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CONFIDENTIAL 1 LG/APR 2016/ELC501

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

COURSE : ENGLISH FOR CRITICAL ACADEMIC READING


COURSE CODE : ELC501
TEST : APRIL 2016
TIME : 1 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1. This question paper consists of one (1) passage with twelve (12) questions.

2. Answer ALL questions in the Question Paper.

3. Fill in the details below:

UiTM STUDENT CARD NO. : _________________________________________

PROGRAMME / CODE : _________________________________________

PART : _________________________________________

ENGLISH LANGUAGE GROUP : _________________________________________

NAME OF LECTURER : _________________________________________

4. You are allowed to refer to a print English-English dictionary.

5. Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of:

i) the Question Paper

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO

This examination paper consists of 13 printed pages

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TOTAL: 35 MARKS

Read the following article and answer ALL the questions that follow.

The New Green

I Each night when Luki Arifin reaches his home in Rawa Badak, North Jakarta, the
first thing he does is turn on his water pump. With no access to clean public water,
Luki relies on a backyard well for his family's water needs. His nightly routine is not
just because he insists the water runs faster at this time of the day; it is also because
he has to let the murky water sit for a few hours to let the mud settle to the bottom of 5
the water tank. The well water is so contaminated that Luki's family only uses it to
mop the floor, and wash his clothes and motorcycle. They easily spend over $20 a
week buying clean water to drink and bathe.

II Luki is not alone. An estimated 700 million Asians do not have access to safe
drinking water, according to Professor Tommy Koh, chairman of the Asia-Pacific 10
Water Forum Governing Council. Our water woes stem from inadequate supplies
that result from an increasing urban population, pollution, poor infrastructure and
endemic corruption. Kallidaikurichi Seetharam, the director of the Institute of Water
Policy in Singapore warns that if the present trends continue, Asia will soon face a
water quality management crisis that is unprecedented in human history. 15

III Although 70 percent of the Earth's surface is covered by water, only 2.5 percent of
this water is fresh. On top of that, we only have access to a fraction of this finite
supply. The Earth's water cycle has done a great job of recycling this finite supply but
population demands, often in places with limited supplies, have resulted in putting
unwarranted stress on this cycle. Simply put, more people are using the same small 20
supply of water.

IV Sandra Postel, director of the Global Water Policy Project, a group seeking to save
fresh water, reveals that Asia has 60 percent of the worlds population, but only 36
percent of the Earths renewable water supply. Postel states that water stress can
be seen across Asia, especially in places like China where stretches of the Yellow 25
River are nearly dry. From a study that she conducted, she found that the number of
water tables is diminishing due to overutilisation of groundwater. It is a major

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predicament in cities such as Beijing and Bangkok. The challenge for all Asian
countries is to increase water productivity that is to get more output or value per litre
of water, Postel adds. 30

V With two-thirds of the worlds population expected to be living in cities by 2030, the
problem does not appear to be resolved. Most countries depend on seasonal
monsoons for the replenishment of reservoirs, rivers and aquifers. Since a lot of the
annual precipitation falls only a few months of the year, over-use during the rest of
the year creates problems. Parts of India, for instance, receive 70 percent of the rain 35
in just a few intense storms during the monsoon. Urbanisation has compounded this
problem because we have paved over vast water catchment areas. As a result, the
underground aquifers do not get refilled or filtered properly.

VI The challenge facing our water supply is the exponential rate at which water is used
and often wasted. According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United 40
Nations, water use has grown at more than twice the rate of population increase in
the last century. This is due to massive urbanisation as well as increased use in the
domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors. This problem is aggravated by the
amount of water that is wasted, thus making it obvious why there is water stress,
particularly in Asia. This waste is happening even as most Asian cities are struggling 45
to provide clean drinking water to an ever-increasing urban population. About 60
million cubic metres of water is lost daily in developing countries, many of them in
Asia, due to leakages.

VII In 2007, a study conducted by WWF-Indonesia and the Meteorology Laboratory of


the Bandung Institute of Technology predicted that the Citarum river, which supplies 50
water to the dam, will run dry due to warmer temperatures and extensive land use
that converts agricultural land into housing complexes. This shortage, as well as
other situations of mismanagement, has led consumers like Luki Arifin to believe that
private water companies are irrelevant. Some consumers have even stopped
subscribing to public tap water and have reverted to exploiting groundwater, further 55
worsening the seawater infiltration and land subsidence.
VIII Professor Asit Biswas, author of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) sponsored
report entitled Asian Water Development Outlook, believes that any water crisis in
the future will not be due to a physical scarcity of water, but because of improper
management. Another study conducted by the ADB in 2005 found that Manilas poor 60

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spent up to 20 percent of their income on water peddled at more than seven times
the cost charged by the government-owned Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage
System. The residents were forced to buy water from private companies because
the government utility was unable to supply them with clean water.

IX In an effort to improve the system, the government has since granted a 25-year 65
concession to private water companies to control supply and cost. The Manila
Water Company controls the citys east zone, while Maynilad Water Services
operates in the west. A major change is now taking place to overcome poor planning
and neglect by the government utility. Quezon City Mayor, Feliciano Belmonte Jr.,
avows to increase availability of potable water to the city's 2.68 million residents. 70
That means urgently replacing or laying new pipes in some parts of the city that
covers more than 25 percent of Metro Manila. Belmonte Jr. believes rehabilitation of
the decades-old pipes is on track.

X Similar successes in privatising water have been reported in Penang and Johor in
Malaysia and Phnom Penh in Cambodia. Traditionally, governments in Asia have 75
held tariffs down to the extent that water utilities incur an operating loss, and then
cover the loss through debt. The debts mount and are eventually written off. This
method of financing gives politicians direct control over the utility, in the appointment
of staff and in the distribution of large contracts. The World Bank estimates that up to
40 percent of water sector finances are being lost to dishonest and corrupt practices. 80
Corruption is at the core of the governance crisis in the water sector, states a policy
brief issued by the Stockholm International Water Institute. To counter the corruption,
Asian Development Bank consultant, Arthur McIntosh, avers that governments need
to move away from being service providers to become regulators.

XI Providing drinking water to citizens nearly free of cost has also caused incalculable 85
damage to regional water resources. For sustainable water development, it is
essential to price water correctly. Without rational water pricing, Asian utilities are
trapped in a vicious circle of debt, inefficiency and waste. According to Professor
Biswas, a lack of funds will result in water systems not being properly maintained

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and investment funds not being available for updating technology, improving 90
management, expanding networks and treating wastewater.

XII Cities lacking independent water supplies, for instance Singapore, have invested
heavily in new technology to recycle wastewater. Specially made membranes can
now take treated used water and clean it so thoroughly that it is safe for anyone to
drink. There are also great strides being made in converting saltwater through 95
desalination. The easiest way to save water, however, is to use it carefully. Water
experts stress that reducing waterwaste is much easier and less expensive than
recycling it. Water has no substitutes. We can transition away from coal and oil to
solar, wind and other renewable resources, but there is no transitioning away from
water. 100

Adapted from: The New Green, Readers Digest, Volume 92: No. 548, pp. 64-69.

QUESTION 1
For each of the following items in this question, indicate your answer by circling the
appropriate option.
(a) The word endemic in line 13 can best be replaced by the word
i. dominant
ii. powerful
iii. common
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iv. prevalent

(b) In line 28, the word predicament can be best interpreted as


i. mess
ii. problem
iii. hardship
iv. situation

(c) Based on the context, the most suitable meaning of the word exponential in line 39 is
i. rapid
ii. growing
iii. spreading
iv. aggressive

(d) The word concession in line 66 can contextually mean


i. lease
ii. tender
iii. rights
iv. ownership

(e) The most suitable meaning for the word transition in line 98 as used in the paragraph is
i. change
ii. keep
iii. move
iv. transform

(5 marks)

QUESTION 2
List two types of support given by the writer in paragraph IV to strengthen the opinion that
water productivity in Asia needs to be increased.
Provide one example for each type of support.
a) Type of support: __________________________________________________

Example: __________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________

b) Type of support: __________________________________________________

Example: __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

(4 marks)

QUESTION 3
Identify the stated main idea of paragraph VI and provide ONE MAJOR and ONE MINOR
supporting detail.

a) Stated main idea:


_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

(1 mark)
b) Major supporting detail:
_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

(1 mark)
c) Minor supporting detail:
_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

(1 mark)

QUESTION 4
Formulate the implied main idea of paragraph VIII.
_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

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(2 marks)

QUESTION 5
Identify the type of support for each of the supporting details based on the following options.
Use each option only ONCE.

Personal Experience Example Expert Testimony


Explanation Expert Opinion Research Finding

No Supporting Details Types of


Supporting
Details

a) Kallidaikurichi Seetharam, the director of the Institute of Water Expert


Policy in Singapore warns that if the present trends continue, Asia Opinion
will soon face a water quality management crisis that is
unprecedented in human history (Paragraph II).

b) Urbanisation has compounded this problem because we have Explanation


paved over vast water catchment areas. As a result, the
underground aquifers do not get refilled or filtered properly.
(Paragraph V).

c) According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Expert


Nations, water use has grown at more than twice the rate of Testimony
population increase in the last century. This is due to massive
urbanisation as well as increased use in the domestic, agricultural
and industrial sectors. This problem is aggravated by the amount of
water that is wasted, thus making it obvious why there is water
stress, particularly in Asia. (Paragraph VI).

d) Another study conducted by the ADB in 2005 found that Manilas


poor spent up to 20 percent of their income on water peddled at
more than seven times the cost charged by the government-owned Research
Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (Paragraph VIII). Finding

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(4 marks)

QUESTION 6
Write T for a statement that is TRUE and F for a statement that is FALSE.

a) Population density is one of the contributing factors to water shortage


problems in the Asian region.
b) Annual rainfall that replenishes reservoirs and other aquifers provide
adequate water supply to consumers and there is no issue of overusing
water.
c) According to Biswas, poor management will remain the main reason for
water crisis in the future.
d) Privatising water has helped to overcome the problems of water supply to a
certain extent.

(4 marks)

QUESTION 7
In 2007, a study conducted by WWF-Indonesia and the Meteorology Laboratory of the
Bandung Institute of Technology predicted that the Citarum river, which supplies water to the
dam, will run dry due to warmer temperatures and extensive land use that converts
agricultural land into housing complexes. This shortage, as well as other situations of
mismanagement, has led consumers like Luki Arifin to believe that private water companies
are irrelevant (lines 49-54).

Infer what the author means by the above statement.

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_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

(2 marks)

QUESTION 8
Indicate the topic that is most suitable for the content of paragraph IX by circling the
appropriate option from the following list:

a) Challenges of monitoring water quality


b) Steps taken in overcoming the water crisis
c) The current phenomenon of water crisis
d) Recent research on water supply and drainage
(1 mark)

QUESTION 9
According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, water use has
grown at more than twice the rate of population increase in the last century. This is due to
massive urbanisation as well as increased use in the domestic, agricultural and industrial
sectors. This problem is aggravated by the amount of water that is wasted, thus making it
obvious why there is water stress, particularly in Asia (lines 40-45).

Infer what the author means by the above statement.

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_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

(2 marks)

QUESTION 10
In this article, consumers like Luki Arifin do not have access to clean water supply.
Therefore, they resort to finding alternative water sources such as using groundwater for
their survival, thus making the role of private and public water companies redundant.
Do you think Luki Arifins decision to access groundwater is acceptable? Explain.
_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

(3 marks)

QUESTION 11
Study the statements below. Write I for inductive reasoning and D for deductive reasoning in
the boxes provided.

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No Statements Types of
Reasoning

a) Most countries depend on seasonal monsoons for the


replenishment of reservoirs, rivers and aquifers. Since a lot of the
annual precipitation falls only a few months of the year, over-use
during the rest of the year creates problems. Parts of India, for
instance, receive 70 percent of the rain in just a few intense
storms during the monsoon. Urbanisation has compounded this
problem because we have paved over vast water catchment
areas. As a result, the underground aquifers do not get refilled or
filtered properly (Paragraph V).
b) For sustainable water development, it is essential to price water
correctly. Without rational water pricing, Asian utilities are trapped
in a vicious circle of debt, inefficiency and waste. According to
Professor Biswas, a lack of funds will result in water systems not
being properly maintained and investment funds not being
available for updating technology, improving management,
expanding networks and treating wastewater (Paragraph XI).

c) Cities lacking independent water supplies, for instance Singapore,


have invested heavily in new technology to recycle wastewater.
Specially made membranes can now take treated used water and
clean it so thoroughly that it is safe for anyone to drink. There are
also great strides being made in converting saltwater through
desalination. The easiest way to save water, however, is to use it
carefully (Paragraph XII).

(3 marks)

QUESTION 12
Determine the two (2) underlying assumptions based on paragraph X by circling the
appropriate options.

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a) corruption contributes to the water crisis.


b) privatising water leads to the successful management of water supply.
c) acting as regulators in water sector could not curb cases of corruption.
d) privatising water can lead to corruption.
(2 marks)

END OF QUESTION PAPER

Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL