O F A MELODY

&ample1 .I l a: "Speak N o Evil" (ms. 9-13) by Wayne Shorcer

Example1.I 1 b: "C on the Land" by Ron Miller

4. SYNCOPATION

Melodies that cadence often en weak (up) bears are aggressive and acdve. and if rhe m o d s
are constructed so drat most of h e i r pitches fall on weak beats, the eEecr is enhanced.
Syncopa~~on is rhe term to describe rhar qualiy. Melodies char cadence on or have monfic
constructions that start on strong (doum) beau, conversely are relaxed and passive. With
char in mind, chere i s more to consider when working on the emotional sods of a melody.
In addinon, the use or nan-use of syncopation is anorher gle description.

5. RIFFS AND "LICKS"


A riff is a s h o melodic
~ idea that has rhychrnic iden~ity.Usually based on a tritonir: or tetra-
tonic source. ir is repeatcd a number of a m e s emphasizing its rhythmic q u d i ~Riffs
. are a
good example of an African folk influence in jazz melody writing.
Licks arc similar to riffs bur with more emphasis on the technique or performance require-
ments of thc melodic figure. Licks arc also sgle definitive m d often are quores, taken horn
doclrmen ted or recorded impro~isations.

ff. PERF'ORMAblCf Dl-CTIONS


One of the more overlooked melodic descripdons is h e inclusion of performance drreccions
in the form of expression markings: arucdadons, dynamics, effects and breaching cues. Iris
these ~nrerprerivedlrecuons that give a melody a dynamic quality.
Formnately, rhe languase ofjazz interpretation is learned largely aurally and in most cases
a jazz melod!. will be perKorrned as intended by the composer wd-tour performance direc-
tions - provided rhat t h e performer "grew up" wirh h a t pardcular style. To assure that h e r e
are no ~ntcrpretiveproblems. ir is suggested chat rhc composer include complete expressive
n s all his mdodies.
d ~ r ~ c d owith
A listing of ex~ressivedirecrives includes:
Articularions
Dynamics
+ Effects
Sound support phrasing
Ternpa markings

Definitions a d examples of rhe above rerrns are included an page 113 in the appendh for
review and clmficarion.
CHAPYEU t: MELODY
--

I. TESS ITURNKEY
Onc last subject ro be men~ionedbefore going on co style and melodic analysis is the qual-
i n a melody has due to ics cessitura and its key cencer. Due to rhe laus of acousncs, rnelo-
dres whose general range ffa low in chc grand staff tend ro sound "darker.' "heavier." and
marc ambiguous than those found in a median or high area. The opposite, those melodies
with tessimrae found high in grand stafF~cndto sound "brigh~"clear and &in. In addi-
tion. here are chose who believe meIo&es that are centered in the "sharp" keys sound
brighter chan chose found in the "flar"ke).s. This is a good subiecc to drscuss over a fen beers
as it is subjecrive and probably has no documenred proofof its reallty. One can possibi!) find
some examples rhat may work on stringed instruments u.hosc s m n p are tuned to "sharp"
pitches tE. A, D, G) as t h e opcn s t r i n g uritl respond to "sharp" keyed pitches by resonance
(qmpatheric vibrarions). The sharp/fla~ke\.conrrovessy wiII be found again in Chapter D.
The styles of jazz melodies can be categorized inro trvo main groups:

ROMANTIC
Jazz ballads: bossa novas, boleros and some medium and Fast tempo songs have rndo&es
thar are consmcred following the dcveloprnend procedures rhat have come from the melo-
dic syle of Tchaiko~~sky and Rachmaninoff by way of the pop~iarmusic composers of r h e
20s to the 50s. Included are rhe efforn of expert film composers from thc earliest co con-
remporar). times. Kirh this in mind i t is v r v Imporcant that che jazz composer as well a s
those apiring to compose- for the popular marker. CDs, radio, television and films, be able
to compose a romantic melody.

These j~;!melohes are construmd to canform to particular qnali ties that are defined by an
historic era: bebop, swing, Dixieland, hardbop: a Folk/ethnic reFerence: blues, Caribbean,
pentatonic, pop; or by rhe performance peculiarities of an instrument or voice. Melodies can
also be described by any noteworthy w e of rhe elements: angular. lyrical, progrmmatic,
s)mmecric, temarhordlc, or any of zhe others.

THE GENERAL MELODIC STYLE CATEGORIE


Romantic/ldeal: rhcse melodies/cornpasitions arc based on the Romantic period philesoph-
icall:; rneIodicaIly and ro some-dcpee, harmonically.
Romantic/Melodic: these melodies show consisrendes with romantic melody writing pruce-
dures but differ in philosophy, harmonic macends and emotiond goals.
Idiornatic/Referential: modeled on the melodic descriptions of a style era, folk reference or
insrumen t/voice performance characterisucs.
Idiernatic/Abrrracz chese melodies are constructed ro have a qualiry described as jagged,
smooth, consonanr chromatic and similar depictions.
Idiomacic/Pmgrammatic: the construction of a melody to define an emotional: modaI or
pro,mnrnatic goal: pastoral, energetic: dark, mysterious and so forrh.
Tn t h e rnain,?azz melodies are eichm romantic or non-romantic. The non-romancic melodies
are so diverse - having so m a n y m ~ a b l e in
s h e i r descriptions - thar a comprehensive repre-
sentanon of how the elemencs of melody writing were ro be applied for each wouId be
beyond rhe scope of this book. In addjrion, rhere are many melodies that have mixed influ-
ences: folk/modal, rifi/pencatonic, and m a n y more.
Anocher point to conslder is that'rnstna compositions have differenr styles of melohes in
different sections.Some examples are:

SONG SECTION STYLE - Contrasted and Combined Melodic Styles

Example I .I ?a:' T h e Girl from Ipanema" (excerpts from A and 5 secrions) by Antonio Carlos Jobim
CHAPTER 1: M L O D Y

Example 1.12b: "Passion Dance" (excerprs from A and B sections) by McCoy Tyner

Example 1 .I 2c: "Hoe Down" (excerpts from A and B sections) by Oliver Nelson

Add LO t h a t the fact thac many jazz melodies have contrasung harmonic styles and form, ir
should become dezr why the study of melody writing is as difficulr as it seems and requires
many years of studv. lisrening and playing experience. Ir is A e diversity and overu~hclrningly
comprehensive vaiiery of melodic combinarions that makes r h e r x k seem formidable.
The approach to be d e n for the remainder of r h e chap~eris chat: of forming a mehod or a
guide to follo~vthac wilt establish a rncms forresearch and analysis of existing melodies that
can serve as models fnl- one's own meIo&c goals. along with the actual analysis of existing
melodies. Additional m e I o d i c analysis will be found in each subsequent chapter of this book
dons with harmonic and formd analysis. T h e covert premise for all of \?olume 7 of this
book is in fact melody writing.

MELODIC STYLE ANALYSIS


Havin~established a sylisric goal for a melody wridnz project, rhc composer may want to
pather some insights into the means of organizing the elements of a melody ro define that
syle. Using he analysis guide found on page 40 of this book, f l l o w these recommended
procedm-cs:
* Transcribe or refer to documented examples represcndng thc s ~ i i s n goal.
c
Lisren ro or phy rhe example m a k i n ~note of the emonond quaiin- OF the meied!. by
sections. Plot rvherc you think zhc melody of each section Eails on the foIk/m specmm.
Using the analysis guide, analyze a: least t\r70examples.
* List any consistmc~esbcnveen rhc examples.
- Listen again and assirnilare t h e melodies and thelr syIisnc qualities.

.4lthough chc main point of interest in h i s chapter is r n ~ l o d ywriting. ro understand a style


definition, all [he elcmena of a cornposiuon must be looked at simultaneously
.4nalysis: hardbop style, including meIody, harmony, rh!lchrn and form.
STYLE

Typical Song:
"On rhe Ginza" by W ' a p e Shorter and "Nineteen Ban'' by Horace Silver
Both cornposidons show use of the foIlowing:

A. FOLK REFERENCES
1. A h c a n
{a) szaternent and response
(b)blues riffs and ppcnratonic scales
(c) aggresslvcr f i a / L a u n rhyrhrnic concepts
(d) riff motifs and figures
2. II~fscerrtEuropean Reference
(a) rnodaliry (mdodlc and harmonic)
@) diaronic harmony
(c) d~versiqand concrasr of harmonic rhvthm
(e) drama - exuemcs of ressirura and dynamics

B. HISTORIC REFERENCE
1. Bebop roots
(a)s w i n ~rhprhmic concepuon
(b) "front line" horn sound
(c) some melodic sqde reference
2. Big band
(a) form and dwelopment
@) predomnanr "brass" sound
(c) arrangernenrs: backgrounds, "shouts," tuai sections

hrrrnsicalIy bebop in reference, hardbop differs by t h e conscious striving For high drama
and excirement by extreme contrasts of dynamics, harmonic rhythm and rhyrhrnic styles
within the composiuon: shifts from swing to Afro/Laun to shuMe and back. Additionally,
There is cxtens~veuse of TIES,"kicks,"breaks, and rhythmic motifs and figures played mtri.
Hardbop shoivs evolutionary significance by rhe extensive use of rnodalrn and con.crasm of
harmon~crhythm.
(See "Repose,Transiriqn" in 1'01. 1and lasc question on p. 14.)
Like bebop, hardbop shows a deparmre from jazz performance as dance music o r as a music
whose purpose IS to "serve" rhe cusrorncr. Hardbop is jazz wirh aspirations toward "an" It
is sdll entemning, but under the composer/performer's scc of rules rather than the
mstorn~r's.
Of parricular interest i s hardbop's use of rh!.thrnic and rnclodic materids arid approaches
associated w i t h t h e folk area of the art/folk spectrum while referring to European art music
uirh i t s harmonic materials.
For the remainder of rhe chapter. ive will look at a number of melodies in their entire^.
$ r a n 4 off with three mamples of idiomadc {non-romantic)melodies of varying degrees of
divcrslq; and because of their importance, che procedures for twitins romantic melodies rvill
be emphasized for rhc later part of t h e chapter with more specific non-romantic q l c s covcr-
ed in Iarer chapters.
CHAPTER I: MELODY

NQN-RO'MANTFC MELODY EXAMPLES

Of the fol2ou.ing examples, as with pre\l~ousexcerprs, only che most salient poinrs will be
listed. It is suggested chat t h e student. using the analysis guide found on page 421 do a sub-
sequent comprehensive analysis as ume al1ou.s.

A. IDIOMATIC ANGULAR
Example 1-13a:"One Up and Down" (ms. 1-2) by Eric Dolphy, from Out to Lunch, Blue Note 841 63

This melody is clearly anyular and non-romantic. Ir s t a m off with a blues based motif
defined by che downward s k ~ pfrom the b3 to the PS,balvlccd by an upnwd Ilrap ofz rri~o-
ne to the b2 of the key. The accent on the second beat (che backbeat) addsdondly is blues
oriented.
Example 1. .13x 'Qne Up and Down" (ms. 3-5)by bic Dolphy, from Out to L~tnch,Blue Note 847 63

The next three measures. in~en-alicallyangular and rhythmically quirlcv, set h e general tanc
of rhe melody. Very chromatic, tense incervdic skips and disjointed melodic rhyrhrn suggest
thal: Ericu-as rnflucnced by a 22-cane technique shaped by a bIues scale when organizing rh~s
melody.
The Iast measure, v e q ~rense by intenpalic skips and cadential note choices IS finally balanced
out bj- the final caden tial resolution to t h e tonic; the k
t chree pitches being an arpeggiauon
of a G7P4 chord. -

%. IDIOMATIC REFEREldTlAC
Example 1 .I 4a: "Caribbean Fire Dance" (ms. 7-41 by Joe Henderson

The first four measures provldc a Freat example of [he primirive qualirics 2 melody can have
when based on a criron~csource. Having oniy thrcc picches. the melody must he developed
rhyhmicaIIy - as this one does. There is clear sntement and response, wlrh much use ofsyn-
copanon. Relative to the roocs, the cadence pirches definc EL Lvdian rnodall~.
NOHdOMhNTlC MELODY XAHPLS

Nonce the effecr af merric compressi~nby the eighth note shifi re t h e left o f t h e response.
Ofnote also 1s the inclusion of the C @non-harmonic cone (nonmodal ro Eb Lyd~m). Joe uses
this rension inducing device often and rc is found in most of hu melodies.
Example 1 .I 4br "Caribbean Fire Dance" (ms. 5-81 by Joe Henderson

The remainins four measures of rhe firs^ secdon balance our rhc first four as a consequen-
tiaJ phrase. Or'note is rhe cornpress~onof the phrase by the shifting of chc cadence points in
rhe form of herniala The occurrence of che lasr; cadence point on the fourth bcar: of che
seventh measure followed by silencc (a break} induces a great deal of tension which is re-
solved by the pickup on beat four of the last measure of chis secrion. Compare rhis u i h che
7rh md 8th bars of "Speak No Evil" and many other melodies by Wame Shorter.
: aribbcan Fire Dance" (ms.9-12) by Joe Henderson
Example 1 . 1 4 ~ "f

Most significant in rhe-4-bar bridge IS the use of a single prtch as a mclaciic source developed
rhythmically for the first threc measures. T h e balanc~ngof the section wmrh a compressed
Phrygian terrachord in the last measure is pm~cularlyeKecrive.The scaternenr!rcsponse
organiza~ionof chis section is slmilar to many blues tunes with a scaternent, a response, a
repeat of the first statement and then a new second response. (S1, R1, Sl,R2)
T h e combinanon of the simplicity of tritonic and single-now melodic source as well as rhc
irnpIied pentzawnlc q u a l i ~of rrironrcs organized rhyrhmicdy produces a dance-like quali-
ty thar defines r h ~ melody
s as idiomatic folk.

C. IDIOMATIC PROGRAMMATIC
T h e p r o ~ a r n m a t i cintent of the next melody (Example 1 15) is so crcace a relaxed pascord
setting. Influenced by Aussrian folk music, this Ionian linear modal cemposinon accorn-
plishes its god by:
* The overall melody mccpting one pitch is based on E lonian.
Most motifs and phrases s m and cadence o n pitches rhar eirher clearly define lonian
or are cadentially complete due EO rheir consonance (see p. 20).
* Relaxed melodic rhyrhrn and relaxed linear modal harmonic rh!.rhm. (see p 13, Val. 1)
Use of statement and response along with ~ y r n m e c r i crnelismatic
, phrasing.
The melody l ~ a sa relwed median ressitura.
Balanced conrrascs m h r e c r i o n
CHAPTER 1: MELODY
-
- ficlear find cadence includes: dmmward d~reccion,expansion of intervals by slaps, start-
ing on t h e E, a m 3 down to CtI, a M3 down to A, a P4 darrn co E. and finaIIy, a P5 down
ro the cadence pitch of B. Notim thar: an A triad is oudlned for funher consonance.

Example 1 .I 5: "In a Silent Way" by Josef Zawinul

rubalo E tonian R
- -
J
- m k

t.
n
I* -
b ,-
'
/ L
I
8
S
-
. b#
r
--.
A
U
U
LIO
I

I
I

u
L
,--I

I -
*

4
I

- d* - --.

E9sus E lonian

Example 1 . I & "American Hopen by Ron Miller

Vamp
I

-
= 160 2dx ~b6'
7slk F13sus w

---
\ 2-
I 1 I U' . I

e
I

0
- 3
- 1
1
I
I
I
l.a
I
I ,
I
I k - 1 '
-
I
I

I
i
.
,
Y -

o m

n I
A
I

I =
h
>
* C *

f
1
-- #
I
I .
I-'
.

I,
- ---
'
I=-

- &

'C : ! I ,
I ' I
sfzp -===
NOH-ROMANTIC MELODY EXAMPLES 1I
I

This compos~rion,like zhe previous one, is proprnrnatic and influenced h*rhe quaIides of
folk musrc, In this case, the influence is American folk/pop as rhe follo~vingpoints will
attempt to reveal. In addinon, the composiion is an another example of lonian h e a r
modal. providing a poinr of comparison.
Commenrs and salient poinrs indude:
A non-harmonic pickup (Ctl) ro bar 1 is found also rn bar 9.Compare it to rhe u s e of Nfl
mnes by Joe Henderson (ex.1.14) and Tchaikovsky (Ex. 1.20). In addi~ion? rhe motif is a

- quote, raken from Gcrshuin's "Prejude No. I."


A G minor chordal outlined opening smcemenr is balanced by a response which ca-
dences on a consonam held pitch. Compare this wirh che cadence polnrs in che prelious
example Yn d Silent Way."
Found in bars 9-16 1s a m e m c shift to rhe right and a compression of the openins state-
ment, with new material m its sesponsr (51-R1,SI-R2J.
The rnorif in bar 13 is an cxtanr: folk!pop cliche .
P m ZI of r h e melody (bars 16-19)Is based on a C minor pentatonic source, further
defining the composinon's folk qualities.
Ears 17 and 18 include a hiconic sracernenr: which is responded by a mronic FoEk/pop
cliche in a contrasting direcdon.
There is increased rhyrhmic miviq-and ypical penwtnnic melody treatment in bars 20-
22.
More Folk/pop extant material in bars 25-27.
Emmples of held cadence pitchcs over Mixolyd~ansus4 chords are Found in bars 29-31,
3335, 37-39, and 43-15.
The goaI of rhe heighrened rhythmic accnlir dong xvivrrk rhe chrornaricism of bars 41
and 42 is to significantly increase the rneiody's cension to empliasizc a clear and final
cadence pirch.
The use of a consonant (5ch of che home key) cadcnce pitch bars 47-50), further defines rhe
cadence's finality and is definitive of Ionian Linear Modd melodies. Notice chat excepring
for she aforemenrioned h ! tones and the shorc bit of chromatic marerial found in bars 41
and 43, the meJodrc source oFrhe melody is generall!, diatoxic to Eb Ionran. The melody per-
formed rnonophon~calipshould define Eb Ionian and be r~laxcdand pcaceFu1. a q lonian is
intended.
Ocher points of imponance would include chc melody's cessirura, rnorifrc dwelopmenc,
melodic form, general rnelochc rhythm. and specific melodic rhyhrn !usr prior ro cadence
points. lnvesrigate these points,
C H W E R t: MELODY

ROMANTIC MELODIES

One usuaIly associates ramantiasm in music with the general era known as rhe Romantic
Pcriod (ca 1800-3900)and i t s associared composers. ~ I r h o u g hchar. era and i a composers
epitomize our perceprioa of romannclsm in music, ir should be pointed out that roman-
uclsrn s described i n chis book refers to a s ~ l uf
e melody writing rhac can be found in
the works of Bach. Mozart, Ellington, Jarretr and Shorter as xvc11 zs Tchaikovsky and
Rachmaninoff. for run at el!^, the quditles &at define a romantic melodic syle are easy to
implem~ntinto a pedantic formula.
In order to better clarify the 2 4 s of a r-mandc melody wriung project. a brief description
of romandcism is in order. Romanufism i s not merely a musical s y l e period bur I S an
aesthetic "point ofvien;"a m e a u r e of the d e ~ ofe expressiveness found in any of che forms
of human endeavor including rbe arrs as well as day-to-day uuscence. As an expression,
Romanticism is easily rewgnized in the works of writers, visual artisrs, dramatists, philoso-
phers and composers having thzr "point of view" or of being of rhc Romzndc period. To
fully grasp the general definitions of romanticism, it i s susgesred chat the student, if n o t
already having done so. srudy and experience h e worlrs of the Romanticists in all areas of
endeavor. Listed n o t by time period but by similarides In incensiries of fxpression, a partial
Eiscin~1ncludc.s the writers Poe, Twain, Hawthorne, Goethe. Shelley, Melville, Coleridge, and
Byron and the painters Kokoschka, C.D. Friedrich, Derain, I7an Gozh, Eelacro~xand
Marisse. Nor including drama and dance, it is still qmtc an undertaking - buc is a strongly
recommended regimen of study for the aspiring composer.
Descriptions of the works of the romanticists and romanticism in ecneral indude:
A conrrived intent of drama {melodrama}
A degree of preten~ousness
E x a g p t e d a-pressiveness
Seriousness
* OverIy emotiand/sentimen:al/persond
A striving, yearning qualimy
Enraptured. heaunful, progammatic
A quest for the ~ d e dt:h e infimte

Depending on rhe Iistemer's background and musical tastes, rhe rraits of romantic music
could bc interpreted as beautiful, l?+cd,ideal and perfecr or contrarily could be thought of
as simpIiscic. pedestsian. overdone, mre or "corny." Unfirmarel!-, due co rhe cancacuriza-
aon of the elements of rornandc music in film scores, man?*agree with rhe later descriptions.
The author has had both points of vim and at rhe time of this rvriring is convinced char:
romannc melodies a r e the most beaudfd and mosr sorely needed in today's music.
The folloaing is a listing ob~ainedby a careful cornpanson of a number of romantic melo-
dies from all el-as as ro how rhe elements of a melody are worked ro creare a me!ody whose
main gods are r:o drarnauze, to overly express and co create a sense of striving for the ideal.
Found in tomantic rneIodies are the use OF:
I. Many upward skips (some downward) of a major or minor sixth. These skips arc v e y
drarnauc and arc traditionally known as rhe "herotc leap" or the "romantic sixth." Keep
in mrnd t h a t they are consomnt intervds and singable.
2. Orher intervdic skips borh up or down for various degrees o f tension and dramatic
efkctr
3. Final cadence pitches usually are consonant, che general mtcn.ahc qual~tyis Iyricd.
4. Use ofmelod~cchroma~idsmas a ccnsion inducing device, or as non-harmonrc tones to
emphasize emonnnal expression or ro enhance cadcnud resolut~onjsec No. 7 ) .
5. Balanced three part rnotlfs with smtemenrs h a v i n ~slounmelodic rhythm conrrasred by
a response with f a t melodic rhyrhrn which chen becomes slou~again at the cadence.
Also, them arc many examples of rruncaced versions of rhe above: fast smcemenrs fo!-
lowed by a slom~,or delaved cadence.
In general, many rcpeared notes.
-6.
I. r , repeaced notes that become n o n - h m o n ~ tones
In ~ a ~ c u l amany c that are sustained
and rhen resoIvcd at the appropriate emotional " m ~ ~ m c"nTheir
t direcuon of resolur~on
is dependent on the dil-ecrional concour of t h e melody prior to the non-harmonic tone
ROHANTIC MELODlES

or on chc radential qualiry of the rone. Usually, but nor always, n o n - h m o n i c tones
found in cadential resolutions go downward and nan-harmonic tOnFS found in moufic
statements go upward
S. Simple binary form:
Part 1 - an expos~tionsection showing predorninanr use of simple diatonic rnotific
statement and development with themes clearly presented.
Pan 2 - extensive use of repeated phrases or sequences usually deveioping upward to
attain a sense of longing for rhe deal. T h is the mast drarnanc, ernoriondly fervent
pomon ofrhe melody; a11 the expresswe effecrs are used co the maximum.

Note char romanric melodies a d cornposirions can range frarn being l i ~ h arid
r happy in
tone to dark and rneiancholic. Other romantic definin~devices include the use of 3/4 m e w
and the often found b6 pitch ar key cadential p o i n ~ ,
The following exarnpIes are short exccrprs of melodies from diverse sources and dispare eras
which srill have many romantic melody writing conccprs in common. In addicicn, most of
the examples have a number of f i e above listed descriptions of romanor melody wiring
~echniquesirnplemenrcd in randcrn.

EXAMPLES Of THE USE O f ROMANTIC MELODY WRITING


Nate rhat in rhe following excerprs (excepting rhc jazz tunes) and all remaining examples in
this chaprer, h e o n p a l harmonic matwid has been changed by urilizing the reharmon-
ization techniques that will be given in Chapter 11. You may find chat b!? doins so,man!. of
the works from the classical repertoire can be performed in a jazz/pop semng.

Example 1-1 7a: "Prayer" by Keirh Jarren (Intervalic Skips)

Measure 3 has a n upward ski^ of a m6, in addinon, there are three repeared notes. Note the
balanced melodic rhythm.

Example 2 -17b: "Where Do I BeginJ' by C. Sigman


Iw~nnntlc/dwl)

G-9

This excerpt has bo:h dounu~ardand upu~ardshps of a m6 in ~ncasures1 and 2, many


repeated nares and an upward Ieap of a M6 (rornannc 6th) in measure 3.

h m p l e 1 . 7 7c: "American Dirge" by Ron Miller

See " k t Illvsion" and "Romeo &]ulier"

Measure 1 has a downward m6, measure 7 a n upward M6.


CHAPTER I: MELODY

Example 1.17d:A T h e m e from "Samson and Delilah" by Camille Saint Saems

fast stmu fast slow


(Chord 7mbo8 are slsgedoar, not,fotandin the o n p i n ! composma.)

This example has many mrnandc devices


An upward skip of a rn7, in measure 1 and 3, rr is more tense than he skips in rhe pre-
vious ~ p l c s .
Use of chrornaEicism in measure 1 and 2.
Repeated nores chat become a non-harmonic:mne which resolves downward found 50th
in rncasurcs 1 and 2. and 3 and 4.
A slowing down of rhe melodic rhyhrn at cadence points.
And lastl!*, although an incomplete example, it starrs KO shorn- the typicai development
of part t w o of the melodic form in which mdriple repetisions of phrases or motifs in an
upward trend created a sense of vearning for the infm~rc-

Example 1.18a: ATheme from "Samson and Delilah" by Camille Saint-Sens (Melodic Chromaticism)

(Chord gw.mhoIs rn sugesuonr, nor-form& in the original cowposition.)

As inrroduced in example 1.lSd of rhc previous examples. the use of chromaticism in meas-
ures 1-3 creates a n emotionalism desired in romantic melodies.

Example 1 -18b: "Prelude to a Kiss" by Duke Ellingcon

From a contrasting source. again chrornatlcisrn for crnorional effect:

Example 1.I 9a:"May Breezes" by Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy from "Songs Without Words"

2
n
(balanced melodrc *dmn)

t*
k
D 7!Ff:

-
- m
I
I
C
I
1
r
- ,
I I
-. "
I
I I
:
; m i - . #
G

-
A

As Iabeled in the excerpt. E


r has a s j m r n r t n c balance o f concrasdng melodic rhythms. The
fast rhyrhm prlor t o she cadence emphasizes the cadenrial effect There is in addition, an
examplc of a repeated tone becoming a non-harmonic tone shar in this case resolves up KO
rhe cadence pitch.
ROHANTliC HELODIES

h a m p i e '1.1 9b: "Ana Maria" by Wayne Shorter

- 3 4
-3-1
slav fast slow (delayed cadence)

From a conlrrasdng source, balanced melodic rh!r&rn with the cadence rcsolvin~downward

Example f -19c: Adagio in 0 minor by Wolf'garrg Amadeus Mozart

- k t ' 51- fast


(Cbord 9rnlioIs are Juggextron5. not f o l d in tbe onpnal somponuon.)
slow

IlIustradng the diversiv of romantic melody sources and chat h e y are not tied to a specific
time penod, &is excerpt is clearl!. romanuc as is the whole piece. Compare ir direcrly LO rhe
Mendelssohn and Sainc SaEns melodies then C Q T L S U ~a~ music histo71 text for the work~ng
rime periods of these composers. In addition m balanced and conrrascingmeIodic rhythm,
there are repeared news chat become nen-harmonic rones nrhlch resolve downu,ard - overt
romantic melody wrinng technrques.

hample 1.I 9d: Theme from Symphony No. 6 by Peter 1. Tchaikovsky

!&rd
- -- fast

~ m h a arc
slow -
b rugr&ns, nor+h??cndIn rile orrplrrplmI
-
compsitaon.)
fast - 5 1 0 W -
The theme from Tchatkovsky's Symphony No. 6 YPathttlquc") is another m p l e which
demonstrates the use of a number of the previous1y lis~edrornanuc melody concepts.
CHAPTER I: MELODY

THE PROTOTYPICAL ROMANTICII DEAL MELODY

T h e fo11owing melod!. is a perfect =ample to be referred to for a complete understanding of


t h e concepa of romantic melody writing. It has most of t h e prenio~slyp e n techniques
used in the clearest ways; ir is a melody that h a become chc "classic" reference and musical
accompaniment co any rornandc image whether prawn~edseriously or as a joke. In spite of
its caricaturization o f all that is wrong with she concept of romanricism. nt is nonetheless
one ofthe most beautiful rnclodies ever written. The melndj-. of course, is:

Example 7 -20: The Main Theme from "Romeo and Juliet" by Peter I. Tchaikovsky

j nrggesnmrs, not &d ir! rhe oripnal compostion.)


(Chmd ~ h !are

See "Last Illusion"

The melodic form is modified Gina?. ( t w o part irith a repticion): an c~posiuon,rhc dra-
matic "!>earnin$ for rhe ~nfinite"second part and a repetldon of the first part.

Sdienr points and romandc devkes include:


I. The melody smrts ofT with a non-harmonic tone which rcsokes upward. Eonnd In ms.
71 is the converse. a non-harmen~crepeated tone which this rime resolves dou7nrvard.
2 . CIear statement (ms. h openins statement hwmy slow
1) and response (ms.2) ~ i i the
mclodic rhythm and the responsr being faster, providing hnlmcc
3. The cadcntial note (F)of measure three is consonant and final as arc most of the signi-
ficant cadence poinrs.
ROHANTIC MELODIES

4. ZntenraEic skips:
(a) MG downward, ms. 1-2
(b) P4 In ms. 3. relaxed harmonic/mdodic resoiudon
(c) M6 upward. the classic romancic leap in ms. 5 and ms.27
Id) 05 downward ms. 6-7, tense interval to set up cadence
(c) P5 in ms.21-22 I zi
sr dramacic skip of pan 11, rhr "yearning portion of t h e melody
5 . Chsornaricisrn For emotional tCnSlQtI is found in ms. 6 and 7 and ms. 9, 21,13,1; and
21.
6. Repeared nares a r e found in ms. 9,11.19,13and repeated notes thar become a non-har-
rnonic tom in ms.22-23
7 . Note the ~essimraof parr II. from a low G below middle C, the melody dramancally
builds tension and drama w c h extensive rnorific reperinon by che use of sequence until
r h e climax point of the s ~ c o n dD above middle C is reached This is a clear and classic
example of how parc I1 of a rornannc rnelodj~should work
The remaining two compositions can be categorized as romanticjmelodic, or compositions
c hat have romantic melodies bur differing harmanlc, and emotional qualides. h parricular,
the Iast composition, by Keith Jarrett is a good model for a contemporary rornaTr1c com-
position. It has romantic elements in its melody which are balanced by h e inclusioa o f q m -
metric rnelo&c material, and a rather stark seundlng slash-chord modal harmonic scheme.

EXAMPLES OF ROMAMTfC/MELODIC JAZZ COMPOSITIOt-fS


Example 7.21 : "S.R. Ballad" by Ron Mirler

Final End G ~ ~ S U S
A ~ + / G F9sus D T ? E ~C/D~
n I
I b e
I Q Eopw~ghr1973 Ronjank MUSIC.
BMI
f,
( d
I

fine
CHAPTER t: MELODY

This melody f d s somewhere in benveen romantic!ideal and romantic/mclodic with a rypi-


call? rornancic melody, but a nor so differing harmonic foundac~onIrs harmony probabIy
could be described as =-romantic with a few areas of smrk slash chord formulae (see pp-
96106 In Volume 1).
R ~ m a n t i cdevices as Iabeled by Ietrers on r h c score:
(a) Repeated nores.
(b) Repeated notes thaz become a hy [one, resolvin~upward.
(c] A romantic leap of z M6.
(d) A romantic cIichi.
(e) The expansion and sequence of the previous dich t
(9 h t e n d i c expansion in an u p ~ z dconrour to create tension and drama prior to a
release.
(g) The release of the previous tense expansion; it 1s also an extant rornmtic ciichi. (a quote)
from the pop tune "If I loved You So" and many others.
(h) Repeated nores becoming a NH tone which resoIves downward.
(i) More leaps of a M6.
(j) Four consecudve shps upward creating exmeme tension and drama for rhe find caden-
ce. The final melod~cresolution is by lead~ngrone.

OTHER SAUEhT POIhTS OF INTEREST


The opening sraternenr In bars I and 2 , of fairiy fasr melodic rhythm, is balanced by a
sIow response in bars 3 and 4.

-- There 1s a transposluon of the opening motif in bar 5.


A compression of rhe phrase m bars 7 and S.
A quasi srnving quality in bars 9 and 10.
The monf ~n t h e beginning of bar 16 is jrnrerted in retrogade the end ofbar 16 ro 17.
The motif in bas 10 1s sequenced and cnended in bar 17.
= Bar 19 is a sequence ofbar 12.
Bar 23 shows a small compression of the macerial in bar21.
* Loakfnz ar the rnocif labeled (Id). one can idenn9 a sequence of it at the end ofbar 23
to bar 25.
The f i p t c found In bars 6 and 7 relates to the materid in IS and 16.

.4nd so on... Quire a blr: could be poinred out. but the main idea is ro ident16 thc elements
of romanticism and srrong rnelod~cconstrumion.

Example 1 . 2 2 "Solstice"
~ (ms.1-4) by Keichdarrett

Romantic and salient features include:


Measure ! has three repeated notes w ~ t hthe last becoming part of the response in
measure 2.
Measure 2 has an upward shp of a m6 jvhich is pan of a rornannc clichfi; iir also has
repcased notes (see Ex. ~.~TID).
Measures 2 and 3 arc. connected b!. the top pivot poinc p i x h E. and there is an expmsi-
to E). a M6 (Gtl ro E)and a b7 (Fa to E) all conmibutins to
on of rhe i m e n d s : 2 rn6 (G$
rhc sense of development and defining rornandc~sm.
THE PROTONP1CAL ROM&NTICfIDEAL HELODY

Example 1.22b: "Solstice" {ms.5-81by Keith Jarrett

-
,
'
n
-
+Ayr=. - Lo
!
-
F/G

- - I
I
h-
I
I
!.
A/G
7
- -,-,
w I
I
I
.,
+
C
E IC
.
I
I
0
Y
D/E

*-
-
A~/E

I
I
I
,
1

I
S E I

The previous finall!. resolves to thc Ct! in measure 4; a pickup at the end of the measure
initiates a rruncated version of she material Found in measures 1 and 2 in measures 5-7.
Measures S and 9 offer a relief from romanudsm by the peculiar qualin of the symmet-
,c patrrrn of an augmented scale.
All winds down wirh a return TO romantic materid in bars 10 rhrough 12, with bar I1
conranmy a beautiful cllchi. and 12 a final sequence of it.

Example 1 . 2 2 ~ "5olstice"
: (ms.9-12) by Keith Jarrert

The ver? dark and smrk harmonic foundarion of chis cornposiuon is balanced by i t s beaun-
ful romantic melody givinz this composi~ionan in-puacing quality wonh inves~igatin~.

Note the harmon~canal!.sis OF chis cornpositron is mcluded on page 106 of Volume 1 for rhose rnterested m fur-
ther refcrrnce.

CONCLUSION .

As initially stated, melody u l r i r i n ~is a complex and comprehensive subiect No amount of


rearling or study can substituse for the years ofIistening to and/or playing ofgreat metodies
that: is che most beneficial means of learning to c o n s m c t a p o d melody. I f :he smdcnt does
nor have a repermire OF g e a r melodies of diverse ori$ns readil!, avaitable From rnemor).
alone. now is rhe rime to start a serious Iisrening regiment
The suggested exercLscs and che recommended lisrcning list ar rhe end of the chapter i s a
place to s t a r . In additlon to rekgating numerous mejohes to mernon, one should be able
ro play or sing the important themes in any key; it uiU be of extreme henefi-c for both com-
posiuon and irnprorisation. As suggested in Volume 1 of this book for harmonic materials,
an? nmc music is prcsent, whether by car radio. home sound system, cinema televisicm or
I i v ~performances, l i s ~ e nanalj.ticall!l. Generally; rry to describe a rnelodfs q u a 1 1as
~ folk or
arc ~nflucnced,irs source (ui~onic.chromatic, modal); its style descriprion (romantic. idio-
matic, programmatic);t~ m recoFizc ho~vche rnelnd!~is balanced boch at the rnorific and
phrase lcvels Then determine if :nu like the melody or n o t and tvh!'. T h e nexr srep is ro scl-
ecc a melody chac pasticdariy affects you, and anal!zc i t , determining whar 1t is that i t s ant-
hor did to create a classic.
In the ncxt chaprrer we wilI rerum ro rhe concepts ofharmony. Of importance are thc tech-
niques +vcn to harmonize an exrant melody. \ ? e y much a part of the "new jazz" scene is the
reworhng of materials from rhe "standard" repertoire. XQth that suhiecc. we wiH combine
harmonization, rcharrnonizac~on,and melody writing into a unified a~hoIe.
CHAPTER 1: MELODY

SUGGESTED EXERCISES

I. Listen to 6 metodies of diverse styles. f3>- section, comment on the f o f l o u q n ~


( a ) Irs placement in the foIk!art specmum
(b) Scdar source macerial(s)
(c) The use of smrernent/response
(d) Phrase qualiv
(el Label the melodic s~le(romanticjided.idiomric or o t h t r ~ )
(f! Describe your emotional response.

EXAMPLES:
"Badia"byJoe Zawinul, Weather Report, from Tail Spinwm'
"One By One" by 7X;a:me Shorrer, T h e J a u Messengers, from upfir
The Adagio from che Piano Cancerto in A by K".. Mozart
'cEllossom''by Kcirh jarrett, from BeIonpg
"Hoe Dourn" by Oliver Nelson from Blue? and the Ahstrab Tmth
"Look t o the Sl+' by Anmnio Carlos Jobim fi-om Wave
"Rufus" by Archie Shepp from New Thng d Newpm
"Work Song" by Nac Addcrley, from Cannonbdli In New I'm-lz

2. Compose four melodm Followrng r h e speclfic directions listed below; harmonization is


optional but recornmcnded.
(a) V i t h a tricon~csource. phrase a 11-bar melody with rhis staternenc,'rcsponsc
forrnuIa: 1 I S1. Rl I Sl. K! 1 52, It3 1 1.
(b) An S-bar Form with four bars of increased a c t i v i ~ro a held wdenie pitch for the
remaining four bars (see Ex 1.11).
(c) A 3-bar single pitch melody, developed rhythmically, balanced by contrasring
material In chc fourth bar (see EA.1 . 1 4 ~F.~27).
(d) Compose an &bar romantic melody which shows a srriving qualiry toward t h e
infinite. Label rhe use of rnoufic dwclopment (see Ex 1-20. p. 34).

3. List ten mclodies from the "srandard,"jazz. Latin, or pop repertoire that can be Iabeled
romantic.

"Some Enchanted Everung'' by Richard Rogers


"Mayakamby Wayne Shorcer
"IT71rboutSou" by lnmg Ecrlin
"AU the Thing You Arc" by Jerome Kern
"Something to Remember" by Leonard/Madoma
"Beany and rhc Beast" by Mcnken

4. Compose a'rornantic melody.


(a) Fofiowlng the farm of your choice (atleast ten bars).
(b) narrnonized ir; any syle. but indudc at l e a c nvo areas of slash chord techniclTae.
(c) Includf all performance direcdves: ardculadons, dyamics, phrasinps, etc.
(d) Following t h e andys~s_wide found on p a y 10,include a comprchcnslve anal?~sis;
label sped51 romantic devices that you used.

5 . Refer to the "Adagio" by Tomaso Abinoni included here. Cornpletei!. analyze it using
the analysis guide, include a labclin~of rhe romantic d w ~ c e ~vhlch
s are u s e d
THE PROTOTYPICAL ROMAFmCIIDEJL H E W D Y

Adagio by Tomaso Albinoni

slow and dirge-like


~b-
CHAPTER t: nELoDY

SPECIAL PROJECT FOLK MUSIC SURVEY


This is a romprehensivc prqiea char is relamil [o the materials found in all chapters of this
book - bur in p m i c u l x to the third: penca~oficComposirions. Tr neeis m be "in propss,'.
wich most of the work being done no\fr.w~&revim and addldons raking place later in the
study schedule.
Researching both texts and recordinp: selecrfrom h e world's folk musics. at- least ccn From
different par^ ofthe globe, and and!=, pZ).ing particular artcnuon to the folImring:
-- Source scalar material

-- Statement and Response organization (SIR)


Melodic rh!&m relarive to harmonic rhythm
Expressive dwlccs and pitch variations

SeIecr a number of the melodies thac you particularly liked, co be used later as a modd for
your om7nmelodies. M a k e a note about the peculiarities that endeared you co any mdody.
Make note of any quaIiry chat is found in common with most melodies of all caeegories -
that may prove ro be a universal "mu&" of affec~ivemelody wrinng.
It is suggested char rhe reader start uith the foIk sources closelj-related to jazz compositions
~ h a ncontinue o n to personal or nationalistic interests. S m with the Eolbwing folk musics:
African
Japanese
Brazilian
- Indian
American
- Britrsh/Insb
Of che "nm*worIdsources, tv ro d e t e m ~ n thec percentage ofnarive EO Etlropcan influence:
for instance- what is the real influence o r source of the (Cuban) Ctave?

MELODlC ANALYSIS REFERENCE GW ID


T h e following is an outline of thc elements of a melody h a t were covered in the prewous
p a p of rhis chapter and will be referred to in subsequent chapters. Ir should &a serve as
an "instantnguide co be used u~henanalyz~ngrnciodies as a s s i y c d in rhis book.
A. Source Materials
I. Single notes
2. Tritonic scale frapenrs
3. Tetratonic scale f-ents (tetrachords - see I b l . 1)
4. Pencaronlc s d e s
(a)diatonic
(b) altered
(c) add note {satar;onic)
(d) bkues scales
5 . Diatonic and altcred diatonic modes (septaronic)
6. Symmerric scales
7 . Harmonic references
{a) arpeggiadons
(b) guide wncs!common tones
8. Quotes
9. Kan-western scales (octaronic and more)

B. MOTIRC DEVELOPMENT

I. Repcurion
2. Sequence
3. Inversion
4. Retrograde
5. Retrograde Inversion
6. Isorhythm
7. Isoarticillation
8. Truncauon/exrension
9. Displaccrncm
10. Muration

C. CONTOUR
1. Direcrional
2. Intervalic
(a) diatonic
@) chromatic
(c) skips
3. Note d u e
{a)augmenration
(b) diminut~on
(c) campression
{d)decompression
(e) art~culations
4. Point of dinlax
5. Balance

13. FORM
1. Statcmenr and response
2 Phrasing
(a)antecedent/consequence
@) syrnm~ncd/asymmetrical
(c) sectional
(d) rhrough camposed

E. MELO DtC RHYTHM


1. Melodic tempo
2. Cadence points
3. Spcoparion

F. EXPRESSION

1. ArcicuEations '

2 . Dynamics
3. Effecv
3 Sound supporn phrasing
5 . Tempo markin~s
CHAPTER I: MELODY
- .-.

RECORDlNGS AND READFNGS


As a listening source for melody \vriting conceprs, almosr ever)- available recording could be
a suitable rxamplc. Thc follo~vinglists the sources chat are referrcd to in the t a r plus a few
more.

A. R E C O R D I N G S
A t the tighrhouse Joe Henderson Milestone 9028
SiEver7sSerenade Horace Silver Blue Note 841 31
wove Antonio Carlos Jobim A&M 3002
Rhopsady Gpagnole Maunce Ravel misc. recordings available
The firebird Igor Stravinsky m:sc. recordings available
Bjack Market Weather Report Columbia 34099
Zalvlnul JosefZawinul Atlantic 1579
Ballads John Cofcrane GRP156
The Mlcsic of Ron Miller Ron Miller CPP/Belwin
The Sorcerer MiEes Davis Cojumbta 52974
Samson and Delihh Carnil le Saint-Saens mlsc. recordings available
Brooklvn Biues Danny Goalieb Brg World 2005
The Real McCoy McCoy Tyner Blue Note 356
JUJU Wayne Shorter Blue Note 3764A
Schizophrenia Wayne Shorter Blue Note 32096
Out to Lunch Eric Dolphy Blue Note 841 63
Death and the Flower Keith Jarrerc Impulse 9301
Get H a p 0 Tony Bennett- Columbia 30954
Cinemo LeGrand Michel Legrand MGM A 4 9 1
50np IWtthout Words FeEix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy misc. record~ngsavailable
Symphonies No. 5 6 6 Peter I. Tchaikovsky rnisc. recordings available
Romeo andjuhet Peter I. Tchai kovsky misc. recordings available
B longing Keith Jarrett ECM T 050
Conceflo M. 2 Se%e~ Rachrnaninoff misc. recordings available
Liberal Am Elements Novus 3058-N
Native Dancer Wayne Shorrer Blue Note 541 73
Speok No Evi! Wayne Shorter Blue Note 32096
StlverS Serenade Horace Silver Blue Note 41 31
Adogio Charhe Mariano LIP 8924-2

B.READINGS
Rumantrc MUSIC Leon Plantinga W. W. Norton, 1985
Contemoray Harmony: Romanticism Through the 72-Tone Row
Ludm~laUlehla Advance MUSIC,1994
Changes Over Time: The Evobtron o f j o z Arranging
Fred Sturm A d ~ x n c eMusic, 1995
Music Idioms G. Welron Marquis Prentice-Hall, 1964
Eric Dolphy Simoko Sc Tepperman Qa Capo Press, 1979
Chapter 2
;. .I
---::I , .
/::.. -1.- ..

WORDS OR CONCEPTS TO KNOW

I Standard Repettoire
2 Altered Modalit),
3 Substitution
4 D~atonic
5 Chromatic
6 Function
7 Harmonic R h ~ h r n
8 Cadence
9 Cycle
10 Turnaround
11 Approach Chord
72 Added Chord
13 Target Chord
14 Pedal Poinr:
15 Stock
16 Original
-
CHAPTER 2 REHARHONIZAYION

HARMONIZATION

E v q so of%, a student mas inquire, 5 n the compesidonal process, is it berter to write the
m d d y firs: or to corm up with a set of chords first? The answer of course, depends on the
individual composer; mosc: like rile author. probably work with melody, harmony, and
rhyrhm simulraneousl~,each influenung the outcome of the others. Often. a composition
may develop out ofa seed idea in che form nf rhree or four chords in a vamp, or from z pecu-
liar ba5s figure. Other times, a pardmlarIy satisfying morif or melodic frapent may
mspire the complctron of 2 scction, or a complete composition. The poinr is that the Inicld
inspiration. in whatever form ic ernanaces, is what really prcnlides chc basis of a composidon
ofworth.
For rhase ~ ~ h e melody
se writing skilIs are more developed &an their harmonic abilincs -
usually ~tis the smdcnt ~ . h ohas had extensive craining m tradrtional theory/composition,
bur is relanvely new re jazz composition and harmony - the FoIlowrng are some polnu to
consider when attempting to create a harmonic progression co a 9;ir~enmelody. Alrfiouph the
l the composer, t h y could be appiicd
techniques are rneanr for use lvirh a rneIody o n ~ i n a to
to an extant melody of any em
There are nvo u.a!r of accomplishing the goal: t h e preplanned and the inmidl~e.T h e inrui-
tive merhod seems Iess efeccive in <rearing harmonies though, probably due m :he density
of and the diffjmlyin "hemng' many notes simultanmusly.

THE PREPLAFINED METHOD


To be sllccessful with this merhod. the student needs to be well accomplished with the mate-
=
rials found in 17oIume I of rhis text. In fact, the following could be thnuyhr of a synopsis
of the imporrant features of Volume I. Of particular importance are the abilities 10 recag-
nize and work wich:
a Tetrachords, modes,and symmernc scales and patterns.
Modal chord consrmction rvirh the "grip" mcthod.
The connecuon of chords by common tones and srruccurcs.

- The conccprs ofharmorric conrour.


T h e concepts of momentum

THE PROCEDURES

A. MELODrC ANALYSIS
Using the analysis p ~ d found
e on p. 40 of rhis volume, nere any peculiarities rhar may pre-
dict a harmonic definition, paying pardcnlar attention to:
Imporcmr source materids - mchords, terrachords, overall consonant,slcrps. symrncrry
and so forth.
The emotional contour, cadence points. balancing rechniques, and rhe point of dimax.
T h e general svle descrrption: Folk. hardbop, ECM.

B.BASS MELODY CREATION


-
T h e imporsancr of a strong, well developed bass melady cannot be overemphacized i r will
hold together rhe h m o n i c foundation of an!. composidon, and wiIl contribute co rhe
rnusicd development of other areas. Consider chc follolv~ngurhen composing a bass
rnclociy
I. Contour:
(a)qlrnrnerric or asymmetric note dcrations.
@) direction, use of counterpoint ca the given rnelod?..
(c) in tewdic mend.
jd) use of melad!, wnnng procedures and develop men^.
HhRMONlfATION

3. ahychm:
(a) slow/fast, sustained notes
(b) repose and rransinon, cadence and pedd point
(c) speed relative to the given melody
(d) the use of vamps

I C. CHORD SELECTION
1. Determrne rhe general harmonic sryIe god:
( a ) bebop, hardbop, E C U , pop!Larin. free form modal,
(b) analyze a number of compositions in the selected style (see p. 24).

2. Rewew zhe descriptions of modal harmonic styles:


(a)linear
@) plateau
(c) vertical

3. Review she concepts of modal contwur for modal chord selection.


4. Select chords that fuIfr11 a modal centaur goal, use of "grips"ads in the process.
5 . Create a chord-contour melody.

TO R13TE\KJ,THIS IS THE MELODY DERIVED FROM ALL TKE TOP PITCHES WHEN
SPELLING 0LT THE CHORDS.
Use of common tones and structures.
Use of counrerpoimt, intervaIic and directional contour.

This i s h e hard part - unless a lot of prepIannjng has been done and t h e goals are pretvl
dear. There arc so many possibilides, thar unIess one has composed a lot and developed she
dec~sionmaking pmcess to r h c point of being confident in the musical worth of one's
initlal selections, the whoIc process can be ovenvhelrning ro r h e point of " g j v i n ~up.''
Scarr by composing a bass melody thac foUows the contour you fee1 besr suits the harmonic
god. Tn a number of chords of varied modal qualiues for the first chord chat trill set the
tenor for the development of the remaining chords. The neat step is ta add chords ar r h e
cadential point., rhen filIin~in wi& the remaining chords between h o s e points according
ro a preplanned harmonic contour.
Unless you are evolvini to the intuitive approach by chis rime, much experimentahion nil1
probably be needed Trylng many different chords and harmon~cconcours will require
pasience and perseverance Being accomplished with rhc " p p " method of chord conscruc-
tion will be of great assistance in h i s process.
In a nutshell, rhis 3s r h e order of steps ro follow to help organize your rheugh~sfor the har-
monization process:
Crearc a bass melody, following the prepIanned harmonic conrour and being a x w e of
bass melodic cadence.
Select a "first chord" per section.
Experimenl- various chords &ar saris@ both she preselecrcd modal contour and
cadence resoludons.
Re-voice h c chords to create a chord melody that conforms 1-0a preplanncd melodic
contour and cadenuaI requiremenrs.
Conunue experirnenring and nve&ing until both the aesthetic and style defining
requirements are met.

The follow~ngexamples may offer some clariy and/or insighm intc rhe process. T h e corn-
rnents address the above steps in the order given, if applicable. The melodies of rhc examples
were composed for illusrranve purposes aithotlt any concern for acsrhetics.
CHAPTER II: REHhRMONtZATION

HARMONIZlNG GWEN MELODIES

MELODY l
Thc sourcc of chis melod!~can be rdentificd as being a diatonic G minor or Bb major scale.
Its directronal conrour is genedl!? dorjmu.ard to rhc cadence pitch, wich the cadence pitch
not being balanced by an addiriond pitch in concray direction. It has a final q u a l i ~
due to
its melodic rhythm.

Example 3.1: Harmonization of a Diatonic Melody (1) and a Chromatic Melody (11)

I - Diatonic Melody I! - Chrornaric Melody

Aeo Mixo 11

att I

COMMENTS:

HARMONtZATION (a)

T h e Bass Melody - scans wirh the same pitch as bo& chc main and chord melody. m a r -
ing a clear "harmonic staremcnt.' It chen goes upward in a d~se&onconnary to the
m a n and chord melodies: with inren~dsthat ~ epropessiveh~
t smaller, providing at
increase af r ~ n s i o nh a t is resolved with the find cad~nccpitch a rrltonc away. Its
general source. othcr than chc cadence ~ i r c hi.s d ~ a r o n ~
rocthe m a n melod~csource.
The Chord Melody - stzrdng on the same pitch rrhr main rnelod?. there is rhrn a P5
skip downward to a cadence pitch. chen another slcip to a repose-cadence. defined by
t h e use of commnn tones.
HARMONIZATION
-
- -

The Chord Selection - rhe harmonic rhythm i s slow and symmetric, with the chord selec-
tion based on 3-no~egroupings (miconrcs)of the main melody. T h e firs1 tritonic - D,
C, Bb - implies Bb major nr G minor and thc "first chord' choice of G minorJD is diz-
conically relarive to the melody.

The second chord choice, hatonic ra rhe A-G-F mitonic, gives an effect oFbeing brighter
after he first dark Aeolian chord, providin~a sense of harmonic cansour. T h e nexr chord,
the tonic. prnvrdes a resolurion of h e drama creared by rhc previous one.
The last chord, connected to the previous by common cone, has a subtlc dominanr qualiy
due co the melodic q d l q . of the bass picch. Norice the dternatrng modal qualin. of the
selected chock: dark/bright/dark,/br~ght,this provides harmonic contaur as well as a variety
oFmodal description. Other considerations made in the selection process were the v a r i e ~of
"grips,"and voice-leasling.

HARMONIZATION (b)
The Bass Melody - starts wirh the use oi pedal pornr on the main melodv pitch, showing
a repose~transicionconmur. The ovcrall source is a chrornat~cfragrnenr which implies
Phr?xjan uith the EL. Its direcrional conrour is up\mrd in c o n r r q norion ro che
main and chord melodies.
The Chord Melody - 1s the same as the main melody due to t h e use oFparallel "gnps"to
harmonize che m el ody.
T h e Chord Selection - s t a r r i n ~wirh a tonic Bh {Gm)/D. y i p selecdon was made to
increase the modaIJspacing tension ro the E minor chord wh~ckresolves to the
F13sus4 in the form of a parody cadence.
HARMONIZATION (c)
The &ass Melody - a simple chromatic scale, downward to the targer F, starts on a Ron-
dia~onicAb.
The Chord Melody - starting on a diatonic pitch, alchoush irs melodic shape shows
obscured direction, ir does move in contrast to the bass melody by groups of IWO.
Ending on a nondatonic pitch, the source of this mdody is Bb major.
The Chord Selection - alsernat-ing non-dominant (major 7) chords and dominant (b7)
chordq implies a modal cycle resolving to a dominanr of the tonic Bb.

MELODY ll
This melody is purposely chromaric to introduce h e problems peculiar to that sourcc: that
of selening chords whose rnodaliv allor17 nvo or more pirches that are chromaric. In a
general dnwnward confour. the melody 1s resolved b?tbalancing irs direcrion with an upward
skip ofa P4. A general m o d d i y of che melody cannot be derermined, but the cadence point
implies f or Bb major and their relarive miner tonal centers.
h general, notice rhc nondiatonic q u a i i ~of the bass meladies rrp to the cadence poinrs. The
chord selection and spelling, needing to include one the main melody pirches, is more &a-
tonic, at Icasc m onr pitch at a rime. O ~ h ethan
r example (c), most of rhe selected modalities
are homogeneous. These traits am descriptive o f the means taken to harmonize a melody
&at is harmonically obscured by having a chromauc source.

By n m ~ furrher
; cornrnenrs may become redundant. It is suggesred that a more detailed
anal!?sis and cornmenrs be completed by t h e reader. The subject of harmonization will be
continued in Chapccr 111 on page 96 under the subject of "Harmonization and Harmonic
fipchm."
Having created an initial set of chords far a given mcIod!?,one can funher develop the skele-
harmonic material by rhe use of reharmonization techniques. Alrhough the reharmon-
izacion process can be used ro develop h e harmony of one's own cornpositsons, it is mosr
often applied to the chords of the "standard" jazz reperzoir~
CHAPTER It: REHARMOt4lZAT1ON

REHARMONEZATION

THE JAZZ COMPOSER'S PREDICAMENT


Essential to the reprrroire of che learning jazz performer are a number of compositions
known as "standards."These are h e sonp, ballads and dance mnes OL th e 20s to
the 50s thar a r e the b&ls of the rradrionalist, bebop oriented jazz performance.
Mosc iazz improvisors acquire t h e ~ craft
r bT7learning standards, blues tunes md a few simple

modal compositions. Haring invested so much effort into t h e learning of the srandard
repertoire wrh i t s ties co tonal harmony and the syrnrnealc AABA song form, it i s undet-
standable rhat many resist the sdecdon of compositions with unconirenrlond harmonic
materia! and unusual f o m for h e p r o ~ m m i n gof concern and recordings. Add LO this rhc
fact rhat once the voice-leading of the diatonic n-V-J cadence and tonal harmegg is learned:
Ir can be applied ro all tunes thar are b a e d on cha: ststern. Consider also. that most of the
hippest "licks" and melodic f i p r e s having been k a n e d from t h e recording of one's hero-
of-rhe-day can be used as ont's own in any tune having rhe s a m e harmonic foundation.
What it all means is thas newTmusic: with harmonic anci meIodic marerial unique t o its crea-
ror requires chat the performer, if orher &an the composer, must learn the new composidon
and its improwsationa1 materials with Fitdc reference to aIready worked-our materials. Many
of the more consenwive performers resist this.
Anorher consideration is that of rhis ~rmting,h e r e is the perception rhatjau is in danger of
bccomlng Iike classical music, char of a re-creative music; char: the thrus: of jazz recordings
and performances IS rhat of re-creating the music of the pasr tonal song form composirions
with ~ e tso bebop and hardbop.
,411 this presenrs a predicament for t h e serious jazz composer desiring an expression of origi-
nality and c r e a u v i ~How
. does one get g e a r players KO play his runes ~irhoutcoercion, and
how does one address the mend [award jazz as a rc-creative music?
One uvay is to havc recorded examples of his or her works distribured widely enough chat
players hear them and learn to enjoy them to the poinr chat they r r m t to learn ro play &ern.
Of course, one needs to be in an environment where if one's compositional~performance
skills ate knorvn and apprecrated. and h e r e is the possibi1iy of armining financial backing
for the production of a recording.
A more flexible approach is work within the sandard repertoire and rework the given mate-
rials in a way that the resulting product reflecm rhe composer's personal aesthenc and crea-
t ~ v eabiIiries while allowing the improviser an access to his iearned imprmdsational skills.
That is chc goal of this porcion of the chapcer, t o look at some techniques thar allow t h e
composer or mrnposer/improrriser to pcrsonalizf a composicion from thc standard rcper-
torre; from a mere "freshening up" of t h e changes to t h e crearion of a r o d y new composi-
tion which is a pasdchc of che orignd. In addidon, thc techniques can be used along with
t h e previously given techniques, to h m o n i z c a p e n melody for those composers u ~ h opre-
r"erto ~irricemelodies and then Iarcr add the harmony. .4nd Iucly, the techniques can be of
use to che b ~ gband arranger who 1s desirous of creating an innovative version of an over-
worked standard.
The ~nformariongiven presupposes thar the student has a warkrn? knoulledge of ronal har-
mony and the diatonic system and is aware of cadences. cycles. turnarounds and tricone
srrbsricunon. If not. consuit rhc books listed at the end of this chapcer.

In addi~ionto chc techniques oripnal rc~&fie author, many were derived from an analysis of
the recordings of Gil Evans, the '.smndard'' harmonic approach of Herbie Hancoclc (parti-
cularly from the Miles Dal~isrecording Ah Fr~nnj~ Valcnhne), and from r h e merhods of t h e
many unknown arrangers of "eas!. l i s t c n ~ n ~music.
"
Airhaugh chc techniques can be applied ro established jam compositions, j: is recomrnendcd
that studenrs limir rhc firsr attempts to "standard" 11-V-I songs as they arc chc cornposinons
thar most h a w a need to be personalized
The ~echniquesgenerally fall i n ~ othe FoHowin~categotles:
A reworking oE
the chords
rhc harmonic sh?~hrn
the key, tempo and rhythmic style
the form
the melody

A. CHORDS

The chords $wen pamcular attention are chords that begin secrions, target chords. and the
chords of cadences, ~ c l e and
s rurnarclunds.
The chords can have:
chanyed modalin. (alteration)
changcd chord root (substitunon)
Kormally the rnodaliy of a chord is changed when the root is changed.

ALTERED CHORDS
.4 chord alteration is simply a change in rhe modalig of rhe original chord iiithout char.1~-
ing the origlnai rooc Usudly the new- modally maintains the Funcuondiq. OF che original,
bur it is nor a smcr require men^. I f chere is a number of notes nirhin a phrase of rhe origi-
nal melody, ny ro detect a nerrachord or modal fragment to assist in determination of the
new chord's modalit).. If there is one melody note for h e chord, using commonrone tech-
nique (see Chapter ZrII in 1:ol. 1) m i l l allow a wide vancy of possible alterations.

CHORD FUNCTION
T h e finchon of a chord refas to itr property of being ar rest or desiring resoludon. Chards
defined as non-dorninanshaw l i d e or no desire ro resolve, chords labeled dominant do have
a desire m resohe or are in association tvith chords rhar need co resolve (sec "Mornencum" in
\ b l . I). To maintain a funcuon similar to che original chord. select an alreration with a rcsulr-
ing rnodaliy wirhin one to maochords above or beiou, in rhe order of modal resolution.

CHORD FUNCTION CATEGORIES:


Nondorninant - chords having a natural 7 o r no 7:

Lydian $5
Lydian b7
Lvdian 12
Lvdian 45
Lydian b3
Ionian #5
Ionian b5
Ionian b6
Ionian b3
sus4 no 7
sus 2 no 3
maj 9 no 7
min 9 no 7

Subdominant - can function as either dominant or non-dominant


Dorian 47;:5
Dorian 4'7: f5
Dorian 47, b5
Dorian h7. h5
Aeolian h7, b5
Doaan b7: 94
Donan b7, k4
Aeolian b7,V
Aeolian b7, b5
PhI+Ilh7, $5
CH;a,PTER II :R E H AR HONI ZATI0t4

Dominant - chork having a b7 or a 112:

Mixolydian $2. $4
M~xolyd~an $2, $4
Mixolydian b6
Mixolydian Q2
Mixolydian 42,4
Mixolydian b?: 4
Phrysian h6, 84
Phygian b6,4
Phrvgian 6 . 6 6
P h ~ g i a nb3, b6
Laman ty6
Lomian 66
Loman bb5
Locrian b 4
Locrian p4
Alrered h6
Altered bb7
Almed bb6, bb7
Mixolydian sus4
Mixolydran no 4

Keep ir! mind that it is not really necessan KO sdecr a modality that has the same function
as the original, thar the overall style of :he reharmonization rrpill dicrare the mode choice.
(see t h e pamon on "sq4c")

GENERAL PRACTICE ALTERATION EXAMPLES

ALTERED DIMINISHED CHORDS


Diminished chords are nonrnodal chords h a t can have a both a dominant and sub-domi-
nant function. Due co thelr nonrnodal character, their vercical construction rends ro create
i ~ well a spacing quaiiy whm used in context with modal
an inconsistency of s o n c ~ r ;~s
chords.
Diminished chords usuall!. have a sub-dominant function to hI miner or sus4 chords or a
dominant function m I chords and are found borh in cadencia1 and non-cadential areas.
The following example is a listing of suggmted alterations to rhe basic O 7 chord ro create a
homogeneous modal sound.

Example 1.2: Altered Diminished Chords

COMMENTS:

1 Tradirional rcsolat~onand spel3ing of the O r chord.


2 Aktcration of the 07 ro a Dorian f5 chord (see 1'01. I , C h a p ~ e r15).
3 Downr-vard r e s o l ~ ~ t ~altcrarion
on. to a Dor~an$7 (minor/majos 7).
4 Use of the Locrian k2, half-diminished chord ro a sus chord.
SUBSTITUTE CHORDS

A subsncu~echord will shoxl, a change in r h e root of r h e orignal chord: the chord's mod&-
vf is usually altered as well.
The substirure root can be:
a diatonic substitunon rvlrh diatonic chord spellmngs
a diatonic subsntution with chromatic chord spellings
a chromaric substitution
a "special case" subsnmtion based on the arpegpadon of a diminished seventh chord
from the original roor iirhich includes the chrclrnatically subsntuted minor third and the
tsitonc as well as h e diatonic substinrdon OF the M6 (b57).

A. DIATONIC SUBSTITUTIONS
These reharmonnanon techniques have been desi-wed to be applied to rhe diatonlc tonal
svscem. since mush of t h e harmonic material of the orieinal version mill shou-clear lliaronic
key centers.
A diatonic subsritucion refers ro a change of root char will be diatonrcdly rdaced to the
Jonran mode of the key center of a p a r u d a r secdon if n o t the endre composition.
As an example. if t h e chord being substituted i s an Fmaj7,9 and rhe key signature shows che
key of C, a possible substitute root could be selecred from any of the notes of che C Ionian
mode.

DIATONIC SUBSTITUTIONS. DIATONIC SPELLINGS


When a diatonic subsritution is madr and rhe melody note is diaronic to rhe lrey of the sec-
rion or tune as a hole, the spelling of the neir- chord conforms ro the diatonic&!? related
rnoddiv of h e modes derived from the original lonian.
T h e folorving mble. based on rhe key of C, gives a cross reference to all of the diatonicalljr
seiated roots u4tl1 datonica1ly spelled chords.T h e table i s constructed by d i n g rhe seven
basic miads constructed from the seven different sreps of the Jonlan made and placing them
over each of the seven dlEcrcnt steps. As one can see, this produces a combinadon of 49
possible diatonically substitutable chords.

TABLE O f DIATONIC SCIB~ITUTIONS:

Room + 11 Ill fV V VI VII


Triads: C D E F G A B
G G!C G/D E-7 G/f G A95u54 GJB
A- C6 D-9 E4/6 FA G4/6/2 A- 3 Phr
80 C&2!4 D-6 EPhr F6M G7 AAeo BO
C C D9sus4 E A e o FAno3 C/G A-7 BPhr
D- Ch6!4/2 D- E Phr F6 G9no3 AAeo Bo
E- CA D2/4/6E- FOt4 G6 A9no3 BAeo
l= F/C D-7 E Phr F G9sus4 AAeo B Loc
PIreferred: GfC D9sus4 E-7 C/F G9sus4 A9sus4 B Phr
-

DIATONIC SUBSTITUTIONS. CHROMATIC SPELLINGS

When the rnelod!, norc of the original chord is not diatonically related to t h e composition's
key, the chord speihng of the new7chord also w i l l be nondiatonic 10 the cornpos~rion'skey.
In this czse, the nerr chord will be selected from one of c l ~ egroup of aitered-diatonic modes
uhich h x both the melody note and one of its pitches in common.
Referrins 70 volume 1. the chords found in hech volumes art from the following sources:
unaltered parenr Ionian h3 $7 (Ionian)
altcrcd no 1 Ianian h3.46 {melodic minor) k7
altered no. 2 Ionian b3, b6 (hamonlc minor) 47
altered no. 3 Ionian 9,bG (harmonicmaim) $7
alrered no. 4 Ienian b3, :5,9 (melohc mrnor $ 5 ) LtT
CHAPTER 11: RE+IARHONIZP;TION

AS an cxarnple: lf the an+d melody nore i s .4b, and the arig~nalchord is D Locnan t 2 (half-
diminished).and the key o i t h e rune or secdon 1s in C major (Iontan), any ofthe altered &a-
tonic source scales and their modes &ar have &c pitches of C Ion~anand Ah in common mill
be workable s~b~ticurions.
There are quite a number of selections that will work
C harmonic major C I3 E$ F G (AE) B
C harmonic minor C D EL F G (Ab)B
f melodic minor C D Eb F G (AE)B
F harmonic minor C Db Eh F G (Ab)B
Bb Ionian C Db EL F G6 ( ~ b )Bb
Eb Ioman C D? Eb F G (Ab) Bb
A harmon~cminor C I3 E F (G#)A\ B

And so on...
As ~$11 be covered in more detail later, the harmonic s y l e and its bas rndod~crequire men^
will help determine which source scale ro select
As an example, some d~atonicsubsritunons for D Locrran 42 include:

FROM F MELODIC MINOR (REFER TO EX. 2.3 BELOW)


C lonian: C D E F G A B
F melodic mmor: C D E F G { ~ b (Bb)
)

G Phrygian 46, F Dorian if. E altered and C Mixolydian b6, having toots in common u l t h C
Ionian as well as an Ah in their chord spelIing, arc selectable substitutions for he original
D Locnan k2.
FROM Eb IONlAN
C lonian: C D E F G A B
Eb lonian: C D (Eb)F G (Ab)(Bb)

C Aeolian, F Dorian, and G P h n ~ s a nb6, haring room in common arirh C Ionian.as well as
the .4b melody now in their spclllngs. are workable subsdmrions.

FROM A MELODIC MINOR:


C lonian: C D E F G R B
A melodic minor: C D E (Flf) ( ~ g )A B

C Lydian 85: D Mixolydim $4,E Mixol~dianb6, IS Phrygian h6, and of course A Dorian k7 are
subsrimcable.

Example 2.3: Spelled-Out Versions

COMMENTS:

1 The oriyinal cadence wirh a D Lonian !42.


2 A dlaronlc substitu~ionof a Ph+an tl6 for che D chord with the G chord being an
alteranon. both are daconic ta F rnelodlc minor.
3 Use of pedal point and a diatonic subsuruuon.
4 Subs~irurionsthat are diat-on~cro A melociic mrnor.
CHAPTER 11: REHARMONIZATION

by s y l e and function
.4s wivlrh previous examples, choice of modaliv wilI be determined
requirements. Note thar the diminished 7th chord s~mrncmcallydivides rhe ocmvc.

Example 2.5a:The Roots ofthe Diminished Seventh Chord from the 4th (Key of Bb)

C1
I I
rncone

Example 2.5b: Substitution Examples

COHHENTS:

Bar 1 : The basic nr-I' cadence


Bar 2: Subsrimted roor (C) a third down
Bar 3: A new root a rritone down (A)
Bar 4: Subsdtuted roor a M6 down (Gb)

Example 2 . 5 ~T:h e Roors oft h e Diminished Seventh Chord from the 5th Including Tri tone Substitution (see page 116 )

trirone
v - III bl I bv~l

Example 2.5d: Substitution Examples

COMMENTS:

Bar f : The bzsic \:-I cadence


Bar 2 : A subssituted b\'IIsus chord For the 1'7
Bar 3: A subsritured HIA- for the 1 7
Bar 4: A trironr subsnmtion for the 1'7
Bar 5: An added II chord to the ~rit0nesubstitution
1: is suSSested the smdenr conrinue rhe above process from tht \'I riegree and from the rocr.
SUBSTITUTE CHORDS

C.STYLE
The first cansideration when startins a reharmonization project is co establish a svlistic
goal. The style of thc rehmanlzanon uill dectmine the choice of chord qualin and!or
function of dceianons and subsututions, the amounr of change in chr harmonic rhythm,
the serecnon ofkey, rhyrhmic concepc, fern and any other of t h e previously cited arsan9ng
conccprs. S ~ l ise most clearly defined by ~vhacreharmonhtion processes xcused at caden-
rial areas: cycles. cadences and mmarounds.
Generally speaking,these are five ba5ic styles:
1. Standard - as the composer intended, usually h m i n ~ :
(a) traditimal dorninanctnon-dorn~nantresoiurions
(b) symmetric harmonic rhythm
(c) similar modality and key "qualiq'
(d) limrted reharmonizadon - s~rnplem e d u n g
(e) limited chan2e in form

2. Blues/Urbane - similar to the sound of the Ellington and M i n p scfiook


(a) mtens~veuse of alteredor dominant 7ch chard substimcions fur all minor chords
found in cadenrial areas
(b) selec~onof darker sounding "flaf keys
(c) iower tessimra
(d) use OF blue notes in melodic vanacions
(e) "dark" colortones found at melodic cadence poinrs

3. Newbop - based on the syle of Charlie Parker's rewriting of"standards"bur moderat-


ed ro conform to a more conternporql harmanic/rnelod~capproach.
(a)exrensi1.e use of trirone subsdcution
(b) extenszve use of parallel II-15s
(c) s,mmerric harmonic rhythm
(d) limited use ofrcwricren melodies in a moderated bebop s ~ l e

4. Pop/Diatonic:
(a) mrensive use of haronic subsricucions
(b) use of dominant sus4 chords at all cadenrial arm
(c)seiection ofbrighrer kcy censers
(d) relwed symmetric harmonic rhyrhrn
(e) use of diatonic sLash/chord consmction (see Table of Diatonic Substitutions, p.51)
{F) use ofrelaxed, 8th-note subdivided rhythms

5. Modal:
(a) u s e of reposejnansitioll harmonic rhythm
(b) extensive use of pedal point
(c) extensive use of the exonc modal chords
Id) use of nondiatonic slash chords

These general descriprions will be further illuscrated and explained in subsequent examples.
CHAPTER If: REHARMONIZATION

D. HARMONIC RHYTHM
This rer'ers to the speed of rhe occurrence of he original chord5 - where and hoir ofren
chords occur relative to [he pulse of the composition The harmonic rhythm of composi-
dons of the "standard" r~pcnoircbased on the song form usuaIly is doiv and qmmetrlc
The pal of h e reworking of the harmonic rhychrn is ro give l c a more dynamic q u a l i ~hv
offcriny 2 conrrasr of s10\1- and quick movement and by offering a contrasr of o~enncssand
denary In addinon, t h e resolu~onqualiq. of tadenrial areas can be cnhanced by rhe judi-
cious use of ~ncrcasedharmonic rhythm immediately prior to rheii- resolution. The speed of
the i i m o n i c rhythm is increased by rhe addidon of chords and is decreased by che delecion
of chords or by the use of pedal point Refer to chc concepts of Repsc and Tranrrbion given in
Irolume I of this book.
Mutarions of a compos~rion'sharmonic rhythm are found ar nvo area?:

C A E N T I A L AREAS

Cadenrid areas are sections of a mnal harmonic scheme which show an active movement
toward a resolution god. Cadenrial a r e s are comprised of cycles. turnarounds and cadenc-
related and move bj. four~hs
es. In addirion to having roor rnotrrments thar are &a~:anEcall?~
or fifths, their defin~tionis determined by rhe funmion and/or modalin. of the individual
chords. The harmonic marerial of cadential areas can be of additional use in rags and
endinss - alulaysa problem area for both the composer and performer.
7 . Cadences: Chords follouring rhc function formula of dominant t a non-dommmt. Thc
formula is that of the \'-I, R'-\r-l and the ubiqtumus 11-\7-I w i t h i t s implied rnodaliq of
Dor~an-MkolyCiian-Ionian.
2. Cycles: A group of chords havlng Ehe same function andjor modality. or shou5ng a syn-
metry of funcnon andjor modality
3. Turnarounds: A group OF chords of mixed function/modJig thar are organized ro
resolve LO a raryet starring point: usually ro the start of a section lf nor the bcgnning of
the composlnon.

N O N CADENTIAL AREAS
Those areas in a set of chords ~vhercthe harmonic rhythm is slo~vesr.usually by having only
one chord for a measure or nvo, or where chew is found a fen. passing chords thar havlc a
non-functional role.

REHARMONIZATION OF CADENTEAL A M A S
Mosr of the harmonic content of a mnal based ccompsidon i s made up ofcadencid forrnu-
las. In addition, mosr of this matenal is directly interchangeable uvrh alI compositions based
on that system. W;I& this in m i n d it is advantageous ro have a number ofvariations (rehar-
rnonizations) of cadenrial materials at r h e disposal of the jaw composer~improvisor.The
foUouing is a pardd hsuns of exampIes of cadential reharmonizarions with explanations of
the process. In addicion to chansed harmonic rhythm, the cechnlques used will include alrer-
ations. swbstirurions, and permutarions of the chree. By no{\. the smdent should be able to
recognize thar trimne substlcurion and some of the special case "7 subsdcurions are chro-
matic and only rhose which zse not ofthose groups wlIl be pointed out in the commenrs.
Note that in many cases rhe melody note o r notes may need ro be change6 ro conform to a
cadendal reharmonization. There is no harm in doing so and usually the end result is aesrhe-
rically liable.
A "target chord" is usually rhe fissr chard of2 section or of a phrase. l r usually IS identified
by ics being rhe release point of a rensronfrclease cadence or irs being the object of a - p u p
of chords in a modal refision contour.

1. CADENCES

T h e most bxlc cadence is the V-1 or the more defined n7-!,'-I. Takinz the IV-1'-I as a skclctal
starting point. the followins example i l l ~ l s r r a ~ some
es of h e above :wen techniques.
SUBSTITUTE CHORDS

trample 2.6a: Cadentiat Reharmonizations

Bb IV
1 v 1j I
I
/ / ; / / , / / ' / /
1 : Eb I t! BB
I
1 2 , c-7 n 'I sba
I I

i 3 Ao , Dalt I G-9 !

l4 Gb7 I Fi Bbd9 1
5 1 ~ b - Gb7 I C- n i BbA9 I
1 6 ) Db- Gh7 Ff- 87 1 BbA
I

7 C- Gb7 Fi' 87 1 Bbd

-
8 c- n 1 F#- 87 13613

9 Eb-9 I ~7b9
I, I O ~ co
F7P9 i Bbd
-
I
I I
1111 Gb13 1 v
fr9 I BLA

72 ' F9sus4 1 D/F , BbA


I

1131 EhjF Gb+ / F Bbd / F i


14 1 C-4 F95v54 ' BbA9 I
'
5
I
F73sus4 1 Ahl3/Eb D-9 1 G-9

COMMENTS:

1 The baGc skeletal cadence.


2 The diatonic substitution of the 11 for the IV.
3 Tritone substinnion of the \TI chord for the I\?, diatonic substiturion for the remaining
two. dl &ree chords have altered modalin. - rhe result is a cadence to t h relative
~ minor
key.
4 Tritone substirution of the 11 chord wlth alccration.
5 lncseascd harmonic rhythm by the addicion of chords through the use of II-Vs.
6 Tnrone subsdtution of rhe C- FJ 0')chords.
T Uppcr neighbor approach chord so the rarpet F f and BbA.
8 Trirone substituted 11-\' for t h e V chord.
9 Alteration of rhe IV chord LO mmor.
1 0 ,4lteration of the I
I chord to Aeolian b5 (Half-diminished).
1 1 Upper neighbor approach chord ro the tarset 177 uirh slower harmon~crhythm.
12 Slawer harmonic rhyEhm by t h e use of pedal poim.
7.3 More use of pedal point. use of a J S 7 , W to an altered V to a I/\'.
14 Resoluuon by thr Inner voice-led J3k in the C minor chord to the Bb of cbe F9s~is4chord
1 5 Thc "Small Fmu" cadence (see pg. 81).

y u t e rhe aimmished 7th chord outline of [he roots of the firsr chord ofthe first fotlr caclcnc-
es - t h ~ illusnates
s the use of that previously glven concept
The above Iiscing could be increased significantly as could the Following examples The SCU-
denr, having understood rhe concept shouid continue the process-
CHAPTER 14: REHARMON1ZP;TION

Example 2.6b: Selected Spelled-Out Versions ofthe Cadences

2. CYCLES
Cycles arc a form of rumaround; the skeleral form has roots motqng In a series of fifih with
chomls o E d the same modality. Thc reharmomzation process is purposely simple to man-
rain a cycle's modal defmition.

Example 2.7: Reharmonization of Cycles

I E/'A I AID I D/G I G/C ' C/F I

10 ! A/B B/E 1 DbiEb Eb,'Ah 1 GiA AfD I BjCC C!i3 F/G G!C ' A.'B B/E ,
I
11 D/E I Eb/E
I
1 c!" 1 DL/D j B~JC I B!C I

12
!
B/E Db/Eh A!O BICt 1 GIC A: I3

73 ' E 7 d113 A 1 3 Eb7 D7 ~ h 1 3IG13 DL7 C 7 Gh13 F13 07


S V B S ~ T U T ECHORD^
I
COMMEhTS:
1
1 A b s i c skeletal cycle of dornlnant chords.
2 Tricone substicution of rhc Isr, 3rd and 5th chords.
3 Altered modally of rhe basic chords.
4 Altemaring c hang oFfunction and m o d a l i ~ rLydian augmented to s u d chords by slash
chord consctucdon.
5 A non-dominanc cycle of slash chords.
6 T h e converse of $4.
7 Altered dorninmc cycIc.
8 Increase of harmonic rhythm by the use of TI-17s.
9 As abovt n4ch rritone substitution.
10 AI~ernadngmvddityJfuncrion,slash chord construction; note the pattern of both the
bass line and rhe upper strucrure trlad in dl rhe slash chord tzcarnules.
1 7 Parnal pedal poina slowrr harmonic rhythm.
12 As above with difierent modali~/frmction.
'F 3 Added crirone substimred approach chord.
94 Use of I1-Vs. shifced harmonic rhythm.

3. TURNAROUNDS

The selection of [he skeletal rurnaround depends on che carger stan5ng chord's roc^ place-
ment relar~veto the kg. of the section of the composldon. Most composi~ionsof the "sran-
dard" repertoire start on a 1chord, a 111 chord (diatonic substlrution o f t h e I), a \4 chord or
a I1 chord. Of course. rhwe is the possibility oFIinding a tune wich a chord's root smnng on
a nondiatonic now but upon closer investigation it udl likely br Found that it had been
reharmonized at some point before documentation. See che appendix. for a partial listing of
runes and heir starting chord roocs

Example 2.8~:
Reharmonization oFTurnamunds (From a 1 Chord to a I Target Chord)

C I i YI 1 II Iv I farpet)
I

/ I ; J / I/ J / I
A- i D- i
I G7
r
2 E-7 A-9 1 D-9 1 G13 CA9

'3 1 E71r9 ' A7h9 j D7P9


I
i G7b9 CA9
4 1 Bb13 "1 3 ! Ab13 1 GI3 GI9
\

h
15 IF-9 Bb13 ; E - 9 A13 IEb-9 Ab13 I D - 9 GI3 CA9
I

'6 1F9 8b13 ' Bb- Eb7 ) !


Eb-9 ~ ' ~ 7~3h - 9 Db13 Cb9

7
!
8-9 El3 j E-9 A13
I
I
I A-9 0 7 3 Ab-9 Dblf CA9
8 ' A-9 813 Bb-9 EL13 / EL-9 A13 1 Ah-9 Dbl3 C19
19 1 F-3 Bb7 A13 EL7 3 3 3 Dbi GI9

110 I B-9 El3 , Bh- Eb7 ) A-9 D7 1~ b - Db7 CA9


111 ? C A F9 'E-7 A7 /A-9 D7 /Ah- Db7 CA? i
1
;I2
1
1 Cb ; Eb9rus4 1 Ahd9 ( i31b69 cb69

COMMENTS:

1 The b s ~ skeletal
c I-\'I-TI-\? turnaround.
2 Diaronic suhsnrurion of a In for the 1 chord - dl roo^ in 5&s-
3 Altered modality of No. 7 above in a blues/urbane svle.
4 Tri tone subsrimcion OF the 1II and Tl chords.
CHAPTER 11: REHARMONI~TION

5 Encrease of the harmonic rhy~11mofthe above IT the use of JI-Vs - this and rhc nmr ( 6 )
are in a bebop s ~ l e .
6 Tricanc s u b s t i t u t m ~of rhc U-17s of measures 2 and 4 above.
7 Use of 11-Vs and mitone substicudon.
8 A variation o f t h e previotrs example.
9 T h e F chord ha5 dominant fun&on to the Bb7 nitone substimr~onapproach chord to
rhc A13: h e rema~ningbars continue the process.
10 Another variation of 85 wich the use of 11-lls and nitone substirution.
11 One more varianon.
12 Slower harmonic rh?rhm in a modal syle: chromatic substtturions.

Example 2.8b: Application of Methods ro "I Can't Get Started" (ms.6-8)

COMMENTS:
1 Stock turnaround, cargrc 111 chord approached by a n upper n e ~ ~ h b otriton?
r
subsrrmcion.
2 Arerarions in a bIuesiurbane style.
3 Increased harmonic rhyshrn by rhe addition of 11-17s.
4 Parallel II-\'s - Sehoppish in style.
SUETITUTE CHORDS
-
Example 2.8~:From a I Chord t o aTarget 11 Chord

Example 2.8d: Application o f Methods to "Body and Soul" (ms. 6-8)

COMMENTS n % L 2 . 8 ~ ) :

1 The bait turnaround


2 Added d0minan.t upper approach chord to the w e t III chord, also the rrirane
subsrirution of the dominant \q1 chord.
3 Tntone substicution and alteranon of the 1 chord: also t h e IL chord of a 11-X7 to the
w p e t III chord - bebop style.
bl
CHAPTER It: REHhRHONIfATlON

4 Alrered modalin'.
5 Tritonr subsutut~onand dcerauon of the nI and 17 chords.
6 More substitutions and alterauons - ~ i n ~ s l b ~ u e s / p o p -
7 Another mriatton of %.
S Incrca5cd harmonic shyrhm by he use of H-\k, ~ h Gb7 c is an upper neighbor approach
chord to the target F minor.
9 .4 11-\1and altered version of 53.
10 U s e of peda1 point 10 slow t h e harmonic rhyrhm.

COMMENTS (EXAMPLE 2 8 d , "BODY AND SOUL"):


1 The stock r.arianon a~iitha cnrone sub approach chord to the I11 chord in ms. 8.
2 Added harmonic rhvthm, bIues/bop in style.
3 Simple chromatic bass line, blues s y l e alterations.

Example 2.6e: From a Minor I Chord to aTarget Minor I Chord

F-
I / VI I II
/ / I/ I / / / I
1 F-9 1 D0 GI3 I Calt
2 E F-9 Ab13 Galt 1 ~alr
3 :f-9 ! ,4673 Dbb Gb13
I I
14 F-9 I Datt ~042 I Calt
5 b 9 !~ b ~ 9 1~ h ~ 9 C7V9 4
6 F-9 1 Eb- Ah7 I Ab- Db7 Db- Gb7
7 F-9 1 AblBi I Bb13 I A9rur

8 i~ - 7 C-9
~ ~ CSS5 I Bb13sud

COMMENTS:

1 The basic rumaround.


2 Tncane substirrution ofrhe 11 chord, alterations.
3 Alterations Ad tnrone subsamtion for the 11-1' cadence.
4 AIceranons ln the Mings,blues syle.
5 A pop%lues style, i.e.. "Hit The Road Jack."
6 Increased harmonic thyrhrn, closer to a bebop style.
7 Obscure modal variation.
8 A modal/pedal poinr variauon.

Turnarounds and cycles are of Eylrerne irnpomance for both che composer and che improvi-
sor: a thorough undersmding of their construction, voice-leading and funcoon is a top
priorit?. in the learning process. It has been sraced (by Kennp Werner) thar knowledge of.and
thc a5iliq. to improvise over turnarounds wil! assure rhc aspiring jazr arcisr " 3 ~ galarc."
s
SUBSTITUTE SYMMETRIC PATTERNS

This is a method of rehamoninns a cadentid or turnaround area by subsnmring all of the


roocs of the original with rhosf that are derived from a created symmetnc panern. T h e gods
that are usudy met are that the subsnmred gmup resolve m the q e t chord in the same
d e n t i d rnanncr as the orignal and thar the starrin~chard's root be thc same. There is
quite an increase in harmonic rhyrhm with this rechnique so experimentation must be done
until the resulting number of chords works with rhe specified tempo. Of course. this tech-
nique wiU require that rhe melody be Altered, recomposed or even deleted for thar sccdon.
Subsntute syrnmerric patEerns can he of rnnslcal use at final endings or codas where there is
always thr problem of redundanq at rhc least. and indecision ar rhe mosr. And in some
cases, where che pattern is long enough. one could substitute an encire section. usually the
bndge, rvi th y n m e t n c marerid.
This method is most represented by the reharmonizanon &om of John Colrrane, Joe
Henderson and ! e m Bergonzi and because of the intrinsic qualities of syrnmeFr. the
method should be used only occasionally and wizh caurion
There are two methods of creating symmetric pamerns for use as substituce roots in caden-
ces and tslrnarounds. A simple, yer effective method is co merely scr up Larger pitdl tonali-
rips h a t symmetr~cailydivide the octave. then add cadenual macerial rhat defines the target
tondiues. The m70considerations t o be made are the resulting harmonic rhythm and cwer-
d l direm-on of the mrget tonaliy pitches. For inst-ance, you can di171de t h e octave in an
upward or downward direxion the foLIoiiing ways:
Symmetric Division Tonal Centers Measures
84.mitone 2 2-4
M3, augmented 3 2-4
m3, diminished 4 48
M2. wholetone 6 4-12
m2, chrornztic 12 6-24

The fewer tonal cenrers ~nvolvcd,h e less dense rhe harmonic rhythm and number of mca-
sures. and the more similar the new maceria1 udI be in funcdon to che origina1. Selecdon of
the octave division will depend on che number of measures so be reharmvnized and rhc
number of chord5 to be included In the skeled harmonic r h ~ h r nHaving
. es~ablishedthc
skeleral material, the next step is to add material to change h e h a m o n ~ crhythm, change
modalirjes, or to reharmonize as in previous examples to meer 2 sryle goal.
For a more comprehensive approach to creatrng symrnersic patterns, refer ro Chapter XXB,
p. 9s of Volume 1 of t6is book.

Example 2.9a: Substitute Symmetric Patterns

Tbe e y a ! d~tptscon(mtorre) of thr n c ~ ~ v :Precfion


, doc1 not afect the m<ti/t.7 % Ir~ fi crmc~rertyo to Jotis bar example,
d)at ~rwuld;re a p o d &a! m d q ,

COMMENTS:

1 T h e skeletal turnaround with its two t o n a l genter5 and basic dominanc chords.
2 An increae of ha~monicrhythm by addrng the PT chords of the \?7s.
CHAPTER li. REtlARMONIZhTION

Example 2.9b: Augmented Upward

The three-par: division of the octave (augmented), The use of chis divis~onof r h e octave is
found in man), reharmonizations due ro its ex-tensiive use by, and subsequent influence of
John Coltrarre

COMMf NTS:
1 Key centers established by rhe skeletal partem.
2 Added 11-17 cadences.

Example 2 . 9 ~Augmented
: Downward

COMMENTS:
1 li? centers esrablished by the skeIetal panern.
2 Added Il-V cadences.

Example 2.9d: Diminished Downward


SUBSTITUTE SYMMETRIC PAlTERMS

COMMENTS:

I Kq- centers esrablished by the skeletal pattern.


2 ~ d d c IT-\'
d cad,-nces.

Exarnpke 2.9e: Diminished Upward

COMMENTS:

1 Key centers es~ablishedby the skcled patern.


2 Added 11-V cadences.

Thc four-part division (diminished) can get quite active wish che increase OF harmonic
rhyrhm.
-4s mentioned before, o m should be careful when working with spmmetr).. as i t can sound
conrrivial arrh over-use.
The above examples being skeletal could be f u d e r reharmonized by changed modally, cri-
rone subsrimtion, or b~ increasing rhe harmonic rhythm with the addition of more II-\k or
by slowing it dortm ixi-rrth the use of pedal poinr. or use of any OF rhe cechniqucs that were
ciemonsmced in previous examples.
CHANGING THE HARMONIC RHYTHM OF NON-
CADENTIAC AREAS

As stared earlier, ths i s the chanSing o'rhe harmonic rhythm by t h e addicion or ciclction of
chords i n he areas of a cnnd-based composition that are not defined as cadenrial. These
WEaS can be one or two measures of same chord or areas where there is p a r d e l chord
movement toward a target chord or secclon. Depending on she tempo of the camposition,
the technique for increasing rhe harmonic rh~.thrncan include the simple addition of a
chord irnrnediaceIy pnor to a target chord to rhc adding of as many as eight chords TO a
measure (in 4!4 time). &o of use is the addition of cycles and cadences. T h e slow~ngof the
harmonic rhythm is accornpIished by either deledng chords 01-by rhe use of pedal-point.
Arran~er/cornposerGil E n i - ~ sused &cse techniques txtensively, as a bit of listening LO (11s
works wilI reveal. The rh\.thm section team of Herb~eWancock and Ron Carter w h ~ l ewith
Miles Davis also used this rechnique eften when performing "smndards" alrhough to a les-
ser degree than Gil.

THE TECf-lNlOUfS:
Tne sirnpIest change in harmonic rh,ythm is to add a chord immed~atelyprim to a target
chord. These target-seekins chords are called approach chords.
Approach chords mn number more than one and are often used in groups of w o or three
depenhng on rhc temps of the compwition. Thc me of mow than chrce chords found pnor
to the target chord produces r h c perceived eff'ecr of being parallel "added chords."

In addirion, approach and added h e r d s usually are of rhe duration of a half note or less
dependunr upon tempo. The roar selecrion of rhe added chord(s) is detrrrnined by thc
melodic qudity of t h e bass lrne; the desire to adhere to the moddiry (&/diatonicism)of the
phrase or section or rhe desire ro use free-form chremadcism. If one chooses to Insen 2 #cIe
or cadence, rhc root rnovemenr. is predetermined a s skips of a fifth or fourth.

harnple 2.1 Oa: Added Harmonic Rhythm ("I'm Getting Sentimental Over You," ms. 7 -5)

E ~ A Dalt C-9 ~b-9 Am Walt Galr ~b13 C13sus Gb13 F13sus

I ~b ~ h ? 3~ 7 ~ ~ '
/.13 C-9 ski3 A-9 Dalr Galr Calt FI 3
:
4
CHRNGIMG THE HARMONIC .RHYTHM OF N O H - C A M m A L

WJith the above in mind, one could approach the taqer chord by eithcl- a half or whole step
above che t a F e t (upper neighbor). or a half or whole step below rhe carget {lowerneighbor).
The seiectlon of rhe approach chord's rnodaIiv depends on rhe need ro define chord h n c -
tion, mainmin a homogeneous modal contour or just to saris@ one's personal preference. In
mosr cases an approach chord's rnodaliv will be the same as h a t of h e r q e t chord.

For subsequent examples t h e term original will be used to refer to che chords that are pre-
sumed m be the composer's; rhe term stock will be used to mean the chords that are found
in "fake books" and common practice performances.

COMMENTS (EXAMPLE 2.10a):

1 The original D6 and C7 made into a 11-V.tritone subscimcion of the DbG with a modd
alteran'un.
2 Two added approach chords of the s a m e modaliy just prior to t h e first urger chord
A-11: an added upper neighbor (tri~onesubsritudon)chord prior to rhe G half-dimin-
ished target chord
3 One more added chord. D Ahered, completing the y o u p of approach chords ro mea-
sure 2; the use of t h e D. G Altered, the add& upper neighbor DL13 and Gk13 put this
version in a '%lucsJurbane"styIe.
4 Starung ~ ~ the r diat-onic
h subsntunon of a C minor for the previous A o chord the
approach chords now have a new targer. The A67 acrs as an upper neizhbor t o the G7
in addirion to beins a tritone of the .4h chord of the previous version the 67 to Db13 is
an added cycle to the targct C-9; the Bb7 is an upper neighbor to rhe A-9 wirh rhe
remaining chords a d o m ~ n a ncycle
t cn the primav target F chord in a bop,'bIues syle.
5 The f i n d version is In a quasi-modal style with the alteration of the C-9 to a C9sus4 and
che addition of t h e B-11. Measures 3 and 4 show the use of parallel KT-Vs in a bebop
sr;vle. Note the otleralI diatonic relationship of the bass melodies of each version ro Eb
Ionian,the songs key. Also, the b a s melody moving in generally contrary motion &a-
maritally increases the wnsion until resolved by the targer c h o r d

Example 2.1 Ob: Spelled-Out Examples of Versions No. 4 and No. 5 of Exampbe 2.f 0.a

See pg. 118 "Semi-Mental."


Those who have played "Yeswrda!s" know of rhe problem area of measures 5-8 where h e
harmonic rhyshm 1s very slorrr as com~aredto che melodic rhythm. Thr following s h o ~ l nvo
s
wraysto resoivr chat problem
CHAPTER II: REHAAHONFZATIOP

Example 2.1 0c: "Yesterdays" (ms. 5-8,spelled out) byJerome Kern

Original: D- G 6e I E7

Fa~th o nfc r&hmjur a v m b n with A lou up rmpa.

COMMENTS:

'I & 2: Paralle! chords of rhe samc modally as rhe firsc in the bsrs rnelnd?' in c o n n a y
motion co the main melody. The B dr acts as a dominant chord to rhe target Bb-9.
3 & 4:The P4sus4 is a trirone subsrirudon of the Bo,-4th a change in m 0 d 2 h ~ .it also is
an upper nci~hbordominant chord ta rhe E9sns4 tatgec.

Example 2.1 ad: "Yesterdays" (ms.5-9,spelled out) by Jerome Kern

COMMENTS:

5 & 6: Harmonized by two-note melody groupings ivkh parallel Lydim a u ~ m c n t c d


chords, t h e style is c ~ n c e m p ~ r a r y - m ~ The
d d . second half of rhe phrase is the same as
the previous example.

In Ex-a,inplt 2 1la (nexc page), notice chat the selected subscicurions for t h e original BA are
from t h e previously mentioned "special case" O 7 chord: 3-D-F-~b. The seIected subsnmces
are then put over rhc dominant Bb pedal poinr producing an increasin~tension that udl
ultimately be resolved when the Bh becomes an Eb. Part n is o f slower harmonic rhythm -
although rherr is no melodic movement in the bass part, the upper stru~auresdo aifec: the
overaU harmon~ctension,j'rhythm.
In Example 2.11E (I) the selected pedal poin: is thc ronic and has a lesser need for a bass
rntlo&c resolurion and rcnds to be sIishrly more relaxed than pan 11. Nodce that the oripi-
nal m d the substituted chords In the last measure are d~aronicallyin common with ~b
melodic minor (.Ab Dorian 7 ) .The chord in measure 2 of 11 is derived from harmonic myor
(Ionian h6j for those nor having stuclied Vol. 1 of rh'15 text.
Recore yoins an ro rhe final p u p of reharrnonizac~ontcchnzques, we ufiU look ac an
example which includes rVanomversions of 2 complete composluon thar utilizes a11 of the
methods d~scussedprciqnmly.
CHANGING THE HARMONIC RHYTHM OF NONC&DNTIAL

barnple 2.17: Slowed Harmonic Rhythm, Excerpt from "Night and Day" by Cole Porter

(b) 0b Phtygian

Slowed h o n i r rbthm 6;1. the MP ofpedalpoinr (sce pg. 120 and pg. SO).

Example 2.1 2: Excerpt from "Dancing In The Dark" by Dien and Schwam

- - I
I
I
I
I

CI A
i
t I
!
,
I
urn - I
m m
-
I
r.
I
I

-
I
t

e
1 ,

-
I
1
CHbPTER H: REHARHONIZATION
''Autumn Leaves" is an apprnpnate first u;ampfe in rhat its harmomc consrrucrion includes
arensive use of cycles and turnarounds. Adhcionally, it i s a very popular harmon~cformu-
la among improvisors, composers and the Itstening pubric. There are many recorded vet-
sions of rhe tune; the most sophkticare$ 1s b!~M i l a Dattis. The harmonic materia1
seems to have ties to folk music: probably of South Wesrern European source. Refer ro rhe
"Theme From M.A.S.H." and "Europam (Gar0 Babieri) for orher songs based on rhe chords
of ".4ummn Leaves."
hample 2.73a: "Autumn Leaves," by Kosrna/Pr6vert (Reharmonizaion Table)

~b A sections

Svle !//// I//// / / / / I / / I /


stock / C- BbA EbA 1 *O D7 G-9 G-

/ Bop C- CbiB F7 87 BLb n 1 Ebd BI-


I
!A. EL7 D7' 117 G-9 Galr

Db- Gh7 C- Fi B- E7 / Bb- Ebi j A0 1


Eb13 Dsus Ah;3 G-Il Galr
Bop !
;pop W9wr Pwr LUS
I
1~sus l Dsur / Gsus Gus Dbsvs

I Modal, F95w 1 D!F Erm I A ~ I~ ~ D Phtygian 1 % Dko!~an % ,

i stock /AD 1137 IG- 1 ~ 7 I=- I ~7 1 ~k.4 I ELA


7 , Pop EL737 1 D91vr DLDIU~ I C9rus
I
/ GI-13111 / ~5'1~5 E9scs I A9svs

1
2 Modal D Phrygian % DAalian I % (F9sur I % E95115 %
1
3 Modal 1 Rh Z 5 G Dvrli Dalr 1 D~rvs [ Ealc Ebsus Dsur
I
1~ a l ? ~

4 Bluer 1 aa Eb7 I h t r 4bl3 Gilt l Dbair 1 C- 1


CL13 F7" 813 Bib E7 I fid

1 C sections

1
1
Srock
pop
110

!
, EI~YI

I ~ o d a lEb9-
D7

D~III 1
1
G-

C~SWS.
C7

D Phrygian COrur BIA Bhrur ASW 1


-
%
Bb7 Ebd

Eb9ws

iibl3"' I
D7

j Wsvs
AB Oalr
G-

(31"s

G-9
G-

Gait
x

1 Pop 1 1 Dalr / 8-9 E-9 i Rsvr ELAUS / Dsvr ~ 7 'Cpws


~ j
Bop / Bb- D7 A- Di G- Ealr 1 8- 5' Bk- ELI I A- Di C- C7 /Ah- DL7
I
I BOP EL~YI. I\- Di j G- CaL i F &ah Ehus 1- 7 G-9 /Gait

I - i e comments for the above a d subsequenr examples will include only h e mosr saIienr as
by now rhe reader will have become quirt familiar ~ i c hthe techniques.

COMMENTS:

1. The me af the G altered in h e curnxound of vzrsion 2 provides a stron: dominant


funcdan LO rhe II rnlnor s m i n g chord.
2. Vcrs~onchree u i ~ hits pardlei 11-\'s is a popular one among the bcboupers a n d is heard
often at cnnccm and "jams."
3. T h e use of sus4. Pliry~ianand Aeolian chords in slow h a ~ m o n j crhythm, as we11 as the
use o f pedal point, easily defines version 5 as a modd reharmnmzarion.
CHANGING THE HARMONIC R t f U H H Of HON-CaDEHTFAL A m 5

Bridge sedtons:
1. Version three provides an affective balance to 2 "busy" bop V M S ~ Dsuch
~ as version 3
above, ~ i r hrhe LL~Cof pedal point and modal chords.
2. Version 4 is of interest due to the use of chords from the unusual source, melodic minor
$5 (Dorian #5 k altered bG).

k m p l e 2.1 3b: "Aurumn Leaves" (Illustrating a Combination of Many af the Above Given Reharmonization techniques)

e-64
d - Dalt Ealr ~b9sus ,

D ~ S U S D alcH ~b-11 ~b13:" DOsus Dalr G-9 ~ 7 f " F-13 ~b13

En13sus D9sus Walt G alt ~b13sus F i 3sus

6 C o p ~ l p h 1947
r by f no& & CIC., Par15
OCopgh~ 195P by Edwon Marbar GmbH, H a m b v fL.r
~ Deucschland
Ir 1s suggested to the pla).crs rex&g chis book thac for chis and other mulci-versioned rehar-
monizations rhat a pcrfo-ancc lndude a different version i n z each choms. As an example,
rhe author uses rhe f o l l o u ~ nFormat
~ when performing rhe mnc:
[PI11 vcrs~an2. I.U]version 3, [El version 3 andlo; version 4, [C] version 2 and/or ver-
sion 3

Of course, alternating during '%lo\ving" choruses is also suggested.

COM HENTS:

Bars 1-4: A combination of h e reharmonizaSons No. 1 and 3 f o n d in Example 2.13a


above. The inclusion of the Lydian augmenred chords gives it a contemporary modal
sound as well.
Bars 5-8: Like 1-4, a combinanon ofversions 1 and 3 above.
Bars 9-12: A bit more bop-Iike with rbe included H-17s.
Bars 1 3 -16:Similar to reharmon~zationof version 2, from a b m ~

T H E BRIDGE
Bars 17-20:SpeIled-our a m p l e ofversion 3 & w e
Bars 21-24: Continuation of verslon 3 above.

C SECnON
Bars 25-28: Like version 5 from Exarnple 2.13a
Bars 29-32: Continuadon of version 5.
ARRANGING TECHNIQUES

In addidon 10 changng chc chords, harmonic rhythm and melody of a preexisnng corn-
pos~rionre meet our creative goals: a number of mechock can be applied chat faIl a i t h i n the
c a r c p n afatrang~ngrechniques.

An often overIooked but effective modification of a "standard" is to simply put it in a key


thac is rarely used for shar parricular song. In rnnst saws, whar is referred co a rhc original
key of a song differs f m m the orignal slncc ir is rare ca have access to original documenta-
tion of the source "scandard" whether in written or recorded form. A good example is the
composition " S d a By Statlight." "StelIana beautifu! $though ovw-played jazz smndad is
the main m u s ~ c drheme of the movie The Uninvited. The ori$nal versron. quite different
from che familiar jazz version, is a rhapsodic, romannc theme in the key of B major. Most
jazz performers play "Stella" in the kq+of Bb major. f i e change of kc!' \%>asmost likely due
to rhe desire to put i c in a key that works well for numpec and renor saxophone. both Bb
keyed instruments. Since conccm Bb is rhe wlccen key o f C for trumpet and tenor sax. rhe
new key cholce is probably related to a desire LO ecasc the improvisation difficulties of nhat
can be a dificult tune in any key.
Rather chan change the key t o accommodate any perceived ~nstrumental problems, amin-
ing a freshness of sound or a sense ofan improvement of rhe original should be the primary
purpose for a key change. iT'hcn select in^ a nm7bey, consider the follomin~

Alllchough open to ciiscussion. man!* respond to rhe the sharp keys a s bclng bright-sounding
with rhe flat keys soundins dark. There may be some va1id1ty to this perception with
strinsed instruments but ir best EO make your own judgment by experimentation.

"Tessimra" denotes che genera1 placcm~ntof &e ranye of the song wirhln t h e grand sraff,
thrs has a clearer cffecc on the brighr to dark quality of a mne due to the laws of acoustics.
If rhe selected new key places rhc overall range of the mnc much lower or higher than it was,
i c affeccs how rhc fundamental of each chord is perceived which subsequently affects the
sonariq of each chord. (see VoI. 1appendix)

STYLE
Select a key chat enhances the stylistic qualiues of the reharmonization: a lighter, higher,
brighrer key for 2 pop style; a lower, darker key far thc Minps,/urbane s q l c . You will find
rhat the kej- choices thar work well for rhe Minguslurbanc are Bb, Db, Eb and Gb with C. D,
E, F, G and A for a lighter style.

If you are reharmonivng for a specific instrument, conslder chz sound charactenstics of chat
instrument by register and select t h e key char best satisfies char goal. Thar rhe I~eysof Bb and
Db tend to sound dark and warm on tcnor s a x may be a garrial explananon for the use of
chose kevs with the urlmne sryle.
-41OF the above being subjective, t h e best approach is again - cxpcrirnentarion. Play rhc
already reharmonized chords in various keys keeptng the styiistlc god in mind. If there is n o
s t r a n ~ s y d i s d goal,
c start b!' sclecnng 2 key thar 1s opposite in quallry from rhc reference key.
If rhe reference kes is dark a n d low as rn Bb minor, cry E or E$ minor. If the original key 1s
Eb or F major, r y A or I3 major. .& an example. thc aurhor. tired of playing "The Girl From
Impmema'' in F malor at as rhe usual medium paced bossa nova pur i t in B major ro be per-
formed very fkic in 2 swing scylc, the rcsdt was a renewed and excising sound. The new chord
voicin~stook on a refreshins brizh~nessdue to the change oftessimrz. pamcularl~.the A6!9
and sus4 chords. The bndge. now in C major also took on a nvholc new qualq.
CHAPTER II: REHARHONIZRTION

MODULATION
This Lerm denotes che &angins of the key of a section or aU of a cornposioon wichin its
arrangemenr. hdodulation can provide a dramatic effecr if the new k q ( s j are br~ghterand/or
h r ~ h e than
r the startlng key. It- is common to find a modulation up a whole KOnC oi a shird
for the last cnorus of an arrangement. s o t as common, bur recommended is the changing
of the key by section: r h firsr
~ key AAB. wit11 a hisher key last A. Or put the bridse (E)m a
dlfferenr key: first key AA, new key B,firsr key 4.There are so many possible variations of
t h e use of modulation you must again - experiment.

h o t h e r non-harmonic/non-melodic variation thar can be made rs to change he rhythmic


5i+e of chc onsnal verslon. This can be a change in the rernpo, the rnerer and/or h e intcnd-
ed performance style (swing, bossa n o v h Afm,'Ladn). A change of cempo n the sirnpIest ta
accomplish: playing what is normally an up-rernpo as a dou~ballad. Or both a change in
tempo and style: a slow bolero played a a v e 7 fast swing rune. Lasdy. changing the meter
can be an affective means of creating a "fresh" version of a "tired' overdone standard Ty
changing a 4/4 sswlng tune co 3/4,6/8 or rhc more wonc lo$, 7 / 4 or II/S. Of course you
must cons~derthe change in harmonic and melohc rhythm a s a result of the changed meter.
Evcn more exoric is the changing of the mecer by senions: AA 4/4, B 7/4. A 4J4. The possi-
bilities are extensive - so imapne and experiment!

Thcse two are the Iasr irems to investigate ro complete t h e prqiect to a finished end-product.
Whacmer the form of the original source material (most ~ 3 bc1 sons form AABA), the
add~ngof cxtra sections uiIl allow the composer to exyrcss his/her mosr personal creac~ve
abilities as the neu-material will be most onginal to the composer. Consider adding w tbe
basic form an introduction: a coda, interim linking secaons within the arrangement and
rocally new unrelated secnons if desired The new sections can he based on r h e original
source material or completely new.
Timbre refers to instmmmc selection for he ultimate performance. Scoring, orchesrrauon
or instrumentauon should be ctmsidrreci in tandem wit11 style,tempo and key selections: all
combined rogrher coward an end-produc~.Orchestranon 1s beyond the scope of this hook
and ir 1s assumed thar t h e general reader has some background study in instrumenration. If
not consulr the recommended readings at the end of che chapter.
Ar this point, much informanon has been prescnred which can be applied LO the task of a
reharmonization projecr. Realize thar not all the techniques Nil1 be used at one nme but all
cenainly should be considered.
T h e last subject of ths chapcer is t h e reworking of the melody of the ori_@nalsource song.
Melodic dseration could include the simple tweaking of a few nnres to match a change in a
chord ro the composing of a whole nen- melody as in bebop compositions. Bur firsr wc tvJ1
Imk at a number of rehatmonization examples which uill include comments resarding
their most salient features.
I ARRANGING TfetlNlQu~s

REHARMONt ZATION EXAMPLES

Example 2.14a: "Body and Soul'9y johnny Greene


(original key: C, new key: DL)

~b l/ / / / ! I / / / / / / /I/ / / /
'7.
LUrbane ICvnrk I EL-9 ~ b 7 ' ~ 'I EL-9 Ab7 D~A Eb-9 I F9 EO

EL-9 8bThS I A335us F/Ab ~ 7 ' ~ : " R-ll 1 bl: Bbalt

i~~~~ Bb/h CP F-A Rrus 1 F g Bbsus ,

I/ / / /I/ 1 / /I/ / I /I/ / / - /


1. stock 1 Eb-9 BL-9 Ah7 1 Db F 7 3b7

Urbane

Modal

-
1. Stock
I
IDb E-9 A7
IDA
E-7 A7 Db 6-6 IDA E-7 A7 1

2. Urbane at,a/c
- 1 8 9 ~ DbiA ligsur ~ ~ h t - y gm t A lirvr

3. IModal 1 DbA E-9 A13


I
IDA A Phr.Gsus f? A e d . CUE.
DSUSA A ~ B&us
~ U S

4. TB~C'S DbI E-9 A73 D39 E- 7 R-9 G-9 DA V BbA Db7

l l .Stock IDA
4
r
12-Urbane
I
I DAj.4 &US F/G E/G;CAtG BtG F/G E!G ~ l 3 ~ 1 3 ~ 1 3 s v s ~ b ~
I
3. 1Modal / DA Asus Ahus Gws EIG ICb Bb-7 Ef.7 A ~ oBsus EA G7 C13 873 &95us

(' see .%I 1.14b)

COMMENTS:

VERSION f ?: ( T O C K )
T h e reference set of chords and key for h i s tune u the generic "fake book" changes. T h e
original key is C but performers preFer DL which 1s great for tenor saxophone a well as
for the dark qualiry rhat rhe key implies.

VERSION f2: (URBANE) see pg. 83

The overall svle. showing the influence of Monk and M i n p s , is the urban? sryle. This 1s a
reharmonlzation by rhe author and is rhe harmonic basis of the composirion "Sou1 Bod"
Found later in the chapter among the cxamplcs ~Creharmonizations~ 1 1 tah nerv melody.
The amount ofnandiaconic subscic~tionrequires thar a new melody be included. Note rlic
degree ~Fchroma~icisrn m thr bass melody. Thc use of a tritonc substitution for the Bk7?5
in bars 7 and 2 wouid have made the bass melody zlmosr cornplerely chromatic. The pedal
poinr bridge ofirs a clear contrast co rhe bass melody of rhc A section boch rnclociicaljy and
w ~ r hits harmonic rhythm. The extmnve use of altered, 7#5 and 7t.9 chorcis is t y i c a l of the
blucs/urbane srylc.
CHAPTER 11: EHi%UHONIZATION

VERSION +3: (MODAL)


T h e prominent use of sm4 chords as ell as che inclusion of Phrygian and Aeolian chords
s u g g c s ~a modal style The rnodaliT is modera& by the use of altered, half-diminished and
minor/rnajor seventh chords: chords found in use with the urbane syle. The Colrranc sym-
metric subsurunon is found at the l x r half of die bridge.
Of note is t h e following:
The G-9 KO G7C9 1s a n-17 the diaconicd>7 subsrimred F-A for the DbA in bar 3 .
The Eb/Ab acts as an upper neighbor dominant chord r~ the G-9.
The use of the blTIo lower nci~h!gorto the \?9sus4 (Go to A b 9 ~ ~in4 bar
) 7 and 19 (Ab"
ro .49sus4).
An added chord D9sus4 in bar 18.

In cur dme, John Colrrane's version has extended use of a pedal pornr vamp in the A
secdms: rhe use of whole tone harmony at the turnarounds. (noce the augmented triadic
upper structures movmg in whole tones) and of course the use of the s y r n e r r i c
subscirution pattern in the bridge area O n she recording, there is an opening vamp figure
and an out-of-rcmpo reading of rhc find turnaround before going inro an in-rempo coda
(shown belo~vj.
Example 2.1 4b: Absus Vamp

Coda: DbA 1 FA M 1 Eb-3.4b7 I DbA GhA 1 F-9 Eb-9 [ Db4

Note h e oiltline of the ausrnented triad for the first three roocs.

b m p l e 2.1 4c: Version No. 3 (Spelled Out]


ARRANGING TECHNIQUES

"Stella by Starlighr." a v e T popular standard in the jazz ~ o m m ~ nhas


i ~2 ,beaucifd melody
and great blowi in^" chan~es.As mentioned previously i t is anothw sons chat came from the
pen of of a movie composer. Ic became popular after Frank Sinam recorded ir and Miles
Davis under Sinatra's influence subsequenrIy took l r as "his own."

1. Original [ ~boh F13 F9

12. Generic 1 ~m 1 ,65 i =-A / ~ 9 s u r 513ru5 1 Bi13u5

3. ""--
-
i
Eo 1
I
Aalt C-9 (Db-9)
t
; F9sur B13sus
I
Bbf35u5

Herbie i (stam or measure 91


1 I

- 1B L ~ ' ~ 1 d,b9
?
f G E ~ E ~6; ~ 3 1 BA~ ~
Eb-6

&lfrur
l Z ( A ) l F 0b/F

! BIBbA-9G-9 F9
Eo

Em ~7~'

Miles I % Eb& A13sus Ab9:11


I

15bA 1
I
ED FVbS

I I 1 13bh i Em Aalr

I
; Dalr

I. ~ngi.,! I~ 7 " ~ ~ x C-9


I I
1 2. Generic Gait x cA 1 G-9 &9 1 Ee

!3.MiCes , Galr i % C-9 x ~h-*13 1

j4. Herbie i ~ 1 3 s u s Galr 1 % ! C-916 F'IIG j % ~ b a Gb9sus


CHAPTER Ii: REH~RMONIZATION

-- -. -
I. Original x i Q - 7 ~ ~ [Db-6i1415 1 z
2. Generic EbA6 j D7" G-9 f 9 iE-71 / 4-13~~s
-
3. Miles % lEdl 1 SIJ'~/F I E-11 E A13svs
4. Merbie Gbb Gk-4 E-A 6 1 Bb61F I E-13 I A Phwian
I
I

1. Original Ab6 ,G i Cv 1 nL9 0b

1.Generic
I
~bllsur - / ~ l h u s Gh13sus / vP9 BLA A-9 G-11 F11 1
3. Miles 1 akus ALalr G P h Gal: Cat Fatt 1 Bh13 EL73 BLll F-11 ,
I
4.Herbie /~hl3rus Galt

COMMf NTS:

VERSION +I

The original chords as heard on the movie sound track. transposed to Bb for referentid pur-
poses. The original key is D major.
VERSION ?2:

A slight enhancement of rhe smck "fake book'- source changes, put more Into an open
modal style - important points are:
1. Use of rhe ll min;maj7 to V9sus4 in bar 3 to 4
1.Use oFuppcr n e i g h b ~approach
t chords In bars 4 and 7, and increased harmon~cs h ~ h m
by added chords in bars 11.20,24,31 and 32
3. An example of a rrirone subsriruted sus4 chord far a half-diminished in bar 29.

A generalized compilation of u+iac occurs on the Milcs Davis recording "My Funny
\?alentinc." There are so many variations by each chorus that he whole performance would
have to be represented ro be compiete. For instance, when the band goes into double h e
the harmonic material shifts into more of a bebop style 1~1ththe use of side-slipping 11-IJs
and less use of modal chords.
1. The use of approach sm4 chords and/or added chords - bars 4.7, 11.12 and 14
7. The use of bluesy altered chord cycles - bars 13, 16-7.29-32.
3. Use of modal chords (sus-4, Aeolian, Phrygian.) rn bars 4,s and 56-25.
4. In essence, t h e r~harrnonizauonshonrs the influence of Herhe Hancock,

VERSION #4:
This is Herbie Wancock's solo and c1earEy reveals the deprh of his harmonic sophissicanon
due ro hts musical education as it has oven ties to classical rnu~icas well as jau.
1. Extensiv~use of modal chords - the use of a an diminished chord alrered m s o m d
modal in bar 13 and 23; Aeolian chords in bars 14. 15, 19 and 20;P h ~ g i a nin bars 19.
20 and 26, sus4s in 17. 18,21, a Lydian augmented in bar ?? and a Lydian C2 in bar 31.
2.Suli some reference to thc bIues In bars I1 and 12: and 30.
3. Use of pedal point in bars 17 to 21.

The remainder of the solo,going into doublc time, changes harmonic sryIe with qwallties of
both bluesJurbane m d bebop. It is suggesred the interested student study rhe transcrip~ion
as found in the book Herbfa Hancock CIassic Compontinn~fr Piano Solo: by BiIl Dobbins.
Advance Music.
REWORKING THE MELODY

Having: complered rhe reworking of the harmonic material and any changes and additions
regardtins key: form, rempo and meter, it is time to consider the mearment of ~ h melodic
e
marerial. Of course, it is assumed thac some melodic s o d u7asestablished when the project
was first initiated. Depending on the projecr goal, the chanses sa the original melody could
include basic tweaking chores, parrial neu7melodic material or a complete new melody
havlng a variable degree of reference ro the orisnal.
Basic meaking includes:
1. A reali~nmentof rhe melody to conform to any shifu in che harmonic rhyrhm.
2. T h e changing ofa feu1 pitches to match any chord substitutions or alresarions.
3. Changing the melody to conform ro a s y l e change. For example, changing what was
originally an 8th note subd~rrldedbossa nova into a swing mne ~ o u l rtrqrnte
d the use of
spcopanon and trlpler: subdidsion.
4. Partial deletion of the melody. Deledon of some sections of h e melody is a common
pracuce particularly where chere is ex-rensiveuse of substituted syrnrnerric patterns. The
bridge to Coltrane's "Body and S o d " is a q.pical example.
5. Parcia1 new melodic marerid. Mosr commonly found is the addition of nmv meIadic
material in a Fmr. phrases or sections. This partial melodic restructuring maintains a
close alliance with the orignal version while demonstranng the melody a~rinngskills of
the reharmomzing composer. This melodic treatment 1s typical of the hardbop style
6. Complete new melody. FlnalIy, there are reharmonizations that have completely new
melodies w i t h their only ries ro rrhe orisnil being the skelcral harmonic reference. There
is variarian in the degree of departure from t h e original as well. with r h c mosc extreme
havlng no ~dendfiablereference to h e original except 111th the harmonic structure of
the "blowing" changes. Any further deparmre would put the final product beyond t h e
defini~ivelimits of a reharmonlzarion project
TWEAKING T H E MELODY
Example 2.16a: "Body and Soul" (ms. 5-8]]ohn Coltrane's Version

Example 2.1 6b: "Without a Song" (ms.I -7) Joe Henderson's Version

2.7 6c: "Nighr and Day" (rns. 7 -8) Jerry Bergonzi's Version
CHAPTER I I: E1-1ARHObllZATION

e look at somc reharmonization +xampfesu-ith altered or new melodies ir should be


Before w
pointed out rhat rewr~cingthe melody over a set of srandard changes is intrins~cre the
bebop s ~ l eI t is s u ~ e s t e dchat in order to crcare a more contempotaqr end-product, one
should srrive co Iimic any rrferrd a bebop melodic snvlc when relvriting the melody.

NEW TITLES

Regarding the projeds udc, most composer/rehmoniz~rstend ro indudc somc verbd


reference t o rhc original t i d e m the new nrle. How cryptic and dever rhe new tide uriII be can
be one of t h e more "fun" chores of the refiarmonizanon project. If the degree of departure
from thc original is subtle, the o n p a l ude is usually k e p ~ .

Example 2.17:"Dark Dance" by Ron Miller

Dalt

D Copyght 1992 by Ronjam Musrc


REwORt(IHG THE MELODY

MELODIC FEATURES
Eased on the show tune "Dancing In The Dark," rhe melody is partidly renrntten with alter-
nating sections of nm. meIody and very slighrly altered original melody In addrnon, the new
rnel~d!-falls in the rnwhere the rehamoniza~iionshouvs the most d e p a m r e from the ori-
ginal.
The sections of new melody are typical of the melodies of t h e hardbop style of reharmon-
ization melodies: dramaric skips. rhythmic rnorifs, tension inducing c ~ d e n c e sand covert
bebop ornamentation. Note rhe usr of chrornaricism where ornamentanon is used
Harmonic fearures include: (see Ex.2.11, p 69)
Use of pedal poinr {sion. harmonic r h ~ h mms.
) 143, 17-24 lnrhrch enhances the conaasc
of the fast harmonic rhythm of the swing sections - ms. 9-16, 75-33.This is typ~cdof
the hardbop style.
More of a bebop syle ofreharmonization at the swing sections-
* Subsritution of the final target I chord wirh a b11 - E Lydian.

kample 2.1 8: "Small Feats" by Ron Miller

Galt C alt D 9sus C-A


-7-
CHAPTER II: EHARMONIZ&TIQN

MELODIC FEATURES

This example has a complcrely new melody in a diatonic. relax-ed and I + d sylr. Based on
rhe Jazz smdard "Giant Sreps" by John Colcrane: rhe cornpes~GonIS che result of rhe
author's need t o provide an cxamp]e of the use efmtcnsive draronic subsriruDons for t h e
jazz composition class at the Universi~of Mi-i The resuIring reharmonization sounded
SO good: the process was completed by ~ h inclusion
c of a nmpmelody. The lenphened har-
monic rhythm allowed the creation o f a more &xed and lyrical melody as compared t~ the
o r i ~ n a which
l is essentially a chordal-outline qmmetric pacrem as found in Slonirnsky's
Thesmtnts ofSca1es and Melodic Prsmmr. The most salient feature of dlis melody which is a
rcsulc of h e diatonic q u a l i ~of chc reharmonization is the extensive u s e oFtriadic motifs.
Tnad: Cb Bh Eb G ID G Cb D G GP- FP B- C- Rb Eb
Measure:2 5 6 7 9 10 14 21 22 2 3 24 25 27 79 30

Mosr of the remaining melodic materid is based on tri~onicsource macerid maintaining a


consistent simple qualie. (see Chapter I, p. 13)

REHARMONIZATION FEATURES

The prominenr technique used is diatonic substitution There is a shorn area of pedaI point,
but rnosdy rhe reharmonization follows rhe s\mrnecrical harmonic rhythm of the ori$nal.
T h e bigpest direrence is in che doubling of the harmonic rhythm u h c h allows 50th a more
Iyrical mcIody and an easier timwf-it during improvisation.Of note is a series ofreharrnon-
ized 11-V-1s based on diaronic subsricurions where [he II is repIaced bp a V9sus4. the 1' by a
I\? minor/major 7 , and the 1 by a n3 minor or a XLI atrered (ms. 45,8-9, 10-1l and 14-15).
Both the nn$nal and the new version's cadential areas move toward target roots based on
an augmented triad The irnporranr point is not co depart too much from the original's
srrong target cadential a r m ; it is t h e means ofkceping the harmonic intenr of rhe ori$nal.

Fxample 2.19 Ron Miller's Reharmonization of "Gianr Steps" by John Cotwane

Original: BA D7 GA ~b13 E ~ A A-7 D7

New: EV- 9

BA F- 9 sb7 cf-ir ~:i


n
Y
u, C W -
13 .Y,

L J I I
c 73 1~ 5 36
A I 3sus ~b7sus ~b33sus A~-* G-9 C-9 D;- s ~1.13
REWORKlNG Tft-E MELODY

Example 2-20:"Soul Bod" by Ron Miller

Falt BLI~ ELI1 DL-t 1 ~ b 7 C0


'/~7

Gsus Cd/G B/G F/G G7 =,b5 87b5 Bb7b5


E/ G7
n
/I
V.ll
C/ C.
0.
c C o m h r 1985 by RoonJamMusic Now: ritardando & fine at 2nd ending

MELODY - IMPORTANT POINTS:


The melodic cadences resohe to "darker" modal character tones: M1-ttS, M2-b9 kL3,
Mj-bZ, M4-b6 and M6-b5 and 13.
A Gb (F#)acts as a pivot point for most of the melody.
A low ressitura enhancm the melodie's dark quality.
Upward skips in Ms. 1,4, and 8 are dramatically resolved in rhe 2nd ending. The uptvard
shps at the 2nd ending set up a climacuc release to the brighrer key of D major.
Use of the delemd-melody method for the bridge.
REHARMONIZATION - IMP0R"TANT POINTS:
The A sections arc reharmonized in a darker, bIues/urbane style showing an influence
of Monk and Mingus.
Contrasting brighr pedal pointJmodal s y l e of reharmonizauon in the B @ridge) sec-
don.
Refer co Example 2 . 3 4 version
~ +2 for more details.

T h e last composition included a s an example illurnrates t l e use of a melody char has no


clear refercncc ro h e onsnal is ~ h "blowing"
overt ties to the originak &c 0 n l ~ c changes
rvhich are only slightly reharmonlzed.
CHAPTER II: RMhRMONIZAllON

bample 2.2 1 : "Meeting At Terminus Corner" by Roland Kirk

Q bv MRC-MUSIC INC.
Fur Deutschland, GUS und osteumpa~scheLander CHAPELF & CO CMBH. Hamburg

ME MELODY
This melody, like "Soul Bod's.' has a qualinn h a t dcfines it as an obligarn melod!. or perhaps
a bass Iine. T h e melody o f "Soul B o d was in fzcc writrcn to be a rener saxo?hone councer-
melody in a nvo horn arrangement. One can speculare that the melody to "Termini's
Corner" possibly has irs geneas in a slmi'lar manner. Whatever t h e composer's motifs, the
melody has licrlc resemblance to the original which is "On Green Dolphin S t r e c ~ "Norice
that the last tlvo bars outline a turnaround t o rhe key of Bb.
RWDRKtNG THE MELODY

T H E REHARMONIZATION (BLOWING CHANGES)


As pointed out above. this composition is based on "On Green Dolphin S r r e e ~a, ~
jamsession tune, recorded exrensivelv by Miles Davis. The e r i s n d kc! is probably C major.
Mose jazz versions are in EC major or C major. Roland &Clb's as you can see IS in Bb major.
ofinrerest i s the use af a bm 13 (Dbl3) subsatuuon for whac 1s usually a E-9 (Bb-9) in bas
3.~ a r 5s rhmugh 8 show che use of a chromatic turnaround to the target C-9 chord ofbar
8. The rest of the harmonic material is dose 70 both the oriena1 and other jazz versions.

PIAN 0 ARRANGEMENTS
A recommended reharmonization project to underrake is that of an arrangemen? for solo
piano. Ir has che added merit of being a condensed score ro be used for possible expansion
by orchestration.

CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER II

Much information has been presented on the previous pages, hopefully nos so much as to
be overbearing or roo lirtlc ro be unclear. Bear in mind thar not all the techniques xiiU be
uscd in any one project and that h e r e should be same perceived reference to original
song by the astute hsrener. The following suggestions wlll help to accomplish h c desired
result.
Have a sylistic goal in mind beforc starting the project. Somerimes you may change
sryles within rhe projecr by section.
Having esrablished a srylisric goal, select a key and tessitusa thar is appropria~efor &c
syle selection.
Reharmonize the mmarounds and cadences.
Add only a few chords prior to targer chords at firsr. Extenstve playing of r h e project at
h i s point will help determine how many more chords can!should be added.
Try to keep the original cadence points and chord funcrion at thaw points. Keep the
reharrnonizadon simple at these areas.
Don't overlook r h e srrengths of modulation and added sections.
* If keeping rhe original melody, don't be airaid to make slighr djusrments KO match any
change in chords.
Don't let rhe project become roo absrracr - get too removed from h e oripnd. The
zrcsrheric problems chat have been revealed in a number of studenc teharmonizat~on
efforts have been zraced to the use of too many techniques and nor: follow~ngrhe caden-
rid and modal contour of the original. So e a r t h e project and keep ir simple.

Man). of rhe songs that have become parc of d ~ jazz e repertoire were inn-oduced .to the
lisrening public by vocalists. I t h a been writcen that much of the Miles Daiis repermire
came from rhe Frank Sinarra song book. It is recommended that those seeking ''goodsonzs
ro add ta their Eist listen to che recordings of Frank Sinarra and Tony Bennecr, an added
benefit is that the arrangements are of the highest qualiq. including h e reharmon~za~ons.
CHAPTER II: REHARMONIZATtON
...-. ..

SUGGESTED fXERCISES /

I. List at least rwenqr tunes by heir starring chords: I major, I minor, II minor, 11 domi-
nant, IrI minor and so forth.
2. Referring t o the tables of reharmonized cadences, c~clesand turnarounds, conrlnue by
adding ar least 10 marc exampies to the table of rurnamunds, a J co a 1 and a I to a 11.
REHARMONIZATION PROJECTS

I. Select a standard tune of a medium tempo and reharmonize according ro a preselected


god, alter the melody m some extenc.
2. Select a standard with a slorr. tempo and reharmonize follon~inga vertical modal model:
use both pedal point and many areas of added chords.
3. Indnde comments about goals, procedures and anything else that w a considered
~ when
ini~iaLiIIgwish the project
EXTRA

Listen to the J e r y Bergonzi version of "just Fnendsn from t h e CD Standard GORZ- what
Coltrane rune provided rhe model for rhis reharmonization? Lisc she sirnilariuer

RECORDINGS AND READINGS


From h e mid 80s to the early 90s;almost every major and may7minor jazz performers had
KO present a CI3 of " s m d d s . ' 'There 1s no problem findng lisrening marenal for rhis sub-
ject. The follo\hg 11stis a goad place ro stars - each is of t h e highest quality and h~ghly
recommended.

A. RECORDINGS
Alone Together Clare fischer Advance 9709003
Setting The Standard D+ve Liebman RED 235
Standard Conz Jerry Sergonzi BN 935
My Funny Valentine Mries Davis CK 48821
Quiet Nights Miles Davis/Gil Evans COL
Miles Ahead MileslGi! Evans CK 53225
Coltrane's Sound john Coltrane A n 1419
Portwits From The Pasr Frank Sinacra BRM 101
Jan Tony Bennea CBS 40424
Balhds john Coltrane GRP 156
Standards L~ve Keith Jarrett ECM 731 7
Danang In The Ddrk Fred Hersch ChesjD90
Domino Roland K~rk MG 20748
Ctnema LeCrand MicheI Legrand MGM 4491
Something Tony Bennett COU0260
The Kicker Joe Henderson OJC 465

8. READINGS

Clare fisfher. Alone TogetherJJustMe


Bill Dobbins Advance Music
Herbre Hancock: CIuzsirjan Compositions e? Piano Solos
Bill Dobbins Advance Music
Jazz H d m o y AndyJafie Advance MUSIC
Chard Scale Theoy 0Jazz Harmony
Nertles/Graf Advance Music
he an^' The Changes CokerJKnapp~ Vncen
I t Advance Music
Changes Over Srme- Evalutton ofjazz A~rangtng
Fred Sturrn Advance Music
Miles Davis Ian Carr Quill
Giants of B kck MUSIC R~velli& Levin DaCapo Press
Inside, Outside Reese/Markew~ch New York
World'sGreates;Fakebaok Chuck5her Sher Music
Melo$v Wrrting Kasha & Hirshom So n_price i-s
Jazz Keyboard f c r y Coker SPP/B~EWI~
CHAPTER 111 : PENTATONICS

PENTATONIC COMPOSITIONS

DESCRIWION AND DEflNlflON


For the cornposer who is loohng for an under-represented mode of expression - a means of
aminins a "fresh" sound, pcnratonic compositfons are a recommended source ro pursue.
Cerrainly. &ere are many recorded or documented jazz campesinons based on a penraronic
s d e , but only a few that either are based on dtered peamtonic sources,or are harmonized
with adi~ancedrnodd techniques. Also, with pentatonic compositions, rhe ernphaqis is on
melody writing - conanuing t h e covert premise of this volume.
Thas is rhe goal of this chapter - h e crearion of a composidon based on a simpIe, lucid
pentatonic source wh~chis balanced by a contrasing complex harmonization. The simpbci-
ty and puny of t h e folk-based pentatonic melody, particularE?. when o r g m j e d foIlouing
folk melodic procedures, seems instanrlp to endear the listener, i t i s hard not ro compose a
good melody based on a folk-music modeI.

KINDS O f PEt4TATONIC COMPOSITIONS


There are hree general categories of penmconic compvsitions:
1. Harmonmuons of documented extant pencaronic folk merodies.
2- A newly composed rnelod!. based On the modfic and phrasing Formulae of exrant fok
melodies.
3. A completely new melody with LitcEe reference to an existing melodic shape or organiza-
rion, but stilt being based on a pentatonic source scale.

To assist in reader comprehension, a few representative composrtions from each group


include:

Reharmonizations of an extant composition:

"Oriend Folk Song." by W a p c Shorter, ,Vzght Dreamer


"Yaqui FoIk Melody," by Keith Jarretr; Trrasure Island
"Gula Gulqn by Jan Garbarek, J Took Up The Rtmcs

New melodies based on follc organization:


"Badia," by Josef Zaa.inul,8:30
"Ponce de Areiq" by Milcon Nasciemento, Nahve Dancer
"Tokyo Blues," by Horace Silver, Tokyo 3he.t

N e w melodies, pentatonic source scales:

This catego7 is quite extensive and includes all rhe composidons thar a r e norrndly &ought
of when referring co a pentatonic composition. They ~ n c l u d cman). runes that arc found on
the Blue Note label of the 60s era, many pop runes, and many mnes that are associated with
john Colmane and McCoy Tyner.
T h e main distinction berween these compositions and the prwiously lisred i s rhat the has-
mon~zacionis usually quite simple or "common pramice," and the pentatonic source scales
are usually chat of the unaltered diatonic p u p : the simple minor penmronic or sornerimcs
the major pentaromc.
Rcpresentacivc comp~sitionsinclude:
"Scarch For che New Land," by Lee Morgan. Search For The A-CUJ
Ldnd
"Pursuance," by john Coltrane. A h u e Srtpremc
" S m l m ' s Place.'' by McCoy Tyner: Exp~msions

To meet the goals of &is chapter. hat of creaung a work char h a a balanced conmast
benveen chc p u r i y and sirnpliciq of a folk-modeled rnelod!. wirh the arc qualiry descnprron
of advanced modal harmony, the two composers nrhosc recorded works deserve ~ n v e s r i p -
tion are Josef Laivinul and W'a!*ne Shorter - pardcularly with their contributions ro the
Chapter I l l

8 Palindrome

9 S/R Formula

10 Linear Pentatonic
PENTITONIC COMPOStTlONS

Repon: Joe,
~ O U ~7.r:eacher
F ~ folk-based
in parncular and at present time shows an a f i n i for
and "world music,"and should be a first choice For scud!..
this point in the chapcer, h e reader should revim~rhe concepts of the placement of music
in general, and melodies in partjcdw, within the folk/arr specrmrn. (see p. 1 I). h addition.
the reader should have completed the special assignment found on page 40.

PENTATONIC MELODIES

SCALE SOURCE, DEFINITION AND CONSTRUCTIOM

Definition:
As the name implies, a pentatonic scale is a youping of five different pitches within an
c a m e : a 5-note scale fraDmenr.Because there are missing pi~ches,modaliy is obscure or
implied or more than one parent rnodaliq is represented.
There are some melodies char drhough based on a pcnratonic source, wiZl he seen to have
added pirches at key cadenrial polnrs. They wil1 be referred to as adaed-note penraconics in
subsequent examples.
Pentatonic source scales and subsequentI!; a cornpasicion's description, f a t into trw groups
- those based on an unaltered source pentatonic and rhese based on an under-used altered
pencaconic. I t is recommended that an emphasis be placed on a considerarion ofusing one
of rhe altered pentatonics for arraining a deslred "fresh" sound Most we11 known pentatonic
cornposinons are based on the common-practice minor pentatonic, as the examples given
Iater mill reveal. An unaltered pentaronic source ulill be referred to as a common-pracnce
source scale.

CREATING PENTATONIC SOURCE SCALES


There are rhree upaysof creating pentatonic source scdes:
1. The delete note method
2. The combined michord method
3. The shape creation method

THE DELETE NOTE METHOD


Wth this tradirional method, one simply deletes any two pitches of any one of the 210
usable modes, (see page 12s in the appendix) reducrng what u m a seven pitch S C ~ roE a five
pitch scale - the resulring modal defininon is dependcnr upon which pitches are deleted.
T h e resulting "shape"ofthe trunmed scale also should be considered with chis method. 7rTre
uill look at that concept in more detail when covering shape crearion later in the chaprer.
The usual naces deIenon procedure is to exrracr the picches that make up che interval of a
mitone - some altered modes have two or mom sets oftrirones. Looking at the major scale
(Ionian mode), rhc mmne is found on the fourth and seventh degrees. Erasing those pitches
creates the major pentatonic. The melodic quality of this penmtonic - I K harmonic defini-
tion and pitch resolution quahties - will show a siznificant change; refer ro pentatonic
scdes in the appendur.

Example 3.1a: T h e Unaltered Major Scale

Source Mode Rentamnic Result


CHAPTER Ill: PENTATONIC5
- I

Example 3.1 b: Altered Diatonic No. 1

Example 3.1 c: Attered Diatonic No. 2

Example 3 . l d : Random Deletion o f P i ~ h e s

Example 3.1 e: Random Deletion of Pitches

Tradit~onalIy,once a source pentamtonic is created by the deIetion mechad the remaining


diatonically related pentaronics are created by pitch transposiuon.

THE TRITONIC COMBINATION METHOD


This merhod is the corollary OF the tetrachord method found in VoIume 1 of this rmr. Like
the creaEion o f the modes, creating pentatonic s a l e s by chis mechod also gives an order to
the created list. A order of brightest LO darkest is apparent as well as an implied order of
rnodaliry. Where in Volume 1 rerrachords were combined to cream modes, we uiIl norr7com-
bine trichords to creare pentatonic scales. Like the creanon of modes by chis method, the
procedure requires that the sum of the Tones, semitones and the "connectar" pitch should
equal ~ r c l v eThe
. difference in this case is that the number of different pitches will be five.

Trichord (tritonic, seep. 73): pure, primeval, natural and singable, 2 trichord is a
three-note scale fragment and i s che simplest o f melodic shapes; it is the basic
melodic structure o i c h e pentatonic scale.

If rhe reader wew ro construcr a simple two srringed lute-like instrument our of a box and
spare ~vood,i hen by plucking an open string and chen smpping rhe srring ~ i t one h finger
then plucking the suing again followed by plucking t h e next open suing, che result would
bc a rrlchord This event, were lr to have happened in early hisror;v, sugggests r h e process for
the advenr and woluuon of scales. Noricc &at many michords are the h e a r represenrarian
of srrucmrcs. the sus2, sus4,Phygian. and more. We u<lI rerurn co this when covenng har-
monization tcchniq ues.
The EoIlorving is a lisnng of dl the trichords thar when combined will produce a set of
usable pentatonic scales.
The table below is organized by interra! formula. it could be reorsanized by order of increas-
brighmess LO darkness ~FdeslrcdT h e checked ($1 items are ajchords rhar are sbrrtchre_r.
- PENTATONIC COMPOSITIONS

Example 3.2:TheTable ofTrichords

1 ) 3 semicones ( r r 1 3 ~ )

3 ) 5 semirones (P4)
A

4)6 semitones (%, bS)

5) 7 semitones (P5) I

The creation of penmtonics b!* rhe combination merhod requires hat there be five different
p~cches,and including the connector pitch, the sum of the l n t ~ r ~ d
equal
s twelve. The pro-
cess is ra place a rrichord going upward on the conic picch and a michord going downward
from the p~rchrhat is Found an octave above the tonic pitch. T h e connenor interval is found
bemreen the two. Care must be taken thar the sum of the two selected trichords does not
exceed eleven; there needs ro be room for at Jeasta single semitone "connector" pitch.

tirarnple 3.3: Creating Pentatonics ByThe Combination Method

Kote. A complete lisnng orall usable mod- and pcnraconic =ales ts found m rhe appendix on p a p 112 These
Itsrings werc c r e k by 2 compure: propam - rhe C progrmrnxng lang~ta~c l r s u n ~8s lncIuded on page 134 as
rvell for tihe inrerested computer-literatema&.

SYMMETR1C PENTATONIC SCALES


These arc scales char either are denvcd from symmesnc scales or are themselves sjlrnrnetric
in their inten-alic formula
To create a pencaronic scale which implies he sonoric of chc source s!mmetcic scale,
the procedure is to Write out the sourcc scale and then delete the number of pirches that will
produce a 5-now scale. T h e prim? consideration is the I-esulnngshape and meiodic qudi-
of the creared scale and h o w well i t defines the sonoiic defininon of t h e original-
-
CHAPTER Ill: PENraTONlCS

h o t h e r method is to combin? tGchords ina uTaythat the resulting cone ro scm~tonefor-


mula S ~ O I V Sa Tmrnemc pattern. ,4n inkresting groupins among E ~ C - C is t h palindrome
~ -
a number of these =.il l induded in ~httrefollou.ing examples.
be

DELETED NOTE
Example 3.4a: Source Symrnevic Scale - Dominant Dimin~shed

Created penraronic scales:

used by M a u r i c e Raw!
n

Deleted: 2,5,& 3,7,8

Example 3.4b: Source Symmetric S d e - Augmenwd

Created Pentatonic Scales:

C Phrygian 46 C Aeolian 47, b6 !=Aeolian 47 (Harmonic Minor)

Deleted: 3 2 6

SYMMETRIC .BY 1NTfRYAL

It may be rhar &ere is only one usable penratonic whlch Is found in this carego?.: perhaps
the asturc reader may find more. The one Iissed is also a palindrome. Of course, if we were
allmved to break the bounds of the octave, the Iisc would ~ncreasesignificantly.

PALINDROMES

Thesr are symmetric patcerns in which the paaern i s a mlrror imase from the center pitch
to both the left and righr outer Iirnia. Or it 1s a pattern thar -111 read the same from left ro
right, ar from right ro left
-
PEN'GAToNICCOMWSTTIONS

Table o f Intervals for Pentatonic Palindromes

Trichord ( c ) Trichord

Note that like the previous examples of construcdon by che cornbina~onmerhad, h e tones
and semicones add up ro 13.

Example 3.5: Palindromes (listed in the same order as in the above cable)

C Phrygian b6,k7 G Aeolian C Phrygian b7,43

C Altered b6 F Mixolydian 1 7 C Mixolydian sus

C MFxo b6 Bb Lydian Dominant C Phrygian b7

By having coven: symmetry, palindromes offer an organizational model rhar can create an
interesting and musical result - they should be considered when organizing any or dl rhe
elements of muslc: harmonic rhythm or made selection, counrcrpoint, and form. as well as
scale creation.

CREATION OF PENllTONICS BY SHAPE CREATION

This process actually duplicates the previous two but differs by its goal and procedure. One
of h e amibutes of a pentatonic melody is irs clarity of contour.The idea hcre is to visually
draw-out a contour, or shape and manipulate the pitches to conform ro i t This is another
example of working \vt.j& rhe concept of balancG it is also a technique that is inm~tiveand
requires chat the composer be confident in decision-makingabifines.
h o k i n g at the sf~upeoFa pentatonic scale created by one of the previously given techniques
is a recommended ediring act-ivq.The cornour of a created penra~onicscale should not be
so aqyrnrnctric or jagged thar ir loses irs folk-like simplic~y.More w i11 be said about this
larer
Another form of shape-baqcd scale cons~uctianprocess i s to take the unaltered major
pentatonic, and add a number ~f sharps andjar flats co create a dts~redshape.
Note rhat the three means of creating pentaromcs overlap - each merhod creares pentz-
tonlcs ~ h w c a n be created by thc osher. Mrer creating a number of pentatonlcs with the
merhods g l ~ mon these pages, turn to the lfsnng in the append= 10 vverifi chat the creared
scales are indeed listed there - all usable penraconlc scales should be included.
CHAPTER Ilt: PENTATON'ltS

Clarificanon and Listing of the Common-Practice Pentatonics

Major Pentatonic: C D EG A C
SlmpIy. che major scale \vivhout the tritone ~ n t e ~ a(lFs and B).
Minor Pentatonic: C Eb F G B b C
A transposition of a major -pentatonic - not TO he confused with t h e following minor
pentatonic.
Dorian Pentatonic: C D EL G A C
T h ~ sis deiived b r n the Dorian b7 (melodic minor) mode. Note that a rntone ( ~ and
b
A) is still presenr - the deleted trlronc 1s F and B. The Eb and A are defining pitches
of a Dorian rnoddiry!.;the A being the 46. T h ~ sis often called the minor pentatonic -
but for compositional purposes, wc will refer to this one as che Donan penraronic,
and h e previocs one as the minor penratonic.
Blues Pentatonic: C Eb F Gb Bb C
This pentatonic is derived from the Eb melodic minor scale. the b5 gives it a biucs-like
sound, it also has many p~tchesrhar belong to a Ca (Locrian h2) chord, he 6th mode
oSEb melod~cminor.

More common-pracuce penraronics will be found in subsequent examples.


Having pirch materials with which to work, &rr nmr step is to organize them into a musical
producr.

MELODIC ORGANIZATION
Kwp in mind rhar the main goal of penratonic melodies is ro mainrain the puriry and sim-
pliclq that is the endearing charactenstic offolk m u s i c The best way to meec thar goal 1s to
organize your melody based o n pai-ticulariy effective mtant folk melodies.
This is onc of the rfzions behind the suggesred assignment found in Chaprer I on page 40.
The m m t irnportan~means of organizarion is morific and phrase buhnce.
Having compIered a srudy o f folk musical examples it uill be found in mosr cases that rhe
balancing of phrases and motifs is clear and symmcnlc. Ar rhe rnocific level, of rmporrance
to us is the bdancing of an opening rtistcmrnfwith a complimcnmry response- We will refer to
rhis as an SIR f o r m d a Within and wirhour this rext, this melodic device d l also be refer-
red to as &I and response and statement and answer. Thc imporcant concepr is h a t many
of the more accessible folk melodies have the same or similar combinations o f S/R relacion-
ships. One of the mosr used is: S/R!R - a statement, a response, and a repeat o f the same
response.
Phrase organizanon is the same bur on a larger scale: longer ir! lengh by measures rather
&an by pitches. Mosr phrase organization follows a simple anrccedent ro consequence for-
mula, which is a larger version o f a statement and response. The poinc i s to strive for clarity
and acccssibiliq' ro assure thar the aesrheric go& of penraronic melody creation are to be
mee.
Another poinc EO consider is how the directional conrour (shape) o f rnotific material affects
the desrrcd percrpuon of simpliciv. I r is suggmted thar for either the statemenr or the
answer pornon of the motif, char he basic tritonic structure be clearly presented. In ocher
wo& - do nor change direction within a morific shape until the tichord is defined.
There are a few meEodies in which that is not che a<@ - they are grear rndodies, but are less
simple and folk-like. A short Iisting of tunes in which t h e tricon~crs nor dearly ptts~nted
include; (1) "Ponre Areia," and (2) " B o o ~ i eWaogie \XTaltz."These compositions will be
induded in the analyses Found later in rhc chapter.
Another means of phrase or motific organizat~on- dthough a bit esoteric - is to follexv the
spoken rhythms a<sugzesred by the poetic memc forms: rambic. trochaic. anapesric and
ochers.
And l a d y , as presemcd in rhe chapter on rnclod!. wrrung. a bzlance in melodic r'hvthm is
hi& recommended - conrractmg a slow statement \rich a fasc answer. or h e converse. a
sloix- ssatemenr responded with a fas: ansrver is musicdly effecrive.
The tlolloaing examples u~illdemonscrace rhe o r p o i z a n o n of WQ altered source scales w r h
rhc nlell-used Sl/R1/R1 forma=.In addicion. mainrainins a clear exposit-ion of the rntonlc
and a balance of dircccional contour and melodic rhythm ~ l l be l shown.
Example 3 . 6 ~
Altered Na. 1, No. 93

F Melodic Minor

Example 3.65: Altered No. 2, No. 200

Bb Melodic Mmor

I 61 -
1 4
2 2 3

Additional examples of rhe use of rhe previousl~given wchniques 11411 be poinred our later
when a number of penratonic compositions will be analyzed
FORM AND STYLE
The only defining factor chat musr be me: w ~ t ha pcnraconrc composidon is chat the melo-
dy be, and clearly show the atuiburcs of a pentatonic source scale. Other than that. any har-
monlc, rhyhrnic and formal presentation is possible. Considering the precepts of bulunce,
conrrasrs of harmonic, rhythmic and orhcr musical elements are recommended
There are penmtonic cornposiu*onsthat are based on only one source scale and one chord
to compositions chat have w o or more source scales wirh as Fen WO melody pitches per
chord. h adhdon, the composidon can be of any svle category ECM,hardbop. srving, A h -
Latin, rockjpop - you name it?
T h e following is a brief description of some of the groups:
Homogeneous: Tfic EntlX composinon IS in one sfle - harmonic, rhythmic, or any of
the descrip~onsof pop, hardbop and the others.
Mixed: The most inreresting, one finds combinations of h d n scctions and snrng.
Contrasung hannon~zarions,or any Contrast one can imagine. Often, a general style
goal rvilI diccate the combination. As an a m p l e , many hardbop pencatonlr runes N ~ I I
s m with an Afro-Latin syle and contrast that with a suing, U-1' type brid~e.

I-IARMONIZATION AND HARMONIC RHYTHM


T h e harmonic accompaniment of a pentatonic melody can vary from a single chord for the
entire pentatonic melody to as many chords rhar rhere would be if every two notes ofmele-
dy were harmomzed. In addition,there could be chords ~ 9 1 t non-diatonic
h root relationships
and areas of tonal harmony. T h e goal of course is to balance the quality ofthe m e l d y with
contrasting harmonic materials.
IT'irh thc harmonization process of penmconic compositions, we need to differentiate the
descnpciens of melodic sources, harmonic rhythm and chord selection. The caregones are:
linear penraronic and p l a ~ e apenraconic
~ - these relare to source scdc selection with linear
modal, plateau moddl and verrical modal referring to chord select-ion.

MELODIC DESCRIPTIONS

1. Linear penmronlc refers to there being one source scaIe for the encire section or the
entire cornpos~tion
2. Plateau pentatonic refers t o there being different source scales found in s)mmcmc
organizarion regarding measures - usually one scale per nvo or four measure division.
In rnosr: cases, the change in key center rather than a change in source scale.

There is no description for melodrc verrical pentatonic since c h a n g i n ~the melodic source at
too fast a pace would negate the premise and goals of the projecc.

CHORD SELCTIOM/HARMONIC RHTTHM

LINEAR MODAL
When rhere is one source scale for h e ensire composi~unor snctian, she key center of a
seIened chord could be etrhcr diatonic to the pentatonic parent source or non-d~atonic,and
due to thetr missing pitches, pentaronic scales can have more rhan one parent source. Usinp
the ubiqui~ousand simple F minor pentaronic as an example, the following is a parrial
lisnng of parental source modes or chords.

Diatonic Roo&
S t a r t b!. sclectin~room that have the same pisches as the source pen~atonic.Comparing all
pitches of the scale with each root pirch. che accumulated intervals define 2 set of color
tones. O+ he most definitive are listed.

T h e Pentatonic: F Ab Bb C Eb F
Roots Color Tones Modes/Chords
F b3, 4. b7 min I 1, Dorian, Aeolian, Phry$an
Ab 6 , 9,3 A6:9, mix SUS, AF4, A85
FORM AND STYLE

Bb 5. bf,2 Mixo sus: Dorian, Aeolian


C 4 , b6, b7, b3 Aeollan. Phrygian
Eb 2,4,5. h5 Dorian, melodic minor. MEO sus

SECOND LEVEL DIATON1CSINON-DIATONIC

There are a number of roo= &at although noe diaronic to the source penmtonic, are diato-
nic by chord implication o r b being a member of a set of modes rhat are uansposidons of
one of the diatonically relared modes!cho&.
As an example, if the root is Ab (see above). one of h e modes is Ab Mixolydian, which is the
fifth mode of Db loniam - so: any of rhe modes (ranspositions) of Db IonIan will be diato-
nically related to the source F minor pentatonic and be avaiIable to harmonize any of t h e
five s o m e penmtonic. Usable examples include: DbA6/'9, Gbb6:/9,and Ab 9sus4.

Selecting Other Non-Diatonic Roots


There are some othm roars that have oblique 15- to rhe source pentazonic. Again, look at
the modes derived from an Eb rooq one is melodic rninor.Traking Eb melodic minor as a
parent source, w o modes/chords that work well are GbAtl4 and D altered. Ochers i ~ c l u d e :
GbIg5 and Bb Mao1,diatl b6.
Bear in mind that a11 of above is in reference to the simple F minor pentatonic. and one can
see that the chord selection process can gec qulre comprehensirre and complex.

As has been seen in pretlous chapters, the acanon of a smnng roar melody helps to narrow
down the selection process a bit. The common pracricc rootjchord selccnon for F miner
penracatonic weuId indude: F-11, DbAGj9. Ebb619 and Bb Mixo sus, with D drered and Ab
Mixolydian sus having a s e c o n d a ~usage.

Example 3.7: F- Pentatonic with Seimed Source Modes a n d Chords

F Minor Pcnraronic

~ b h D alr Ev9 sus F-1 1 G ~ A ~ ~b9sus 8b 9

Source: Db lonian Eb Met. Minor Ab lonian Eb lonian Eb lonian Db lonian ~b lonian

To redlze the musical value of this example, have someone sing or play the scale while you
pIay the given chords - you may "hear" a tune in r h e works

PLATEAU MODAL

In penmronic composinons. chls refcrs generdy ro a symmetric organization of the bar-


monir r h ~ h mor , to there being either a new penmronic source o r a new r o n d cencer for rhe
original!! selecced penm~onicsource. ar. ~mrnerricallyassigned rnezsure incewals. Usually
h e r e is a change at a two, four or eight bar interval. Chord selection is by rhe same method
as ~ i v e nabovc.
CHAPTER lli: PEMITONICS

Tfiis refers tn the harmonrzatinn proceks in which there is a new chord for every nvo or three
melody notes - depending on thc tempo of the performance Because there arc feiver melody
pitches ro harrnon~ze,there can be many chords that are non-diatonic m rhe source penra-
ronic. Because of t h e i m p o m c e of the rnconic shape in penmconic melod~es,mosc chard
changes cakc piacc ar 2 threc pitch grouping. And as long as the trimnic 1s present In the
melody, m T O pitch chord changes are quire affective, and actually tend to create a dearer
. harmonization process is the same as previously @en, but with more
cadential q u a l i ~The
importance assigned to the rneIodic q u a l i ~of rhc root-melady. And because h e r e are fewer
pitches to find chat are in common with the melodic f r a p e n t , there ulill be many more
chord spellings thar arc accessible for selection.
To lisc all possible chords thatwiIl "tvork for a three pirch fragment, iris s ~ ~ g z e x eshar
d you
segmenr r h e pentaronic source into three-pirch scrumres. These are the strucrures chat were
inrroduced in VoI. I and wcre referred co as ~ppermschrw( s e ~Vo!. I).Having rhe s r m ~ t u r e s
listed. comparing each with all roors of t h e chromatic scale will reveal all possible
modes/chords available for selection. The process is the same for two-pirch melody frag-
rnenrs, with rhe resul~ngIisc being much larger, making the musical choicm thar much
more d~fficult.To restare, the rnelod~cq u a l i of
~ rhe root selections will focus the resulrs.

THE PENTATONlC STRUCTURES

Example 3.8: Chord Selecrion for Three-Pitch F r a g m e n ~

F Minor Pentatonic

t.' I
C. I
b. e.

For selected srruaurrss:

1 root color cones made/chovd I mot color tones rnade/chord I


F b3, a, b7 rn~nll F 1, C3, h4 mln 11
E 43, P4, k7 Lydran E b2, b3, i4 Altered
Eb 44,5,1 sus4, no7 Eh k2, \4, k5 addd
D b5, $6, b2 Locrian D $3, $ 4 , 1.6 Altemd
Db b4.46. $2 6/9 Db f3. M, 66 A6
C b6, b7, b3 Aeolian C b4, 66. C7 Aeolian
B h6, $7.b3 Ionian B W, h6, t17 Lyd~an
6b b7; I , b 4 M1x0 5.~54 %b y,h7, T PIixo 51154
A k7, b2, b5 bocrian h7 A b6, 47, b2 Locnan 47
~b 1,\2#b4 add 2 Ab h6, 1, $2 tit9
G b l , b3, h6 Phryg~an G b7, h2, b3 Phryg~an
Gb q2.$2, 46 6/9 Gb ti,&?,k3 lon~an
FORM hND S n K
-.
It issuggested thac rhe reader continue rhe process for all found smcmres - i t is a tedious
acriviry but ma),be w o ~ the
h effort to understand the harmon~cfoundation of the source
s d e and .co have a listing of all "workable" chords. Consult che appendix for addirional
information and examples ofscale to chord detivadons-

Example 3.9: Selected Chords - Three-Pitch Structures

Dalr ~b13sus Galt

Example 3.1 0:Selected Chords - Two-Pitch Structures

I Galt ~bgsus C alt

Occasionally, one may want to have a new chord for every different pirch ofh e melody -
usually to klcsease tension Just pnot to a cadence - this chord selecrion process is most
dependent on 2 stfeng reat rnelod!-. Note the use of c o n r r q morion and rounnerpoinr ~0
h e melody in the following bass melodies.
CHaPTER Ill: FENTATONICS

Example 3.1 1 : Selected Chords - Single Pitch

The foIlo\rxing guide is meanr to assist in organizing the harmonization procedure, also refer
to the harmonization process inrrodnced on page 44. There are additional examples of
single pirch hamonizarion in rhc appen dk.

HARMONlZAf!ON PROCEDURE

I. Identif?.:
(a) The parent source modalir). and chords of rhe penratonic meIod!r.
(b) T h e implied and seconday diatonic chords and modes.
(c) The tricherds, structures and "glps" found in the melody.

2. Select Harmonic Rhythm:


(a) Linear 1 - one diatonic mode or chord For entire melody.
(b) Linear 2 - many chords and roots are diatonic to the melody.
{c) Linear 3 - one non-diamnlc mode/chord for rhe enrire melody
(d) Plateau - many chords per melody, organized i n ~ osymmetric groups: usually 2 , 4 or
8 bars each.
(e)verticd - fasr, qmmerric, nondiaconic roots, from one rnelod?,pitch per chord, two
melo$!- pitches per chord: or one chord per trichord. use of repose and rransidon.

3. Create a Roos/Bass Melodlr


(a) Orgmize by melody-writing procedures given In chaprer one.
(b) Try to use thirds inten-als followed by fourths and f frhs, rhen connect with chro-
matic filler pitches if needed.
(c) Plot cadenrial poincs, set directional contour

4. SeIecr the Chords:


(a) Select a "firsr chord" that sets the emotional goal of the composirion.
(b) SeIect chords for rkc rarget cadential areas.
(c) Select t h e rcrnaining chords 10 fulFrI1 a modal contour.

5 . Tweak:
Flay through the project, noting an!. chord selecdon. bass melody or harmonic rhythm
hat orends your musical mires. adjust and again.

Note: There is a hanmonizauon example Found in the appenk: as we11 as In chc follorving
composi cional analyses.
COMPOSITION EXAMPLES

T h e following examples represent a varier? of styles that are available on recordings.


Unfomnately, there are Feu- recordrngs wirh exampies rhat include compositions with an
alrered pentatonic source. In a way, this couId be formitous as it presents a vacuum that
could be filled by the Fon~ard-loolungcomposer.T h e mosr representative recorded examples
are from he Wayne Shorter CD E m e r a - she source scales on a number of the composinons
are quire exotic - but nor rmly pentatonic.

T h c cornmen- for che following wiU refer to the melodic source, monfic and phrase oryani-
zation, and harmonization. Only salienr and pe~iinentpoints will be made, aliouring the
inceresced reader to delve deeper if desired.

EXTANT HELODIES
h m p t e 3.72a: "Oriental Folk Sang" (TradirionaI, Reharmonized by Wayne Shorter)

source scale

COMMENTS

Melody
Based on a Chinese folk meIody, rhe source scale is a common-pracdce G minor penta-
conic.
Mosr significant i s rhe SJR organizadon - S(s-r)/R/R, the often-found and accessible
S/K formula.
* T h e motif is well balanced uith the opening statement (s) In an ~ p ~ l l rdirecdon,
d re-
leased by che reversal of drrecsion with &e response (r). The larser SIR is balanced by a
contrast of fast melo&c rhyrhm OFthe sratemenr (S),and slow melodic rhythm of the
nvo responses {R).Of ~rnporcanceis the clear audine ofthe trironic (sus2)shapes found
In ms. 1 , 3 , 5 , and 7.

Harmony
Without referring to a rnode/chord hsting. it is clear rhac mast of thc chords are &a-
tonically related to the G minor sourcc scde - or I= csransposition - a l3b major penta-
ronic
The harmonic rhythm is mostly s!mmerric, with a harmonization by nvo melody
pitches. except where an increase of tension is desired far cadenrial definition.
T h e Ab13 is a mtone subsrimred domlnanr chord t o the G minor tonic, w7lch the .47
being an upper netghbor dominant ro the ~b chord.
CHAPTER Ilt: PENlXToNtCS

Orher points
As alilrvays. ITTaynechooses t o reharmonize by sccrian, adding a Few new chords to the
scmnd part. thereby e n I q i n g the form beyond a mere repetition.
-
The orchesaarion of this and all tunes found on the recording is veql asristlc and
thoughtful - make now OF how the two horns relate regarding unison, inrcnlal and
ocmvc assignments.

Example 3.1 2b: "Yaqui Indian folk Melody" (Tradicianal)

source-scale

This beautiful melody i s from an American lndian source:the Pascua Yaqui rribe ofArizona
- descendants ofthe ancienc Toltecs OEMPXICO. This melody is found as a main theme in &c
"India Symphony" by Carlos Ch5vez. The example is kom the Keith Jarrett CD Tr-emare
IsIcznd.

COMMEWS

Melody
.The source scdc: major pentaronic with a passing add-pitch (dq.
* T h e SJR is symmetrically organized
=Clearrrichord shapes arc found in ms.2 and 4.

Harmonization
*Simple diatonic harmony is most affectively u s e d

Other points
=The consequence phrase (ms 5-81, shows a nice balmce by an increase of melodic
rh~hm.

Example 3.1 2c: "Gula Gula" by Mari Boine Persen

source scale
h 0 8
I'
C1
a3 I
I- COMPOSITION EXAMPLES

Although not menrioned on h e CD, rhls melody has a qualiq. that suggests an Tn&an inffu-
ence - possibly S m i in orign.

COMMENTS

Melody
Like "Caribbean Fire Dance" introduced in Chapter I, rhis is a primitive but peaceful
melody based on a mronic tcssitura There is a sus2 srructure outlined in t h e response
portion (ms. 7-10]. And mosc impormndy, there is use of &c S/&IR formula

Hamonizarion
The main theme is very simple in ~ t harmonic
s marerid, merely a ronic open fifrh inter-
val which goes to a GC open fifth as indicated on t h e mns~caIexample. There :s ad&-
cional harmonization in larer melodic statements - a spopsis i s also provided on the
example.

fOLK INFLUENCEQ COMPOSITIONS


Example 3.73a: "Badian by JosefZawinul

source scale

source scale I

Ah :vl ixo ~ U S

A section: A v e y simple statmenr and response - clear and foIk-lllce.


0 section: An exoric balance, almost Iike an Eastern-European melody.
Example 3.13b: "Palm X" by Ron Miller

source K a l e

* Asimple minor pentatonic - h e p r o g m m a n c intention of rhe tune, if one has been


there, is nf t h e c r q experience of dr~vingthe palmerto expressway in Miami. Covertly
Hispanic, hor and iervenh is the message!
Of nore is the recommended S/WR or,&zation, like iexampJe 3.13~

MISCELLANEOUS PENlXTONIC COMPOSITIONS


Example 3 . 1 4 ~"Ponte de Ariea" by Milton Nasciemento

source scale

This beautiful melody is pencaronic, but because of irs organization and shape, IS not sea&-
ly identifiable as such. Compare this melody to orhers of a Brazilian source. Are there sirni-
larjues?
--
COMPOSlTlON EXAMPLE5

Example 3.1 4b: "Boogie Woogie Wain" by JosefZawinul

Source scale

lncro
ELII

Main theme
r?-

Joe was with Milcs ar the rime of An recording and Miles' influence shows: there is much
use of space - a lot of transparenq: but our intwesr is in the pemaromc quality.
The first marerial is ofa simple diamnic source, in a clear exposiuon - the mitonic is evident,
rhe direction is clear.

T h e main theme can almost be described as angular, but its rhyrhmic organization is almost
hypnotic. The author includes this rune in his repertoire and can amest that one can play
thrs theme over and over again wirhour its losing its hypnotic effecc - uy it, you'll likc it!
It should be pointed out, there are conrrasting secnons to balance the penraronic melodies,
but the! are rnosrly in the form of harmonic, rh!~hmic and texmral rnweriats.
CHAPTER Ill: PENTATONICS
-
CONCLUSION O f CHAPTER 111

T h e use ofa pentatonic source or the organizarion o f a melody based on a folk model is nor
n m t o the composirional process - most classical composers of note show the use of the
aforemen~onedinfluences in addition LO aaccullp using =.rant marerid An additional perk
is char i c is a means of establishing a nanonalisdc qrraliy ro composition.
T o name a feu. examples:
Peter I. Tchaikomky - the penraronic theme in the 1st movement of t h e S-mphony No. 6
(see p. 33).

Example 3 . 1 5 ~A Prominent Theme from ' T h e Firebird" by lgos Stravinsly

f R t ~

Txample 3.1%: The "Shaker Hymn" from "Appalachian Spring" by Aaron Coptand

I S 1 l

l5ample 3.15~:"Scheno No. f in B Minor" by Frederic Copin

lise @an mmt Polish Cb;rtmac carol m the s m d movrrmenr.

T h e me of folk elements is \-vhaxmakes Bartbk sound Hungar~an.Grreg sound Noweglan,


Gcrshmin soand American, and Srrav~nskysound Russian. T h e polnc is rhar the classical
repesroire is a g o d source of smdy for t h e use of folk elements as well as the use of har-
rnon~cand rnelohc materials as suggesred previously in Volume 1, and earlier chapters of
this book.
RECORDINGS AND READINGS

A l r h o u ~ hrhem are nor many jazz recordings wirh rhe kind ef pentaromc compositions
referred ro in rhe text, there is an cxeensive number ofb r h record in^ and books thar refer
to the urorld's folk musics - only a feu. are lisred - b u t it is easy t o find more.

Native Dancer Wayne Shotter Columbia 461 59


!Took Up The Runes Jan Garbarek E C M 27 41 9
Night Dreamer Wayne Shorter BST 94173
Etcetera Wayne Shorter EST 214
Jy-u Wayne Shorcer B S T 376A4
To@ Blues Herace Silver BNS 41 34 .-
Blackjack Donald Byrd BNS 84259
Search For T h e New Land Lee Morgan BST 841 69
Tail Splnnin ' Weather Repom Col PC33417
8130 M'earher Report Cot PC36060
A Love Supreme John Coltrane Impulse 133
+n~ions McCoy Tyner B n 84338
Trerrsure tsldnd Keith Jarrert Impulse/MCA 39106
Appalachian Spring Aaron Copland misc. record~ngsavailable
China in Song and Dance National Folk Ensemble Bruno 50062
AuthenticMusic of i h Amencan
~ Indun various Legacy 3 12
Whooo B y ! Justin Wtson SM-1'1815
In& Symphony Carlos Chiivez m ~ s c .recordings available

B. READINGS
BraziIion Music Workshop Antonio ~ d o l p h o Advance Music
Pentatonics Jerry Bergonri Advance Music
Folk Music of Chino Stephan Jones OxFord University Press
Konkoma h p p L3ist;a Robert Pehrson Norsk
The Afr~cunRoots ofJaa Kaufman & Guckl n Alfred Publishing
Merengue Paul Austerlin Temple Press
CONCLUS!DN A N D FINAL COMMf NTS

Taken togerher. t h e materials presented in Volumes 1 m d 2 should prove m be sufficient in


esrablishlng a serious regimen of study for the aspiring composer of my level of expertise.
Once again, the lrnportancc of much listening, to all klnds of music, with deliberate stten-
tion, cannor bc over stressed. In Eacr if one's "ears" are good enough, and one has the nme
and desire, and pursues a srringent listening casecr, one really doesn'r need these r
at books
- but ~rwould rake years ofvery hard work ro do ic thar way!
There may be much information in both volumes of the book - but rhere is mare to cover
yet. Further smdy would cover: more melody-writing procedures uith the extension of pen-
taconic tunes to the smdy of blues runes and avanr-prdc compositions; More m-deprh
study of ronal (H-1') harmony and form with she works of Horace Silver. Thclonious Monk,
Charles Mlngus and early 5TTa>meShorter. .4nd more speci Srcs regarding "rno\~ernen~"and
sqde by looking at rhe compositions of "goup" effora like Weather Report, Return co
Forer~er,Oregon and the ECM style. and orher sipificanr documented conn-ibucions - all
possible subjects for a connnuation of rhe hook series to a Volume 3.

Ron Miller 1997


APPENDIX I

MOTIFlC DfdfLOPHENT

lngs or naming. Essentially, a change in the o r i ~ ~ motif


nd -
The following IS included mcrcly to provide an accessible source For re~leu-- it is assumed
chat rhe reader has been exposed co the rechniques of morif;c development in previous read-
be described by a difference
in i n m d i c direction (up or dmvn), ratio (semi-tone fornula), or melodic rhychm (nose
duration).

(a) Sequence - this seemngly simple device of repeating a rnorif starcjcg from another
pitch has proved cffectirre for cenmries. Usually, rhe inrend strucmre of the sequenced
motif is altered to fit scale and harmony.

M onf Sequence (tonal upward, key of Eb or Ab)

(b) Inversion - the original semitone formula stays the same, but the directions are rever-
sed: what went up now goes down,and u~harwenr down now goes up.

Original Inversion

lntewat:
Direction:

(E) Retrograde - both the direction and h e inrcrvalic formula are reversad

Original Retrogade

Interval: - m2 MZ P4
Direction: : 1 i

-
(d) Retrograde Inversion this is like a palindrome, rhe c h a n ~ ereflects a "mirror-imase" ~f
the onglnal: not merely a change in ciirecdon.

Original Retrograde inversion

Interval :
Direcuon:
ADDltlONAL MATERIALS

(e) lsorhythm - an impomnr techmque in jau orienced mdody writing, the &veloped
motif shows a de to rhe original by hatling t h e same nore values (mcladic rhythm), but
with dlffererenr pitches or direction.

Motif Same rhythm

(f3 I s ~ a ~ i c u l a t i o-n like rhe above, but the cie to the original in rhis case i s by common
articulations.

Phrase Same articulation

(g) Truncation - as the name implies, this shows a delec~onof some aE the pitches of the
original monf, usually ar the end of the motif. bur not necessarily. .4lrhoogh other qud-
ides of the original also can be changed, it is best to keep h e original shape to cIari@
rht musical development-.

Example: 'Ida Lupinan by Carla Bley

Cur s h o q inverted
C/G
I
I
I
-
I I

M2 m3 m2 M2(rn3) rn2
.
I :
,
1: i ! i
(missing)

(h) Extension - the opposire of above, the developed motif is lengrhened by additional
melodic material. As Ions as a clear nc ro the original IS evident, other development tcch-
niques can be used as well.

Example: "Lost Illusions" by Ron Miller

Motif Elongated & displaced


apPENDIX 1

(i) Displacement - this refers to a shiftins of the melodic rhyrhm re!ative to t h e harmonic
r h ~ ~ h ranshift
; of uphere r h e new motif occurs in t h e measure compared to the ongind.

Example: UMen in White" by Ron Miller from the CD Gliding

(j) Mutation - chis term is used m describe any anomalous change shown in t h e nmrmotif
which still can be identified as being relatrvc ro the original.

There are many more desmipuons of techniques for developing an miginal moriF. but in the
inrerest of clarity and simpliciy, h e abovc is sufficient Keep in mind that when analyzing
melodies, our interest is in identiwng whac he composer did t o dmreiop t h e melody musi-
cally, nor in petting overly scientific or pedandc
&DDITIONhL MATERIALS
--

ARTlCULATlOHS AND EFFECT5


This subject is beyond the scope of h i s Eook - one really should rcfer to an orchestramon
or arranging ra-r for this. but to proride a quick access and a review, the followiny descrip-
uons of arnculan'ons are included.

Ir has been smred that for a jazz performance, only nvo amcdations are needed: staccato
and tenuco - there is no need to be so spanan.

Swccato and t m t o refer to note length - how long the pitch is held - with no change in vol-
ume or emphasis.

staccato
written interpretation vocalization

bit

writcen interpretation vocalization

- 1
I I I I I I
bah

Tmuto/rtlccat~is a combincd articulation found often in big band and hardbop tunes. it
creates a aery dramatic effem

renucoj smzcaro
wntten interpretation vocalization

- - - -
n
-
- -
II
-

-- .- -.-
-

- 41
-
--
- - -
e * w F 1 -
- F --*
C
/ * i
A

I
m: I I I I I'I

Accents direct rhe performer ro emphasize or increase the voiurne of the selecred pitch or
pitches with a slighc variation of pitch durat~on.

horizontal accent
wrimn interpretation vocalitadon

bah?

vertical accent
writre n interpretxion vocalization

bop!
113
EEects arc idiomatic expressive devices peculiar to individual instrumenml groups. Many are
general to a11 ins~urnenrsand voices. Again. beyond the scope of this book. keep their use
in mind when composing a melody. Consult an orchesmion book for an in-depth review.
Know hour ro include them in your scores: some you should use indude:

triIls glissandos
tremolos slurs
scoops slaps
bends falls

There arc many more. rhe impomnr point is to keep rhem in mind mrhile nlriting out your
melody. Ir is recommcndcd rhal-you consult fellow performers to demonscrate dl the effects
thac are possib'lc on his or her instrument or voice - it may give you ideas for your melody
ifnot for a whole composition.

SOUNb SUPPORT PHRASIHG


The last performance direcrive to cover is quite important, and one that is ofien ov~rlooked
- that of sonnd support phrasing - the direction as when to starr and mhm to stop produc-
ing a sound melarive to picch chanp.
Wherher the sound is produced by blowing. plucking, scrapping or himng, there is a point
when rhe performer need5 to take a breath, raise t h e arm, or move the bow to a srardng posi-
tion; all aFfecr rhe phrase quality of a melody. There are two considerations the composer
mnsr make: ( I ) how long the sound production can last depending on the cempo of the
performance and the abilities of the performer, and (2) how uiIl the pause to take a breath
or raise a bow affect the phrasing o f t h e melody. Careful preplann~ngi s requ~rcdro assure a
successhl interpretation of your melody.
ADDITIONAL MATERiALS

There are rwo rtBa>a


to direct the performer of your melody regarding sound production:

1. Breath marks - a simple single quore (') specifies thar the player is to take a breakh, or
resmrc the sound production at thar p o i n t It has rhe effect of ending a phrase and
should be considcred for use as a phrasing directive.

i3ample: Breath Mark Phrasing

COMMENT:
The placement of the breath mark has rhe effect of a slighr pause bemeen the consentnve
quarccr notes, creating a second phrase.

2. Sound support phrasing - these are phrase rnarkin~st h a ~are in addition to melodic
phrasin~s- they are meant ta direcr sound bur because of h e pause that
occurs when che perfomcr &es a breach or in any way restarts a sound, rhe effect is
that of melodic phrasing and!os punctuation, and has a similar cffecr as breath marks.

Ewmple: Sound Suppon Phrasing

COMHENT

The player, whether or nor taking a brcarh, 11ql1 restart the sound production, creating a newT
phrase.
Be aware of dl rhe aForemendoned directive and melody interpresive devices in your
I~srcningsessions and take note of rhosc that are particularly m u s ~ d effect~ve.
y
APPENDIX II

TRITON SUBSTITUTlON AND ACOUSTICS


Triconc subsumtion is a phenomenon rhar i s a result ofrempered tuning. Alrhough it works
for non-fixed tuned insrruments, it is probabl)rdue to performance adjustrnencs from years
of playing with fixed pitch instruments. h o k i n g at the overtone series, one can see chat
enharmonically spelled intervals should resolve difirendy. Bur wirh tempered tuning, the
differen; spellings nonetheless sound the same.

Example:

1. Thc overtone series based on C rvih the palrids numbered,


2. The 7th and 5th parcials creating a rricone inrerval - subtracting the 5 from 7 gives the
difference rone, rhe ronic of h e critone.
3 . k 4. The same procedure for the series b a ~ e don F#,a critonc from C.
5. The upper srmcture trironc intenals sound the same and as a sound, can resoke the in
rhe same way - producing the effect that the roots are s u b s t i r u ~ l c .
Tunes &at scart on:
A. I Major or I II Minor R. I1 Minor

Here's That Rainy Day What a Difference a Dzy Made


T h e Gid From lrnpanema Satin Doll
This Nearly Was Mine Body and Soul
My Foolish Hearc Autumn in New York
A Foggy Day Its You or No One
You Stepped Out of a Dream Prisoner o f L o w

C. VI Minor D. 1V Major or Dominant

My Funny Valentine After You've Gone


All TheThings You Are Just Friends
Alone Together Love For Sale
If I Should Lose You How Insensitive
Lover Man

E. Non-Diatonic or Miscellaneous

Night and Day bVl


Lover 7 dominant
1 Cover the ~ar;?rFranc II dominant
Prelude 10 a Kiss V1 dominant

The reader is urged to fill the empty Cines.


APPENDIX II

ADDITIONAL REHARMONIZATION - NEW PIELODIES


Included for additional smdy or as a source of c o n t e r n p o r ~rcsyled standards to play over
or to add to your reperroire.

A. A reharrnonizarion of "Pm Getting Scntimenral Over You" ~ ' i c ha partial new rnelociy,
chew is a return to the original melody at the second bar of the B seccron and the last
three measures of Ehe third ending - ,oi\mg impetus so a partial nerv r~tle.

Example: "Getting Semi-Mental" by Ron Miller

C-Copyn$r 1BEE Ronjarn Music, Biull

5. Only slightly reharmonized version of "Su~eccGeorgia Brolm.'' bur with a q u l r b and


angular new melody. The rune is meanc to bc a "burner" - it hFurfills irs premise.
ADDIT ION& MAXfRt&LS

Example: "Sweet GB" by Ron Miller

new bop F7
A

~b73 G13 ~b73 ~ 1 3 sir7 ~ b 7 ~ 63 1 ~b73


2- > 4 w

I
2'
solos: "Sweet Georgia Brown"
Q C o p ~ n 1983
r Roolam Musac, BMI
APPENDIX l l

C. Another reharrnonizar~onand new melody of ".Nisht and Dajr - chis rime by David
Licbrnan. Compare i t to versions found in Chapter 11.

Example: "Day and Nite" by David tiebman


ADDITIONAL MhTRIAlrS

Q . A new-bop modal reharmonization of?and new melody for "What L This Thing
Called Love."

Example: "Love Thing" by Ron Miller

vamp
C Phrygian C Aeolian

C Aeolian F-11 J C

Gsus A / B (head only)

ESUS Esus Ft;sus ~bsus sbsus D~SUS E ~ U S

D Copyn~ht1983 Ronjam MUSIC,


BMI
APRENDIX III

APPENDIX 111

The foliowing materials are induded for further smdy, reference, and chrificrttion.

LIST Of ALL USABLE PENTATONIC SCALES


This lisring was originally created by a computer program (lncIuded later) and spelled out
in a more mus~call a n p g e here; the limits of the list are chat there bc no inrerval greater
than a trirone. This is to attempt ro Iirnlt the number of created scdes that may have roo
many adiacent s m t o n e s - an?; rnodall~wlthln rhe scale w o d d be roo obscure, and che
shape of the generated pentatonic wouId not be musical.
This lisung is to be referred to as a source of altmed pentaronics and to cross-check any
penratonics created by the combined method.

ALL PENTATONlt SCALES WTH NO INTERVAL LARGER THAN A TRITON


w
I I)
I,
I1

-- -- c ) --- C>
I1
I1 XI
t'
t

C . 8 .
e
- "
or, Y-'
I
#
A
a>
11
e -
A ~1
h-
r -
OEI
I
8 -
A c1
109. ria. 111. 112.
APPENDIX Ill

761. 162. 163. 164.


AODITFONAL MATERIALS
APPENDIX 111
&DDITION.IALMATERIALS

n I .
I
I I , . I . .
I .
.
I
> P I .
-
I

I ' I ' I
P. I

I& ,
I

c r * - rn - * ,'
I
4

.
8

I
* p = b r
I
I '
I
I C
, I -; ;
- 8 1
1 II

I
m
I,
I'
11
I,
I .

,pew,
I.
I u
4-
,
I
I
" I

p
I
is
.
) nr
I
1
-
, I
I,,
I ,
I 1
- m r b
I
m

'
A P P W D I X 111

LANGUAGE LISTING
T h e actual C language Iisting of rhe program that created the lisr of usable modes. this is
included for any programmers char may want m modify it to crcace orhcr sraIc lisunp. The
program is purposely ineleganr to provide more pombilig to other platforms - this 11% on-
pnally uritren For the A h 1040 ST (Motorola 68K) and compiled u ~ r hche laser C devel-
opment package - the version presented here is fully .WSI compliant and should compile on
just about any system. A more dwcIopcd prosram would include graphic represenration of
the scale dam by notes on a sraff, savin~the scales data or MIDI data to h s c . b c ~ n pable ro
demonstrate any selected scales either by MIDI ourpur or by monitor speaker, being able to
pnnr the grxphic notes/smffscreen and allowing user input ofdara ro create all possible sca-
les with no particular limincions - dl wirh mouse, windows and menu interfacc of course.
This does exlsr:- contact h e aurhor for more infurrnauon.

J C * * * ~ i C * 4 * * * * C + ~ * * * * * i * * * ~ 3 * f + * ~ * t * f * + * + * ~ + * * ~ ~ * * * ~ ~ * + + * * ~ * * * * + * ~ ~ t * * + +

"'* A!' ALGORTTHM TO CREATE ALL MODES W~~ NO XTERVAL G E 4 T E R THAN


*+*
*** k N A U G M E N I Z D SECOND BY THE TETRACHORD METHOD - R Miller 1995'**
*+*~*+X+**I*XW*+,+,+C*~********X**~****f~7*+***~*~~******+****u++**~t*+~/

f include <stdio.h>
+include <stdlib.h>
Finclude <scring.h,

+define SIZE 600


#define L 3
+define K' 222

int m d :

/* ternchorddata */
inr may[L][Kl=
i
{32,1,3-12, 3,1.I, 0,0,0, 0.0,0,O.Q,O, 0.0.0},
{2,3.1, 22.7, 22.1, 2,1,3,2.1,2,1,1.1, CiJ.O},
{ 13.2, lJ.1, 12.3, 1-22>1.2*lV 1,1,3,1.1.2 }
1;

char *noteslS] = ~c","D","E","P."G";A~,"B~;c~ 1;


inr vdue[8] = { 0 , 2 , 4 , 5 ,7 , 9 , 11, 12 j;

void write-ta-disk{void);

void m;iin(vaid)
I
int x, y. 2: w, p, q, done, a, A,B,C,13,E,F:G,HI T=L"X7;
char ke;

prinrfI"\nsclect screen info:\n hlc 'd' ro show data - \


hit 'space' to cornpure only'n\n\nm);
while(!(key = geuhar())):
if(kcy == W 0 )
prinrfv \,n\nL cornpuring data - \n\n");
whil e(l done){
for(!-& y<L: y+-){
forrz-0; z<L; F*){
fnt(x=O; x;n7;x--3H
for(w=& w<W': ~-+=3)(
/* getting the sum of tetrachords */
~~==YI.I I.l)I
p=arrayLv][x] + array>] [x+ 13 array[!.] [x+2]:
ADamONAt MATERIALS

q-arra!jz]lw] -
array[z]zl[w+I] array!z][w+Z];
1
else
p=q=Q;

J*if sum of ~etrachords<l3*/


imp) ~ q ha
) (@+ WI{
A=mode[totd][O]=0;
B=modejro.otd][ 1 j = a m y ~ ] [ x ~ :
C-rnodeltowI][2]=array~][x-l];
D=mod~~t~d~~]=array~y]~x+~;
F-mode[rod]~3]=army[zJ[w];
G=modelrotaI][6]=arrayIz][w-11:
H=mode[tod](7]=array[z](w-2];
E-modc[tom1][4]=12-(.4+K*DcF-G+H);

j' smcn display */


if(key == 'd')!
prinrfr [ W d ]",rod-1):
printf("s63d ".B);
prind("%2d".C):
prinrf("Wd ".D):
printF("[%Zd] ",H);
prinzf("l2d ".El:
printf("X2d ",F);
printfr962d \nn,G);
} /* key-- 13 */

if(a3T && (B--3 Mi C--2 && D m - I ) )


done = rrue;!* test for 1 s t retrachord "/
} /* end p+q<12.. */

++a;!' lncsemcnr main counter ',I

ifIkey -= 0x20 ti& a % 120 == 0)


printf("\ncyclcs completed: R3d",a);
~f(a SIZE)
%

- done = 1:
) /* cnd for(u,.*i
} /* end For[x"/
1 P end for(z */
] /* end for y.*J

pr~ncf("\n\n\n- All Done ! - To& Scales Created: Z3d\in\n",rod):


'd't o do again. \
pr~ntfI"\n-hlr 's' to save oucpur to &k and q u l ~
'9' to gulr -\nu);

switch(key){
case 'sf,
prinMm'\n\n- saving data as 'scdes.~ir'In the defaulr d~recrmr)'\n\,
exiss~ngFiles will be ovemmctcn!\n\n")1
u~nr~-ro-dlsk();
eXit(1):
brcak:
case Id'.
goco cop,
break
me 'q':
APPENDlX Ill

cxit(1);
break;
defaulc:
break;
I
} J* end ofmain * i

void write-m-disk(void)
i
inr x,y,z. A.B30.C.D,E;
char ~rbuf1341;
FlLE *&eEle;

thefile = fopen("scalcs.d. "rP):


if(thefile != NULL){
fort.-0;ycrotal;!.+-){
if(y ? rota])
b& /+ifcyclcwer orabortdcsired*/
D-0.
if(rnodeb] [2] && !7 SEE){
fprinfltbefile:' %d :C ",(J*I));
for(x-l; xGX: xL+){ J" convert numeric data to alpha +J
E~~due!x];
C-modeb] [XI;
D +- C.
if(D :, 12) B=12:
fprintF(thefile."%s",notes[x]);
if(EcDK /* check for enharrnon~cs* /
iC((B-E)==2)fprinrf(thefile."%sn~"~ ");
el= "1:
fprintf(thefile,"%sm/r'
1
iflE>D){
if((E-D)m=2) Fprin~(thcKle,"%sE,%b "1;
else fprinrfjthefde,%sm."):
1
if(E==D)
fprintf(th&le,"k"," "):
) J" end of for(x.....'/
1 /* end of if(rnod~..*;

} *!, end of forktotal ...*i


fclose(thefi1e);
puts("fd c successfuDy wrimen\n"):
) /* end of iqfopen ...IY/

else!
prinrf("\ncodd nor open fde - press key...");
gcrchar();
1
ADDITIONAL HATERIALS

MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS
1. Computer generared hamonizarions of alrered pentatonic scales, one chord per each
scale pitch.

Ex. 1

Ex. 3 Ex. 4

Ex. 7 Ex. 8
n I -

EK. 9 Ex. 10

Ex. 11 Ex. '12


APPENDIX 11:

2. Another example of harmonizin~a penta~onicmelody.

C-ll GC Lydian

I C Phrygian ) Bb Phrygran ' Galr

F Phrygian I EL-ll

F Phrygian Eb Dorian Qsus ~bsus


.Examples ofpentatonics created by the alccration method.

a) $56: b4, Cj - Altered (Modes of: Db Me1 Minor) b) *713: M, b7 - hRixoC4, Doriana
(Modes of: G Me!M~nor,G Harm Minor)

c) +37: b6, CT- Mixoh6 Pht-)yan43


(Modes of: F Mel M~norlHarmMinor)

d) e79: Major Blues

f ) $155: lonian 66 g) $224: Phrygian 0

h) lonian t 5 i) lonian t2, b6

k) Altered
APPENDIX Ill

4. h a n o score of "Palm X" for exrra smdy and pcrfomancc use.

PALM X
comp./arr. Ron Miller

ED- 1 l
ADDITIONAL M&TERIAtS

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Ron Miller. Professor (Snzdio Music andlazz). received a B.F.A, degree from Ronda Adancic
Universiy and a M.M. degree from the Universiql oF Miami. His compositions have been
performed arorldwide, including rhe Jamcy Acbersold Camps. and have been recorded
and/or performed by notables he likes of Red Rodney, Hal Galper,Joe b v a n o , Billy Hart,
Kennp Werner, Ira Sullivan, Stan Getz, Mark Egan and Danny Goctlieb of E~ernenrs.
Ron's composition srudents have included, among others, Pat Meheny, Bobby \Trar;son, "T"
Lavitz, Bruce Hornsby. Mark ED-, Jon Secada and Gil Goldstein. He has given iazz piano
performances with Ira Sullivan. Allen Eager, Rick Margiu6 Mark Egan, and Pat Metheny,
and has backed up many show busmess personalities as u.cll.
M q of his students, under his direction, have been granted the prestigious Down Bear
award either as individuals or in a group effort The Best S d l Ensemble award wenc to t h c
Fusion Ensemble in 1979, Prioiiqp in 1988, and the MonEcjMing~Ensemble in 1997.
Indnldual awards of Besr Soloist went to Reed Arvin in 1979, and Rick Margitza in 1984. Of
the Down Bear Ouucanding Performance awards, d i e Avant-Gardc ~nscmblewon in 1980,
1981 and 1982, the Fusion Ensemble won in 1951 and 1982. and the MankjMingus
Ensemble received the awatd in 1984.
Ron's composlnons can be found on t h e following recordings: Broo&n Bhes, Danny
Gordicb; Freadasn Tawe~;Mike O w D~dogs,Hd Galper; S m t b Sign, the U M Concert Jazz
Band: fiberdl Arts, Elements; B b ~ s j 5 rthe OId New Age, Gary K d l q Loneb In a Crowd, Barry
Ries; and G l d n g Sran Samole wirh EIemenrs.
In addirion to r e d i n g jazz comgosisjon, advanced improvisation, and jazz piano, Miller
direccs the Monk/Mingus ensemble, t h e Avant-Garde ensemble, and t h e Horace Silver
ensemble.

Ron can be reached ar rmilIerO@bellsouth.net


;

Air.
:
a r r a n g i n g / composing / harmony / theory

The jazz Theory Workbook


O R D E RN O . li201 ( I ~ ~ - P R G 8011~1
E

This book is a primer in jau fheory, infended to prepare the student for t h e serious 5~udyof jaa impwsation.
arrangement and composition.
Included are many musical examples and written assignments for practice in the theoreticat skills. Appropriate
exercises are prov~dedt o reinforce theoretical concepts by immedrate application to the instrilment.

S E R R V COKER 1 BOB KWAPP ; LARRY VINCENT


Hearin' the Changes
* O R D E RNO. 1 4 2 7 0 ( 1 0 2 - ~ 1 * 6B
O D E J

BILL D O B B I N S
JazzArranging and Composing.: a Linear Approach

Jazz Arrangement und Komposition: ein lineares Konzept


BESTELL-MR.11306 [RIJCHJCD)

Arrangement et composition de la rnusique de jazz: une approche Linaire


C O M M A H D E 11307 [LIYRC~CC)

Arregios de Jazzy cemposici6n: un miitado lineal


O R D E RNO. t 1 3 D p [EOOI:ICO)

-Many different mssibilities for hamonizlng the same mefody are illustrated and analysed, using techniques bv such
influentla1 arrangers and composer5 as Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn, Ollver Nelson, Gil Evans and Ctare fisther.
-Techniques of melodv harmonisation, [inear writing and counterpoint tor 2, 3. 4 and 5 horns.
-A chapter on wr~tingFor the rhythm sectron clearly illustrates the techniques commonly used by jazz anangers and
composers.
-SIX complete scores rn concert keu are ideal for analysrs, for playing the horn parts on the niano or for following the
performances on the CD.
-4n extensive chapter on form and devetonment deals with extended composit~onalform5 and the use of cornposit~onal
techn~ouesIn writin5 for the small jazz ensemble,
-A cseful discogranhlf is induded at the end of each chapter.
"jazz Amging and Composing rs h e Jirst book to p m v i d ~a dear and logtca! bridge Jrom the mmo bodc techniques of
a m g i n g and meloay homonisotion to the more advanced Iineor methods employed by some of the most interesting
and tnfluential jaz arrangers ond composers. I have long known Bill's unique nabities m o _oiffedpianist and rorn~bset.
und I hrghly recommend this book to jazz writers or all levels of experience." (Clare Fiwhed

G ~ G
L OLOSTE~N
jazz Composefs Companion
ORDER N O . 1 1 3 0 4 ( Z T ~ - P A L ! BOOK!

The book is divided into three main sections: Melody, Rhythm, and Harmony. Dozens of musical examples 2s well as
cumpositi~nsby Bill Euans {pianist), taco Pzstor~ous.Iim Hall Ralph Towner. Steve Swallon~,Pitt Methenp: Michael
t techniaves. An extensive chapter on the cornwsi-
Gibbs, a.0. are inctuded in order t o illustrate specific c~rnpositiona
tional process features intew~ewswith jazz composers Bill Evans, Carla Bley. George Russell. Horace Silver, Pat
Metheny, Chlck Coma. Lvte Mays, Anthony Davts, Herbie Hancock, Rlcn~eBeirach, Ralph Towner. a.0.
'GiE does o servirf I~ereon rr high /eve/. The concrpts he offers impwse no sfvle ond thus, con be t.sed and extended tu
enrich any musicions vocobrrlay The rest is up to you. " (Bill Evans)

AHDY IAFFE
jazz Harmony

2nd edition, completely rwised and enlarged. tq chapters rncludinp ex~rcisesand assignments: Intenak, Chords.
Invers~ons.Modes: D~atonicAnd Modal Chord Propssions: Tne Blues: Song Forms and Melodic Variations; Secondav
Dominanl Chords: Substituie Dorn~nant7th Chords and Tritone SUDS: Minor Kev Harmony; Modal Interchange and Mlno:
Blues; Common Chord Progressions and Vo~ce-Leading;Modulat~on;Pentatonic5 and Other Svmmetrlc Scales: Blues
Varietions: Rhythm Chanvs: Coltrane's 3-Tonic System: Slash Chords and Hybrid Chord Voicinss.
"]ozz Harmony is c brilliant addthan to the Feld o r j o u theory It is wtl-writren and beautiJulty organized. and rhe infor-
motion d contoins is tnoroughlv reswrched and authenticollv presented. I recommend rt hichly" (Dovid 8 ~ k e d
"Whether wu ow o teacher: o student, a pioyer or lrstener who wan5 to know w h f to fisten [or in o i ~ r performance.
z
Andrlafle's Jczz Hamronv will help you to do whit? you do bener: Cherk it our!" (Bilfy Taylor)
"Everyone in lozz Studies should own jazz Horrnon~by AndylaFe. * lBill Rrn-1