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MECHANICAL DESIGN

temperature, material construction and equipment dimensions. Mechanical design for

the continuous stirred tank reactor is carried out based on the approach to Sinnot

(Coulson & Richardsons, Volume 6).

The raw material too corrosive to the wall. Corrosion can be occur because of sea

spray, drain or drops of dew. It is the most generally used Austenitic Stainless Steel

(18Cr/8Ni, 316). This material is good for creep resistance, intergranular cracking and

last longer. For this material, the design stress at 120C (Coulson & Richardsons,

Volume 6).For safety purpose.

Design stress, f = 125 x103 kN/m2

The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow for material

lost by corrosion and erosion or scaling. It is recommended to use corrosion allowance

= 4x10-3m or 4mm since the influent and effluent gas of the reactor is corrosive

(Coulson & Richardsons, Volume 6).

246

6.1.3 The Minimum Thickness Of The Reactor, e

It is known that the operation pressure for 6.262 atm. As a safety factor, the reactor

pressure must be 50% higher than the actual process procedure. Therefore;

N

Pi 1.5Poperating 1.5 6.262atm 9.393 10 5

m2

In calculating the minimum thickness of the cylindrical shape reactor, the following

equation had been used;

Pi Di

e

2 f Pi

Where,

N

Pi Design Pressure ,9.393 105

m2

Di Internal diameter, 3 m

N

f Design stress,125 106

m2

The material used is Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni, 316) and the operation

temperature is 120.

N

9.393 105 3m

e m2

N N

2 125 106

2

9.393 105 2

m m

0.01131m 11.31mm

= (11.31+4)mm = 15.31 mm

Data: crown radius, Rc = Di = 3

knuckle radius, Rk = 6% Rc = 0.18

247

Pressing and no joints would form a head of this size. Therefore, joint factor, J=1

Cs 1 3 Rc Rk

4

0.5

1 3 3 0.18

4

0.5

1.77

Pi Rc C s

eh

2 Jf Pi C s 0.2

9.393 10 31.77

5

eh 6 5

Standard ellipsoidal heads are manufactured with a major and minor axis ratio of 2:1

The minimum thicknes,

Pi Di

eh

2 Jf 0.2 Pi

eh

9.393 10 35

21125 10 0.29.393 10

6 5

ellipsoidal head is the most economical. Thus, ellipsoidal head is selected.

248

6.1.5 Thickness Of Insulation

The reactor is insulated to avoid loss of heat from the reactor (to conserve energy) and

to keep process conditions from fluctuating with ambient conditions. Type of insulator

used is 85% magnesia. It is the mixture of magnesia and asbestos fibers. Thickness of

insulation is depends on process temperature as shown in below.

Table 6.1 Thickness of insulation as a function of process temperature

T (C) 93 205 316

t (mm) 12.7 25.4 31.75

Table 1.7

tinsulation for the process with maximum temperature for safety purpose is T = 600C can

be estimated by interpolation:

tinsulation = 48.23mm

The turbine with flat vertical blades extending to the shaft is suited to the vast majority

of mixing duties up to 100,000 cP or so at high pumping capacity. Because of that the

turbine with flat vertical blades is selected [Sinnot 1999].

Size of impeller depends on the type of impeller and operating conditions. For turbine

impeller, the ratio of diameter of impeller and vessel is in the range of d/D = 0.3 to 0.6.

The diameter of impeller,

d 0.4 3

d 1.2 m

d 8

1.2 8 0.15m

249

d 2

1.2 2 0.6 m

D 12

3 12 0.25 m

= H/6

= 9/6 = 1.5 m

H H 6

9 1.5m 7.5m

H 3

9 3 3m

Before shaft design can begin, the motor horsepower, shaft speed and impeller must be

selected first for a turbine agitator application. Shaft design requires two steps:

upon the shaft

2) Determining the natural frequency of vibration for the shaft and turbines

The shaft and impeller must not rotate close to their natural frequency, Nc. As stated in

Journal of Liquid Agitation on August 1976 by Wayne D. Ramsey and Gerald C. Zoller,

the operating speed,N of the shaft must be sufficiently far from the systems natural

frequency to prevent the deflections that exceed the yield stress. Then, Nc N .

250

6.1.8 Speed Impeller

1

Hp

D 394 ( 3

)5

nS g N

Hp = horsepower

n = number of blade

Sggg == specific gravity of Butyl Acetate

N = speed impeller

For typical power consumption for blending of low viscosity liquids. It is about 0.2 kW/m 3

(Coulson & Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Volume 1, page 293)

P p xV

V = volume of reactor in m 3

kW

P 0.2 x 37 m 3

m3

P = 7.4 kW @ 9.9234 hp

9.9234 1

1.2 394 ( ) 5

4(0.986) N 3

2.5166

2.6207 10 13

N3

N 3 17383.8

251

The torque transmitted by the shaft will have the maximum value above the uppermost

turbine. Since the power drawn by sealing devices is in significant, the maximum

torque,TQ becomes:

Hp

TQ (max) 63025

N

Where Hp= Agitator power

N = speed impeller

9.9234

TQ (max) 63025

131.8

TQ(max) 4744.8774

The maximum bending moment, Mmax, is the sum of product of the hydraulic forces and

the distance from individual impellers to the first bearing

H p L'

M max 19000

ND

N = speed impeller

L = Length of vessel

D = blade diameter

9.9234 9

M max 19000

131.8 1.2

M max 10728.3961

The minimum shaft diameter values can be calculated due to relationship to meet the

shear stress and tensile stress, respectively:

252

Shear stress diameter;

16 TQ (max) M max 1

2 2

ds [ ]3

s

2 2

dt [ ]3

t

Then, the shear stress and tensile stress can be calculated as below:

16 4744.8744 2 10728.2032 13

ds [ ]

6000

d s 2.15 inc

dt [ ]

10000

Assume diameter = 13 cm

recommended.

Then, estimate the hub weight from the table on page 103 (Journal of Liquid Agitation

on August 1976 by Wayne D. Ramsey and Gerald C. Zoller) and the blade weight by

substituiting into below;

0.35D 3 H p 1

Wb ( ] 2

N

253

Where W b = weight of blade

Hp = Agitator power

N = speed impeller

Then;

0.35(1.2) 3 9.9256 12

Wb ( ]

131.8

Wb 0.2134 kg

W 11.34 0.2134 kg

W 11.55kg

0.388 x 10 6 (d 2 Fm )

Nc

L' W L' S b

Fm = stainless steel factor

W = equivalent weight

Sb = bearing span

Then;

Nc

9 11.55 9 30.5

139680

Nc

192.2348

N c 726.5049 rpm

254

Since the natural frequency of 728.5049 rpm for the shaft and impeller is more than the

operating speed of 131.8 rpm, then the 13 cm shaft is acceptable.

6.1.9 Design of Vessel Subject to Combined Lading

withstand the worst combination offloading without failure. The main sources of load to

consider are:

1. Pressure

2. Dead weight of vessel and content(s)

3. Wind

4. External loads imposed by piping and attached equipment(s)

A much thicker wall will be needed at the vessel base to withstand the wind and dead

weight load. The vessel is divided t 5 sections, with the thickness increasing by 2 mm

by section. The wall thickness for steel vessel W v, average thickness, tavg is taken,

15.31 mm [Sinnot,1999]

WV 240Cv Dm H v 0.8Dm t avg

= 1.08 for vessel with only a few internal fittings

= 1.15 for vessel with several man ways and other fittings

Dm= mean diameter of the vessel = (Di + tavg) = 3+ 0.01531 = 3.0153 m

Hv= height of the cylindrical area = 9 m

=136.5936kN

42.4170 m 2

Assume the reactor as platforms, steel, for vertical columns with 1.7 kN/m 2 reactor area.

(Sinnot, 1999) Hence, the weight of the reactor, W r

255

Wr 42.4172 m 2 *1.7 kN m 2

72.1089kN

The wind load (Sinnot, 1999) is now determined. A wind speed of 160 km/h can be

used for preliminary design studies. The wind pressure, P w is calculated using below

the formula;

Pw 0.05u w

2

0.05160

2

1280 N m 2

Fw Pw Deff

Where Def f = effective vessel diameter

Deff Di 2tavg

3 20.0153

3.0306 m

Hence, Fw Pw Deff

12803.0306

3879.2041 N m

256

6.1.10 Weight of Insulation

Since we use mixture of magnesia (85%) and asbestos fibers, we can calculate the

weight of insulator ;

W ins = Vg

= 1940 kg/m -3

(Reference: www.simetric.co.uk/si_materials.htm)

tinsulation = 48.23mm

Vouter -Vinner = (22/7)(1.2982)2(6.9)-(44)

= 3.5 m2

W ins = (1940)(3.5)(9.81)

=66.142 kN

WT Wv Wr Wins

274.8443kN

Next, the determination of bending moment at bottom tangent line, M (Sinnot, 1999)

M Fw H v

2

2

3879.2041 92 0.5

157.1078kN

Pi Di

a) Pressure stresses, h

2t

9.393 103 5

20.0153

9.20 107 N m2

257

Pi Di

L

4t

9.393 10 35

40.0153

4.60 107 N m2

1.89 106 N m2 (compressive)

c) Bending stresses, b M Di 2 t 1 I v

Where I v 64 D0 Di

4 4

64 3.03064 34

0.1649 m4

Hence, b M Di 2 t 1 I v

142 kN m2

(Where w is compressive stress hence, value is negative)

4.55 107 N m2

4.27 107 N m2

258

The principal stresses will be z and h. The greatest difference between the principal

stresses will be on the downwind side.

4.9 107 N m2

By comparing this value with the maximum allowable design stress for the vessel, f

which is 125 E+6 N/m 2, the greatest difference is well below the maximum design

stress.

Next is the determination of elastic stability (buckling) (Sinnot, 1999)

c 2 10 4 t D0

101.0622 N mm2 1010623 N m2

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure:

= Dead weight stress + bending stress

w b

1.89 106 142 103

3.312 105 N m 2

The maximum compressive stress is well below the critical buckling stress. Therefore,

the design is satisfactory. The reactor thickness of 15 mm is taken

Carbon steel pipe is used for the inlet and outlet pipe of the reactor and also for the

catalyst pipe. Optimum diameter for the pipe can be calculated using the following

equation (Coulson & Richardsons, Volume 6).

259

d 293G 0.37

0.53

G = Flow rate (kg/s)

mixture = density inlet (kg/m 3)

Table 6.2 The mass flowrate, density and the diameter of the pipeline

PIPE Inlet outlet catalyst

G (kg/s) 7.5022 7.5022 0.075

(kg/m ) 3

847 847 1050

The optimum duct diameter included corrosion allowance 4mm. Since catalyst feed is 1

% of the total feed of mass flowrate in is sufficient from reactant charge.

Inlet pipe

G 7.5022 kg s

mixture 847 kg m 3

0.53

Therefore the optimum duct diameter is pipe o.d 58.85 mm . (based on standard

nominal size and included corrosion allowances)

Outlet pipe

G 7.5022 kg s

mixture 858 kg m 3

0.53

Catalyst

catalyst 1050 kg m 3

260

Since catalyst feed is 1 % of the total feed of mass flowrate in is sufficient from reactant

charge

Gcatalyst 270 kg h

0.53

Therefore the optimum duct diameter is pipe 5mm pipe. (included corrosion allowance

4mm)

Figure 6.1 Typical standard flange designs (steel welding neck flanges)

Values for bolt and flange of the inlet pipe (Coulson & Richardsons, Volume 6).

The nearest value of optimum duct diameter;

Nom. Raised

Size Flange Drilling Boss

D1 Face Bolting

D b h1 d4 f No. d2 K d3

50 60.3 165 20 48 102 3 M16 4 18 125 75

261

Table 6.4 Dimension for outlet pipe

Nom. Raised

Size Flange Drilling Boss

D1 Face Bolting

D B h1 d4 f No. d2 K d3

50 60.3 165 20 48 102 3 M16 4 18 125 75

Table 6.5 Dimension for catalyst pipe (the optimum duct diameter is pipe o.d 5 mm)

Nom. Raised

Size Flange Drilling Boss

D1 Face Bolting

D B h1 d4 F No. d2 K d3

10 17.2 90 16 35 40 2 M12 4 14 60 28

Bracket or lugs support are commonly used as a support for vertical vessel. The

advantages of bracket support over all types of support are they are inexpensive, can

absorb diametrical expensive by sliding over greased or bronzed plate, can easily

attached to the vessel by minimum amount of welding and are easily leveled or

shimmed in the field. (Brownell and Young,1959)

For lapped types of bracket, it may assumed that the bolt or weld provide lateral restrain

to the compression zones. In order to design this types of bracket, the moment capacity

must be greater the maximum bending in the bracket. (James R.Farr, 1988)

D = 327.2 mm

B = 310.6 mm

T = 25.0 mm

A = 201.2 cm 2

Crane beam eccentrity, e =550mm

Maximum loading, F = 136049 N

For bracket , use two of 20mm thick plate, t

Maximum bending moment in bracket = 136.049 kN x 0.55m = 74.827 kNm

262

Second moment of area of plate

IS

2 t 650

3

mm

12 1000

cm

2 20mm 6503

mm

12 1000

cm

91541.7cm 4

A AS Ap

AS 7120mm2

AP D TP

de

2A

13000mm 327.2mm 20mm

2 20120mm

112.167mm

2

D T

IX I S AS d e AP P d e

2 2

32.72cm 2cm

91541.7cm 4 71.2cm 2 11.216cm 130cm 2

2

11.2167cm

2 2

20661.259cm 4

IX

Zx

D

de

2

20661.259cm 4

32.72cm

11.2167cm

2

7494.0533cm 3 @ 7494053.331mm 3

263

M CXn PY Z X

265 N mm 2 7494053.33mm 3

1985924133Nmm @ 1985924.133kNm

Moment capacity is greater than the maximum bending in bracket, therefore the bracket

is satisfactory.

UniversalColumn = 305mm x 305mm x 137mm

Dimensions

Weight of Vessel = 274.8442 kN

Wind Loading = 3360 Nm

Assume Base = 600 x 600 plate

Number of Bolt =4

Assumptions;

L= 600mm

n = 50mm

Modulus Ratio = 15

Diameter of Bolt = 20mm

Tensile stress area = 245mm2

AS 2 Tensile stress area

2 245mm2

490mm2

d Ln

Where L=B=600mm

264

d 6000mm 50mm

550mm

M 3457.44 Nm

0.0254m

F 136049 N

L 600mm

100mm @ 0.1m

6 6

M L

The loading is satisfactory because

F 6

6.1.13.2 Bearing Pressure, f c

Base area,

A L L

600mm 600mm

360000mm2

Base Modulus, Z

L3

Z

6

600mm 600mm 600mm

6

36000000mm3

F WV

10544 N

d1 0.5d n

M

F

mm

345744 Nm 1000

0.5550mm 50mm m

10544 N

577.90mm

265

6md1 AS

A1

B

6 15 577.90mm 490mm2

600mm

42475.62mm2

y 3 3d d1 y 2 A1 y A1d 0

y 230.8mm

6d1F

fc

By 3d y

6 577.90mm 136049 N

2.317 N mm2

BM f c B

100mm2

2

2.567 N mm 600mm 5000mm2

2

7701kNmm@ 7.701kNm

From Py is 265N/mm2

t2

Z B

6

600mm 32mm

2

6

102400mm 3

266

Moment capacity,

1.2 PYP Z

1.2 265 N / mm 102400mm3

32563.2kNmm@ 32.563kNm

Maximum bending moment < Moment capacity, hence the plate is satisfactory

For column dimensions of 305mm x 305mm x 137UC (Universal Column)

D=320.5mm

T=21.7mm

B=308mm

A = 201.2cm2 @ 20120mm2

mm

3395.52 Nm 1000

M m 11.364kN

D T 320.5mm 21.7mm

2 B

2 308mm

616mm

Weld Shear

one flange weld length

11364 N

18.886 N mm

616mm

Use 12 number of 33mm diameter bolts on each face

Maximun loading, F=274.844 kN

Maximum bending moment =136.049 kN x 0.55mm

=74.827kNm

267

Shear/Bolt due to vertical load,

M

Fs

12

74.827 kNm

12m

6.23kN

Tensile Force, Ft

Md max

Ft

d2

74.827 168

1000

12 902 1682

28.839kN

Shear capacity, PS

PS ps AS

375 694

260.25kN

Tensile Capacity, PS

Pt pt At

540 694

374.76kN

FS Ft

1.4

Ps At

7.20kN 28.728kN

0.1

260kN 374.76kN

268

6.1.14 Manholes

The maximum length of manhole is dependent on the manhole diameter. The length is

perpendicular distance from the face of the opening including lining or any projection of

the branch within the vessel.

Type of branch connection: flush nozzle

Inside diameter = 598.50 mm

Nominal size = 600 mm

Outside diameter = 609.60 mm

Nominal wall thickness = 5.54 mm

Actual thickness

ta = (do di) / 2

= 5.55 mm

Minimum thickness

e1 = PiDi/(2f-Pi)

= 2.614 mm

Distance, N = 2.5 ta

= 13.875 mm

Length, S = di /2

= 299.25 mm

= (7.773)(598.5)

2

= 2326.07 mm2

269

Compensation area, Y = Nt a Ne1 + Stc

= 40.737 +299.25tc

Area X = Area Y

2326.07 = 40.737 +299.25tc

tc = 7.637 mm

Flat plates are used to blank off flange connections, and as covers for manholes

and inspection parts. Flat end closures are blind flanges, bolted cover with a full face

gasket,

The thickness required will be depend on the degree of constraint at the plate

periphery. The minimum thickness required is given by:

e = CpDe(Pi/f)1/2

where Cp = design constant = 0.4

De = bolt circle diameter = 490 mm

f = design stress, 115 N/mm2

Minimum thickness for flat end closures, e = 18.277 mm

Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance, e = 20.277

SPECIFICATION DATA

MECHANICAL DESIGN

Identification

Item no CSTR-100

Design orientation Vertical

270

Operating Condition

Operating temperature, oC 110

Operating pressure, atm 9

Material of construction Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni, 316)

Design stress, kN/m 2 125 x 106

Wall thickness, mm 15

Thickness insulation, mm 48

Wind loading, km/h 160

Head and Closure Design

Type Ellipsoidal Head

Thickness, mm 11

Impeller Arrangement

Type of impeller Turbine with flat vertical blades

Material of construction Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni, 316)

Diameter of impeller, m 1.20

Width of impeller, m 0.15

Offset of baffle, m 0.60

Baffle width, m 0.25

Baffle height, m 7.50

Shaft Design

Material of construction Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni, 316)

Speed impeller, rpm 131

Maximum torgue 4744

Maximum bending moment 10728

Diameter of shaft, cm 13

Weight of Load

Vessel, kN 137

Insulation, kN 66

Total weight, kN 274

Analysis of stress

Bending moment, kN 157

2

Critical buckling stress, N/m 101 x 103

2

Maximum compressive stress, N/m 331 x 103

Support design

Type Bracket support

Material of construction Austenitic Stainless Steel (18Cr/8Ni, 316)

Number of support 4

Height of support 5m

Dimensions 305mm x 305mm x 137UC

Manholes

Nominal size, mm 600

Inside diameter, mm 598.50

Outside diameter, mm 609.60

Wall thickness, mm 5.55

271

SECTION 2: MECHANICAL DESIGN OF DISTILLATION COLUMN 1 (T100)

5.2 Introduction

In mechanical design, there are two parameters such as temperature and pressure

which are important properties to evaluate the thickness and the stress of material.

Therefore, the safety factor, corrosion allowance is added as precaution because to

chemical plant process, it may have some unexpected problems with equipment and

environment. The safety factor is usually 15% above the operating pressure and as for

this distillation column; the operating pressure is 4.035 bars at the bottom of the column

and 3.04 bars at the top of the column. Furthermore, the operating temperature is

95.12C at the top column and 119.24C at the bottom column. So, for design

distillation column, calculation should be based on:

1 Design pressure

2 Design temperature

3 Material of construction

4 Design stress

5 Wall thickness

6 Welded joint efficiency

7 Analysis of stresses

a. Dead weight load

b. Wind load

c. Pressure stress

d. Bending stress

8 Vessel support

9 Insulation

Generally, design pressure is taken as 5 to 15% above the operating pressure at the

bottom of column to avoid spurious operating during minor process upsets.

272

5.2.2 Design temperature

The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the

maximum working temperature of the material, with due to allowance for any

uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall temperature

.

Selection of suitable material must be taking into account the suitability of material for

fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with the

process environment. Selection of materials for construction is also required based on

the characteristics of chemical properties and mechanical properties.The material of

construction selected for this application is stainless steel 304 and it is the most

commonly used corrosion resistant materials in the chemical industry. The operating

condition is not critical, thus the material has the ability to retain the strength.

In addition, stainless steel 304 is chosen as the material of construction for several

purposes, such as: By referring to the Table 13.2 (Coulson and Richardson).

1 Readily available

2 Low cost

3 Subjected to welding

4 Corrosion resistant to feed and product

5 Easily fabricated

6 High strength

It is necessary to determine the maximum allowable stress that the material can

withstand without failure under operating condition. For material chosen, which carbon

steel is, the design stress is 130 N/mm2 at temperature below than 1500C.

273

5.2.5 Wall thickness

Pi Di

e =

2 Jf 0.2 Pi

Where, e = minimum thickness of the plate required

Pi = internal pressure, 1.5086 N/mm2

Di = internal diameter, 1.4332 m

f = design stress, 130 N/mm2

J = joint factor (J = 1 for ellipsoidal head)

The strength of welded joint will depend on the types of joint and the quality of the

welding. Take welding joint as 1.0 implies that the point is equally as strong as the

virgin plate; this is achieved by radio graphing the complete weld length, and cutting out

and remarking any.

The column also subjected to other loads such as vessel shell, plate fittings and weight

of liquid to fill into the vessel. Total weight of column can be calculated by using

formula:

fitting such as plate

Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzle,

manways and internal support. (In this

case for distillation column take Cv as 1.15)

Dm = mean diameter of vessel (Dc + t x 10-3)

Hv = height or length between tangent lines, m

t = wall thickness

274

Wind loading

Wind loading will only be important on tall column installed in the open. Columns are

usually free standing, mounted on skirt support, and not attached to structural steel

work.

a) Pressure stress

The longitudinal and circumferential stresses due to pressure can be calculated using

equation:

PD

L =

4t

PD

h =

2t

Where, P = operating pressure

D = column diameter

t = thickness

b) Bending stresses

1 Wind load on tall self-supported vessels

2 Seismic loads on tall column

3 Dead weight and wind loading on piping and equipment.

Bending stress can be calculated using this formula:

M Dc

b = t

IV 2

Where,

IV =

64

D 0

4

Di

4

D0 = ( Di 2t )

275

CALCULATION ON MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN OF DISTILLATION

COLUMN

= 0.5 x 44 m

= 22 m

Allow, 2 m for clearance height = (22 + 2) m

= 2.4 m

Internal diameter, Dc = 1.433215106 m

Operating pressure, Top column = 3.04 bar

Bottom column = 4.035 bar

Take column operating at = 4.035 bar

Material of column = Stainless steel 304

Operating temperature = 95.12 0C to 119.24 0C

Material of tray = Stainless steel 304

Insulation column = Mineral wool 75 mm thick

Design stress = 130 N/mm2 (for stainless steel 304)

= 4.035 bar x 1.1

1.01325 10 5 / 2 (1 ) 2

= 4.4385

1.01325 (1000 )2

2

= 0.443857 N/mm

Minimum thickness required for pressure loading, (t),

PxD c

t =

2 des P

0.443857

2 (2647.054)

=

130

2 (0.443857 )

2 2

= 2.450847437mm (approximately 3 mm)

276

5.2.9 Dead weight of vessel

Where, Wv = total weight of shell, excluding internal

fitting such as plates

Cv = a factor to account for the weight of

manways and internal support. (In this

case for distillation column ,Cv 1.15)

Dm = mean diameter of vessel (Dc + t x 10-3)

Hv = height or length between tangent lines

t = wall thickness

= 1.435986248 m

Hv = 24 m

Wv = 240 x 1.15 x 1.433215 (24 m + 0.8

(1.433215 m))

x 2.771141287x10 -3

= 10.071 kN

D 2

Plate area =

4

(1.4332152 )

=

4

= 1.61247285 m2

Weight of plate = 1.2 kN/m2 x 1.61247285 m2

= 1.93496742 kN

(Where 1.2 is factor for contacting plates, steel including typical liquid loading in kN/m2)

For 44 plates = 44 x 1.93496742 kN

= 85.13856647 kN

277

5.2.11 Weight of insulation

Approximate volume of insulation = x 1.433215 m x 24 m x (75x10-3) m

= 8.100531781 m3

Weight = 4.05918 m3 x 130 kg/m3 x 9.81 m/s2

= 10330.60818 or 10.33 kN

Double this value to allow for fitting = 10330.60818 N x 2

= 20661.21636 N

Shell = 24.42257282kN

Plates = 85.13856647 kN

Insulation = 20.66121636 kN

Total = 130.2223557kN

This factor is also to be considered and calculated based on location and weather

surroundings. A wind loading must be designed to withstand the highest wind speed

that is likely to encounter at the site during the life of plant. A wind speed of 160 km/h

(100mph) can be used for preliminary design.

1

Dynamic wind pressure = x Cd x a x Uw2

2

For smooth cylinder = 0.05 Uw2

Design for 160 km/h, Pw = 0.05 x (160 km/h)2

= 1280 N/m2

Therefore, take wind pressure as 1280 N/m 2

Mean diameter, including insulation, Deff = Dc + Dc t

= 1.433215 m+1.432215 m (0.00245+75 x

-3

10 ) m

= 1.544218831m

Loading per unit length, Fw = PwDeff

278

= 1280 N/m2 x 1.544218831 m

= 1976.600104 N/m

Bending moment at bottom tangent line,Mx:

Where x = Hv = 6.5 m (column height)

x2

Mx = Fw

2

24 2

= 1.544218831 N/m x ( )

2

= 569260.8298Nm

Pressure stresses:

PD

L =

4t

Where, P = operating pressure (0.44385 N/mm2)

D = column diameter (1.433215 m)

t = thickness (2.450847437 m)

=

4(2.450847437)

= 64.8890375N/mm2

PD

h =

2t

=

2(2.450847437)

= 129.778075 N/ mm2

279

5.2.15 Dead weight stress

Dead weight stresses is very important for tall columns such as distillation column. This

stress can be tensile for points below the column support or compressive for points

above the support. Dead weight stresses is given by Coulson & Richardson, Chemical

Engineering, Vol.6.

WV

w =

( Dc t )t

130.2224 103

=

3.14 1.433215 103 + 2.4508 (2.4508)

= 0.011786537 N/mm2 (compressive stress)

The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on location and are given

by,

M Dc

b = t

IV 2

Where,

IV =

64

D 0

4

Di

4

D0 = ( Di 2t )

= 1433.215 mm + 2 (2.450847437 mm)

= 1438.116801^4 mm

IV = (1438.1168014 1433.2154 )

64

Therefore,

+ 569260.8298 1433.215

= ( + 2.450847437)

2.847 10^9 2

280

= 0.143799726 N/mm2

weight and bending stress.

z=L+ w+ b

wis compressive stress, and therefore negative sign

Z (Upwind) = (64.88903750.011786537+

0.143799726) N/mm2

= 65.02105069N/mm2

Z (Downwind) = (64.8890375+0.011786537+

0.143799726) N/mm2

= 65.04462376N/mm2

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the downwind side:

h z (downwind ) = (129.778075 65.04462376) N/mm2

= 64.73345124N/mm2

Design stress = 130 N/mm2 (for Stainless steel 304)

The value of differences between the principal stresses is well below the maximum

allowable design stress.

65.02 65.05

129.78 129.78

Up-wind Down-wind

281

5.2.18 Elastic stability (buckling)

Under certain loading condition failure of a structure can occur not through yielding, but

by buckling or wrinkling. Buckling results in a gross and sudden change of shape of the

structure .This situation occur because lacks sufficient stiffness or rigidity to withstand

the load. The stiffness is depending on the elastic properties and cross sectional shape

of member. Elastic buckling is the important criterion in the design of thin walled vessel

under external pressure.

E t

Critical buckling stress, C =

3(1 2 ) R p

Where = 0.3 and E = 20000 N/mm2 include a high factor of safety,

c = 2 x 105 (t / Do)

2.4508

= 2105

1.438116801

= 340.8412216 N/mm2

Therefore, a critical buckling stress is 340.8412216N/mm2.

When the vessel is not under pressure (where the maximum stress occur):

Maximum stress = w h

= (0.011786537 + 0.143799726) N/mm2

= 0.155586263 N/mm2

The maximum stress is well below the critical buckling stress. Therefore, design is

satisfactory.

Ellipsoidal head is the most economical types of head that being used in petrochemical

equipment. Therefore, ellipsoidal head is chosen. Material of construction for ellipsoidal

head is carbon steel.

Pi Di

e =

2 Jf 0.2 Pi

Where, e = minimum thickness of the plate required

Pi = internal pressure, 0.44385 N/mm2

282

Di = internal diameter, 1.433215 m

f = design stress, 130 N/mm2

J = joint factor (J = 1 for ellipsoidal head)

0.44385 2 ( 1433.215)

e =

2(130 0.2(0.44385 )

2) 2

= 0.004185308 mm

Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance;

= (0.004185308 + 2) mm

= 2.004185308mm (approximately 2.1 mm)

So, thickness for the domed end with ellipsoidal head is 2.1 mm.

Knuckle radius, 6% from Rk = 0.06 x 1433.215 = 85.99290638mm

The stress concentration factor is a function of the knuckle and crown radii.

Pi RC C S

e

2 fJ Pi (C S 0.2)

Where,

= (1/4)(3 + (Rc / Rk)0.5)

Rc =Crown radius

Rk =Knuckle radius.

283

1 RC

CS 3

4 RK

1 1433.215

= (3+

4 85.99290638

Cs = 1.770620726

(0.44385 2647.05374 1.7706)

=

2 125 + 0.15087 (1.77062 0.2)

e= 4.32052887 mm

= (4.32052887 +2) mm

= 6.32052887 mm. (Approximately 6.4 mm)

By using full gasket Cp =0.4 and De = bolt circle diameter, take as approximate to

1.433215 m.

Pi

e C p De

f

Where,

Cp = a design constant, dependent on the edge strain.

De = nominal pipe diameter.

f = design stress.

284

The thickness required by using flat head is

0.44385

e= 0.4 1433.215 ( )

130

e = 33.49791717 mm

= (33.49791717 + 2) mm

= 35.49791717 mm. (approximately 35.5 mm)

From above calculation, the economical types of head that being used in

petrochemical equipment is ellipsoidal head because its thickness is

less compared to the other heads considered.

The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape and weight of the

vessel, the design pressure and temperature, the vessel location and arrangement, and

the internal and external fittings and attachment.

A skirt support consists of cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of the vessel. A

flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits load to the foundations. The skirt may be

welded to the bottom level of the vessel. Skirt support is recommended for vertical

vessels as they do no imposed concentrated loads on the vessel shells; they are

particularly suitable for use with tall columns subject to wind loading (Towler, Sinnott,

2008).

Design stress = 130 N/mm2

Youngs modulus = 200000 N/mm2

285

The maximum dead weight load on the skirt will occur when the vessel is full with

Ethylene.

Approximate weight = xDc ( H V ) x L ( g )

4

792.1826 9.81

= ( 1.433215) 24

4 3 2

= 38807133.48 N or 38807.13348 kN

Weight of vessel from previous calculation = 130.2223557kN

Total weight = (38807.13348 + 130.2223557) kN

= 38937.35584kN

Wind loading from previous calculation = 1976.600104 N/m

Take skirt support as 3 m height,

Bending moment at base skirt:

= 1.97660kN/m x (Column height + skirt support height)2

2

24 + 3 )2

= 1.97660 / (

2

= 19.42345246kN m

The resultant stresses in the skirt support will be:

S (tensile) = bs ws

S (compressive) = bs ws

Where, bs = bending stress in the skirt

4M s

bs =

( Ds t s )t s Ds

Where, M s = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the base

Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base.

ts = skirt thickness

Therefore,

4( 19.42345246 105 )

=

1433.215 + 2.450847437 1433.215 (2.450847437)

286

= 4.906544185 N/mm2

W

ws (test) =

( Ds t s )t s Ds

38807.13348

=

1433.215 + 2.450847437 2.450847437

= 3512.466876 N/mm2

ws (operating)

130.2223557 103

=

1433.215 + 2.450847437 2.450847437

= 0.010677855 N/mm2

Maximum s (compressive);

= bs ws

= 4.906544185 N/mm2 + 3512.466876 N/mm2

= 3517.37342 N/mm2

Maximum s (tensile):

= bs ws

= 4.906544185 N/mm2 0.011786537 N/mm2

= 4.894757648 N/mm2

Criteria for design:

s (maximum, tensile) < f s J sin

4.894757648 < 1 x 115 x sin 900

4.894757648 < 115.000

t

s (maximum, compressive) < 0.125E s sin

Ds

2.450847437

43.00832 < 0.125 200000 (sin 9 00 )

1433 .215

287

Both criteria are satisfied, add 2mm for corrosion, gives design thickness of

4.7711413mm.

Circumference of bolt circle =2200

Number of bolts required, at minimum recommended bolt spacing

2200

11.5

600

Closest multiple of 4=12 bolts.

Take bolt design stress =130N/mm 2

Ms=38940.56 kNm

Take W=20.66122 kN

1 4Ms

Ab W

Nb fb Db

Where,

Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread, mm 2

Nb = number of bolts

fb = maximum allowable bolt stress, N/mm 2; typically

design value 125 N/mm2

Ms = bending (overturning) moment at the base, Nm

W = weight of the vessel, N

Db = bolt circle diameter, m

1 4 38.94056103 )

= ( 20.66122103 )

12 125 2.2

Ab = 47186.89736 mm2

288

From figure 13.30: R.K.Sinnott et.al (6

Use M42 bolts (BS4190:1967) root area=1120 mm 2

47186 .89736 4

Bolt root diameter =

= 245.17483 mm

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,

4MS W

Fb

D S

2 D S

Where,

Fb = the compressive load on the base ring, N/m

DS = skirt diameter, m

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length

4 38.94055399 103 20.6612 103

= ( + )

1.4332152 1.433215

= 24154178.47 N/m

Taking the bearing pressure as 5 N/mm 2

Fb 1

Lb 3

fc 10

Where,

Lb = base ring width, mm

fc = the maximum allowable bearing pressure on

the concrete foundation pad, which will depend

on the mix used, and will typically range from

3.5 to 7 N/mm2 (500 to 1000 psi)

24154178.47

=

5

= 4830.835693 mm

289

Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:

24154178467

=

156.7711413

= 154072.8623 N/mm2

Minimum thickness,

3f ' c

tb Lr

fr

Where,

Lr = the distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the

ring, mm

tb = base ring thickness, mm

f 'c = actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm 2

fr = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically

140 N/mm2

3 154072.8623

= 102

140

= 5860.839883 mm

Skirt to be welded flush with outer diameter of column shell.

Rings = 10 mm deep

Plate spacing = 0.5 m

The load each ring:

Fr PeL s

Where,

290

Pe = external pressure

= (4438500)(0.5)

= 2219250 N/m

= 2.0 x 1011 N/m2

Factor of safety =6

The second moment of area of the ring to avoid buckling is given by,

24 E lr

PCL S 3

Dr factor of safety

Where,

lr = Second moment of area of the ring cross-section

shell outside diameter) = 1.8 m

24 2.01011 ( )

7.54105 / = 2

(1.432215 )3 (6)

= 8.17 06 4

For the rectangular section, the second moment of area is given by:

breath depth 3

l

12

10 103 (75103 )3

=( )

12

291

= 3.5156 x 10-7 m4

0.5

=

0 1.433215

= 0.348865985

Where,

L = plate spacing

D0 = internal diameter

0 1433.215

=

10

= 143.3215

Where,

t = column shell mean thickness (10 mm)

Kc = 97

3

= ( )

0

10

= 150 (2.0 1011 )( )3

1.433215

design of the support rings to support the plate is satisfied.

292

5.2.24 Flange design

a) Feed inlet

G = 26460 kg/h = 7.35 kg/s

mix = 0.0971(934) + 0.0120(810) + 0.4423(898) + 0.4485(719)

= 523.8273 kg/m3

Therefore, d = 293 (7.35 kg/s) 0.53 (523.8273 kg/m 3)

= 83.15728517 mm

flange d1 88.9

D 190

B 16

h1 42

raised d4 128

F 3

bolting M16

Drilling No 4

d2 18

K 130

d3 102

Neck h2 10

R 8

G = 2.70 kg/s

mix = 775.588 kg/m3

= 43.29827096 mm

293

flange d1 60.3

D 140

b 14

h1 38

raised d4 90

f 3

bolting M12

Drilling No 4

d2 14

k 110

d3 74

Neck h2 8

R 6

G = 4.65 kg/s

mix = 467.774 kg/m3

= 70.4505 mm

Flange d1 76.1

D 160

B 14

h1 38

Raised d4 110

F 3

Bolting M12

294

Drilling No 4

d2 14

K 130

d3 88

Neck h2 9

R 6

Manholes are design for entrance into vessel of distillation column. It should be position

so that it can be accessed to the internal parts of the column. Usually it is located above

each support plate. A suggested by Henry Z. Kister, the diameters should be in range of

0.41m and 0.61m. Thus, in this case the diameter chosen is 0.6m so that the personnel

which are bigger that the average person can do the maintenance job.

Source: Distillation Column Design, McGraw Hill, 1992, Henry Z.

Kister.

NOZZLE THICKNESS, t

=

20 +

Where,

= ,

2

= ,

Nozzle thickness, t

=

20 +

Where,

295

= 4.4385 = 0.44385

2

= 115

2

=

20 +

0.44385 1433.215

=

20(115) 125

= 0.244624596m

7 = 0.244624596 + 7

= 0.244624596 7

296

Summary of Mechanical Design

Table 6.7: Summary of Mechanical design.

Operating Condition and Material

Construction

Design Pressure 4.4385 bar

Design Temperature 120 0C

Material Construction Stainless Steel 304

Welded Joint Efficiency 1

Type Tray Sieve Plate

Design Column Dimension

Column Height 24 m

Shell Thickness 2.45 mm

Domed End Thickness(Ellipsoidal Head) 2.005 mm

Vessel Support(Skirt)

Material Construction Stainless Steel 304

Skirt Thickness 3.5984mm

Base Ring Thickness 7.57454 mm

Skirt Diameter 1.433 m

Skirt Height 3m

Insulation

Material Mineral Wool

Thickness 75mm

Dead Weight Load

Weight of Vessel 24.42257282kN

Weight of Accessories(Plate) 1.93496742kN

Weight of Insulation 10.33kN

Total Weight of Dead Load 133.42051 kN

Wind Loading 1976.600104 N/m

297

SECTION 3: MECHANICAL DESIGN OF DISTILLATION COLUMN (T101)

5.3 INTRODUCTION

5.3.1 Material of Construction

Selection of suitable in the construction of any equipment is significantly important as it will

determine the reliability and life of the equipment. Several criteria are considered in choosing

the best material for distillation column which are Mechanical properties (Strength, stiffness,

toughness, hardness, fatigue resistance, creep resistance), Cost, Temperature effect on material

reliability, Corrosion resistance, Availability of suitable sizes as per standards and codes and

Ease of fabrication ( Forming, welding, casting).

Based on the above constraints, Coulson & Richardsons (Volume 6), it is suggested that

the most suitable material of construction for vessel, closures and sieve trays is Stainless Steel

304. Specifications of this material are shown as follows:

Parameter Specification

Designation 05 Cr 18 Ni (304)

Tensile Strength 510 N/mm2

Allowable Stress 145 MPa

mentioned earlier to ensure the applicability and practicality with the design conditions.

Another important parameter in selecting the material is welding quality. The strength of

a welded joint is dependent on the type of joint and quality of welding. According to Coulson

and Richardsons (Volume 6,Page 640), welding joint of Category 2 is adopted. This is because

it requires less non-destructive testing and maximum plate thickness. The welding specifications

are as follows:

298

Table 6.9 : Welding Specifications

Parameter Specification

Welding type Class II

Welding details Double Welded Butt Joint,

or Equivalent

Weld Joint Efficiency, J 0.85

In mechanical design, the temperature and the pressure are important properties in evaluate the

thickness and the stress of material. Therefore, the safety factor also need as precaution and

determined by certain consideration such as corrosion factor, location and process characteristic.

The operating pressure is 200 kPa and the safety factor is 10% above operating pressure.

The design temperature related to the operating temperature. The temperature of column

operated in 90.190C at top of column and 80.920C at the bottom of the column. The design

pressure and design temperature of the system as follows:

Design pressure

Mixture of methyl acetate and methanol distillation column is subjected to pressure as it is

operated at 2 atm. This is to ensure all components introduced to the columns which are methyl

acetate and methanol in liquid form. The column is also designed to withstand the maximum

pressure drop which may likely to occur during service. Thus, the pressure of the column when it

is subjected in service or operating pressure, taken from HYSIS simulation is 2 atm or 200 kPa.

the top of a completed column in its operating position for the designated temperature. In this

case, PMAWP is assumed to be the same as P operating = 200 kPa.

Design pressure is the pressure used in the design of the column and it is used to

determine the minimum permissible thickness or other physical characteristics of the column. In

other words, the design parameters are decided based on design pressure, P D. In the analysis, P D

is taken as 10% of P MAWP.

PD 1.1 PMAWP

299

1.1 200

220 kPa

Design Temperature

Design temperature of the column is taken at the maximum working temperature of the material.

This is because the performance of material is reduced when it is subjected to increment in

temperature. Safety factor of 10% is taken as the limit for column operation. Based on HYSIS,

operating temperature of the column is 100C.

TD 1.1 TOPER

1.1 100

110C

Shell or wall thickness shall be determined correctly to ensure that it is able to withstand the

weight or any accidental load. Based on British Standard (BS5500), it is given by

PD D I

Minimum Shell Thickness, e c

2 f s J PD

where

PD = Design pressure = 220 kPa

Di = Internal diameter = 1.2792 m

fs = Allowable stress = 145 MPa

J = Weld Joint Efficiency = 0.85

c = Corrosion allowance = 0.004 m

Corrosion allowance of 4mm is added to the material thickness to allow lost of material due to

corrosion, erosion and scaling.

t

220 10 1.2792 0.004

3

6 3

0.005143m

5.1mm

300

However, there are a few other constraints or benchmarks need to be considered in determining

the wall thickness.

Do

1. 1.5 D O D I 2t

Di

1.2792 20.0051

1.2899m

1.2899

DO / D I 1.0084 < 1.5 VALID

1.2792

t 0.0051

2. 0.25 t / DI 0.004 < 0.25 VALID

Di 1.2792

Ellipsoidal head is the most economical types of head that being used in petrochemical

equipment. Therefore, ellipsoidal head is chosen. Material of construction for ellipsoidal

head is carbon steel.

Pi Di

e =

2 Jf 0.2 Pi

Where, e = minimum thickness of the plate required

Pi = internal pressure

Di = internal diameter

f = design stress,

J = joint factor

200 ( 1.2792)

e =

2(145 0.2(200)

= 0.0011418

Add 2 mm for corrosion allowance;

301

= (0.0011418 +2) mm

= 2.0011418 mm (approximately 2.0 mm)

So, thickness for the domed end with ellipsoidal head is 2.0 mm.

Selected top and bottom closure for the column is torispherical heads (flanged only). The shape

of the closure is shown as follows:

First, the thickness of the closure needs to be determined. The expression is shown as follows:

PD R c C s

Minimum closure thickness, t

2f s J PD C s 0.2

fs = Allowable stress = 145 MPa

J = Weld Joint Efficiency = 0.85

CS = Stress concentration factor

RC = Crown radius

RK = Knuckle radius

In order to determine the closure thickness, a stress concentration factor (C s) is calculated. This

parameter is determined to allow the increment in stress due to discontinuity at the joint of the

crown and knuckle radius. The expression of this parameter is given as follows:

1 Rc

C s 3

4 R k

302

Knuckle radius, RK is taken as 6% of RC.

Thus, RK = 0.06 x 1.2792 = 0.07675

1 Rc 1

3 1.2792 1.7706

C s 3

4 Rk 4 0.07675

t

220 10 1.2792 1.7706

3

6 3

Adding allowance, t

= 2.0186mm + corrosion allowance + thinning of torus during fabrication

= 2.0186mm + 4mm + 2.0186(0.06)

= 4.1231 mm

From above calculation, the economical types of head that being used in petrochemical

equipment is ellipsoidal head because it needless thickness compared to the other heads

considered

a) Height of Column

Height of the vessel (H) is determined based on this expression:

Table 6.8: Height of Column

H

No. of tray x tray thickness)+( No. of tray x thickness)

= (14 x 0.5)+(14 x 0.005)+(9x0.5)+(9x0.005)

= 11.615 m

303

b) Dead Weight Loading of Vessel

The major sources of dead weight loads are:

1. Weight of the vessel shell

2. Weight of internal fitting plates sieve trays

3. Weight of external fitting insulation material

4. Weight of liquid to fill the vessel

c) Weight of Shell

For cylindrical vessel with domed ends, and uniform wall thickness, the weight of shell,

Where,

Wv = total weight of shell, excluding internal fitting such as

plates

Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, man ways and internal

supports. (In this case for distillation column take C v as 1.15).

Dm = mean diameter of vessel

Dm = (Di + t x 10-3)

Dm = ( 1.2792 + 12 x 10-3)

= 1.2912m

Hv = height or length between tangent lines, m

t = wall thickness, m

Thus,

Wv 2401.151.2912(7 0.8(1.2912 ))(12 / 1000)

Wv 2499.0158 N 2.4990kN

d) Weight of Plate

For sieve tray distillation column, weight of trays also adds up to the dead weight of

vessel. Weight of plate is given as follows:

Wp Wf A p N

304

= Area of plate

Ap =1.2852m2

= D I2 1.2792 2

4 4

N = Number of plates or trays = 14

Thus,

W p 1200 1.2852 14

W p 21591.1644 N 21.5912kN

e) Weight of Insulation

Weight of insulation, WI is given as:

WI VI I 9.81

VI = Volume of insulation

I = Density of insulation material

Information Properties

Insulation material Mineral wool

Thickness of insulation material 0.1 m

Density 130 kg/m3

Volume of insulation, VI = D o t I H V

= Di 2t av 1.2792 (2 12 10 3 ) 1.3032m

This volume is doubled to allow for attachment fittings, sealing and moisture absorption. Thus,

VI = 2.8659 2 = 5.7318m3

WI 5.7318 130 9.81

WI 7309.73N 7.310kN

305

6.3.5 WIND LOADING

The dynamics wind pressure P w used in this design as suggested is 1280 N/m2

D eff D i 2t av t I 0.4

DI = Internal diameter of column = 1.2792m

tavg = Average wall thickness = 12mm

tI = Insulation thickness = 0.1m

0.4 = Allowance for caged ladder

Thus,

Deff 1.2792 2(12 10 3 0.1) 0.4 1.9032m

F w Pw Deff

F w 1280 1.9032

F w 2436.10 N / m 2.4361kN / m

Fw H v

2

M

2

2.436110 3 7 2

M

2

M 59.6844kN.m

a) Pressure Stresses

Pressure stresses comprises of 2 elements which are

Longitudinal stress, L

Tangential stress, h

PD D i

Longitudinal stresses, L

4t

306

220 10 3 1.2792

4 12 10 3

5863000 Pa 5.863MPa

PD D i

Tangential stresses, h

2t

220 10 3 1.2792

2 12 10 3

11726000 Pa 11.726MPa

Dead weight stress, w is given as follows:

Wv

W

(D i t ) t

Thus,

29.2577 10 3

W

(1.2792 12 10 3 )(12 10 3 )

W 601.06kPa

c) Bending Stress

Bending stress, b is given as follows:

M Di

b t

lv 2

Iv is second moment of the area of the vessel about the plane of bending and is expressed as

follows:

307

Iv

64

D 4

o Di4

Iv

64

1.3032 4 1.2792 4

I v 0.01015m 4

Thus,

59684.4 1.2792

b (12 10 3 )

0.01015 2

b 3833387.43Pa 3.8333MPa

Resultant longitudinal stress, z is given based on following expression:

z L w B

w is compressive and therefore, it is negative.

Thus,

z 5.863 10 6 60.16 10 3 3.8333 10 6

z 9.6963MPa upwind

z 2.0297 MPa downwind

e) Principal Stresses

The primary stresses are resolved as principal stresses 1, 2, 3 in the three directions. As

assume that there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be z and h.

Maximum magnitude = 9.6963 MPa a

Checking the elastic stability (bucking)

Maximum compression ill occur when there is no internal pressure

Maximum compressive stress

w B(downwind) = -37.73 MPa

Critical bucking stress,

308

t

sc 2 10 4

DO

12 10 3

sc 2 10

4

184.16MPa

1.3032

-37.73 MPa < 184.16MPa

Design is satisfactory

A skirt support consists of a cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of the vessel. A

flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits the load to the foundations. Skirt supports are

recommended for vertical vessels, as they do not impose concentrated loads on the vessel shell.

For this design a conical skirt support was chosen and it is welded to the bottom head of the

vessel; they are particularly suitable for use with columns subject to wind loading.

Figure 6.3: Typical Skirt Support Design (a) Straight Skirt (b) Conical Skirt

309

a) Skirt Thickness

The skirt thickness must be sufficient to withstand the dead-weight loads and bending moments

imposed on it by the vessel. The maximum dead weight load on the skirt will occur when the

vessel is full of liquid. Thus, the approximate weight of liquid that the vessel can stand is shown

as follows:

Approximate weight of liquid, Wl = D i H v water 9.81

4

1.2792 7 1000 9.81

4

68991.4670 N

68.99kN

Bending moment at the base of skirt = Fw

Di

(7 2) 2

= 2.4361 = 154.26kN.m

1.2792

As a first trial, the skirt thickness is taken to be the same as that of the bottom section of the

vessel. As a second trial, the skirt thickness is taken to be the same as minimum vessel thickness

which is 12mm. Thus, the bending stress at the skirt is shown as follows:

310

4M s

bs

( Ds t s )t s Ds

4 154.26 10 3

bs

(1.2912 12 10 3 )(12 10 3 1.2912)

bs 9726970.77 N / m 2 9.7270MN / m 2

The test condition shown below is when the vessel is fulled of water for the hydraulic test.

Wapprox.

ws (test )

( Ds t s )t s

68.99 10 3

ws (test )

(1.2912 12 10 3 )12 10 3

ws (test ) 118108257.6 Pa 118.1083MPa

WDW .

ws (operating )

( Ds t s )t s

60.16 10 3

ws operating

(1.2912 12 10 3 )12 10 3

ws operating 1224519.308Pa 1.2245MPa

Max s (compressive) bs ws (test )

Max s (compressive) 9.726970 10 6 118.1082 10 6

Max s (compressive) 127.8352MPa

Max s (tensile ) 7.726970 10 6 1.2245 10 6

Max s (tensile ) 8.9515MPa

The skirt thickness should be such that under the worst combination of wind and dead-weight

loading, the following design criterion is not exceeded.

311

s (tensile ) f s J sin s

8.9515 10 6 Pa 145 10 6 0.85 sin 80

8.9515 10 6 Pa 121.3776 10 6 Pa

Criteria satisfied

Note: s = base angle of a conical skirt, 80

Approximate pitch circle diameter, say 2.2m

Circumference of bolt circle = 2200

Number of bolts required, at minimum recommended bolt spacing

2200

11.5

600

Closest multiple of 4=12 bolts.

Take bolt design stress =125N/mm2

Ms=154.26 kNm

Take W=60.16kN

1 4Ms

Ab W

Nb fb Db

Where,

Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread, mm2

Nb = number of bolts

design

value 125 N/mm2 (18000 psi)

Ms = bending (overturning) moment at the base, Nm

W = weight of the vessel, N

Db = bolt circle diameter, m

312

1 4 154.26 10 3

Ab 60.16 10 3

12 125 2.2

Ab 146.88mm 2

So based on, Coulson & Richardsons (Volume 6) from figure 13.30, page 677, use M24 bolts

(BS4190:1967)

146.88 4

Bolt root diameter 13.68mm

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,

4MS W

Fb

D S 2 D S

Where,

Fb = the compressive load on the base ring, N/m

DS = skirt diameter, m

4 154.26 10 3 60.16 10 3

Fb

1.2912

2

1.2912

132.639 10 3 N / m

Fb 1

Lb 3

fc 10

Where,

Lb = base ring width, mm

The concrete foundation pad, which will depend

on the mix used, and will typically range from

3.5 to 7 N/mm2 (500 to 1000 psi)

313

132.639 10 3

Lb 26.53mm

5 10 3

So based on, Coulson & Richardsons (Volume 6) from figure 13.30, page 677, use M24 bolts

(BS4190:1967)

Actual width required =Lr+ts+50mm=76+14+50=140mm

132.639 10 3

f 'c 0.9474 N / mm 2

140 10 3

The required thickness for the base ring is found by treating the ring as cantilever beam. The

minimum thickness is given by:

Minimum thickness,

3f ' c

tb Lr

fr

Where,

Lr = the distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the

ring, mm

tb = base ring thickness, mm

140 N/mm2

3 0.9474

t b 76 10.88mm 11mm

140

Skirt to be welded flush with outer diameter of column shell.

314

c) Design of Stiffness Ring

Rings = 10 mm deep

Plate spacing = 0.5 m

The load each ring:

Fr PeL s

Where,

Pe = external pressure

Fr 1.0 x10 5 N / m 2 0.5 m

5.0 10 4 N / m

= 2.1 x 1011 N/m2

Factor of safety =6

The second moment of area of the ring to avoid buckling is given by,

24 E lr

PCL S

Dr 3 factor of safety

Where,

lr = Second moment of area of the ring cross-section

shell outside diameter) = 1.3032 m

315

5.0 10 4 N / m

24 2.1 1011 N / m l r

1.3032m 3

6

7

l r 1.3174 10 m 4

For the rectangular section, the second moment of area is given by:

breath depth 3

l

12

7 10 3 75 10 3

3

12

2.4609 10 7 m 4

Ring,

L 0.5

0.3909

D0 1.2792

Where,

L = plate spacing

D0 = internal diameter

D0 1279.2

106.6

t 12

Where,

t = column shell mean thickness (12 mm)

Kc = 102

316

3

t

Pc K c E

D0

3

102 2.1 10

12 11

1291.2

17.19 10 6 N / m 2

This is above the maximum design pressure of 1.0 x 10 5 N/m2. So, design of the

support rings to support the plate is satisfied.

d) Design of piping

In order to connect the distillation column with pipeline, flange need to be installed to

ensure two compartments is well connected. It needs to consider the pressure and the

optimum duct diameter. Figure1.6 below shows the parameters in selecting the suitable

flange.

317

Figure 6.4: Typical Standard Flange Design

d,optimum = 293G 0.53 0.37

Table 1.15: Liquid pipe size

Pipe no Flow rate, G (kg/s) (kg/m) Diameter Dopt (mm)

N1 (Feed) 2.7025 744.34 37.7517

N2 (Top Outlet) 1.3169 812.80 25.1447

N4 (Bottom Outlet) 1.3856 724.42 26.9419

318

Feed Inlet

G = 2.7025kg/s, = 744.34 kg/m3

doptimum = 260(2.7025)0.52 (744.34)0.37

doptimum = 37.75 mm

Nom. Pipe Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling

Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k

32 42.4 120 14 26 70 2 M12 4 14 90

Refer to figure 1.6

Ps Dopt

Nozzle thickness, tn =

20 + Ps

Where, Ps = operating pressure, N/mm2 (0.2 N/mm2)

= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)

0.2 37.75

tn = = 0.003282 mm

20 115 + 0.2

Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.003282 + 4

= 4.033 4 mm

Top Column Outlet

G = 1.3169 kg/s, = 812.80 kg/m3

doptimum = 260( 1.3169)0.52 (812.80)0.37

doptimum = 25.1447mm

Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k

20 26.9 90 14 24 50 2 M10 4 11 65

Refer to figure 1.6

Ps Dopt

Nozzle thickness, tn =

20 + Ps

= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)

0.2 25.1447

tn = = 0.002186 mm

20 115 + 0.2

319

Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.002186 + 4

= 4.002 4 mm

Bottom Column Outlet

G = 1.3856 kg/s, = 724.42 kg/m3

doptimum = 260(1.3856)0.52 (724.42)0.37

doptimum = 26.9419 mm

Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k

25 33.7 100 14 24 60 2 M10 4 11 75

Refer to figure 1.6

Ps Dopt

Nozzle thickness, tn =

20 + Ps

= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)

0.2 26.9419

tn = = 0.002343mm

20 115 + 0.2

Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.002343 + 4

= 4.002 4 mm

Manholes are design for entrance into vessel of distillation column. It should be position

so that it can be accessed to the internal parts of the column. Usually it is located above

each support plate. A suggested by Henry Z. Kister, the diameters should be in range of

0.41m and 0.61m. Thus, in this case the diameter chosen is 0.6m so that the personnel

which are bigger that the average person can do the maintenance job.

Source: Distillation Column Design, McGraw Hill, 1992, Henry Z. Kister.

Nozzle Thickness, t

=

20 +

Where,

320

= ,

2

= ,

= 2 = 0.2

2

= 115

2

=

20 +

0.2 600

=

20 115 + 0.2

= 0.05217

7 = 0.05217 + 7

= 7.0522 7

So, thickness of nozzle is 7mm

321

Table 6.10 : Summary of the Mechanical Design

Design Pressure

Operating Pressure 200 kPa

0

Operating Temperature 100 C

Design Pressure 220 kPa

0

Design Temperature 110 C

Safety Factor 0.10

No of trays 14

Feed inlet 7

Plate Spacing 0.50

Column Inside Diameter 1.2792 m

Column Outside Diameter 1.3032 m

Column Height 11.615 m

Design of Domed Ends

Types Ellipsoidal head

Crown Radius 1.2792 m

Knuckle Radius 0.07675 m

Joint Factor 0.85

Minimum Thickness 7 mm

Column Weight

Dead Weight of Vessel 2.4990 kN

Weight of Plate (per plate) 21.5912 kN

Weight of Insulation 7.310 kN

Total Weight 24.0975 kN

Wind Pressure 1280 N/m2

Loading 2436.10 N/m

Bending Moment 59.6844 kNm

322

Table 6.11: Stress Analysis for Distillation Column

Longitudinal Pressure Stress 5863 kPa

Circumferential Pressure Stress 1172.6 kPa

Dead Weight Stress 601.06 kPa

Bending Stress 3833.39 kPa

Z (upwind) 9696.3 kPa

Z(downwind) 2029.7 kPa

Critical Buckling Stress 184160 kPa

Types of Support Straight cylindrical skirt

80 0

C

Material Construction Stainless steel(304)

Design Stress 145 N/mm2

Skirt Height 2 m

Approximate Weight 68.99 kN

Total weight 129.1515 kN

Bending Moment at Skirt 154.26 kNm

Skirt Thickness 12 mm

Bending Stress in Skirt 9726.97 kN/m2

ws (test) 118.10 MPa

ws (operating) 1.2245 MPa

Maximum s (compressive) 127.8352 MPa

Maximum s (tensile) 8.9515 MPa

323

SECTION 4: MECHANICAL DESIGN OF DISTILLATION COLUMN 3 (T102)

6.4 INTRODUCTION

6.4.1 Theory of Mechanical Design

The mechanical design focuses on the tower internals and heat exchanger arrangements.

Many factors have to be considered in designing a distillation column such as the safety and

environmental requirements, column performance, economics of the design and other

parameters, which may constrain the work.Several factors, need to be considered in the

mechanical design of distillation column such as:

i. Design pressure

ii. Design temperature

iii. Material of construction

iv. Design stress

v. Wall thickness

vi. Welded joint efficiency

vii. Analysis of stresses

1. Dead weight load

2. Wind load

3. Pressure stress

4. Bending stress

viii. Vessel support

ix. Insulation

Generally, design pressure is taken as 5 to 10% above the operating pressure at the

bottom of column to avoid spurious operating during minor process upsets.

The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the

maximum working temperature of the material, with due to allowance for any uncertainty

involved in predicting vessel wall temperature.

324

6.4.4 Material of construction

Selection of suitable material must be taking into account the suitability of material for

fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with the process

environment. In this case, stainless steel is chosen as the material of construction for several

purposes, such as:

7 Readily available

8 Low cost

9 Subjected to welding

10 Corrosion resistant to feed and product

11 Easily fabricated

12 High strength

It is necessary to determine the maximum allowable stress that the material can

withstand without failure under operating condition. Material chosen, which is stainless steel, the

design stress is 137 N/mm2 (Figure 1 from Appendix).

Design of wall thickness, e, is determined by using this formula:

PiDi

e

2Jf 0.2Pi

Where,

e = minimum thickness of the plate required

Pi = internal pressure, 4.56 N/mm2

Di = internal diameter, 1.6 m

f = design stress, 115 N/mm2

J = joint factor (J = 1 for ellipsoidal head)

The strength of welded joint will depend on the types of joint and the quality of the welding.

Take welding joint as 1.0 implies that the point is equally as strong as the virgin plate; this is

achieved by radio graphing the complete weld length, and cutting out and remarking any.

325

6.4.8 Analysis of stresses

The column also subjected to other loads such as vessel shell, plate fittings and weight of liquid

to fill into the vessel. Total weight of column can be calculated by using formula:

WV 240C v DM HV 0.8DM t 10 3 kN

plate

CV = a factor to account for the weight of nozzle, manways

and internalsupport. (In this case for distillation column

take C V as 1.15)

HV = height or length between tangent lines, m

t = wall thickness

i. Wind loading

Wind loading will only be important on tall column installed in the open.

Columns are usually free standing, mounted on skirt support, and not attached to

structural steel work.

The longitudinal and circumferential stresses due to pressure can be calculated

using equation:

PD

L

4t

PD

h

2t

Where,

P = operating pressure (4.56 N/mm2)

D = column diameter (1.5 m)

t = thickness (mm)

326

iii Bending stresses

Bending moments will be caused by the following bending condition:

1. Wind load on tall self supported vessels

2. Seismic loads on tall column

3. Dead weight and wind loading on piping and equipment.

M Dc

b t

IV 2

Where,

IV

64

4

D 0 Di

4

D0 (Di 2t )

327

6.4.9 MECHANICAL DESIGN CALCULATION DISTILLATION COLUMN

(T-101)

a) Column Design Specification

Total column height = (29 x 0.5) + (29 x 0.005) +

(8 x 0.5)

+ (8 x 0.005)

= 18.685 m

= 19m

= 21 m

Bottom column = 4.56 N/mm2

steel)

328

Take design as 10% above operating pressure,

4.56 1.1%

5.016bar

0.5016 N / mm 2

PD c

t

2 des P

2(115 N / mm 2 ) (0.5016 N / mm 2 )

3.2785mm 2mm corrosion allowance

5.2785mm

5 mm

A much thicker wall will be needed at the column base to withstand the wind and dead

weight load. As a trial, divide the column into two sections with the thickness increasing

by 2 mm per section. Try the thickness 7mm because of the diameter of the distillation

column is 1 to 2m.

WV 240C v DM HV 0.8DM t 10 3 kN

Where,

Wv =Total weight of shell, excluding internal fitting such as plates.

Cv = A factor to account for the weight of nozzle, manways and

internal support.

(In this case for distillation column take Cv as 1.15)

DM = Mean diameter of vessel ( DC t 10 3 )

t = Wall thickness.

Therefore,

329

DM Dc t 10 3

1.5 m 7 10 3 m

1.507 m

H V 21 m

64.65 kN

c) Weight of Plates

D 2

Plate area =

4

(1.5m) 2

=

4

= 1.767 m 2

= 2.12 kN

(Where 1.2 is factor for contacting plates, steel including typical liquid

loading in kN/m2)

= 61.49kN

330

d) Weight of Insulation

= 7.422 m 3

Weight =

7.422m3 130kg / m3 9.81m / s 2

= 9465.29 N or 9.4653 kN

Double this value to allow for fitting = 9.4653 2 18.9306 kN

Total weight ( Wv ),

Shell = 64.65 kN

Plates = 61.49 kN

Insulation = 18.9306 kN

Total = 145.0706 kN

e) Wind Loading

1 2

Dynamic wind pressure = C d aU W

2

2

For smooth cylinder = 0.05U W

= 1280 N / m2

= 1.5m 1.5m7 10 3 75 10 3

= 1.623 m

331

Loading per unit length, FW = 1280 N / m 2 1.623m

= 2077.44 N / m

Bending moment at bottom tangent line, Mx ,

Where x HV 21 m column height

x2

M X Fw

2

21m 2

2077.44 N / m

2

458,075.52 Nm

6.4.10 Analysis of Stresses

Pressure stresses:

PD PD

L h

4t 2t

Where, P = operating pressure (0.5016N/mm2)

D = column diameter (1.5 m)

t = thickness (7 mm)

0.5016 N / mm2 (1500mm)

L =

4(7mm)

= 26.8714 N / mm2

PD

h =

2t

=

2(7mm)

= 53.7429 N / mm2

WV

w =

(D c t )t

332

145.0706 10 3 N

=

(1500 7)mm(7mm)

= 4.3774 N / mm2

b) Bending Stress

M Dc

b = t

IV 2

Where,

IV =

64

D 0 4 Di 4

D0 = (Di 2t )

= 1500mm 27mm

= 1514 mm

IV =

64

1514 4 1500 4 mm

Therefore,

b = 7mm

9.4082 10 mm

9 4

2

= 36.8575 N / mm2

z L W b

59.3515 N / mm2

14.3635 N / mm2

333

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the

downwind side:

68.1064 N / mm 2

The value of differences between the principal stresses is well below the

maximum allowable design stress.

E t

Critical buckling stress, C =

2 Rp

3(1 )

t

c = 21 10 4

D0

7mm

= 2110 4

1514mm

= 970.9379 N / mm2

Therefore, a critical buckling stress is 970.9379 N/mm2 .

When the vessel is not under pressure (where the maximum stress

occur):

Maximum stress = w b

= 41.2349 N / mm2

334

The maximum stress is well below the critical buckling stress. Therefore,

design is satisfactory.

6.4.12 Design of Domed End and Wall Thickness

There are many types of domed end such as ellipsoidal head, torisphere

head, flat head and others.

Ellipsoidal head

PiDi

e =

2Jf 0.2Pi

Where,

e = minimum thickness of the plate required

Pi = internal pressure, 0.5016N/mm2

f = design stress, 115 N/mm2

J = joint factor (J = 1 for ellipsoidal head)

0.5016 N / mm2 (1500mm)

e =

2(115 N / mm2 ) 0.2 (0.5016 N / mm2 )

= 3.2727 mm

= 3.2727 2 mm

= 5.2727 mm approximately 5 mm

So, thickness for the domed end with ellipsoidal head is 5 mm.

335

a) Torisphere head

Knuckle radius, 6% from R k = 0.06 x 1.5 = 0.09m

The stress concentration factor is a function of the knuckle and crown

radii.

Pi RC C S

e

2 fJ Pi (C S 0.2)

Where,

= (1/4)(3 + (Rc / R k)0.5)

Rc =Crown radius

Rk =Knuckle radius.

1 RC

CS 3

4 RK

C s (1 / 4) (7.0825)

C S 1.7706

(0.5016 1.5 10 3 1.7706

e

(2 115 1) (0.5016(1.7706 0.2))

e 5.7724mm

= 5.7724 2 mm

= 7.7724 mm approximately 8 mm

336

b) Design for The Skirt Support

Try straight cylindrical skirt (s = 900) of plain carbon steel, design stress

115N/mm2 and Youngs Modulus 200,000 N/mm2 at ambient

temperature.

The maximum dead weight load on the skirt will occur when the vessel is

full of water.

Approximate weight ( 1.5 21) 896.24 9.81

2

4

326,275.9212 N

326.275kN

Weight of the vessel = 145.0706kN

Total weight = 326.275+145.0706= 471.3456 kN

Wind loading = 2.077 kN/m

(21 1) 2

Bending moment at base of skirt 2.077

2

502.634kNm

S tensile = bs ws

S compressive = bs ws

Where,

bs = bending stress in the skirt

ws = dead weight stress in the skirt

4Ms

bs =

(D s t s )t sD s

337

Where,

Ms = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the

base of the skirt (due to the wind, seismic and

eccentric load).

Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base.

ts = skirt thickness

As a first trial, take the skirt thickness as the same as that of the bottom

section of the vessel, 7mm.

4M s

bs

( Ds t s )t s Ds

4 502.634 10 3 10 3

bs

(1500 7)1500 7

bs 40.4444 N / mm 2

W

ws (test )

( Ds t s )t s

326.275 10 3

ws (test )

(1500 7)7

ws (test ) 9.8452 N / mm 2

145.0706 10 3

ws (operating )

(1500 7)7

ws (operating ) 4.3774 N / mm2

The test condition is with the vessel full of water for the hydraulic test.

In estimating total weight, the weight of liquid on the plates has been

counted twice. The weight has not been adjusted to allow for this as the

error is small, and on the safe side.

s (compressive) bs ws

338

40.4444 9.8452

50.2896 N / mm2

s (tensile ) bs ws

40.4444 4.3774

36.067 N / mm 2

Criteria for design:

s max imum, tensile f s J sin 90 0

36.067 0.85 sin 90 0

36.067 148.7

ts

s max imum, compressive 0.125E sin

Ds

7 mm

50.2896 0.125 200000 sin 90

0

1500mm

50.2896 116.6667

Both criteria are satisfied, add 2mm for corrosion, gives design thickness of 9mm.

Circumference of bolt circle = 2200

Number of bolts required, at minimum recommended bolt spacing

2200

11.5

600

Closest multiple of 4=12 bolts.

Take bolt design stress =125N/mm2

Ms=502.634 kNm

Take W=145.0706 kN

339

1 4Ms

Ab W

Nb fb Db

Where,

Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread, mm2

Nb = number of bolts

fb = maximum allowable bolt stress, N/mm2; typically

design

value 125 N/mm2 (18000 psi)

Ms = bending (overturning) moment at the base, Nm

W = weight of the vessel, N

Db = bolt circle diameter, m

1 4 502.634 10 3

Ab 145.0706 10 3

12 125 2.2

Ab 512.5396mm 2

512.5396 4

Bolt root diameter 25.5456mm

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,

4MS W

Fb

D S 2 D S

Where,

Fb = the compressive load on the base ring, N/m

DS = skirt diameter, m

340

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length

4 502.634 10 3 145.0706 10 3

Fb

1.8 2 1.8

223.1768 103 N / m

Fb 1

Lb 3

fc 10

Where,

Lb = base ring width, mm

fc = the maximum allowable bearing pressure on

The concrete foundation pad, which will depend

on the mix used, and will typically range from

3.5 to 7 N/mm2 (500 to 1000 psi)

223.1768 10 3

Lb 44.64mm

5 10 3

Use M30 bolts (BS 4190:1967)

A = 50, B = 76, C = 64, D = 13, E = 25, F = 36, G = 42

Actual width required =Lr+ts+50mm=76+7+50=133mm

223.1768 10 3

f 'c 1.3608 N / mm2

164 10 3

The required thickness for the base ring is found by treating the ring as cantilever beam.

The minimum thickness is given by:

341

Minimum thickness,

3f ' c

tb Lr

fr

Where,

Lr = the distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the

ring, mm

tb = base ring thickness, mm

f 'c = actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm2

fr = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically

140 N/mm2

3 1.3608

t b 76 12.98mm 13mm

140

Skirt to be welded flush with outer diameter of column shell.

Rings = 10 mm deep

Plate spacing = 0.5 m

The load each ring:

Fr PeL s

Where,

Pe = external pressure

342

So, the load per unit length of the ring

Fr 1.0 x10 5 N / m 2 0.5 m

5.0 10 4 N / m

= 2.1 x 1011 N/m2

Factor of safety =6

The second moment of area of the ring to avoid buckling is given by,

24 E lr

PCL S 3

Dr factor of safety

Where,

lr = Second moment of area of the ring cross-section

shell outside diameter) = 1.5 m

5.0 10 4 N / m

24 2.1 1011 N / m l r

1.5m 3

6

lr 2.0089 10 7 m 4

For the rectangular section, the second moment of area is given by:

breath depth 3

l

12

7 10 3 75 10 3

3

12

2.4609 10 7 m 4

343

Ring,

L 0.5

0.333

D0 1.5

Where,

L = plate spacing

D0 = internal diameter

D0 1500

214.2857

t 7

Where,

t = column shell mean thickness (7 mm)

Kc = 105

3

t

Pc K c E

D0

3

105 2.1 10

7

11

1500

2.2409 10 6 N / m 2

This is above the maximum design pressure of 1.0 x 10 5 N/m2. So, design

of the support rings to support the plate is satisfied.

344

6.4.15 Design of piping

installed to ensure two compartments is well connected. It needs to consider the

pressure and the optimum duct diameter. Figure 13 at Appendix shows the

parameters in selecting the suitable flange.

For stainless steel clad

Dopt = 260G0.52 0.37

Table 1.19: Liquid pipe size

Pipe no Flow rate, G (kg/s) (kg/m) Diameter Dopt (mm)

N1 (Feed) 4.6472 828.95 48.09

N2 (Top Outlet) 1.3544 2.2869 224.16

N3 (Top Inlet) 2.1294 814.38 32.27

N4 (Bottom Outlet) 3.2944 896.24 39.08

N5 (Bottom Inlet) 13.1167 4.646 561.59

Feed Inlet

G = 4.6472kg/s, = 828.95kg/m3

doptimum = 260(4.6472)0.52 (828.95)0.37

doptimum = 48.09 mm

Nom. Pipe Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling

Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k

50 60.3 140 14 38 90 3 M12 4 14 110

Ps Dopt

Nozzle thickness, tn =

20 + Ps

Where, Ps = operating pressure, N/mm2 (0.5016 N/mm2)

= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)

345

0.5016 48.09

tn = = 0.011 mm

20 115 + 0.5016

Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.011 + 4

= 4.011 4 mm

Top Column Outlet

G = 1.3544kg/s, = 2.2869 kg/m3

doptimum = 260( 1.3544)0.52 (2.2869)0.37

doptimum = 224.16 mm

Nom. Pipe Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling

Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k

250 273 375 22 60 312 3 M16 12 18 335

Refer to Appendix A.11

Ps Dopt

Nozzle thickness, tn =

20 + Ps

= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)

0.5016 224.16

tn = = 0.049 mm

20 115 + 0.5016

Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.049 + 4

= 4.049 4 mm

Top Column Inlet

G = 2.1294 kg/s, = 814.38kg/m3

doptimum = 260( 2.1294)0.52 (814.38)0.37

doptimum = 32.27 mm

Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k

25 33.7 100 14 35 60 2 M10 4 11 75

346

Ps Dopt

Nozzle thickness, tn =

20 + Ps

= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)

0.5016 32.27

tn = = 0.007 mm

20 115 + 0.5016

Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.007 + 4

= 4.007 4 mm

G = 3.2944kg/s, = 896.24kg/m3

doptimum = 260(3.2944)0.52 (896.24)0.37

doptimum = 39.08 mm

Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k

32 42.4 120 14 35 70 2 M12 4 14 90

Ps Dopt

Nozzle thickness, tn =

20 + Ps

= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)

0.5016 39.08

tn = = 0.0085 mm

20 115 + 0.5016

Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.0085 + 4

= 4.0085 4 mm

347

Bottom Column Inlet

G = 13.1167kg/s, = 4.646kg/m3

doptimum = 260(13.1167)0.52 (4.646)0.37

doptimum = 561.59 mm

Size o.d. d1 D b h d4 F No. d2 k

600 609.6 755 24 70 570 5 M24 20 26 705

Ps Dopt

Nozzle thickness, tn =

20 + Ps

= Design stress at working temperature, N/mm2 (115 N/mm2)

0.5016 561.59

tn = = 0.1224 mm

20 115 + 0.5016

Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 0.1224+ 4

= 4.1224 4 mm

Manholes are design for entrance into vessel of distillation column. It should be

position so that it can be accessed to the internal parts of the column. Usually it is

located above each support plate. A suggested by Henry Z. Kister, the diameters

should be in range of 0.41m and 0.61m. Thus, in this case the diameter chosen is

0.6m so that the personnel which are bigger that the average person can do the

maintenance job.

Source: Distillation Column Design, McGraw Hill, 1992, Henry Z. Kister.

Nozzle Thickness, t

=

20 +

348

Where,

= ,

2

= ,

Nozzle thickness, t

=

20 +

Where,

= 4.56 = 0.456

2

= 115

2

=

20 +

0.456 20

=

0.456 115

= 0.1739

7 = 0.1739 + 7

= 7.1739 7

349

Table 6.13: Mechanical Design Sheet for Distillation Column

Identification:

Item: Distillation Column (Recovery Column)

Item Code: T-102 Date: 10 March 2011

No. Required: 1 By : AIRIN AEZZIRA

KAMARUZZAMAN

Function: To separate Butyl acetate and Butanol

Operation: Continuous

Specification Data Design Sizing Data

Design type Vertical Domed head wall thickness, a 7.0 mm

Tray spacing, b 0.50 m

Material of Stainless Steel Column diameter, c

construction Column wall thickness, d 1.5 m

Material of insulation Mineral Wool Total column height, e 5 mm

Vessel thickness

Column type Sieve Plate 21 m

Column head type Ellipsoidal 7.0 mm

Mechanical Design Data Vessel Support Data

Dead weight 64.65 kN Type of support Skirt

Plates weight 61.49kN Skirt height 3.0 m

Insulation weight 18.39 kN Material of construction CarbonSteel

Total vessel weight 145.07 kN Bolt size M 30

Wind load 2.077 kN/m Root area 512.54 mm2

Bending moment 458075.52 Nm Base ring thickness 13 mm

(base) 26.8714 N/mm Skirt thickness 9 mm

Pressure stress, L 53.7429 N/mm

Pressure stress, H 4.3774 N/mm

Dead weight stress 36.8575N/mm

Bending stress

Longitudinalstress 59.3515 N/mm

Z (upwind) -14.3635N/mm

Z(downwind)

Elasticstability 970.9379N/mm

Critical bulking stress

Maximum compress 41.2349 N/mm

stress

350

SECTION 5: MECHANICAL DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

6.5 INTRODUCTION

Basically, designing mechanical part of shell and tube heat exchanger is conforming

to the available standards such as American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

code, British Standard and Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer Association (TEMA).

Several main mechanical parts of shell and tube exchanger are considered in the

mechanical calculation such as:

1. Minimum thickness of the vessel, either by internal or external pressure

2. Design of front head and rear head

3. Loads subjected to the vessel

4. Design of flange

5. Nozzle

6. Design of support

In designing the mechanical part of shell and tube heat exchanger, one must

first consider the operating temperature and pressure that the vessel experienced. For

safety reason and uncertainty, a safety factor must be included in calculation of

operating pressure or temperature. The minimum safety factor to be used is 10% more

than the available operating conditions.

Design Pressure 638.3 kPa x 110% = 101.325 kPa x 110% =

702.13 kPa 111.46 kPa

Design Temperature 180oC x 110% = 198oC 180oC x 110% = 198oC

Based on the nature of the streams that involved in the heat exchanger, it

shows that both of the streams, namely stream of mixture of n-butanol, methyl acetate

and methanol and stream of steam are corrosive, which tend to fouling in the tube and

shell respectively. This is because for the cold stream (mixture of components) there is

existence of corrosive ion that is OH- ion in the butanol and methanol component

351

(Sinnott, 2005). Meanwhile, steam condensing in the shell side will produce severe

oxidation condition. Thus it is paramount to select the material of construction for shell

and tube that is corrosion-resistance.

It is observed that the suitable material for construction of shell and tube is stainless

steel Type 316 with molybdenum stabilised. It is resistant to corrosion, high tensile

strength which can prevent rupture of tubes in high pressure and less expensive.

The strength of the welded joint will depend on the type of joint and the quality of

the welding. Practically, the soundness of the weld is being checked by visual

inspection and by non-destructive testing (Sinnott, 2005). The possible lower strength of

a welded joint is usually allowed for in design by multiplying the allowable design stress

for material by welded joint factor (J). In the calculation of design, J value is taken as 1

as it is being considered that it is equally as virgin plate and degree of radiography is

100%.

For the calculation of thickness of tubes and shell, an extra value will be added to

allow for corrosion. It is thus permit for the lost of metal thickness due to corrosion and

erosion. R.K Sinnott suggests that for carbon and alloy-steel with severe corrosion is

not expected, a minimum allowance of 2 mm should be used.

352

6.5.5 Minimum thickness of vessel under internal pressure

To calculate the minimum thickness of vessel wall under internal pressure, for

cylindrical shell:

Pi Di

e

2 f Pi

where f = design stress, N/mm2

Pi = internal pressure,

e = minimum thickness of vessel wall, mm

N

4445.0947mm

1

111458 2

m 1000 mm

2

e

N

N 111458 2

2 120 m

mm 1000

2 2

= 0.2068 mm

= 2.2068 mm

i) For internal floating head shell and tube exchanger, the bonnet is shaped in

ellipsoidal. For ellipsoidal heads of major and minor axis ratio of 2: 1, the minimum

thickness required:

Pi Di

e

2 Jf 0.2 Pi

Di = internal shell diameter, mm

J = welded-joint efficiency

f = design stress, N/mm2

353

Figure 6.5 : Ellipsoidal head dimensional

N

111458 2

m 445.0947 mm

1000 2

e

N

111458 2

21120 N 2 0.2 m

mm 1000 2

= 0.2067 mm

= 2.2067 mm

ii) For flat plate end which is used as cover for manways and as the channel cover of

shell and tube heat exchanger, the minimum thickness is calculated by :

Pi

e C p De

f

De = nominal plate diameter, mm

f = design stress, N/mm2

Pi = internal pressure, N/mm 2

For flange-only end with diameter < 0.6 m and corner radii least equal 0.25e, Cp = 0.45

and De = Di.

354

N

111458 2

m

1000 2

e 0.45445.0947mm

N

120

mm 2

= 6.1042 mm

= 8.1042mm

Nozzles are used to convey fluids into and out of the exchanger, which are pipes

of constant cross section welded to the shell and channel (Kuppan, 2000). For a high

velocity stream, an impingement is used to lowering the velocity of that particular

stream, thus avoiding tube erosion and flow-induced vibration. Good nozzle design

involves better distribution of process fluids, ability to withstand operating load and

other load, easy accessibility to connect or disconnect the pipes and have a very low

pressure drop (Kuppan, 2000).

In the design of nozzle, the pipe schedule selected will determine the velocity of

the stream through the nozzle. The selected pipe schedule is as follow:

pipe size, Number diameter, diameter, thickness,

Metal, in Flow, ft2

in in in in

355

Table 6.16 : Pipe schedule dimension for hot stream nozzle

pipe size, Number diameter, diameter, thickness,

in in in in Metal, in Flow, ft2

M2

d min 4

1.296 10 7 Vh

Vh = Velocity head loss through the nozzle, m

= density of fluid, kg / m3

v 2

P

2

where = density of the fluid through the nozzle, kg/m 3

v = velocity of the stream, m/s

Below are the specifications of the nozzles of floating-head heat exchanger. For detail

calculation, please refer to Appendix A .

356

Table 6.17 : Nozzles dimension

Hot Stream inlet 0.05533

Hot Stream outlet 0.05533

Cold Stream inlet 0.08925

Cold Stream outlet 0.08925

Wv Cv m Dm g H v 0.8Dm t 10 3

Cv = factor to account for the weight of nozzles, manways, internal supports

= 1.08 for vessels with only a few internal fittings

Hv = height / length between tangent lines (the length of the cylindrical section),

m

g = gravitational acceleration, 9,81 m/s2 (Stainless steel type 316 = 7990.03

3

kg/m )

t = wall thickness, mm

m = density of vessel material, kg/m 3

Dm = mean diameter of vessel = (Di + t x 10-3) m

kg m

W 1.08 7990.03 3 0.4473m 9.81 2 4.025m 0.80.4473m 2.2068 10 3 m

m s

= 1150.5581 N

b) Weight of Tubes

Wt N t d o2 d i2 m gL

357

where W t = weight of tubes, N

Nt = number of tubes

do = tube outside diameter, m

di = tube inside diameter, m

m = density of tube material, kg/m 3

g = gravity acceleration, m/s2

L = length of tube, m

Wt 76 0.02540 2 0.02337 2 7990.039.813.975

= 7364.8992 N

The weight contributed by the fluid flowing inside of the tubes is calculated by:

Wf

N t d o2 d i2 L s g

4

Nt = number of tubes

do = tube outside diameter, m

di = tube inside diameter, m

s = density of tube material, kg/m 3

g = gravity acceleration, m/s2

L = length of tube, m

Wf

4

= 194.9964 N

358

d) Weight of Condensate

1

Assume that the steam condensate will occupy about of shell internal diameter (Ds).

5

So, the weight of condensate is :

Ds2 L c g

Wc

20

c = density of condensate, kg/m 3

g = gravity acceleration, m/s2

0.44512 4.025985.659.81

Wc

20

= 1211.1354 N

e) Weight of insulation

Insulation is important to control the movement of heat from or into the exchanger.

For this case, it is desirable to minimize heat loss from exchanger to the environment to

increase heat transfer coefficient, thus maximize the effectiveness of the heat

exchanger.

Thickness of insulation is taken as 50 mm (BS 3274).

V DLel

Hv = length of the tube, m

el = thickness of the insulation, m

D = outside diameter of shell, m

359

V 0.44954.0250.05

= 0.2842 m3

Weight of insulation,

Wt V l g

V = volume of insulator, m 3

l = density of insulator, kg/m 3

g = gravity acceleration, m/s2

Wt 0.28422 1309.81

= 724.8805 N

= 10646.4696 N

W = 10646.4696 N x 1.1

= 11711.1166 N

Baffle is employed on the shell-side to support the tubes, to maintain the tube

spacing and to direct the shell-side fluid across or along the tube bundle in a specified

manner (Kuppan, 2000). The intention is to maximize the heat transfer on the tube

surface where on one side of tube condensation occur, thus it is ideal to minimize the

clearance between tube baffle and shell, so the assumption made is baffle spacing

equal to shell inside diameter.

To find diameter of baffles, by referring to BS 3274;

360

Dbf D 1.5875mm with 0.7938mm tolerances, where D is internal shell diameter.

= 443.5072 mm

Tube holes in transverse is 1/32 inch more than the outside diameter of tube and for

nominal shell internal diameter of 15-27 inch (0.381-0.6858 m) with unsupported tube

length of 48-60 inch (1.2192-1.5240 m), baffle thickness is about 3/8 inch (9.5250 mm)

[BS 3274].

In heat exchanger, flange joint is used to connect together

1. Nozzle with pipe carrying fluids

2. Manhole covers and removable head for cleaning and maintenance purpose

3. Channel and channel cover

1. Ring flange

2. Weld neck integral flange

3. Lap joint flange

4. Reverse flange

361

Here the selected type of flange joint to be used is weld neck flange because it has the

best characteristics for preventing failure from fatigue and thermal stress and suitable

for extreme severe condition where flange will be subjected to temperature, shear and

vibration loads (Kuppan, 2000 and Sinnott, 2005)

Figure 6.6 : Flange dimensions

size O.D face

D b h1 d4 f No. d2 k d3 h2 r

80 88.9 190 16 42 128 3 M16 4 18 150 102 10 8

(Data extracted from Coulson & Richardsons, Chem. Eng design, 6th Ed., 2005)

Tubesheet is the principal barrier between shell-side and tube-side pressure

(Kuppan, 2000). It is a perforated plate with unperforated rim supported at its rim

(Sinnott, 2005).It will support the tubes that are drilled into the plate. In this case, it is

crucial to design tubesheet that will resist the maximum differential pressure that might

occur. The stresses that are subjected to the plate are radial and bending stresses due

to pressure load.

among them are:

362

1) The tube sheet is uniformly perforated over its whole area

2) Membrane loads in the tube sheets are negligible as compared to bending loads

3) No slip occurs at the junction between the tubes and the tube sheet

For floating head heat exchanger tube sheet, only one tube sheet is fixed to the

shell or channel or both sides, either by welding or bolting while the second tube sheet

surface is free to move inside the shell.

The tube sheet thickness to resist bending based on BS 5500 is given by:

p s pt

T Co Co D p

2S f

ps = shell-side pressure, N/mm 2

pt = tube-side pressure, N/mm2

= mean ligament efficiency

Sf = material allowable stress, N/mm 2

Dp = diameter of perforated region, mm

For clamped condition where it is full-face gasket on both sides, the value of Co and Co

is given by:

0.1115 0.7021

T 0.433 0445.0947

2 0.25 109

= 20.0627 mm

From BS 3274, the minimum tube plate thickness for tube outside diameter of 3/4 inch

(19.05 mm) is 9/16 inch (14.29 mm). So, the tube sheet thickness obtained is

satisfactory. Also, BS 3274 reported that for tube outside diameter of 3/4 inch (19.05

mm), the minimum tube hole on tube sheet is 0.760 inch (19.30 mm) with tolerance of

0.002 inch (0.051 mm).

position. Suitable support method is required to hold up the weight of pressure vessel

363

together with its fittings, and also the load of fluids it contains. It is observed that the

saddle support method is suitable for horizontal vessel support. Horizontal vessels

when supported on saddle supports behave as beams and for this kind of

support, maximum longitudinal bending stresses occur at the support and at the mid-

span of the vessel (Kuppan, 2000). Consequently, the location of supports from the mid

span or head tangent is critical to minimize bending stresses at the support. R. K

Sinnott suggests that for a uniformly loaded beam or vessel being supported on 2

saddles, the position will be 21% of the span, in from each end. Generally, the saddle

contact angle should be in the range of 120o to 150o. Below shows the structure of

saddles for a horizontal vessel:

(Source : Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering Design, 4th Ed,Elsevier, 2005)

diameter, weight,

V Y C E J G t2 t1 Bolt Bolt

m kN

diam holes

364

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