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# CHAPTER 6

MECHANICAL DESIGN

## The mechanical design is a function of the equipment, operating pressure and

temperature, material construction and equipment dimensions. Mechanical design for
the continuous stirred tank reactor is carried out based on the approach to Sinnot
(Coulson & Richardsons, Volume 6).

## 6.1.1 Material Of Construction

The raw material too corrosive to the wall. Corrosion can be occur because of sea
spray, drain or drops of dew. It is the most generally used Austenitic Stainless Steel
(18Cr/8Ni, 316). This material is good for creep resistance, intergranular cracking and
last longer. For this material, the design stress at 120C (Coulson & Richardsons,
Volume 6).For safety purpose.
Design stress, f = 125 x103 kN/m2

## 6.1.2 Corrosion Allowance

The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow for material
lost by corrosion and erosion or scaling. It is recommended to use corrosion allowance
= 4x10-3m or 4mm since the influent and effluent gas of the reactor is corrosive
(Coulson & Richardsons, Volume 6).

246
6.1.3 The Minimum Thickness Of The Reactor, e

It is known that the operation pressure for 6.262 atm. As a safety factor, the reactor
pressure must be 50% higher than the actual process procedure. Therefore;
N
Pi 1.5Poperating 1.5 6.262atm 9.393 10 5
m2
In calculating the minimum thickness of the cylindrical shape reactor, the following
Pi Di
e
2 f Pi
Where,
N
Pi Design Pressure ,9.393 105
m2
Di Internal diameter, 3 m
N
f Design stress,125 106
m2

The material used is Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni, 316) and the operation
temperature is 120.

N
9.393 105 3m
e m2
N N
2 125 106
2
9.393 105 2
m m
0.01131m 11.31mm

## Actual thickness = e + Corrosion Allowance

= (11.31+4)mm = 15.31 mm

## Try to phere head [Sinnot, 1999]

Data: crown radius, Rc = Di = 3
knuckle radius, Rk = 6% Rc = 0.18

247
Pressing and no joints would form a head of this size. Therefore, joint factor, J=1

Cs 1 3 Rc Rk
4
0.5

1 3 3 0.18
4
0.5

1.77

Pi Rc C s
eh
2 Jf Pi C s 0.2

9.393 10 31.77
5

eh 6 5

## Try for ellipsoidal head (Sinnot, 1999)

Standard ellipsoidal heads are manufactured with a major and minor axis ratio of 2:1
The minimum thicknes,
Pi Di
eh
2 Jf 0.2 Pi

eh
9.393 10 35

21125 10 0.29.393 10
6 5

## By comparing the minimum thickness between torisphere and ellipsoidal head, an

248
6.1.5 Thickness Of Insulation

The reactor is insulated to avoid loss of heat from the reactor (to conserve energy) and
to keep process conditions from fluctuating with ambient conditions. Type of insulator
used is 85% magnesia. It is the mixture of magnesia and asbestos fibers. Thickness of
insulation is depends on process temperature as shown in below.
Table 6.1 Thickness of insulation as a function of process temperature
T (C) 93 205 316
t (mm) 12.7 25.4 31.75
Table 1.7
tinsulation for the process with maximum temperature for safety purpose is T = 600C can
be estimated by interpolation:
tinsulation = 48.23mm

## 6.1.6 Selection Of Impeller Arrangement

The turbine with flat vertical blades extending to the shaft is suited to the vast majority
of mixing duties up to 100,000 cP or so at high pumping capacity. Because of that the
turbine with flat vertical blades is selected [Sinnot 1999].

Size of impeller depends on the type of impeller and operating conditions. For turbine
impeller, the ratio of diameter of impeller and vessel is in the range of d/D = 0.3 to 0.6.

## Take the ratio of diameter of impeller and vessel as 0.4, hence

The diameter of impeller,
d 0.4 3
d 1.2 m

d 8
1.2 8 0.15m

249
d 2
1.2 2 0.6 m

D 12
3 12 0.25 m

= H/6
= 9/6 = 1.5 m

H H 6
9 1.5m 7.5m

H 3
9 3 3m

## 6.1.7 Shaft Design

Before shaft design can begin, the motor horsepower, shaft speed and impeller must be
selected first for a turbine agitator application. Shaft design requires two steps:

## 1) Establishing the minimum shaft diameter to withstand the forces acting

upon the shaft

2) Determining the natural frequency of vibration for the shaft and turbines

The shaft and impeller must not rotate close to their natural frequency, Nc. As stated in
Journal of Liquid Agitation on August 1976 by Wayne D. Ramsey and Gerald C. Zoller,
the operating speed,N of the shaft must be sufficiently far from the systems natural

frequency to prevent the deflections that exceed the yield stress. Then, Nc N .

250
6.1.8 Speed Impeller

1
Hp
D 394 ( 3
)5
nS g N

## where D = blade diameter

Hp = horsepower
Sggg == specific gravity of Butyl Acetate
N = speed impeller

For typical power consumption for blending of low viscosity liquids. It is about 0.2 kW/m 3
(Coulson & Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Volume 1, page 293)

P p xV

## where p = power consumption per volume (kW/m 3)

V = volume of reactor in m 3

kW
P 0.2 x 37 m 3
m3

P = 7.4 kW @ 9.9234 hp

9.9234 1
1.2 394 ( ) 5
4(0.986) N 3

2.5166
2.6207 10 13
N3

N 3 17383.8

## Speed impeller, N 131.8 rpm

251
The torque transmitted by the shaft will have the maximum value above the uppermost
turbine. Since the power drawn by sealing devices is in significant, the maximum
torque,TQ becomes:

Hp
TQ (max) 63025
N
Where Hp= Agitator power
N = speed impeller

## Then, the torque value can be calculated as below;

9.9234
TQ (max) 63025
131.8

TQ(max) 4744.8774

The maximum bending moment, Mmax, is the sum of product of the hydraulic forces and
the distance from individual impellers to the first bearing

H p L'
M max 19000
ND

## Where Hp= Agitator power

N = speed impeller

L = Length of vessel

## Then, the bending moment value is

9.9234 9
M max 19000
131.8 1.2

M max 10728.3961

The minimum shaft diameter values can be calculated due to relationship to meet the
shear stress and tensile stress, respectively:

252
Shear stress diameter;

16 TQ (max) M max 1
2 2

ds [ ]3
s

## 16( M max TQ (max) M max ) 1

2 2

dt [ ]3
t

Then, the shear stress and tensile stress can be calculated as below:

16 4744.8744 2 10728.2032 13
ds [ ]
6000

d s 2.15 inc

dt [ ]
10000

## d t 4.8540 inc @ 12.3291 cm

Assume diameter = 13 cm

## To meet the shear and tensile requirement, a 13 cm of shaft diameter would be

recommended.

Then, estimate the hub weight from the table on page 103 (Journal of Liquid Agitation
on August 1976 by Wayne D. Ramsey and Gerald C. Zoller) and the blade weight by
substituiting into below;

## Hub weight = 11.34 kg

0.35D 3 H p 1
Wb ( ] 2
N

253
Where W b = weight of blade

Hp = Agitator power
N = speed impeller
Then;

0.35(1.2) 3 9.9256 12
Wb ( ]
131.8

Wb 0.2134 kg

W 11.34 0.2134 kg
W 11.55kg

## Final step, calculate the natural frequency by using equation

0.388 x 10 6 (d 2 Fm )
Nc
L' W L' S b

## Where d = diameter shaft

Fm = stainless steel factor
W = equivalent weight
Sb = bearing span

Then;

## 0.388 x 106 (0.132 1)

Nc
9 11.55 9 30.5

139680
Nc
192.2348

N c 726.5049 rpm

254
Since the natural frequency of 728.5049 rpm for the shaft and impeller is more than the
operating speed of 131.8 rpm, then the 13 cm shaft is acceptable.
6.1.9 Design of Vessel Subject to Combined Lading

## Vessel is subjected to other loads in addition to pressure and must be designated to

consider are:
1. Pressure
2. Dead weight of vessel and content(s)
3. Wind
4. External loads imposed by piping and attached equipment(s)

A much thicker wall will be needed at the vessel base to withstand the wind and dead
weight load. The vessel is divided t 5 sections, with the thickness increasing by 2 mm
by section. The wall thickness for steel vessel W v, average thickness, tavg is taken,
15.31 mm [Sinnot,1999]
WV 240Cv Dm H v 0.8Dm t avg

## Where Cv = a factor account for the weight of nozzles, man ways

= 1.08 for vessel with only a few internal fittings
= 1.15 for vessel with several man ways and other fittings
Dm= mean diameter of the vessel = (Di + tavg) = 3+ 0.01531 = 3.0153 m
Hv= height of the cylindrical area = 9 m

=136.5936kN

## Area of the reactor D 2H * 3 2 * 9

42.4170 m 2

Assume the reactor as platforms, steel, for vertical columns with 1.7 kN/m 2 reactor area.
(Sinnot, 1999) Hence, the weight of the reactor, W r

255
Wr 42.4172 m 2 *1.7 kN m 2
72.1089kN

The wind load (Sinnot, 1999) is now determined. A wind speed of 160 km/h can be
used for preliminary design studies. The wind pressure, P w is calculated using below
the formula;

Pw 0.05u w
2

0.05160
2

1280 N m 2

## Next, the loading per unit length of the vessel, F w

Fw Pw Deff
Where Def f = effective vessel diameter
Deff Di 2tavg
3 20.0153
3.0306 m

Hence, Fw Pw Deff

12803.0306
3879.2041 N m

256
6.1.10 Weight of Insulation

Since we use mixture of magnesia (85%) and asbestos fibers, we can calculate the
weight of insulator ;

W ins = Vg
= 1940 kg/m -3
(Reference: www.simetric.co.uk/si_materials.htm)
tinsulation = 48.23mm
Vouter -Vinner = (22/7)(1.2982)2(6.9)-(44)
= 3.5 m2
W ins = (1940)(3.5)(9.81)
=66.142 kN

WT Wv Wr Wins
274.8443kN

## 6.1.11 Analysis of stresses

Next, the determination of bending moment at bottom tangent line, M (Sinnot, 1999)

M Fw H v
2
2

3879.2041 92 0.5
157.1078kN

## At the bottom tangent line (t = 0.06 m)

Pi Di
a) Pressure stresses, h
2t

9.393 103 5

20.0153
9.20 107 N m2

257
Pi Di
L
4t

9.393 10 35

40.0153
4.60 107 N m2

## 274 103 3.01530.0153

1.89 106 N m2 (compressive)

c) Bending stresses, b M Di 2 t 1 I v

Where I v 64 D0 Di
4 4

64 3.03064 34
0.1649 m4
Hence, b M Di 2 t 1 I v

142 kN m2

## Therefore, the resultant longitudinal stress, z L w b

(Where w is compressive stress hence, value is negative)

4.55 107 N m2

## z downwind 4.60 107 1.89 106 142 103

4.27 107 N m2

258
The principal stresses will be z and h. The greatest difference between the principal
stresses will be on the downwind side.

## h z 9.20 107 4.27 107

4.9 107 N m2

By comparing this value with the maximum allowable design stress for the vessel, f
which is 125 E+6 N/m 2, the greatest difference is well below the maximum design
stress.
Next is the determination of elastic stability (buckling) (Sinnot, 1999)

c 2 10 4 t D0

## 2 104 0.0153 3.0306

101.0622 N mm2 1010623 N m2

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure:
= Dead weight stress + bending stress
w b
1.89 106 142 103
3.312 105 N m 2
The maximum compressive stress is well below the critical buckling stress. Therefore,
the design is satisfactory. The reactor thickness of 15 mm is taken

## 6.1.12 Type of Joint Between Reactor and Duct

Carbon steel pipe is used for the inlet and outlet pipe of the reactor and also for the
catalyst pipe. Optimum diameter for the pipe can be calculated using the following
equation (Coulson & Richardsons, Volume 6).

259
d 293G 0.37
0.53

## Where d = optimum diameter for carbon steel

G = Flow rate (kg/s)
mixture = density inlet (kg/m 3)
Table 6.2 The mass flowrate, density and the diameter of the pipeline
PIPE Inlet outlet catalyst
G (kg/s) 7.5022 7.5022 0.075
(kg/m ) 3
847 847 1050

## d (mm) 58.85 58.57 5

The optimum duct diameter included corrosion allowance 4mm. Since catalyst feed is 1
% of the total feed of mass flowrate in is sufficient from reactant charge.

Inlet pipe
G 7.5022 kg s
mixture 847 kg m 3

## d 2937.5022 8470.37 58.85mm

0.53

Therefore the optimum duct diameter is pipe o.d 58.85 mm . (based on standard
nominal size and included corrosion allowances)

Outlet pipe
G 7.5022 kg s

mixture 858 kg m 3

0.53

## Therefore the optimum duct diameter is pipe 61 mm .

Catalyst

catalyst 1050 kg m 3

260
Since catalyst feed is 1 % of the total feed of mass flowrate in is sufficient from reactant
charge
Gcatalyst 270 kg h

## d 293270 3600 10500.37 5mm

0.53

Therefore the optimum duct diameter is pipe 5mm pipe. (included corrosion allowance
4mm)

Figure 6.1 Typical standard flange designs (steel welding neck flanges)

Values for bolt and flange of the inlet pipe (Coulson & Richardsons, Volume 6).
The nearest value of optimum duct diameter;

## Table 6.3 Dimension for inlet pipe

Nom. Raised
Size Flange Drilling Boss
D1 Face Bolting
D b h1 d4 f No. d2 K d3
50 60.3 165 20 48 102 3 M16 4 18 125 75

261
Table 6.4 Dimension for outlet pipe
Nom. Raised
Size Flange Drilling Boss
D1 Face Bolting
D B h1 d4 f No. d2 K d3
50 60.3 165 20 48 102 3 M16 4 18 125 75

Table 6.5 Dimension for catalyst pipe (the optimum duct diameter is pipe o.d 5 mm)
Nom. Raised
Size Flange Drilling Boss
D1 Face Bolting
D B h1 d4 F No. d2 K d3
10 17.2 90 16 35 40 2 M12 4 14 60 28

## 6.1.13 Design of Support for Vertical Vessel

Bracket or lugs support are commonly used as a support for vertical vessel. The
advantages of bracket support over all types of support are they are inexpensive, can
absorb diametrical expensive by sliding over greased or bronzed plate, can easily
attached to the vessel by minimum amount of welding and are easily leveled or
shimmed in the field. (Brownell and Young,1959)
For lapped types of bracket, it may assumed that the bolt or weld provide lateral restrain
to the compression zones. In order to design this types of bracket, the moment capacity
must be greater the maximum bending in the bracket. (James R.Farr, 1988)

## Column 305305 158UB

D = 327.2 mm
B = 310.6 mm
T = 25.0 mm
A = 201.2 cm 2
Crane beam eccentrity, e =550mm
For bracket , use two of 20mm thick plate, t
Maximum bending moment in bracket = 136.049 kN x 0.55m = 74.827 kNm

262
Second moment of area of plate

IS
2 t 650
3

mm
12 1000
cm

2 20mm 6503
mm
12 1000
cm
91541.7cm 4

## AP 20mm 650mm 13000mm2

A AS Ap
AS 7120mm2

AP D TP
de
2A
13000mm 327.2mm 20mm

2 20120mm
112.167mm

2
D T
IX I S AS d e AP P d e
2 2

32.72cm 2cm
91541.7cm 4 71.2cm 2 11.216cm 130cm 2
2

11.2167cm
2 2
20661.259cm 4

IX
Zx
D
de
2
20661.259cm 4

32.72cm
11.2167cm
2
7494.0533cm 3 @ 7494053.331mm 3

263
M CXn PY Z X
265 N mm 2 7494053.33mm 3
1985924133Nmm @ 1985924.133kNm

Moment capacity is greater than the maximum bending in bracket, therefore the bracket
is satisfactory.

## Universal Column Dimension

UniversalColumn = 305mm x 305mm x 137mm
Dimensions
Weight of Vessel = 274.8442 kN
Assume Base = 600 x 600 plate
Number of Bolt =4
Assumptions;
L= 600mm
n = 50mm
Modulus Ratio = 15
Diameter of Bolt = 20mm
Tensile stress area = 245mm2

## Total bolt cross section area, A s

AS 2 Tensile stress area
2 245mm2
490mm2

d Ln
Where L=B=600mm

264
d 6000mm 50mm
550mm

M 3457.44 Nm
0.0254m
F 136049 N
L 600mm
100mm @ 0.1m
6 6
M L
F 6
6.1.13.2 Bearing Pressure, f c

Base area,
A L L
600mm 600mm
360000mm2

Base Modulus, Z
L3
Z
6
600mm 600mm 600mm

6
36000000mm3

F WV
10544 N

d1 0.5d n
M
F
mm
345744 Nm 1000
0.5550mm 50mm m
10544 N
577.90mm

265
6md1 AS
A1
B
6 15 577.90mm 490mm2

600mm
42475.62mm2

y 3 3d d1 y 2 A1 y A1d 0

y 230.8mm

## Therefore the bearing pressure; f c

6d1F
fc
By 3d y
6 577.90mm 136049 N

2.317 N mm2

## Maximum bending moment, BM

BM f c B
100mm2
2
2.567 N mm 600mm 5000mm2
2

7701kNmm@ 7.701kNm

## Try 32mm thick plate; (added with 2 corrosion allowance)

From Py is 265N/mm2
t2
Z B
6
600mm 32mm
2

6
102400mm 3

266
Moment capacity,
1.2 PYP Z
1.2 265 N / mm 102400mm3
32563.2kNmm@ 32.563kNm
Maximum bending moment < Moment capacity, hence the plate is satisfactory

## 6.1.13.4 Column and Base Plate Weld

For column dimensions of 305mm x 305mm x 137UC (Universal Column)
D=320.5mm
T=21.7mm
B=308mm
A = 201.2cm2 @ 20120mm2

## Maximum tension in the flanges

mm
3395.52 Nm 1000
M m 11.364kN

D T 320.5mm 21.7mm

2 B
2 308mm
616mm

## max imum tension in flange

Weld Shear
one flange weld length
11364 N
18.886 N mm
616mm

## 6.1.13.5 Column Bolt

Use 12 number of 33mm diameter bolts on each face
Maximum bending moment =136.049 kN x 0.55mm
=74.827kNm

267
M
Fs
12
74.827 kNm

12m
6.23kN

Tensile Force, Ft
Md max
Ft
d2
74.827 168
1000

12 902 1682
28.839kN

Shear capacity, PS

PS ps AS
375 694
260.25kN

Tensile Capacity, PS

Pt pt At
540 694
374.76kN

FS Ft
1.4
Ps At
7.20kN 28.728kN
0.1
260kN 374.76kN

## Hence bolt are satisfactory.

268
6.1.14 Manholes

The maximum length of manhole is dependent on the manhole diameter. The length is
perpendicular distance from the face of the opening including lining or any projection of
the branch within the vessel.
Type of branch connection: flush nozzle
Inside diameter = 598.50 mm
Nominal size = 600 mm
Outside diameter = 609.60 mm
Nominal wall thickness = 5.54 mm

## Compensation for manholes

Actual thickness
ta = (do di) / 2
= 5.55 mm

Minimum thickness
e1 = PiDi/(2f-Pi)
= 2.614 mm

Distance, N = 2.5 ta
= 13.875 mm

Length, S = di /2
= 299.25 mm

## Area removed, X = edi/2

= (7.773)(598.5)
2
= 2326.07 mm2

269
Compensation area, Y = Nt a Ne1 + Stc
= 40.737 +299.25tc

## tc is the thickness for compensation

Area X = Area Y
2326.07 = 40.737 +299.25tc
tc = 7.637 mm

## Flat end closure for manholes

Flat plates are used to blank off flange connections, and as covers for manholes
and inspection parts. Flat end closures are blind flanges, bolted cover with a full face

The thickness required will be depend on the degree of constraint at the plate
periphery. The minimum thickness required is given by:

e = CpDe(Pi/f)1/2
where Cp = design constant = 0.4
De = bolt circle diameter = 490 mm
f = design stress, 115 N/mm2
Minimum thickness for flat end closures, e = 18.277 mm
Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance, e = 20.277

## Table 6.6: Specification sheet for mechanical design for reactor

SPECIFICATION DATA

MECHANICAL DESIGN

Identification
Item no CSTR-100
Design orientation Vertical

270
Operating Condition
Operating temperature, oC 110
Operating pressure, atm 9
Material of construction Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni, 316)
Design stress, kN/m 2 125 x 106
Wall thickness, mm 15
Thickness insulation, mm 48
Thickness, mm 11
Impeller Arrangement
Type of impeller Turbine with flat vertical blades
Material of construction Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni, 316)
Diameter of impeller, m 1.20
Width of impeller, m 0.15
Offset of baffle, m 0.60
Baffle width, m 0.25
Baffle height, m 7.50
Shaft Design
Material of construction Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni, 316)
Speed impeller, rpm 131
Maximum torgue 4744
Maximum bending moment 10728
Diameter of shaft, cm 13
Vessel, kN 137
Insulation, kN 66
Total weight, kN 274
Analysis of stress
Bending moment, kN 157
2
Critical buckling stress, N/m 101 x 103
2
Maximum compressive stress, N/m 331 x 103
Support design
Type Bracket support
Material of construction Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni, 316)
Number of support 4
Height of support 5m
Dimensions 305mm x 305mm x 137UC
Manholes
Nominal size, mm 600
Inside diameter, mm 598.50
Outside diameter, mm 609.60
Wall thickness, mm 5.55

271
SECTION 2: MECHANICAL DESIGN OF DISTILLATION COLUMN 1 (T100)

## THEORY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN OFDISTILLATION COLUMN 1

5.2 Introduction
In mechanical design, there are two parameters such as temperature and pressure
which are important properties to evaluate the thickness and the stress of material.
Therefore, the safety factor, corrosion allowance is added as precaution because to
chemical plant process, it may have some unexpected problems with equipment and
environment. The safety factor is usually 15% above the operating pressure and as for
this distillation column; the operating pressure is 4.035 bars at the bottom of the column
and 3.04 bars at the top of the column. Furthermore, the operating temperature is
95.12C at the top column and 119.24C at the bottom column. So, for design
distillation column, calculation should be based on:

1 Design pressure
2 Design temperature
3 Material of construction
4 Design stress
5 Wall thickness
6 Welded joint efficiency
7 Analysis of stresses
c. Pressure stress
d. Bending stress
8 Vessel support
9 Insulation

## 5.2.1 Design pressure

Generally, design pressure is taken as 5 to 15% above the operating pressure at the
bottom of column to avoid spurious operating during minor process upsets.

272
5.2.2 Design temperature

The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the
maximum working temperature of the material, with due to allowance for any
uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall temperature
.

## 5.2.3 Material of construction

Selection of suitable material must be taking into account the suitability of material for
fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with the
process environment. Selection of materials for construction is also required based on
the characteristics of chemical properties and mechanical properties.The material of
construction selected for this application is stainless steel 304 and it is the most
commonly used corrosion resistant materials in the chemical industry. The operating
condition is not critical, thus the material has the ability to retain the strength.

In addition, stainless steel 304 is chosen as the material of construction for several
purposes, such as: By referring to the Table 13.2 (Coulson and Richardson).

2 Low cost
3 Subjected to welding
4 Corrosion resistant to feed and product
5 Easily fabricated
6 High strength

## 5.3.4 Design stress

It is necessary to determine the maximum allowable stress that the material can
withstand without failure under operating condition. For material chosen, which carbon
steel is, the design stress is 130 N/mm2 at temperature below than 1500C.

273
5.2.5 Wall thickness

## Design of wall thickness, e, is determined by using this formula:

Pi Di
e =
2 Jf 0.2 Pi
Where, e = minimum thickness of the plate required
Pi = internal pressure, 1.5086 N/mm2
Di = internal diameter, 1.4332 m
f = design stress, 130 N/mm2
J = joint factor (J = 1 for ellipsoidal head)

## 5.2.6 Welded joint efficiency

The strength of welded joint will depend on the types of joint and the quality of the
welding. Take welding joint as 1.0 implies that the point is equally as strong as the
virgin plate; this is achieved by radio graphing the complete weld length, and cutting out
and remarking any.

## 5.2.7 Analysis of stresses

The column also subjected to other loads such as vessel shell, plate fittings and weight
of liquid to fill into the vessel. Total weight of column can be calculated by using
formula:

## Wv = total weight of shell, excluding internal

fitting such as plate
Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzle,
manways and internal support. (In this
case for distillation column take Cv as 1.15)
Dm = mean diameter of vessel (Dc + t x 10-3)
Hv = height or length between tangent lines, m
t = wall thickness

274

Wind loading will only be important on tall column installed in the open. Columns are
usually free standing, mounted on skirt support, and not attached to structural steel
work.

a) Pressure stress

The longitudinal and circumferential stresses due to pressure can be calculated using
equation:
PD
L =
4t
PD
h =
2t
Where, P = operating pressure
D = column diameter
t = thickness

b) Bending stresses

## Bending moments will be caused by the following bending condition:

1 Wind load on tall self-supported vessels
2 Seismic loads on tall column
Bending stress can be calculated using this formula:
M Dc
b = t
IV 2
Where,

IV =

64
D 0
4
Di
4

D0 = ( Di 2t )

275
CALCULATION ON MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN OF DISTILLATION
COLUMN

## Total column height = tray spacing x no. of stages

= 0.5 x 44 m
= 22 m
Allow, 2 m for clearance height = (22 + 2) m
= 2.4 m
Internal diameter, Dc = 1.433215106 m
Operating pressure, Top column = 3.04 bar
Bottom column = 4.035 bar
Take column operating at = 4.035 bar
Material of column = Stainless steel 304
Operating temperature = 95.12 0C to 119.24 0C

## Tray temperature = Sieve tray (44 trays equally spaced)

Material of tray = Stainless steel 304
Insulation column = Mineral wool 75 mm thick
Design stress = 130 N/mm2 (for stainless steel 304)

## Take design as 15% above operating pressure,

= 4.035 bar x 1.1
1.01325 10 5 / 2 (1 ) 2
= 4.4385
1.01325 (1000 )2
2
= 0.443857 N/mm
PxD c
t =
2 des P

0.443857
2 (2647.054)
=
130
2 (0.443857 )
2 2
= 2.450847437mm (approximately 3 mm)

276

## Wv = 240 x CV x Dm x (Hv + 0.8 Dm) t x 10-3

Where, Wv = total weight of shell, excluding internal
fitting such as plates
Cv = a factor to account for the weight of
manways and internal support. (In this
case for distillation column ,Cv 1.15)
Dm = mean diameter of vessel (Dc + t x 10-3)
Hv = height or length between tangent lines
t = wall thickness

## Therefore, Dm = (0.002771141 m + 1.433215106 m)

= 1.435986248 m
Hv = 24 m
Wv = 240 x 1.15 x 1.433215 (24 m + 0.8
(1.433215 m))
x 2.771141287x10 -3
= 10.071 kN

## 5.2.10 Weight of plates

D 2
Plate area =
4
(1.4332152 )
=
4

= 1.61247285 m2
Weight of plate = 1.2 kN/m2 x 1.61247285 m2
= 1.93496742 kN
(Where 1.2 is factor for contacting plates, steel including typical liquid loading in kN/m2)
For 44 plates = 44 x 1.93496742 kN
= 85.13856647 kN

277
5.2.11 Weight of insulation

## Mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3

Approximate volume of insulation = x 1.433215 m x 24 m x (75x10-3) m
= 8.100531781 m3
Weight = 4.05918 m3 x 130 kg/m3 x 9.81 m/s2
= 10330.60818 or 10.33 kN
Double this value to allow for fitting = 10330.60818 N x 2
= 20661.21636 N

## 5.2.12 Total weight (Wv),

Shell = 24.42257282kN
Plates = 85.13856647 kN
Insulation = 20.66121636 kN
Total = 130.2223557kN

This factor is also to be considered and calculated based on location and weather
surroundings. A wind loading must be designed to withstand the highest wind speed
that is likely to encounter at the site during the life of plant. A wind speed of 160 km/h
(100mph) can be used for preliminary design.

1
Dynamic wind pressure = x Cd x a x Uw2
2
For smooth cylinder = 0.05 Uw2
Design for 160 km/h, Pw = 0.05 x (160 km/h)2
= 1280 N/m2
Therefore, take wind pressure as 1280 N/m 2
Mean diameter, including insulation, Deff = Dc + Dc t
= 1.433215 m+1.432215 m (0.00245+75 x
-3
10 ) m
= 1.544218831m

278
= 1280 N/m2 x 1.544218831 m
= 1976.600104 N/m
Bending moment at bottom tangent line,Mx:
Where x = Hv = 6.5 m (column height)

x2
Mx = Fw
2
24 2
= 1.544218831 N/m x ( )
2

= 569260.8298Nm

## At bottom tangent line:

Pressure stresses:
PD
L =
4t
Where, P = operating pressure (0.44385 N/mm2)
D = column diameter (1.433215 m)
t = thickness (2.450847437 m)

## 0.44385 (1.432115 103 )

=
4(2.450847437)

= 64.8890375N/mm2

PD
h =
2t

## 0.44385 (1.433215 103)

=
2(2.450847437)
= 129.778075 N/ mm2

279

Dead weight stresses is very important for tall columns such as distillation column. This
stress can be tensile for points below the column support or compressive for points
above the support. Dead weight stresses is given by Coulson & Richardson, Chemical
Engineering, Vol.6.

WV
w =
( Dc t )t

130.2224 103
=
3.14 1.433215 103 + 2.4508 (2.4508)
= 0.011786537 N/mm2 (compressive stress)

## 5.2.16 Bending stress

The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on location and are given
by,

M Dc
b = t
IV 2
Where,

IV =

64
D 0
4
Di
4

D0 = ( Di 2t )
= 1433.215 mm + 2 (2.450847437 mm)
= 1438.116801^4 mm

IV = (1438.1168014 1433.2154 )
64

## = 2.847 x 109 mm4

Therefore,
+ 569260.8298 1433.215
= ( + 2.450847437)
2.847 10^9 2

280

= 0.143799726 N/mm2

## The resultant of longitudinal stress is the summation of longitudinal stresses, dead

weight and bending stress.
z=L+ w+ b
wis compressive stress, and therefore negative sign
Z (Upwind) = (64.88903750.011786537+
0.143799726) N/mm2
= 65.02105069N/mm2
Z (Downwind) = (64.8890375+0.011786537+
0.143799726) N/mm2
= 65.04462376N/mm2
The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the downwind side:
h z (downwind ) = (129.778075 65.04462376) N/mm2
= 64.73345124N/mm2
Design stress = 130 N/mm2 (for Stainless steel 304)

The value of differences between the principal stresses is well below the maximum
allowable design stress.
65.02 65.05

129.78 129.78

Up-wind Down-wind

281
5.2.18 Elastic stability (buckling)

Under certain loading condition failure of a structure can occur not through yielding, but
by buckling or wrinkling. Buckling results in a gross and sudden change of shape of the
structure .This situation occur because lacks sufficient stiffness or rigidity to withstand
the load. The stiffness is depending on the elastic properties and cross sectional shape
of member. Elastic buckling is the important criterion in the design of thin walled vessel
under external pressure.

E t
Critical buckling stress, C =
3(1 2 ) R p

Where = 0.3 and E = 20000 N/mm2 include a high factor of safety,
c = 2 x 105 (t / Do)
2.4508
= 2105
1.438116801

= 340.8412216 N/mm2
Therefore, a critical buckling stress is 340.8412216N/mm2.
When the vessel is not under pressure (where the maximum stress occur):
Maximum stress = w h
= (0.011786537 + 0.143799726) N/mm2
= 0.155586263 N/mm2
The maximum stress is well below the critical buckling stress. Therefore, design is
satisfactory.

## 5.2.19 Design of domed end and wall thickness

Ellipsoidal head is the most economical types of head that being used in petrochemical
equipment. Therefore, ellipsoidal head is chosen. Material of construction for ellipsoidal
Pi Di
e =
2 Jf 0.2 Pi
Where, e = minimum thickness of the plate required
Pi = internal pressure, 0.44385 N/mm2

282
Di = internal diameter, 1.433215 m
f = design stress, 130 N/mm2
J = joint factor (J = 1 for ellipsoidal head)

## Therefore, minimum thickness required:

0.44385 2 ( 1433.215)
e =

2(130 0.2(0.44385 )
2) 2

= 0.004185308 mm
Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance;
= (0.004185308 + 2) mm
= 2.004185308mm (approximately 2.1 mm)

So, thickness for the domed end with ellipsoidal head is 2.1 mm.

## Crown radius = Rc =D =1433.215 mm

Knuckle radius, 6% from Rk = 0.06 x 1433.215 = 85.99290638mm

## A head of this size would be formed by pressing: no joint, so J=1.

The stress concentration factor is a function of the knuckle and crown radii.
Pi RC C S
e
2 fJ Pi (C S 0.2)

Where,

## Cs = Stress concentration factor for torispherical head

= (1/4)(3 + (Rc / Rk)0.5)

283
1 RC

CS 3
4 RK

1 1433.215
= (3+
4 85.99290638

Cs = 1.770620726

## The thickness by using torispherical head is,

(0.44385 2647.05374 1.7706)
=
2 125 + 0.15087 (1.77062 0.2)

e= 4.32052887 mm

## Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance;

= (4.32052887 +2) mm
= 6.32052887 mm. (Approximately 6.4 mm)

By using full gasket Cp =0.4 and De = bolt circle diameter, take as approximate to
1.433215 m.

## The minimum thickness required is

Pi
e C p De
f

Where,
Cp = a design constant, dependent on the edge strain.
De = nominal pipe diameter.
f = design stress.

284
The thickness required by using flat head is

0.44385
e= 0.4 1433.215 ( )
130

e = 33.49791717 mm

## Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance;

= (33.49791717 + 2) mm
= 35.49791717 mm. (approximately 35.5 mm)
From above calculation, the economical types of head that being used in
petrochemical equipment is ellipsoidal head because its thickness is
less compared to the other heads considered.

## 5.2.22 Design for the skirt support

The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape and weight of the
vessel, the design pressure and temperature, the vessel location and arrangement, and
the internal and external fittings and attachment.

A skirt support consists of cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of the vessel. A
flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits load to the foundations. The skirt may be
welded to the bottom level of the vessel. Skirt support is recommended for vertical
vessels as they do no imposed concentrated loads on the vessel shells; they are
particularly suitable for use with tall columns subject to wind loading (Towler, Sinnott,
2008).

## Material of construction for skirt support is stainless steel 304.

Design stress = 130 N/mm2
Youngs modulus = 200000 N/mm2

285
The maximum dead weight load on the skirt will occur when the vessel is full with
Ethylene.

Approximate weight = xDc ( H V ) x L ( g )
4
792.1826 9.81
= ( 1.433215) 24
4 3 2
= 38807133.48 N or 38807.13348 kN
Weight of vessel from previous calculation = 130.2223557kN
Total weight = (38807.13348 + 130.2223557) kN
= 38937.35584kN
Take skirt support as 3 m height,
Bending moment at base skirt:
= 1.97660kN/m x (Column height + skirt support height)2
2
24 + 3 )2
= 1.97660 / (
2

= 19.42345246kN m
The resultant stresses in the skirt support will be:
S (tensile) = bs ws
S (compressive) = bs ws
Where, bs = bending stress in the skirt

## ws = dead weight stress in the skirt

4M s
bs =
( Ds t s )t s Ds
Where, M s = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the base

## of the skirt (due to the wind, seismic and eccentric load).

Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base.

ts = skirt thickness

Therefore,
4( 19.42345246 105 )
=
1433.215 + 2.450847437 1433.215 (2.450847437)

286
= 4.906544185 N/mm2
W
ws (test) =
( Ds t s )t s Ds
38807.13348
=
1433.215 + 2.450847437 2.450847437
= 3512.466876 N/mm2

ws (operating)
130.2223557 103
=
1433.215 + 2.450847437 2.450847437
= 0.010677855 N/mm2

Maximum s (compressive);

= bs ws
= 4.906544185 N/mm2 + 3512.466876 N/mm2
= 3517.37342 N/mm2

Maximum s (tensile):

= bs ws
= 4.906544185 N/mm2 0.011786537 N/mm2
= 4.894757648 N/mm2

## Take joint factor, J =1:

Criteria for design:
s (maximum, tensile) < f s J sin
4.894757648 < 1 x 115 x sin 900
4.894757648 < 115.000
t
s (maximum, compressive) < 0.125E s sin
Ds
2.450847437
43.00832 < 0.125 200000 (sin 9 00 )
1433 .215

## 43.00832 < 48.33784675

287
Both criteria are satisfied, add 2mm for corrosion, gives design thickness of

4.7711413mm.

## Approximate pitch circle diameter, say 2.2m

Circumference of bolt circle =2200
Number of bolts required, at minimum recommended bolt spacing
2200
11.5
600
Closest multiple of 4=12 bolts.
Take bolt design stress =130N/mm 2
Ms=38940.56 kNm
Take W=20.66122 kN
1 4Ms
Ab W
Nb fb Db
Where,
Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread, mm 2
Nb = number of bolts
fb = maximum allowable bolt stress, N/mm 2; typically
design value 125 N/mm2
Ms = bending (overturning) moment at the base, Nm
W = weight of the vessel, N
Db = bolt circle diameter, m

1 4 38.94056103 )
= ( 20.66122103 )
12 125 2.2

Ab = 47186.89736 mm2

288
From figure 13.30: R.K.Sinnott et.al (6
Use M42 bolts (BS4190:1967) root area=1120 mm 2
47186 .89736 4
Bolt root diameter =

= 245.17483 mm
Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,
4MS W
Fb
D S
2 D S

Where,
Fb = the compressive load on the base ring, N/m
DS = skirt diameter, m
Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length
4 38.94055399 103 20.6612 103
= ( + )
1.4332152 1.433215

= 24154178.47 N/m
Taking the bearing pressure as 5 N/mm 2
Fb 1
Lb 3
fc 10
Where,
Lb = base ring width, mm
fc = the maximum allowable bearing pressure on
the concrete foundation pad, which will depend
on the mix used, and will typically range from
3.5 to 7 N/mm2 (500 to 1000 psi)

24154178.47
=
5

= 4830.835693 mm

## Actual width required =Lr+ts+50mm=102+2.771141287+50=156.7711413 mm

289
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:

24154178467
=
156.7711413

= 154072.8623 N/mm2
Minimum thickness,

3f ' c
tb Lr
fr

Where,
Lr = the distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the
ring, mm
tb = base ring thickness, mm
f 'c = actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm 2
fr = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically
140 N/mm2

3 154072.8623
= 102
140

= 5860.839883 mm
Skirt to be welded flush with outer diameter of column shell.

## Take rings = 75 mm wide

Rings = 10 mm deep
Plate spacing = 0.5 m

## Take design pressure as 4.4385 bar external or 4.438500 x 10 6 N/m2

Fr PeL s

Where,

290
Pe = external pressure

= (4438500)(0.5)
= 2219250 N/m

## Taking Youngs modulus, E = 200000 N/mm2

= 2.0 x 1011 N/m2
Factor of safety =6

The second moment of area of the ring to avoid buckling is given by,
24 E lr
PCL S 3
Dr factor of safety

Where,
lr = Second moment of area of the ring cross-section

## Dr = diameter of the ring (approximately equal to the

shell outside diameter) = 1.8 m

24 2.01011 ( )
7.54105 / = 2
(1.432215 )3 (6)

= 8.17 06 4

For the rectangular section, the second moment of area is given by:

breath depth 3
l
12

## So, lr for the support rings

10 103 (75103 )3
=( )
12

291
= 3.5156 x 10-7 m4

## And the support rings is adequate size to be considered as a stiffening ring,

0.5
=
0 1.433215
= 0.348865985
Where,
L = plate spacing
D0 = internal diameter

0 1433.215
=
10
= 143.3215
Where,
t = column shell mean thickness (10 mm)

Kc = 97

## The critical pressure to cause buckling P c is given;

3
= ( )
0
10
= 150 (2.0 1011 )( )3
1.433215

## This is above the maximum design pressure of 1.5 x 10 6 N/m 2. So,

design of the support rings to support the plate is satisfied.

292
5.2.24 Flange design

## d,optimum = 293G 0.53 0.37

a) Feed inlet
G = 26460 kg/h = 7.35 kg/s
mix = 0.0971(934) + 0.0120(810) + 0.4423(898) + 0.4485(719)

= 523.8273 kg/m3
Therefore, d = 293 (7.35 kg/s) 0.53 (523.8273 kg/m 3)
= 83.15728517 mm

flange d1 88.9
D 190
B 16
h1 42
raised d4 128
F 3
bolting M16
Drilling No 4
d2 18
K 130
d3 102
Neck h2 10
R 8

## b) Top Column Inlet

G = 2.70 kg/s
mix = 775.588 kg/m3

= 43.29827096 mm

293
flange d1 60.3
D 140
b 14
h1 38
raised d4 90
f 3
bolting M12
Drilling No 4
d2 14
k 110
d3 74
Neck h2 8
R 6

## c) Bottom Column Inlet

G = 4.65 kg/s
mix = 467.774 kg/m3

= 70.4505 mm

Flange d1 76.1
D 160
B 14
h1 38
Raised d4 110
F 3
Bolting M12

294
Drilling No 4
d2 14
K 130
d3 88
Neck h2 9
R 6

## 5.2.25 MANHOLES FOR COLUMN ACCESS

Manholes are design for entrance into vessel of distillation column. It should be position
so that it can be accessed to the internal parts of the column. Usually it is located above
each support plate. A suggested by Henry Z. Kister, the diameters should be in range of
0.41m and 0.61m. Thus, in this case the diameter chosen is 0.6m so that the personnel
which are bigger that the average person can do the maintenance job.
Source: Distillation Column Design, McGraw Hill, 1992, Henry Z.
Kister.

NOZZLE THICKNESS, t

=
20 +

Where,

= ,
2

= ,

Nozzle thickness, t

=
20 +

Where,

295

= 4.4385 = 0.44385
2

= 115
2

=
20 +

0.44385 1433.215
=
20(115) 125
= 0.244624596m

7 = 0.244624596 + 7

= 0.244624596 7

## So, thickness of nozzle is 7mm.

296
Summary of Mechanical Design
Table 6.7: Summary of Mechanical design.
Operating Condition and Material
Construction
Design Pressure 4.4385 bar
Design Temperature 120 0C
Material Construction Stainless Steel 304
Welded Joint Efficiency 1
Type Tray Sieve Plate
Design Column Dimension
Column Height 24 m
Shell Thickness 2.45 mm
Domed End Thickness(Ellipsoidal Head) 2.005 mm
Vessel Support(Skirt)
Material Construction Stainless Steel 304
Skirt Thickness 3.5984mm
Base Ring Thickness 7.57454 mm
Skirt Diameter 1.433 m
Skirt Height 3m
Insulation
Material Mineral Wool
Thickness 75mm
Weight of Vessel 24.42257282kN
Weight of Accessories(Plate) 1.93496742kN
Weight of Insulation 10.33kN

297
SECTION 3: MECHANICAL DESIGN OF DISTILLATION COLUMN (T101)

5.3 INTRODUCTION
5.3.1 Material of Construction
Selection of suitable in the construction of any equipment is significantly important as it will
determine the reliability and life of the equipment. Several criteria are considered in choosing
the best material for distillation column which are Mechanical properties (Strength, stiffness,
toughness, hardness, fatigue resistance, creep resistance), Cost, Temperature effect on material
reliability, Corrosion resistance, Availability of suitable sizes as per standards and codes and
Ease of fabrication ( Forming, welding, casting).

Based on the above constraints, Coulson & Richardsons (Volume 6), it is suggested that
the most suitable material of construction for vessel, closures and sieve trays is Stainless Steel
304. Specifications of this material are shown as follows:

## Table 6.8 : Material Specifications

Parameter Specification
Designation 05 Cr 18 Ni (304)
Tensile Strength 510 N/mm2
Allowable Stress 145 MPa

## The specifications of selected material shall be conformed to the characteristics

mentioned earlier to ensure the applicability and practicality with the design conditions.

Another important parameter in selecting the material is welding quality. The strength of
a welded joint is dependent on the type of joint and quality of welding. According to Coulson
and Richardsons (Volume 6,Page 640), welding joint of Category 2 is adopted. This is because
it requires less non-destructive testing and maximum plate thickness. The welding specifications
are as follows:

298
Table 6.9 : Welding Specifications
Parameter Specification
Welding type Class II
Welding details Double Welded Butt Joint,
or Equivalent
Weld Joint Efficiency, J 0.85

## 5.3.2 DESIGN OF CYLINDRICAL SHELL

In mechanical design, the temperature and the pressure are important properties in evaluate the
thickness and the stress of material. Therefore, the safety factor also need as precaution and
determined by certain consideration such as corrosion factor, location and process characteristic.

The operating pressure is 200 kPa and the safety factor is 10% above operating pressure.
The design temperature related to the operating temperature. The temperature of column
operated in 90.190C at top of column and 80.920C at the bottom of the column. The design
pressure and design temperature of the system as follows:

Design pressure
Mixture of methyl acetate and methanol distillation column is subjected to pressure as it is
operated at 2 atm. This is to ensure all components introduced to the columns which are methyl
acetate and methanol in liquid form. The column is also designed to withstand the maximum
pressure drop which may likely to occur during service. Thus, the pressure of the column when it
is subjected in service or operating pressure, taken from HYSIS simulation is 2 atm or 200 kPa.

## Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is the maximum pressure permissible at

the top of a completed column in its operating position for the designated temperature. In this
case, PMAWP is assumed to be the same as P operating = 200 kPa.

Design pressure is the pressure used in the design of the column and it is used to
determine the minimum permissible thickness or other physical characteristics of the column. In
other words, the design parameters are decided based on design pressure, P D. In the analysis, P D
is taken as 10% of P MAWP.
PD 1.1 PMAWP

299
1.1 200
220 kPa

Design Temperature
Design temperature of the column is taken at the maximum working temperature of the material.
This is because the performance of material is reduced when it is subjected to increment in
temperature. Safety factor of 10% is taken as the limit for column operation. Based on HYSIS,
operating temperature of the column is 100C.

TD 1.1 TOPER
1.1 100
110C

## Cylindrical Shell Thickness

Shell or wall thickness shall be determined correctly to ensure that it is able to withstand the
weight or any accidental load. Based on British Standard (BS5500), it is given by
PD D I
Minimum Shell Thickness, e c
2 f s J PD
where
PD = Design pressure = 220 kPa
Di = Internal diameter = 1.2792 m
fs = Allowable stress = 145 MPa
J = Weld Joint Efficiency = 0.85
c = Corrosion allowance = 0.004 m

Corrosion allowance of 4mm is added to the material thickness to allow lost of material due to
corrosion, erosion and scaling.

t
220 10 1.2792 0.004
3

## 2145 10 0.85 220 10

6 3

0.005143m
5.1mm

300
However, there are a few other constraints or benchmarks need to be considered in determining
the wall thickness.

## The condition is valid provided that:

Do
1. 1.5 D O D I 2t
Di
1.2792 20.0051
1.2899m

1.2899
DO / D I 1.0084 < 1.5 VALID
1.2792

t 0.0051
2. 0.25 t / DI 0.004 < 0.25 VALID
Di 1.2792

## 5.3.3 DESIGN OF HEAD AND CLOSURE

Ellipsoidal head is the most economical types of head that being used in petrochemical
equipment. Therefore, ellipsoidal head is chosen. Material of construction for ellipsoidal
Pi Di
e =
2 Jf 0.2 Pi
Where, e = minimum thickness of the plate required
Pi = internal pressure
Di = internal diameter
f = design stress,
J = joint factor

## Therefore, minimum thickness required:

200 ( 1.2792)
e =
2(145 0.2(200)

= 0.0011418
Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance;

301
= (0.0011418 +2) mm
= 2.0011418 mm (approximately 2.0 mm)
So, thickness for the domed end with ellipsoidal head is 2.0 mm.

## Top and Bottom Closure

Selected top and bottom closure for the column is torispherical heads (flanged only). The shape
of the closure is shown as follows:

## Figure 6.2: Torispherical closure

First, the thickness of the closure needs to be determined. The expression is shown as follows:

PD R c C s
Minimum closure thickness, t
2f s J PD C s 0.2

## PD = Design pressure = 220 kPa

fs = Allowable stress = 145 MPa
J = Weld Joint Efficiency = 0.85
CS = Stress concentration factor

In order to determine the closure thickness, a stress concentration factor (C s) is calculated. This
parameter is determined to allow the increment in stress due to discontinuity at the joint of the
crown and knuckle radius. The expression of this parameter is given as follows:

1 Rc
C s 3
4 R k

## Crown radius, RC is similar to internal diameter, DI = 1.2792 m

302
Knuckle radius, RK is taken as 6% of RC.
Thus, RK = 0.06 x 1.2792 = 0.07675

1 Rc 1
3 1.2792 1.7706
C s 3
4 Rk 4 0.07675

## So, top closure thickness is

t
220 10 1.2792 1.7706
3

## 2 145 10 0.85 220 10 1.7706 0.2 2.0186mm

6 3

= 2.0186mm + corrosion allowance + thinning of torus during fabrication
= 2.0186mm + 4mm + 2.0186(0.06)
= 4.1231 mm

From above calculation, the economical types of head that being used in petrochemical
equipment is ellipsoidal head because it needless thickness compared to the other heads
considered

a) Height of Column
Height of the vessel (H) is determined based on this expression:
Table 6.8: Height of Column

## = (No. of tray x tray spacing)+( No. of tray x tray spacing)+(

H
No. of tray x tray thickness)+( No. of tray x thickness)
= (14 x 0.5)+(14 x 0.005)+(9x0.5)+(9x0.005)
= 11.615 m

303
1. Weight of the vessel shell
2. Weight of internal fitting plates sieve trays
3. Weight of external fitting insulation material
4. Weight of liquid to fill the vessel

c) Weight of Shell
For cylindrical vessel with domed ends, and uniform wall thickness, the weight of shell,

## Wv is: Wv 240C v D m (H v 0.8D m )t avg

Where,
Wv = total weight of shell, excluding internal fitting such as
plates
Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, man ways and internal
supports. (In this case for distillation column take C v as 1.15).
Dm = mean diameter of vessel
Dm = (Di + t x 10-3)
Dm = ( 1.2792 + 12 x 10-3)
= 1.2912m
Hv = height or length between tangent lines, m
t = wall thickness, m

Thus,
Wv 2401.151.2912(7 0.8(1.2912 ))(12 / 1000)
Wv 2499.0158 N 2.4990kN

d) Weight of Plate
For sieve tray distillation column, weight of trays also adds up to the dead weight of
vessel. Weight of plate is given as follows:
Wp Wf A p N

## Wf = Standard weight of plate (for steel contacting plates) = 1200 N/m2

304
= Area of plate
Ap =1.2852m2
= D I2 1.2792 2
4 4
N = Number of plates or trays = 14

Thus,
W p 1200 1.2852 14
W p 21591.1644 N 21.5912kN

e) Weight of Insulation
Weight of insulation, WI is given as:
WI VI I 9.81
VI = Volume of insulation
I = Density of insulation material

## Table 6.9: The properties of selected insulation material

Information Properties
Insulation material Mineral wool
Thickness of insulation material 0.1 m
Density 130 kg/m3

Volume of insulation, VI = D o t I H V

## Do = Average outside diameter of column, m

= Di 2t av 1.2792 (2 12 10 3 ) 1.3032m

## VI = 1.3032 0.1 7 = 2.8659 m3

This volume is doubled to allow for attachment fittings, sealing and moisture absorption. Thus,
VI = 2.8659 2 = 5.7318m3

## Therefore, the weight of insulation is

WI 5.7318 130 9.81
WI 7309.73N 7.310kN

305
The dynamics wind pressure P w used in this design as suggested is 1280 N/m2

## Effective diameter of the column is given as:

D eff D i 2t av t I 0.4

## Deff = Effective diameter, m

DI = Internal diameter of column = 1.2792m
tavg = Average wall thickness = 12mm
tI = Insulation thickness = 0.1m
0.4 = Allowance for caged ladder
Thus,
Deff 1.2792 2(12 10 3 0.1) 0.4 1.9032m

F w Pw Deff
F w 1280 1.9032
F w 2436.10 N / m 2.4361kN / m

Fw H v
2

M
2
2.436110 3 7 2
M
2
M 59.6844kN.m

## 6.3.6 STRESS ANALYSIS AT BOTTOM TANGENT LINE

a) Pressure Stresses
Pressure stresses comprises of 2 elements which are
Longitudinal stress, L
Tangential stress, h

PD D i
Longitudinal stresses, L
4t

306
220 10 3 1.2792

4 12 10 3
5863000 Pa 5.863MPa

PD D i
Tangential stresses, h
2t
220 10 3 1.2792

2 12 10 3
11726000 Pa 11.726MPa

Dead weight stress, w is given as follows:
Wv
W
(D i t ) t

## Wv = Total dead weight of vessel = 29.2577 kN

Thus,
29.2577 10 3
W
(1.2792 12 10 3 )(12 10 3 )
W 601.06kPa
c) Bending Stress
Bending stress, b is given as follows:

M Di
b t
lv 2

Iv is second moment of the area of the vessel about the plane of bending and is expressed as
follows:

307

Iv
64
D 4
o Di4

Iv
64

1.3032 4 1.2792 4
I v 0.01015m 4

Thus,
59684.4 1.2792
b (12 10 3 )
0.01015 2
b 3833387.43Pa 3.8333MPa

## d) Resultant Longitudinal Stress

Resultant longitudinal stress, z is given based on following expression:
z L w B
w is compressive and therefore, it is negative.
Thus,
z 5.863 10 6 60.16 10 3 3.8333 10 6
z 9.6963MPa upwind
z 2.0297 MPa downwind

e) Principal Stresses
The primary stresses are resolved as principal stresses 1, 2, 3 in the three directions. As
assume that there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be z and h.

## Practicality of these calculated stresses is checked based on these following procedures:

Maximum magnitude = 9.6963 MPa a
Checking the elastic stability (bucking)
Maximum compression ill occur when there is no internal pressure
Maximum compressive stress
w B(downwind) = -37.73 MPa
Critical bucking stress,

308
t
sc 2 10 4
DO
12 10 3
sc 2 10
4
184.16MPa
1.3032

## Maximum Compressive Stress < Critical Buckling Stress

-37.73 MPa < 184.16MPa
Design is satisfactory

## 6.3.7 DESIGN OF SKIRT SUPPORT

A skirt support consists of a cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of the vessel. A
flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits the load to the foundations. Skirt supports are
recommended for vertical vessels, as they do not impose concentrated loads on the vessel shell.
For this design a conical skirt support was chosen and it is welded to the bottom head of the
vessel; they are particularly suitable for use with columns subject to wind loading.

Figure 6.3: Typical Skirt Support Design (a) Straight Skirt (b) Conical Skirt

309
a) Skirt Thickness
The skirt thickness must be sufficient to withstand the dead-weight loads and bending moments
imposed on it by the vessel. The maximum dead weight load on the skirt will occur when the
vessel is full of liquid. Thus, the approximate weight of liquid that the vessel can stand is shown
as follows:

Approximate weight of liquid, Wl = D i H v water 9.81
4

1.2792 7 1000 9.81
4
68991.4670 N
68.99kN

## (H v Skirt Support Height ) 2

Bending moment at the base of skirt = Fw

Di
(7 2) 2
= 2.4361 = 154.26kN.m
1.2792

## b) Bending Stress in Skirt, bs

As a first trial, the skirt thickness is taken to be the same as that of the bottom section of the
vessel. As a second trial, the skirt thickness is taken to be the same as minimum vessel thickness
which is 12mm. Thus, the bending stress at the skirt is shown as follows:

310
4M s
bs
( Ds t s )t s Ds
4 154.26 10 3
bs
(1.2912 12 10 3 )(12 10 3 1.2912)
bs 9726970.77 N / m 2 9.7270MN / m 2

## c) Dead Weight Stress in Skirt, ws

The test condition shown below is when the vessel is fulled of water for the hydraulic test.
Wapprox.
ws (test )
( Ds t s )t s
68.99 10 3
ws (test )
(1.2912 12 10 3 )12 10 3
ws (test ) 118108257.6 Pa 118.1083MPa

WDW .
ws (operating )
( Ds t s )t s
60.16 10 3
ws operating
(1.2912 12 10 3 )12 10 3
ws operating 1224519.308Pa 1.2245MPa

## Thus, the resulting stress in the skirt, s

Max s (compressive) bs ws (test )
Max s (compressive) 9.726970 10 6 118.1082 10 6
Max s (compressive) 127.8352MPa

## Max s (tensile ) bs ws (operating )

Max s (tensile ) 7.726970 10 6 1.2245 10 6
Max s (tensile ) 8.9515MPa

The skirt thickness should be such that under the worst combination of wind and dead-weight

311
s (tensile ) f s J sin s

8.9515 10 6 Pa 145 10 6 0.85 sin 80
8.9515 10 6 Pa 121.3776 10 6 Pa
Criteria satisfied
Note: s = base angle of a conical skirt, 80

## a) Design for base ring and anchor bolt design

Approximate pitch circle diameter, say 2.2m
Circumference of bolt circle = 2200
Number of bolts required, at minimum recommended bolt spacing
2200
11.5
600
Closest multiple of 4=12 bolts.
Take bolt design stress =125N/mm2
Ms=154.26 kNm
Take W=60.16kN
1 4Ms
Ab W
Nb fb Db

Where,
Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread, mm2

Nb = number of bolts

## fb = maximum allowable bolt stress, N/mm2; typically

design
value 125 N/mm2 (18000 psi)
Ms = bending (overturning) moment at the base, Nm
W = weight of the vessel, N
Db = bolt circle diameter, m

312
1 4 154.26 10 3
Ab 60.16 10 3
12 125 2.2
Ab 146.88mm 2

So based on, Coulson & Richardsons (Volume 6) from figure 13.30, page 677, use M24 bolts
(BS4190:1967)

146.88 4
Bolt root diameter 13.68mm

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,

4MS W
Fb
D S 2 D S

Where,
Fb = the compressive load on the base ring, N/m

DS = skirt diameter, m

## Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length

4 154.26 10 3 60.16 10 3
Fb
1.2912
2
1.2912

132.639 10 3 N / m

## Taking the bearing pressure as 5 N/mm2

Fb 1
Lb 3
fc 10
Where,
Lb = base ring width, mm

## fc = the maximum allowable bearing pressure on

The concrete foundation pad, which will depend
on the mix used, and will typically range from
3.5 to 7 N/mm2 (500 to 1000 psi)

313
132.639 10 3
Lb 26.53mm
5 10 3

So based on, Coulson & Richardsons (Volume 6) from figure 13.30, page 677, use M24 bolts
(BS4190:1967)

## A = 45, B = 76, C = 64, D = 13, E = 19, F = 30, G = 36

Actual width required =Lr+ts+50mm=76+14+50=140mm

## Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:

132.639 10 3
f 'c 0.9474 N / mm 2
140 10 3

## b) Base ring thickness

The required thickness for the base ring is found by treating the ring as cantilever beam. The
minimum thickness is given by:
Minimum thickness,

3f ' c
tb Lr
fr

Where,
Lr = the distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the
ring, mm
tb = base ring thickness, mm

## fr = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically

140 N/mm2

3 0.9474
t b 76 10.88mm 11mm
140
Skirt to be welded flush with outer diameter of column shell.

314
c) Design of Stiffness Ring

## Take rings = 75 mm wide

Rings = 10 mm deep
Plate spacing = 0.5 m

## Take design pressure as 1.0 bar external or 1.0 x 10 5 N/m2

Fr PeL s
Where,
Pe = external pressure

## So, the load per unit length of the ring

Fr 1.0 x10 5 N / m 2 0.5 m
5.0 10 4 N / m

## Taking Youngs modulus, E = 210000 N/mm2

= 2.1 x 1011 N/m2
Factor of safety =6

The second moment of area of the ring to avoid buckling is given by,
24 E lr
PCL S
Dr 3 factor of safety
Where,
lr = Second moment of area of the ring cross-section

## Dr = diameter of the ring (approximately equal to the

shell outside diameter) = 1.3032 m

315
5.0 10 4 N / m

24 2.1 1011 N / m l r
1.3032m 3
6
7
l r 1.3174 10 m 4

For the rectangular section, the second moment of area is given by:
breath depth 3
l
12

7 10 3 75 10 3
3

12

2.4609 10 7 m 4

## And the support rings is adequate size to be considered as a stiffening

Ring,
L 0.5
0.3909
D0 1.2792
Where,
L = plate spacing
D0 = internal diameter

D0 1279.2
106.6
t 12

Where,
t = column shell mean thickness (12 mm)

Kc = 102

## The critical pressure to cause buckling P c is given;

316
3
t
Pc K c E
D0
3

102 2.1 10
12 11

1291.2
17.19 10 6 N / m 2

This is above the maximum design pressure of 1.0 x 10 5 N/m2. So, design of the
support rings to support the plate is satisfied.

d) Design of piping

In order to connect the distillation column with pipeline, flange need to be installed to
ensure two compartments is well connected. It needs to consider the pressure and the
optimum duct diameter. Figure1.6 below shows the parameters in selecting the suitable
flange.

317
Figure 6.4: Typical Standard Flange Design

## Optimum diameter of flange can be calculate using equation :

d,optimum = 293G 0.53 0.37
Table 1.15: Liquid pipe size
Pipe no Flow rate, G (kg/s) (kg/m) Diameter Dopt (mm)
N1 (Feed) 2.7025 744.34 37.7517
N2 (Top Outlet) 1.3169 812.80 25.1447
N4 (Bottom Outlet) 1.3856 724.42 26.9419

318
Feed Inlet
G = 2.7025kg/s, = 744.34 kg/m3
doptimum = 260(2.7025)0.52 (744.34)0.37
doptimum = 37.75 mm
Nom. Pipe Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling
Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k
32 42.4 120 14 26 70 2 M12 4 14 90
Refer to figure 1.6

Ps Dopt
Nozzle thickness, tn =
20 + Ps
Where, Ps = operating pressure, N/mm2 (0.2 N/mm2)
= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)
0.2 37.75
tn = = 0.003282 mm
20 115 + 0.2
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.003282 + 4
= 4.033 4 mm
Top Column Outlet
G = 1.3169 kg/s, = 812.80 kg/m3
doptimum = 260( 1.3169)0.52 (812.80)0.37
doptimum = 25.1447mm

## Nom. Pipe Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling

Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k
20 26.9 90 14 24 50 2 M10 4 11 65
Refer to figure 1.6
Ps Dopt
Nozzle thickness, tn =
20 + Ps

## Where, Ps = operating pressure, N/mm2 (0.2 N/mm2)

= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)
0.2 25.1447
tn = = 0.002186 mm
20 115 + 0.2

319
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.002186 + 4
= 4.002 4 mm
Bottom Column Outlet
G = 1.3856 kg/s, = 724.42 kg/m3
doptimum = 260(1.3856)0.52 (724.42)0.37
doptimum = 26.9419 mm

## Nom. Pipe Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling

Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k
25 33.7 100 14 24 60 2 M10 4 11 75
Refer to figure 1.6
Ps Dopt
Nozzle thickness, tn =
20 + Ps

## Where, Ps = operating pressure, N/mm2 (0.2N/mm2)

= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)
0.2 26.9419
tn = = 0.002343mm
20 115 + 0.2
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.002343 + 4
= 4.002 4 mm

## 6.3.9 MANHOLES FOR COLUMN ACCESS

Manholes are design for entrance into vessel of distillation column. It should be position
so that it can be accessed to the internal parts of the column. Usually it is located above
each support plate. A suggested by Henry Z. Kister, the diameters should be in range of
0.41m and 0.61m. Thus, in this case the diameter chosen is 0.6m so that the personnel
which are bigger that the average person can do the maintenance job.
Source: Distillation Column Design, McGraw Hill, 1992, Henry Z. Kister.

Nozzle Thickness, t

=
20 +
Where,

320

= ,
2

= ,

= 2 = 0.2
2

= 115
2

=
20 +

0.2 600
=
20 115 + 0.2

= 0.05217

7 = 0.05217 + 7

= 7.0522 7
So, thickness of nozzle is 7mm

321
Table 6.10 : Summary of the Mechanical Design
Design Pressure
Operating Pressure 200 kPa
0
Operating Temperature 100 C
Design Pressure 220 kPa
0
Design Temperature 110 C
Safety Factor 0.10
No of trays 14
Feed inlet 7
Plate Spacing 0.50
Column Inside Diameter 1.2792 m
Column Outside Diameter 1.3032 m
Column Height 11.615 m
Design of Domed Ends
Joint Factor 0.85
Minimum Thickness 7 mm
Column Weight
Dead Weight of Vessel 2.4990 kN
Weight of Plate (per plate) 21.5912 kN
Weight of Insulation 7.310 kN
Total Weight 24.0975 kN
Wind Pressure 1280 N/m2
Bending Moment 59.6844 kNm

322
Table 6.11: Stress Analysis for Distillation Column
Longitudinal Pressure Stress 5863 kPa
Circumferential Pressure Stress 1172.6 kPa
Bending Stress 3833.39 kPa
Z (upwind) 9696.3 kPa
Z(downwind) 2029.7 kPa
Critical Buckling Stress 184160 kPa

## Table 6.12: Design Specification of the Support Skirt

Types of Support Straight cylindrical skirt
80 0
C
Material Construction Stainless steel(304)
Design Stress 145 N/mm2
Skirt Height 2 m
Approximate Weight 68.99 kN
Total weight 129.1515 kN
Bending Moment at Skirt 154.26 kNm
Skirt Thickness 12 mm
Bending Stress in Skirt 9726.97 kN/m2
ws (test) 118.10 MPa
ws (operating) 1.2245 MPa
Maximum s (compressive) 127.8352 MPa
Maximum s (tensile) 8.9515 MPa

323
SECTION 4: MECHANICAL DESIGN OF DISTILLATION COLUMN 3 (T102)

6.4 INTRODUCTION
6.4.1 Theory of Mechanical Design
The mechanical design focuses on the tower internals and heat exchanger arrangements.
Many factors have to be considered in designing a distillation column such as the safety and
environmental requirements, column performance, economics of the design and other
parameters, which may constrain the work.Several factors, need to be considered in the
mechanical design of distillation column such as:
i. Design pressure
ii. Design temperature
iii. Material of construction
iv. Design stress
v. Wall thickness
vi. Welded joint efficiency
vii. Analysis of stresses
3. Pressure stress
4. Bending stress
viii. Vessel support
ix. Insulation

## 6.4.2 Design pressure

Generally, design pressure is taken as 5 to 10% above the operating pressure at the
bottom of column to avoid spurious operating during minor process upsets.

## 6.4.3 Design temperature

The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the
maximum working temperature of the material, with due to allowance for any uncertainty
involved in predicting vessel wall temperature.

324
6.4.4 Material of construction
Selection of suitable material must be taking into account the suitability of material for
fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with the process
environment. In this case, stainless steel is chosen as the material of construction for several
purposes, such as:
8 Low cost
9 Subjected to welding
10 Corrosion resistant to feed and product
11 Easily fabricated
12 High strength

## 6.4.5 Design stress

It is necessary to determine the maximum allowable stress that the material can
withstand without failure under operating condition. Material chosen, which is stainless steel, the
design stress is 137 N/mm2 (Figure 1 from Appendix).

## 6.4.6 Wall thickness

Design of wall thickness, e, is determined by using this formula:
PiDi
e
2Jf 0.2Pi
Where,
e = minimum thickness of the plate required
Pi = internal pressure, 4.56 N/mm2
Di = internal diameter, 1.6 m
f = design stress, 115 N/mm2
J = joint factor (J = 1 for ellipsoidal head)

## 6.4.7 Welded joint efficiency

The strength of welded joint will depend on the types of joint and the quality of the welding.
Take welding joint as 1.0 implies that the point is equally as strong as the virgin plate; this is
achieved by radio graphing the complete weld length, and cutting out and remarking any.

325
6.4.8 Analysis of stresses

The column also subjected to other loads such as vessel shell, plate fittings and weight of liquid
to fill into the vessel. Total weight of column can be calculated by using formula:

WV 240C v DM HV 0.8DM t 10 3 kN

## Wv = total weight of shell, excluding internal fitting such as

plate
CV = a factor to account for the weight of nozzle, manways
and internalsupport. (In this case for distillation column
take C V as 1.15)

## DM = mean diameter of vessel ( DC t 10 3 )

HV = height or length between tangent lines, m
t = wall thickness

Wind loading will only be important on tall column installed in the open.
Columns are usually free standing, mounted on skirt support, and not attached to
structural steel work.

## ii. Pressure stress

The longitudinal and circumferential stresses due to pressure can be calculated
using equation:
PD
L
4t
PD
h
2t
Where,
P = operating pressure (4.56 N/mm2)
D = column diameter (1.5 m)
t = thickness (mm)

326
iii Bending stresses
Bending moments will be caused by the following bending condition:
1. Wind load on tall self supported vessels
2. Seismic loads on tall column

## Bending stress can be calculated using this formula:

M Dc
b t
IV 2
Where,

IV

64
4
D 0 Di
4

D0 (Di 2t )

327
6.4.9 MECHANICAL DESIGN CALCULATION DISTILLATION COLUMN
(T-101)
a) Column Design Specification
Total column height = (29 x 0.5) + (29 x 0.005) +
(8 x 0.5)
+ (8 x 0.005)
= 18.685 m
= 19m

= 21 m

## Operating pressure, Top column = 3.50 N/mm2

Bottom column = 4.56 N/mm2

## Design stress = 115 N/mm2 (for stainless

steel)

328
Take design as 10% above operating pressure,
4.56 1.1%
5.016bar
0.5016 N / mm 2

PD c
t
2 des P

## 0.5016 N / mm2 (1500mm)

2(115 N / mm 2 ) (0.5016 N / mm 2 )
3.2785mm 2mm corrosion allowance
5.2785mm
5 mm
A much thicker wall will be needed at the column base to withstand the wind and dead
weight load. As a trial, divide the column into two sections with the thickness increasing
by 2 mm per section. Try the thickness 7mm because of the diameter of the distillation
column is 1 to 2m.

## b) Dead Weight of Vessel

WV 240C v DM HV 0.8DM t 10 3 kN

Where,
Wv =Total weight of shell, excluding internal fitting such as plates.
Cv = A factor to account for the weight of nozzle, manways and
internal support.
(In this case for distillation column take Cv as 1.15)
DM = Mean diameter of vessel ( DC t 10 3 )

## Hv = Height or length between tangent lines, m

t = Wall thickness.
Therefore,

329
DM Dc t 10 3
1.5 m 7 10 3 m
1.507 m

H V 21 m

## WV 240 1.15 1.50721 0.81.507 7 10 3

64.65 kN

c) Weight of Plates

D 2
Plate area =
4

(1.5m) 2
=
4
= 1.767 m 2

## Weight of plate = 1.2 kN / m 2 1.767 m 2

= 2.12 kN

(Where 1.2 is factor for contacting plates, steel including typical liquid

## For 43 plates = 29 2.12

= 61.49kN

330
d) Weight of Insulation

## Approximate volume of insulation = 1.5m 21m 75 10 3 m

= 7.422 m 3
Weight =
7.422m3 130kg / m3 9.81m / s 2
= 9465.29 N or 9.4653 kN
Double this value to allow for fitting = 9.4653 2 18.9306 kN

Total weight ( Wv ),
Shell = 64.65 kN
Plates = 61.49 kN
Insulation = 18.9306 kN
Total = 145.0706 kN

1 2
Dynamic wind pressure = C d aU W
2
2
For smooth cylinder = 0.05U W

= 1280 N / m2

## Mean diameter, including insulation = DC DC t

= 1.5m 1.5m7 10 3 75 10 3
= 1.623 m

331
Loading per unit length, FW = 1280 N / m 2 1.623m
= 2077.44 N / m
Bending moment at bottom tangent line, Mx ,
Where x HV 21 m column height

x2
M X Fw
2

21m 2
2077.44 N / m

2
458,075.52 Nm
6.4.10 Analysis of Stresses

## At bottom tangent line:

Pressure stresses:
PD PD
L h
4t 2t
Where, P = operating pressure (0.5016N/mm2)
D = column diameter (1.5 m)
t = thickness (7 mm)
0.5016 N / mm2 (1500mm)
L =
4(7mm)

= 26.8714 N / mm2
PD
h =
2t

## 0.5016 N / mm2 (1500mm)

=
2(7mm)

= 53.7429 N / mm2

WV
w =
(D c t )t

332
145.0706 10 3 N
=
(1500 7)mm(7mm)
= 4.3774 N / mm2
b) Bending Stress
M Dc
b = t
IV 2
Where,

IV =

64

D 0 4 Di 4
D0 = (Di 2t )

= 1500mm 27mm
= 1514 mm

IV =
64

1514 4 1500 4 mm

Therefore,

## 458,075.52 103 N / mm 1500mm

b = 7mm
9.4082 10 mm
9 4
2
= 36.8575 N / mm2

z L W b

59.3515 N / mm2

## Z Downwind 26.8714 4.3774 36.8575

14.3635 N / mm2

333
The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the
downwind side:

68.1064 N / mm 2

## Design stress 115 N / mm 2 for stainless steel

The value of differences between the principal stresses is well below the
maximum allowable design stress.

## 6.4.11 Elastic Stability (Buckling)

E t
Critical buckling stress, C =
2 Rp
3(1 )

## Where = 0.3 and E = 210000 N/mm2 include a high factor of safety,

t
c = 21 10 4
D0

7mm
= 2110 4
1514mm
= 970.9379 N / mm2
Therefore, a critical buckling stress is 970.9379 N/mm2 .

When the vessel is not under pressure (where the maximum stress
occur):

Maximum stress = w b

## = (4.3774 36.8575) N / mm2

= 41.2349 N / mm2

334
The maximum stress is well below the critical buckling stress. Therefore,
design is satisfactory.
6.4.12 Design of Domed End and Wall Thickness

There are many types of domed end such as ellipsoidal head, torisphere

PiDi
e =
2Jf 0.2Pi

Where,
e = minimum thickness of the plate required
Pi = internal pressure, 0.5016N/mm2

## Di = internal diameter, 1.5 m

f = design stress, 115 N/mm2
J = joint factor (J = 1 for ellipsoidal head)

## Therefore, minimum thickness required:

0.5016 N / mm2 (1500mm)
e =
2(115 N / mm2 ) 0.2 (0.5016 N / mm2 )
= 3.2727 mm

## Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance;

= 3.2727 2 mm
= 5.2727 mm approximately 5 mm

So, thickness for the domed end with ellipsoidal head is 5 mm.

335

## Crown radius = Rc =D =1.5m

Knuckle radius, 6% from R k = 0.06 x 1.5 = 0.09m

## A head of this size would be formed by pressing: no joint, so J=1.

The stress concentration factor is a function of the knuckle and crown
Pi RC C S
e
2 fJ Pi (C S 0.2)

Where,

## Cs = Stress concentration factor for torispherical head

= (1/4)(3 + (Rc / R k)0.5)

1 RC

CS 3
4 RK

C s (1 / 4) (7.0825)
C S 1.7706

## The thickness by using torispherical head is,

(0.5016 1.5 10 3 1.7706
e
(2 115 1) (0.5016(1.7706 0.2))
e 5.7724mm

## Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance;

= 5.7724 2 mm
= 7.7724 mm approximately 8 mm

336
b) Design for The Skirt Support

Try straight cylindrical skirt (s = 900) of plain carbon steel, design stress
115N/mm2 and Youngs Modulus 200,000 N/mm2 at ambient
temperature.

The maximum dead weight load on the skirt will occur when the vessel is
full of water.

Approximate weight ( 1.5 21) 896.24 9.81
2

4
326,275.9212 N
326.275kN
Weight of the vessel = 145.0706kN
Total weight = 326.275+145.0706= 471.3456 kN

(21 1) 2
Bending moment at base of skirt 2.077
2
502.634kNm

## The resultant stresses in the skirt support will be:

S tensile = bs ws

S compressive = bs ws

Where,
bs = bending stress in the skirt
ws = dead weight stress in the skirt
4Ms
bs =
(D s t s )t sD s

337
Where,
Ms = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the
base of the skirt (due to the wind, seismic and
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base.
ts = skirt thickness

As a first trial, take the skirt thickness as the same as that of the bottom
section of the vessel, 7mm.

4M s
bs
( Ds t s )t s Ds
4 502.634 10 3 10 3
bs
(1500 7)1500 7
bs 40.4444 N / mm 2

W
ws (test )
( Ds t s )t s
326.275 10 3
ws (test )
(1500 7)7
ws (test ) 9.8452 N / mm 2

145.0706 10 3
ws (operating )
(1500 7)7
ws (operating ) 4.3774 N / mm2

The test condition is with the vessel full of water for the hydraulic test.
In estimating total weight, the weight of liquid on the plates has been
counted twice. The weight has not been adjusted to allow for this as the
error is small, and on the safe side.
s (compressive) bs ws

338
40.4444 9.8452
50.2896 N / mm2
s (tensile ) bs ws
40.4444 4.3774
36.067 N / mm 2

## Take as Joint Factor J as 0.85.

Criteria for design:
s max imum, tensile f s J sin 90 0
36.067 0.85 sin 90 0
36.067 148.7
ts

s max imum, compressive 0.125E sin
Ds

7 mm
50.2896 0.125 200000 sin 90
0

1500mm
50.2896 116.6667

Both criteria are satisfied, add 2mm for corrosion, gives design thickness of 9mm.

## Approximate pitch circle diameter, say 2.2m

Circumference of bolt circle = 2200
Number of bolts required, at minimum recommended bolt spacing
2200
11.5
600
Closest multiple of 4=12 bolts.
Take bolt design stress =125N/mm2
Ms=502.634 kNm
Take W=145.0706 kN

339
1 4Ms
Ab W
Nb fb Db

Where,
Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread, mm2
Nb = number of bolts
fb = maximum allowable bolt stress, N/mm2; typically
design
value 125 N/mm2 (18000 psi)
Ms = bending (overturning) moment at the base, Nm
W = weight of the vessel, N
Db = bolt circle diameter, m

1 4 502.634 10 3
Ab 145.0706 10 3
12 125 2.2
Ab 512.5396mm 2

## Use M30 bolts (BS4190:1967) root area= 561mm2

512.5396 4
Bolt root diameter 25.5456mm

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,
4MS W
Fb
D S 2 D S

Where,
Fb = the compressive load on the base ring, N/m
DS = skirt diameter, m

340
Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length
4 502.634 10 3 145.0706 10 3
Fb
1.8 2 1.8

223.1768 103 N / m

## Taking the bearing pressure as 5 N/mm2

Fb 1
Lb 3
fc 10

Where,
Lb = base ring width, mm
fc = the maximum allowable bearing pressure on
The concrete foundation pad, which will depend
on the mix used, and will typically range from
3.5 to 7 N/mm2 (500 to 1000 psi)

223.1768 10 3
Lb 44.64mm
5 10 3

## From figure in Appendix A.10,

Use M30 bolts (BS 4190:1967)
A = 50, B = 76, C = 64, D = 13, E = 25, F = 36, G = 42
Actual width required =Lr+ts+50mm=76+7+50=133mm

## Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:

223.1768 10 3
f 'c 1.3608 N / mm2
164 10 3

## a) Base ring thickness

The required thickness for the base ring is found by treating the ring as cantilever beam.
The minimum thickness is given by:

341
Minimum thickness,
3f ' c
tb Lr
fr

Where,
Lr = the distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the
ring, mm
tb = base ring thickness, mm
f 'c = actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm2
fr = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically
140 N/mm2

3 1.3608
t b 76 12.98mm 13mm
140
Skirt to be welded flush with outer diameter of column shell.

## Take rings = 75 mm wide

Rings = 10 mm deep
Plate spacing = 0.5 m

## Take design pressure as 1.0 bar external or 1.0 x 10 5 N/m2

Fr PeL s

Where,
Pe = external pressure

## Ls = spacing between the ring

342
So, the load per unit length of the ring
Fr 1.0 x10 5 N / m 2 0.5 m
5.0 10 4 N / m

## Taking Youngs modulus, E = 210000 N/mm2

= 2.1 x 1011 N/m2

Factor of safety =6

The second moment of area of the ring to avoid buckling is given by,
24 E lr
PCL S 3
Dr factor of safety
Where,
lr = Second moment of area of the ring cross-section

## Dr = diameter of the ring (approximately equal to the

shell outside diameter) = 1.5 m

5.0 10 4 N / m

24 2.1 1011 N / m l r
1.5m 3
6
lr 2.0089 10 7 m 4

For the rectangular section, the second moment of area is given by:

breath depth 3
l
12

7 10 3 75 10 3
3

12

2.4609 10 7 m 4

## And the support rings is adequate size to be considered as a stiffening

343
Ring,
L 0.5
0.333
D0 1.5

Where,
L = plate spacing
D0 = internal diameter

D0 1500
214.2857
t 7

Where,
t = column shell mean thickness (7 mm)

Kc = 105

## The critical pressure to cause buckling Pc is given;

3
t
Pc K c E
D0
3

105 2.1 10
7

11

1500
2.2409 10 6 N / m 2

This is above the maximum design pressure of 1.0 x 10 5 N/m2. So, design
of the support rings to support the plate is satisfied.

344
6.4.15 Design of piping

## In order to connect the distillation column with pipeline, flange need to be

installed to ensure two compartments is well connected. It needs to consider the
pressure and the optimum duct diameter. Figure 13 at Appendix shows the
parameters in selecting the suitable flange.

## 6.4.16 Design for column opening

Dopt = 260G0.52 0.37
Table 1.19: Liquid pipe size
Pipe no Flow rate, G (kg/s) (kg/m) Diameter Dopt (mm)
N1 (Feed) 4.6472 828.95 48.09
N2 (Top Outlet) 1.3544 2.2869 224.16
N3 (Top Inlet) 2.1294 814.38 32.27
N4 (Bottom Outlet) 3.2944 896.24 39.08
N5 (Bottom Inlet) 13.1167 4.646 561.59

Feed Inlet
G = 4.6472kg/s, = 828.95kg/m3
doptimum = 260(4.6472)0.52 (828.95)0.37
doptimum = 48.09 mm
Nom. Pipe Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling
Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k
50 60.3 140 14 38 90 3 M12 4 14 110

## Refer to Appendix A.11

Ps Dopt
Nozzle thickness, tn =
20 + Ps
Where, Ps = operating pressure, N/mm2 (0.5016 N/mm2)
= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)

345
0.5016 48.09
tn = = 0.011 mm
20 115 + 0.5016
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.011 + 4
= 4.011 4 mm
Top Column Outlet
G = 1.3544kg/s, = 2.2869 kg/m3
doptimum = 260( 1.3544)0.52 (2.2869)0.37
doptimum = 224.16 mm
Nom. Pipe Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling
Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k
250 273 375 22 60 312 3 M16 12 18 335
Refer to Appendix A.11

Ps Dopt
Nozzle thickness, tn =
20 + Ps

## Where, Ps = operating pressure, N/mm2 (0.5016 N/mm2)

= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)
0.5016 224.16
tn = = 0.049 mm
20 115 + 0.5016
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.049 + 4
= 4.049 4 mm
Top Column Inlet
G = 2.1294 kg/s, = 814.38kg/m3
doptimum = 260( 2.1294)0.52 (814.38)0.37
doptimum = 32.27 mm

## Nom. Pipe Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling

Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k
25 33.7 100 14 35 60 2 M10 4 11 75

## Refer to Appendix A.11

346
Ps Dopt
Nozzle thickness, tn =
20 + Ps

## Where, Ps = operating pressure, N/mm2 (0.5016 N/mm2)

= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)
0.5016 32.27
tn = = 0.007 mm
20 115 + 0.5016
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.007 + 4
= 4.007 4 mm

## Bottom Column Outlet

G = 3.2944kg/s, = 896.24kg/m3
doptimum = 260(3.2944)0.52 (896.24)0.37
doptimum = 39.08 mm

## Nom. Pipe Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling

Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k
32 42.4 120 14 35 70 2 M12 4 14 90

## Refer to Appendix A.11

Ps Dopt
Nozzle thickness, tn =
20 + Ps

## Where, Ps = operating pressure, N/mm2 (0.5016N/mm2 )

= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)
0.5016 39.08
tn = = 0.0085 mm
20 115 + 0.5016
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.0085 + 4
= 4.0085 4 mm

347
Bottom Column Inlet
G = 13.1167kg/s, = 4.646kg/m3
doptimum = 260(13.1167)0.52 (4.646)0.37
doptimum = 561.59 mm

## Nom. Pipe Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling

Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k
600 609.6 755 24 70 570 5 M24 20 26 705

## Refer to Appendix A.11

Ps Dopt
Nozzle thickness, tn =
20 + Ps

## Where, Ps = operating pressure, N/mm2 (0.5016N/mm2 )

= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)
0.5016 561.59
tn = = 0.1224 mm
20 115 + 0.5016
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.1224+ 4
= 4.1224 4 mm

## 6.4.17 Manholes For Column Access

Manholes are design for entrance into vessel of distillation column. It should be
position so that it can be accessed to the internal parts of the column. Usually it is
located above each support plate. A suggested by Henry Z. Kister, the diameters
should be in range of 0.41m and 0.61m. Thus, in this case the diameter chosen is
0.6m so that the personnel which are bigger that the average person can do the
maintenance job.
Source: Distillation Column Design, McGraw Hill, 1992, Henry Z. Kister.

Nozzle Thickness, t

=
20 +

348
Where,

= ,
2

= ,

Nozzle thickness, t

=
20 +

Where,

= 4.56 = 0.456
2

= 115
2

=
20 +

0.456 20
=
0.456 115

= 0.1739

7 = 0.1739 + 7

= 7.1739 7

## S, thickness of nozzle is 7mm.

349
Table 6.13: Mechanical Design Sheet for Distillation Column

## EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

Identification:
Item: Distillation Column (Recovery Column)
Item Code: T-102 Date: 10 March 2011
No. Required: 1 By : AIRIN AEZZIRA
KAMARUZZAMAN
Function: To separate Butyl acetate and Butanol
Operation: Continuous
Specification Data Design Sizing Data
Design type Vertical Domed head wall thickness, a 7.0 mm
Tray spacing, b 0.50 m
Material of Stainless Steel Column diameter, c
construction Column wall thickness, d 1.5 m
Material of insulation Mineral Wool Total column height, e 5 mm
Vessel thickness
Column type Sieve Plate 21 m
Column head type Ellipsoidal 7.0 mm
Mechanical Design Data Vessel Support Data
Dead weight 64.65 kN Type of support Skirt
Plates weight 61.49kN Skirt height 3.0 m
Insulation weight 18.39 kN Material of construction CarbonSteel
Total vessel weight 145.07 kN Bolt size M 30
Wind load 2.077 kN/m Root area 512.54 mm2
Bending moment 458075.52 Nm Base ring thickness 13 mm
(base) 26.8714 N/mm Skirt thickness 9 mm
Pressure stress, L 53.7429 N/mm
Pressure stress, H 4.3774 N/mm
Bending stress
Longitudinalstress 59.3515 N/mm
Z (upwind) -14.3635N/mm
Z(downwind)
Elasticstability 970.9379N/mm
Critical bulking stress
Maximum compress 41.2349 N/mm
stress

350
SECTION 5: MECHANICAL DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

6.5 INTRODUCTION
Basically, designing mechanical part of shell and tube heat exchanger is conforming
to the available standards such as American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
code, British Standard and Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer Association (TEMA).
Several main mechanical parts of shell and tube exchanger are considered in the
mechanical calculation such as:
1. Minimum thickness of the vessel, either by internal or external pressure
3. Loads subjected to the vessel
4. Design of flange
5. Nozzle
6. Design of support

In designing the mechanical part of shell and tube heat exchanger, one must
first consider the operating temperature and pressure that the vessel experienced. For
safety reason and uncertainty, a safety factor must be included in calculation of
operating pressure or temperature. The minimum safety factor to be used is 10% more
than the available operating conditions.

## Side Tube Shell

Design Pressure 638.3 kPa x 110% = 101.325 kPa x 110% =
702.13 kPa 111.46 kPa
Design Temperature 180oC x 110% = 198oC 180oC x 110% = 198oC

## 6.5.1 Material of Construction

Based on the nature of the streams that involved in the heat exchanger, it
shows that both of the streams, namely stream of mixture of n-butanol, methyl acetate
and methanol and stream of steam are corrosive, which tend to fouling in the tube and
shell respectively. This is because for the cold stream (mixture of components) there is
existence of corrosive ion that is OH- ion in the butanol and methanol component

351
(Sinnott, 2005). Meanwhile, steam condensing in the shell side will produce severe
oxidation condition. Thus it is paramount to select the material of construction for shell
and tube that is corrosion-resistance.

It is observed that the suitable material for construction of shell and tube is stainless
steel Type 316 with molybdenum stabilised. It is resistant to corrosion, high tensile
strength which can prevent rupture of tubes in high pressure and less expensive.

## 6.5.3 Welded Joint Efficiency

The strength of the welded joint will depend on the type of joint and the quality of
the welding. Practically, the soundness of the weld is being checked by visual
inspection and by non-destructive testing (Sinnott, 2005). The possible lower strength of
a welded joint is usually allowed for in design by multiplying the allowable design stress
for material by welded joint factor (J). In the calculation of design, J value is taken as 1
as it is being considered that it is equally as virgin plate and degree of radiography is
100%.

## 6.5.4 Allowance for Corrosion

For the calculation of thickness of tubes and shell, an extra value will be added to
allow for corrosion. It is thus permit for the lost of metal thickness due to corrosion and
erosion. R.K Sinnott suggests that for carbon and alloy-steel with severe corrosion is
not expected, a minimum allowance of 2 mm should be used.

352
6.5.5 Minimum thickness of vessel under internal pressure
To calculate the minimum thickness of vessel wall under internal pressure, for
cylindrical shell:
Pi Di
e
2 f Pi
where f = design stress, N/mm2
Pi = internal pressure,
e = minimum thickness of vessel wall, mm

N
4445.0947mm
1
111458 2
m 1000 mm
2
e
N
N 111458 2
2 120 m
mm 1000
2 2

= 0.2068 mm

= 2.2068 mm

## 6.5.6 Design of Domed Head

i) For internal floating head shell and tube exchanger, the bonnet is shaped in
ellipsoidal. For ellipsoidal heads of major and minor axis ratio of 2: 1, the minimum
thickness required:

Pi Di
e
2 Jf 0.2 Pi

## where Pi = internal pressure, N/mm2

Di = internal shell diameter, mm
J = welded-joint efficiency
f = design stress, N/mm2

353
Figure 6.5 : Ellipsoidal head dimensional
N
111458 2
m 445.0947 mm
1000 2

e
N
111458 2
21120 N 2 0.2 m
mm 1000 2

= 0.2067 mm

## Allowing for corrosion, e = 0.2067 mm + 2 mm

= 2.2067 mm

ii) For flat plate end which is used as cover for manways and as the channel cover of
shell and tube heat exchanger, the minimum thickness is calculated by :

Pi
e C p De
f

## where Cp = design constant, dependent on the edge constraint

De = nominal plate diameter, mm
f = design stress, N/mm2
Pi = internal pressure, N/mm 2

For flange-only end with diameter < 0.6 m and corner radii least equal 0.25e, Cp = 0.45
and De = Di.

354
N
111458 2
m
1000 2

e 0.45445.0947mm
N
120
mm 2
= 6.1042 mm

= 8.1042mm

## 6.5.7 Design of nozzle

Nozzles are used to convey fluids into and out of the exchanger, which are pipes
of constant cross section welded to the shell and channel (Kuppan, 2000). For a high
velocity stream, an impingement is used to lowering the velocity of that particular
stream, thus avoiding tube erosion and flow-induced vibration. Good nozzle design
involves better distribution of process fluids, ability to withstand operating load and
other load, easy accessibility to connect or disconnect the pipes and have a very low
pressure drop (Kuppan, 2000).

In the design of nozzle, the pipe schedule selected will determine the velocity of
the stream through the nozzle. The selected pipe schedule is as follow:

## Nominal Schedule Outside Internal Wall Cross sectional

pipe size, Number diameter, diameter, thickness,
Metal, in Flow, ft2
in in in in

## For hot stream nozzles:

355
Table 6.16 : Pipe schedule dimension for hot stream nozzle

## Nominal Schedule Outside Internal Wall Cross sectional

pipe size, Number diameter, diameter, thickness,
in in in in Metal, in Flow, ft2

M2
d min 4
1.296 10 7 Vh

## where M = mass flowrate of fluid through nozzle, kg/ hr

Vh = Velocity head loss through the nozzle, m
= density of fluid, kg / m3

## Velocity head loss is calculated by :

v 2
P
2
where = density of the fluid through the nozzle, kg/m 3
v = velocity of the stream, m/s

Below are the specifications of the nozzles of floating-head heat exchanger. For detail
calculation, please refer to Appendix A .

356
Table 6.17 : Nozzles dimension

## Nozzle Internal Diameter (m)

Hot Stream inlet 0.05533
Hot Stream outlet 0.05533
Cold Stream inlet 0.08925
Cold Stream outlet 0.08925

## Dead weight of the vessel is calculated by the equation:

Wv Cv m Dm g H v 0.8Dm t 10 3

## where W v = total weight of shell, excluding internal fittings, N

Cv = factor to account for the weight of nozzles, manways, internal supports
= 1.08 for vessels with only a few internal fittings
Hv = height / length between tangent lines (the length of the cylindrical section),
m
g = gravitational acceleration, 9,81 m/s2 (Stainless steel type 316 = 7990.03
3
kg/m )
t = wall thickness, mm
m = density of vessel material, kg/m 3
Dm = mean diameter of vessel = (Di + t x 10-3) m

kg m

W 1.08 7990.03 3 0.4473m 9.81 2 4.025m 0.80.4473m 2.2068 10 3 m
m s
= 1150.5581 N

b) Weight of Tubes

## The weight contributes by tubes is calculated by:

Wt N t d o2 d i2 m gL

357
where W t = weight of tubes, N
Nt = number of tubes
do = tube outside diameter, m
di = tube inside diameter, m
m = density of tube material, kg/m 3
g = gravity acceleration, m/s2
L = length of tube, m

Wt 76 0.02540 2 0.02337 2 7990.039.813.975
= 7364.8992 N

## c) Weight of Fluid inside Tube

The weight contributed by the fluid flowing inside of the tubes is calculated by:

Wf

N t d o2 d i2 L s g
4

## where W t = weight of tubes, N

Nt = number of tubes
do = tube outside diameter, m
di = tube inside diameter, m
s = density of tube material, kg/m 3
g = gravity acceleration, m/s2
L = length of tube, m

## 76 0.02540 2 0.02330 2 3.975819.169.81

Wf
4
= 194.9964 N

358
d) Weight of Condensate

1
Assume that the steam condensate will occupy about of shell internal diameter (Ds).
5
So, the weight of condensate is :

Ds2 L c g
Wc
20

## Ds = shell internal diameter, m

c = density of condensate, kg/m 3
g = gravity acceleration, m/s2

0.44512 4.025985.659.81
Wc
20
= 1211.1354 N

e) Weight of insulation

Insulation is important to control the movement of heat from or into the exchanger.
For this case, it is desirable to minimize heat loss from exchanger to the environment to
increase heat transfer coefficient, thus maximize the effectiveness of the heat
exchanger.

## Selected insulation types: Mineral wool

Thickness of insulation is taken as 50 mm (BS 3274).

V DLel

## where V = volume of insulation, m 3

Hv = length of the tube, m
el = thickness of the insulation, m
D = outside diameter of shell, m

359
V 0.44954.0250.05
= 0.2842 m3

Weight of insulation,

Wt V l g

## where W t = weight of insulator, N

V = volume of insulator, m 3
l = density of insulator, kg/m 3
g = gravity acceleration, m/s2

Wt 0.28422 1309.81
= 724.8805 N

= 10646.4696 N

## With a 10% allowance,

W = 10646.4696 N x 1.1
= 11711.1166 N

## 6.5.9 Design of Baffle

Baffle is employed on the shell-side to support the tubes, to maintain the tube
spacing and to direct the shell-side fluid across or along the tube bundle in a specified
manner (Kuppan, 2000). The intention is to maximize the heat transfer on the tube
surface where on one side of tube condensation occur, thus it is ideal to minimize the
clearance between tube baffle and shell, so the assumption made is baffle spacing
equal to shell inside diameter.
To find diameter of baffles, by referring to BS 3274;

360
Dbf D 1.5875mm with 0.7938mm tolerances, where D is internal shell diameter.

## So, Dbf 445.0947mm 1.5875mm

= 443.5072 mm
Tube holes in transverse is 1/32 inch more than the outside diameter of tube and for
nominal shell internal diameter of 15-27 inch (0.381-0.6858 m) with unsupported tube
length of 48-60 inch (1.2192-1.5240 m), baffle thickness is about 3/8 inch (9.5250 mm)
[BS 3274].

## 6.5.10 Design of Bolted Flange Joint

In heat exchanger, flange joint is used to connect together
1. Nozzle with pipe carrying fluids
2. Manhole covers and removable head for cleaning and maintenance purpose
3. Channel and channel cover

## There are several types of bolted flange joint, namely:

1. Ring flange
2. Weld neck integral flange
3. Lap joint flange
4. Reverse flange

361
Here the selected type of flange joint to be used is weld neck flange because it has the
best characteristics for preventing failure from fatigue and thermal stress and suitable
for extreme severe condition where flange will be subjected to temperature, shear and
vibration loads (Kuppan, 2000 and Sinnott, 2005)

## Steel Welding Neck Flange (Nominal pressure = 6 bar)

Figure 6.6 : Flange dimensions

## Nom Pipe Flange Raised Bolting Drilling Neck

size O.D face
D b h1 d4 f No. d2 k d3 h2 r
80 88.9 190 16 42 128 3 M16 4 18 150 102 10 8
(Data extracted from Coulson & Richardsons, Chem. Eng design, 6th Ed., 2005)

## 6.5.11. Design of Tube Sheet

Tubesheet is the principal barrier between shell-side and tube-side pressure
(Kuppan, 2000). It is a perforated plate with unperforated rim supported at its rim
(Sinnott, 2005).It will support the tubes that are drilled into the plate. In this case, it is
crucial to design tubesheet that will resist the maximum differential pressure that might
occur. The stresses that are subjected to the plate are radial and bending stresses due

## T.Kuppan (2000) summarizes several assumptions in designing tubesheet,

among them are:

362
1) The tube sheet is uniformly perforated over its whole area
2) Membrane loads in the tube sheets are negligible as compared to bending loads
3) No slip occurs at the junction between the tubes and the tube sheet

For floating head heat exchanger tube sheet, only one tube sheet is fixed to the
shell or channel or both sides, either by welding or bolting while the second tube sheet
surface is free to move inside the shell.

The tube sheet thickness to resist bending based on BS 5500 is given by:

p s pt
T Co Co D p
2S f

## where Co = coefficient that depends on parameters X o and Rd

ps = shell-side pressure, N/mm 2
pt = tube-side pressure, N/mm2
= mean ligament efficiency
Sf = material allowable stress, N/mm 2
Dp = diameter of perforated region, mm
For clamped condition where it is full-face gasket on both sides, the value of Co and Co
is given by:

## R = 1.00 , Co = 0.433 and Co = 0 (T. Kuppan, 2000)

0.1115 0.7021
T 0.433 0445.0947
2 0.25 109
= 20.0627 mm
From BS 3274, the minimum tube plate thickness for tube outside diameter of 3/4 inch
(19.05 mm) is 9/16 inch (14.29 mm). So, the tube sheet thickness obtained is
satisfactory. Also, BS 3274 reported that for tube outside diameter of 3/4 inch (19.05
mm), the minimum tube hole on tube sheet is 0.760 inch (19.30 mm) with tolerance of
0.002 inch (0.051 mm).

## The heat exchanger being considered here will be located in a horizontal

position. Suitable support method is required to hold up the weight of pressure vessel
363
together with its fittings, and also the load of fluids it contains. It is observed that the
saddle support method is suitable for horizontal vessel support. Horizontal vessels
when supported on saddle supports behave as beams and for this kind of

support, maximum longitudinal bending stresses occur at the support and at the mid-
span of the vessel (Kuppan, 2000). Consequently, the location of supports from the mid
span or head tangent is critical to minimize bending stresses at the support. R. K
Sinnott suggests that for a uniformly loaded beam or vessel being supported on 2
saddles, the position will be 21% of the span, in from each end. Generally, the saddle
contact angle should be in the range of 120o to 150o. Below shows the structure of

## Figure 6.7 : Saddle dimensions

(Source : Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering Design, 4th Ed,Elsevier, 2005)

## Vessel Max Dimensions mm

diameter, weight,
V Y C E J G t2 t1 Bolt Bolt
m kN
diam holes

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