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Preparatory Notes for

ASNT NDT Level III Examination


- Ultrasonic Testing, UT
My pre-exam self study note - 2014
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_alphabet
Numerical Prefix
Micro - () a prefix in the SI and other systems of units denoting a factor of
10-6 (one millionth)

Nano - a prefix in the SI and other systems of units denoting a factor of 10-9
(one billionth)

Pico - a prefix in the International System of Units (SI) denoting a factor of


10-12
Fion Zhang
2014/July/31

http://meilishouxihu.blog.163.com/
Contents:

1. ASNT Level III Exam Topical Outline


2. AE Codes and Standards
ASTM.
ASME V.
3. Reading 01
Introduction to UT by ndt-ed.org with thanks (always)
1. Others reading.
2. Addendum 1 Equipment Calibrations
3. Addendum 2 Equations & Calculations.
4. Addendum 3 Questions & Answers I
5. Addendum 4 Questions & Answers II
ASNT UT Level III Examination Topical Outline
This examination is 4 hours in length, having 135 questions of equal value.
1. Principles/Theory
2. Equipment/Materials
3. Techniques/Calibrations
Contact
Immersion
Comparison of contact and immersion methods
Remote monitoring
Calibration (electronic and functional)

https://www.asnt.org/MajorSiteSections/Certification/ASNT%20NDT%20Level%20I
II%20Program/NDT%20Level%20III%20Examinations
4. Interpretation/Evaluations
Evaluation of base metal product forms
Evaluation of weldments
Evaluation of bonded structures
Variables affecting test results
Evaluation (general)

5. Procedures
Specific applications
Codes/Standards/Specifications

6. Safety and Health


References
1. Level III Study Guide: Ultrasonic Testing (2261)
2. NDT Handbook: Volume 7, Ultrasonic Testing (147)
3. Supplement to Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book) -
Ultrasonic Testing Method (2028)
4. Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technology, Applications (341)
5. Refresher Course: ASNT offers a UT Refresher Course based on the Body
of Knowledge outlined above.

The number in parentheses following each reference is the ASNT catalog


number.
UT - Ultrasonic Testing
Length: 4 hours Questions: 135

1. Principles/Theory
Nature of sound waves
Modes of sound wave generation
Velocity, frequency, and wavelength of sound waves
Attenuation of sound waves
Acoustic impedance
Reflection
Refraction and mode conversion
Snells law and critical angles
Fresnel and Fraunhofer effects
2. Equipment/Materials
Pulse/echo instrumentation
Digital thickness instrumentation
Transducer operation and theory
Transducer operation/manipulations
Resonance testing equipment
Couplants
Calibration blocks
Cables/connectors
Test specimen
Miscellaneous materials
3. Techniques/Calibrations
Contact
Immersion
Comparison of contact and immersion methods
Remote monitoring
Calibration (electronic and functional)
4. Interpretation/Evaluations
Evaluation of base metal product forms
Evaluation of weldments
Evaluation of bonded structures
Variables affecting test results
Evaluation (general)

5. Procedures
Specific applications
Codes/Standards/Specifications

Reference Catalog Number


NDT Handbook, Second Edition: Volume 7,
Ultrasonic Testing 132
ASNT Level III Study Guide: Ultrasonic Testing 2261A
Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technology,
Applications 341
ASME V Article Numbers:
Gen Article 1
RT Article 2
Nil Article 3
UT Article 4 for welds
UT Article 5 for materials
PT Article 6
MT Article 7
ET Article 8
Visual Article 9
LT Article 10
AE Article 11 (FRP) /Article 12 (Metallic) / Article 13 (Continuous)
Qualif. Article 14
ACFM Article 15
ASTM/ AWS Standards
ASTM E494 10: Practice for Measuring Ultrasonic Velocity in Materials.
ASTM standard E-164, "Standard Practice for Contact Examination of
Weldments.
AWS Structural Welding Code, section 6.
Annual Book of the American Society of Testing and Materials,
ASTM. Volume 03.03, Nondestructive Testing
Other Reading
http://techcorr.com/services/Inspection-and-Testing/Ultrasonic-Shear-Wave.cfm
http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/faa-
casr/engineers/Supporting%20Info/Supporting%20Info%20Pages/Ultrasonic%20Pages/Ultra-
principles.html
http://www.ndt.net/article/v05n09/berke/berke1.htm#0
http://www.mie.utoronto.ca/labs/undel/index.php?menu_path=menu_pages/projects_menu.htm
l&content_path=content_pages/fac2_2.html&main_menu=projects&side_menu=page1&sub_si
de_menu=s2
https://www.nde-ed.org/GeneralResources/Glossary/letter/d.htm

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/flaw-detection/general/
http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/flaw-detection/
http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/knowledge/

http://wenku.baidu.com/view/3cf257781711cc7931b716e0.html
http://www.docin.com/p-148566003.html
http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/ut-asnt-level-ii/deck/6278710
Study Note 1:
Ultrasonic Testing

Source: http://www.ndt-
ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultra
sonics/cc_ut_index.htm
Content:
Section 1: Introduction
1.1: Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
1.2: Advantages and Disadvantages
1.3: Limitations
Content: Section 2: Physics of Ultrasound
2.1: Wave Propagation
2.2: Modes of Sound Wave Propagation
2.3: Properties of Acoustic Plane Wave
2.4: Wavelength and Defect Detection
2.5: Sound Propagation in Elastic Materials
2.6: Attenuation of Sound Waves
2.7: Acoustic Impedance
2.8: Reflection and Transmission Coefficients (Pressure)
2.9: Refraction and Snell's Law
2.10: Mode Conversion
2.11: Signal-to-Noise Ratio
2.12: Wave Interaction or Interference
2.13: Inverse Square Rule/ Inverse Rule
2.14: Resonance
2.15 Measurement of Sound
2.16 Practice Makes Perfect
Content: Section 3: Equipment & Transducers
3.1: Piezoelectric Transducers
3.2: Characteristics of Piezoelectric Transducers
3.3: Radiated Fields of Ultrasonic Transducers
3.4: Transducer Beam Spread
3.5: Transducer Types
3.6: Transducer Testing I
3.7: Transducer Testing II
3.8: Transducer Modeling
3.9: Couplants
3.10: Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs)

Continues Next Page


3.11: Pulser-Receivers
3.12: Tone Burst Generators In Research
3.13: Arbitrary Function Generators
3.14: Electrical Impedance Matching and Termination
3.15: Data Presentation
3.16: Error Analysis
3.17: Transducer Quality Factor Q
3.18: Testing Techniques
3.19: UT Equipment Circuitry
3.20: Further Reading on Sub-Section 3
Content: Section 4: Calibration Methods
4.1: Calibration Methods
4.2: The Calibrations
4.2.1: Distance Amplitude Correction (DAC)
4.2.2: Finding the probe index
4.2.3: Checking the probe angle
4.2.4: Calibration of shear waves for range V1 Block
4.2.5: Dead Zone
4.2.7: Transfer Correction
4.2.8: Linearity Checks (Time Base/ Equipment Gain/ Vertical Gain)
4.2.9: TCG-Time Correction Gain
4.3: Curvature Correction
4.4: Calibration References & Standards
4.5: Exercises
4.6: Video Time
Content: Section 5: Measurement Techniques
5.1: Normal Beam Inspection
5.2: Angle Beams
5.3: Reflector Sizing
5.4: Automated Scanning
5.5: Precision Velocity Measurements
5.6: Attenuation Measurements
5.7: Spread Spectrum Ultrasonics
5.8: Signal Processing Techniques
5.9: Scanning Methods
5.10: Scanning Patterns
5.11: Pulse Repetition Rate and Penetration
5.12: Interferences & Non Relevant Indications
5.13: Entry Surface Variables
5.14: The Concept of Effective Distance
5.15: Exercises
Content: Section 6: Selected Applications & Techniques
6.1: Defects & Discontinuities
6.2: Rail Inspection
6.3: Weldments (Welded Joints)
6.4: Pipe & Tube
6.5: Echo Dynamic
6.6: Technique Sheets
6.7: Material Properties-Elastic Modulus Measurements
6.8: High Temperature Ultrasonic Testing
6.9: TOFD Introduction
Content: Section 7: Reference Material
7.1: UT Material Properties
7.2: General References & Resources
7.3: Video Time

Content: Section 8: Ultrasonic Inspection Quizzes


8.1: Ultrasonic Inspection Quizzes
8.2: Online UT Quizzes
Section 1: Introduction
Section 1: Introduction
1.1: Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
1.2: Advantages and Disadvantages
1.3: Limitations
1.1: Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
ULTRASONIC INSPECTION is a nondestructive method in which beams of
high-frequency sound waves are introduced into materials for the detection of
surface and subsurface flaws in the material. The sound waves travel through
the material with some attendant loss of energy (attenuation) and are
reflected at interfaces. The reflected beam is displayed and then analyzed to
define the presence and location of flaws or discontinuities. The degree of
reflection depends largely on the physical state of the materials forming the
interface and to a lesser extent on the specific physical properties of the
material.
For example, sound waves are almost completely reflected at metal/gas
interfaces. Partial reflection occurs at metal/liquid or metal/solid interfaces,
with the specific percentage of reflected energy depending mainly on the
ratios of certain properties of the material on opposing sides of the interface.
Cracks, laminations, shrinkage cavities, bursts, flakes, pores, disbonds, and
other discontinuities that produce reflective interfaces can be easily detected.
Inclusions and other in-homogeneities can also be detected by causing partial
reflection or scattering of the ultrasonic waves or by producing some other
detectable effect on the ultrasonic waves.
In ultrasonic testing, the reflected wave signal is transformed into an electrical
signal by the transducer and is displayed on a screen. In the applet below, the
reflected signal strength is displayed versus the time from signal generation to
when a echo was received. Signal travel time can be directly related to the
distance that the signal traveled. From the signal, information about the
reflector location, size, orientation and other features can sometimes be
gained.
http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Graphics/Flash/ultrasoundInspection.swf
Basics of Ultrasonic Test- Contact Pulse Echo Method

http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/faa-casr/engineers/Supporting%20Info/Supporting%20Info%20Pages/Ultrasonic%20Pages/Ultra-principles.html
Immersion Method- Figure below shows an immersion UT setup with CRT
or computer screen display. IP indicates the initial pulse while FW and BW
indicate the front and back wall of the specimen, respectively.

Display / CRT

Amplitude

Water path
Time / Distance
Basics of Ultrasonic Test- A-Scan
1.2: Source-1: The advantages of ultrasonic testing include
Ultrasonic Inspection is a very useful and versatile NDT method. Some of the
advantages of ultrasonic inspection that are often cited include:

It is sensitive to both surface and subsurface discontinuities.


The depth of penetration for flaw detection or measurement is superior to
other NDT methods.
Only single-sided access is needed when the pulse-echo technique is
used.
It is highly accurate in determining reflector position and estimating size
and shape.
Minimal part preparation is required.
Electronic equipment provides instantaneous results.
Detailed images can be produced with automated systems.
It has other uses, such as thickness measurement, in addition to flaw
detection.
Source-2: The advantages of ultrasonic testing include
It can be used to determine mechanical properties and microstructure.
It can be used for imaging and microscopy.
It is portable and cost effective.
It can be used with all states of matter except plasma and vacuum.
It is not affected by optical density.
Source-3: Advantages and Disadvantages
The principal advantages of ultrasonic inspection as compared to other
methods for nondestructive inspection of metal parts are:

Superior penetrating power, which allows the detection of flaws deep in


the part. Ultrasonic inspection is done routinely to thicknesses of a few
meters on many types of parts and to thicknesses of about 6 m (20 ft) in
the axial inspection of parts such as long steel shafts or rotor forgings
High sensitivity, permitting the detection of extremely small flaws
Greater accuracy than other nondestructive methods in determining the
position of internal flaws, estimating their size, and characterizing their
orientation, shape, and nature
Only one surface needs to be accessible
Operation is electronic, which provides almost instantaneous indications of
flaws. This makes the method suitable for immediate interpretation,
automation, rapid scanning, in-line production monitoring, and process
control. With most systems, a permanent record of inspection results can
be made for future reference
Volumetric scanning ability, enabling the inspection of a volume of metal
extending from front surface to back surface of a part
Nonhazardous to operations or to nearby personnel and has no effect on
equipment and materials in the vicinity
Portability
Provides an output that can be processed digitally by a computer to
characterize defects and to determine material properties
The disadvantages of ultrasonic inspection include the following:
Manual operation requires careful attention by experienced technicians.
Extensive technical knowledge is required for the development of
inspection procedures.
Parts that are rough, irregular in shape, very small or thin, or not
homogeneous are difficult to inspect.
Discontinuities that are present in a shallow layer immediately beneath the
surface may not be detectable.
Couplants are needed to provide effective transfer of ultrasonic wave
energy between transducers and parts being inspected.
Reference standards are needed, both for calibrating the equipment and
for characterizing flaws.
1.3: Limitations (Disadvantages)
As with all NDT methods, ultrasonic inspection also has its limitations, which
include:
Surface must be accessible to transmit ultrasound.
Skill and training is more extensive than with some other methods.
It normally requires a coupling medium to promote the transfer of sound
energy into the test specimen.
Materials that are rough, irregular in shape, very small, exceptionally thin
or not homogeneous are difficult to inspect.
Cast iron and other coarse grained materials are difficult to inspect due to
low sound transmission and high signal noise.
Linear defects oriented parallel to the sound beam may go undetected.
Reference standards are required for both equipment calibration and the
characterization of flaws.
Section 2: Physics of Ultrasound
Content: Section 2: Physics of Ultrasound
2.0: Ultrasound Formula
2.1: Wave Propagation
2.2: Modes of Sound Wave Propagation
2.3: Sound Propagation in Elastic Materials
2.4: Properties of Acoustic Plane Wave
2.5: Wavelength and Defect Detection
2.6: Attenuation of Sound Waves
2.7: Acoustic Impedance
2.8: Reflection and Transmission Coefficients (Pressure)
2.9: Refraction and Snell's Law
2.10: Mode Conversion
2.11: Signal-to-Noise Ratio
2.12: The Sound Fields- Dead / Fresnel & Fraunhofer Zones
2.13: Inverse Square Rule/ Inverse Rule
2.14: Resonance
2.15 Measurement of Sound
2.16 Practice Makes Perfect
2.0: Ultrasound Formula

http://www.ndt-ed.org/GeneralResources/Calculator/calculator.htm
Ultrasonic Formula
Ultrasonic Formula
Parameters of Ultrasonic Waves
2.1: Wave Propagation
Ultrasonic testing is based on time-varying deformations or vibrations in
materials, which is generally referred to as acoustics. All material substances
are comprised of atoms, which may be forced into vibration motion about their
equilibrium positions. Many different patterns of vibration motion exist at the
atomic level, however, most are irrelevant to acoustics and ultrasonic testing.
Acoustics is focused on particles that contain many atoms that move in
unison to produce a mechanical wave. When a material is not stressed in
tension or compression beyond its elastic limit, its individual particles perform
elastic oscillations. When the particles of a medium are displaced from their
equilibrium positions, internal (electrostatic) restoration forces arise. It is these
elastic restoring forces between particles, combined with inertia of the
particles, that leads to the oscillatory motions of the medium.

Keywords:
internal (electrostatic) restoration forces
inertia of the particles
Acoustic Spectrum
Acoustic Spectrum
Acoustic Spectrum
Acoustic Wave Node and Anti-Node
The points where the two waves constantly cancel each other are called
nodes, and the points of maximum amplitude between them, antinodes.

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/waves/u10l4c.cfm
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/waves/h4.gif
Acoustic Wave Node and Anti-Node
Formation of a standing wave by two waves from opposite directions
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/waves/standw.html
Q151 A point, line or surface of a vibration body marked by absolute or
relative freedom from vibratory motion (momentarily?) is referred to as:

a) a node
b) an antinode
c) rarefaction
d) compression
2.2: Modes of Sound Wave Propagation
2.2.1 Modes of Ultrasound
In solids, sound waves can propagate in four principle modes that are based
on the way the particles oscillate. Sound can propagate as;
longitudinal waves,
shear waves,
surface waves,
and in thin materials as plate waves.

Longitudinal and shear waves are the two modes of propagation most widely
used in ultrasonic testing. The particle movement responsible for the
propagation of longitudinal and shear waves is illustrated below.
2.2.2 Propagation & Polarization Vectors
Propagation Vector- The direction of wave propagation
Polarization Vector- The direction of particle motion
Longitudinal and shear waves
Longitudinal and shear waves- Defined the Vectors
Longitudinal and shear waves
Longitudinal and shear waves
2.2.3 Longitudinal Wave
Also Knows as:
longitudinal waves,
pressure wave
compressional waves.
density waves

can be generated in (1) liquids, as well as (2) solids

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Graphics/Flash/longitudinal.swf
In longitudinal waves, the oscillations occur in the longitudinal direction or the
direction of wave propagation. Since compressional and dilational forces are
active in these waves, they are also called pressure or compressional waves.
They are also sometimes called density waves because their particle density
fluctuates as they move. Compression waves can be generated in liquids, as
well as solids because the energy travels through the atomic structure by a
series of compressions and expansion (rarefaction) movements.
Longitudinal wave: Longitudinal waves (L-Waves) compress and decompress
the material in the direction of motion, much like sound waves in air.
Longitudinal Wave
2.2.4 Shear waves (S-Waves)
In air, sound travels by the compression and rarefaction of air molecules in
the direction of travel. However, in solids, molecules can support vibrations in
other directions, hence, a number of different types of sound waves are
possible. Waves can be characterized in space by oscillatory patterns that
are capable of maintaining their shape and propagating in a stable
manner. The propagation of waves is often described in terms of what are
called wave modes.
As mentioned previously, longitudinal and transverse (shear) waves are most
often used in ultrasonic inspection. However, at surfaces and interfaces,
various types of elliptical or complex vibrations of the particles make other
waves possible. Some of these wave modes such as (1) Rayleigh and (2)
Lamb waves are also useful for ultrasonic inspection.

Keywords:
Compression
Rarefaction
Shear waves vibrate particles at right angles compared to the motion of the
ultrasonic wave. The velocity of shear waves through a material is
approximately half that of the longitudinal waves. The angle in which the
ultrasonic wave enters the material determines whether longitudinal, shear, or
both waves are produced.
Shear waves
In the transverse or shear wave, the particles oscillate at a right angle or
transverse to the direction of propagation. Shear waves require an
acoustically solid material for effective propagation, and therefore, are not
effectively propagated in materials such as liquids or gasses. Shear waves
are relatively weak when compared to longitudinal waves. In fact, shear
waves are usually generated in materials using some of the energy from
longitudinal waves.

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Graphics/Flash/transverse.swf
Q10: For a shear wave travelling from steel to water incident on the boundary
at 10 degrees will give a refracted shear wave in water with an angle of:
A. 0 degrees
B. 5 degrees
C. 20 degrees
D. none of the above
2.2.5 Rayleigh Characteristics
Rayleigh waves are a type of surface wave that travel near the surface of
solids. Rayleigh waves include both longitudinal and transverse motions that
decrease exponentially in amplitude as distance from the surface increases.
There is a phase difference between these component motions. In isotropic
solids these waves cause the surface particles to move in ellipses in planes
normal to the surface and parallel to the direction of propagation the major
axis of the ellipse is vertical. At the surface and at shallow depths this motion
is retrograde , that is the in-plane motion of a particle is counterclockwise
when the wave travels from left to right.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rayleigh_wave
Rayleigh waves are a type of surface acoustic wave that travel on solids.
They can be produced in materials in many ways, such as by a localized
impact or by piezo-electric transduction, and are frequently used in non-
destructive testing for detecting defects. They are part of the seismic waves
that are produced on the Earth by earthquakes. When guided in layers they
are referred to as Lamb waves, RayleighLamb waves, or generalized
Rayleigh waves.
Rayleigh waves
Q29: The longitudinal wave incident angle which results in formation of a
Rayleigh wave is called:
A. Normal incidence
B. The first critical angle
C. The second critical angle
D. Any angle above the first critical angle
Surface (or Rayleigh) waves travel the surface of a relatively thick solid
material penetrating to a depth of one wavelength.

Surface waves combine both (1) a longitudinal and (2) transverse motion to
create an elliptic orbit motion as shown in the image and animation below.

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Graphics/Flash/rayleigh.swf
The major axis of the ellipse is perpendicular to the surface of the solid. As
the depth of an individual atom from the surface increases the width of its
elliptical motion decreases. Surface waves are generated when a
longitudinal wave intersects a surface near the second critical angle and
they travel at a velocity between .87 and .95 of a shear wave. Rayleigh
waves are useful because they are very sensitive to surface defects (and
other surface features) and they follow the surface around curves.
Because of this, Rayleigh waves can be used to inspect areas that other
waves might have difficulty reaching.

Wave velocity:
Longitudinal wave velocity =1v,
The velocity of shear waves through a material is approximately half that
of the longitudinal waves, (0.5v)
Surface waves are generated when a longitudinal wave intersects a
surface near the second critical angle and they travel at a velocity
between .87 and .95 of a shear wave. (0.87~0.95)x0.5v
The major axis of the ellipse is perpendicular to the surface of the solid.
Surface wave
Surface wave or Rayleigh wave are formed when shear waves refract to 90.
The whip-like particle vibration of the shear wave is converted into elliptical
motion by the particle changing direction at the interface with the surface. The
wave are not often used in industrial NDT although they do have some
application in aerospace industry. Their mode of propagation is elliptical along
the surface of material, penetrating to a depth of one wavelength. They will
follow the contour of the surface and they travel at approximately 90% of the
velocity of the shear waves.

Depth of penetration of
about one wavelength

Direction of wave propagation


Surface wave has the ability to follow surface contour, until it meet a sharp
change i.e. a surface crack/seam/lap. However the surface waves could be
easily completely absorbed by excess couplant of simply touching the part
ahead of the waves.

Transducer
Surface discontinuity
Wedge

Specimen
Surface wave - Following Contour

Surface wave
Surface wave One wavelength deep


Rayleigh Wave

http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/waves/Rwave_files/image001.gif
Love Wave

http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/waves/Lwave_files/image001.gif
Love Wave
Other Reading: Rayleigh Waves
Surface waves (Rayleigh waves) are another type of ultrasonic wave used in
the inspection of materials. These waves travel along the flat or curved
surface of relatively thick solid parts. For the propagation of waves of this type,
the waves must be traveling along an interface bounded on one side by the
strong elastic forces of a solid and on the other side by the practically
negligible elastic forces between gas molecules. Surface waves leak energy
into liquid couplants and do not exist for any significant distance along the
surface of a solid immersed in a liquid, unless the liquid covers the solid
surface only as a very thin film. Surface waves are subject to attenuation in a
given material, as are longitudinal or transverse waves. They have a velocity
approximately 90% of the transverse wave velocity in the same material. The
region within which these waves propagate with effective energy is not much
thicker than about one wavelength beneath the surface of the metal.
At this depth, wave energy is about 4% of the wave energy at the surface,
and the amplitude of oscillation decreases sharply to a negligible value at
greater depths. Surface waves follow contoured surfaces. For example,
surface waves traveling on the top surface of a metal block are reflected from
a sharp edge, but if the edge is rounded off, the waves continue down the
side face and are reflected at the lower edge, returning to the sending point.
Surface waves will travel completely around a cube if all edges of the cube
are rounded off. Surface waves can be used to inspect parts that have
complex contours.
Q110: What kind of wave mode travel at a velocity slightly below the shear
wave and their modes of propagation are both longitudinal and transverse
with respect to the surface?
a) Rayleigh wave
b) Transverse wave
c) L-wave
d) Longitudinal wave
Q: Which of the following modes of vibration exhibits the shortest wavelength
at a given frequency and in a given material?
A. longitudinal wave
B. compression wave
C. shear wave
D. surface wave
2.2.6 Lamb Wave:
Lamb waves propagate in solid plates. They are elastic waves whose
particle motion lies in the plane that contains the direction of wave
propagation and the plate normal (the direction perpendicular to the plate). In
1917, the english mathematician horace lamb published his classic analysis
and description of acoustic waves of this type. Their properties turned out to
be quite complex. An infinite medium supports just two wave modes traveling
at unique velocities; but plates support two infinite sets of lamb wave modes,
whose velocities depend on the relationship between wavelength and plate
thickness.
Since the 1990s, the understanding and utilization of lamb waves has
advanced greatly, thanks to the rapid increase in the availability of computing
power. Lamb's theoretical formulations have found substantial practical
application, especially in the field of nondestructive testing.
The term rayleighlamb waves embraces the rayleigh wave, a type of wave
that propagates along a single surface. Both rayleigh and lamb waves are
constrained by the elastic properties of the surface(s) that guide them.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamb_wave
http://pediaview.com/openpedia/Lamb_waves
Types of Wave

New!
Plate wave- Love
Stoneley wave
Sezawa
Plate or Lamb waves are the most commonly used plate waves in
NDT. Lamb waves are complex vibrational waves that propagate parallel to
the test surface throughout the thickness of the material. Propagation of Lamb
waves depends on the density and the elastic material properties of a
component. They are also influenced a great deal by the test frequency and
material thickness. Lamb waves are generated at an incident angle in which
the parallel component of the velocity of the wave in the source is equal to the
velocity of the wave in the test material. Lamb waves will travel several
meters in steel and so are useful to scan plate, wire, and tubes.
Lamb wave influenced by: (Dispersive Wave)
Density
Elastic material properties
Frequencies
Material thickness
Plate or Lamb waves are similar to surface waves except they can only be
generated in materials a few wavelengths thick.

http://www.ndt.net/ndtaz/files/lamb_a.gif
Plate wave or Lamb wave are formed by the introduction of surface wave
into a thin material. They are a combination of (1) compression and surface or
(2) shear and surface waves causing the plate material to flex by totally
saturating the material. The two types of plate waves:
With Lamb waves, a number of modes of particle vibration are possible, but
the two most common are symmetrical and asymmetrical. The complex
motion of the particles is similar to the elliptical orbits for surface
waves. Symmetrical Lamb waves move in a symmetrical fashion about the
median plane of the plate. This is sometimes called the extensional mode
because the wave is stretching and compressing the plate in the wave
motion direction. Wave motion in the symmetrical mode is most efficiently
produced when the exciting force is parallel to the plate. The asymmetrical
Lamb wave mode is often called the flexural mode because a large portion
of the motion moves in a normal direction to the plate, and a little motion
occurs in the direction parallel to the plate. In this mode, the body of the plate
bends as the two surfaces move in the same direction.
The generation of waves using both piezoelectric transducers and
electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are discussed in later sections.

Keywords:
Symmetrical = extensional mode
Asymmetrical = flexural mode
When guided in layers they are referred to as Lamb waves, RayleighLamb
waves, or generalized Rayleigh waves.
Lamb waves 2 modes
Symmetrical = extensional mode
Asymmetrical = flexural mode
Symmetrical = extensional mode
Asymmetrical = flexural mode
Symmetrical = extensional mode
Other Reading: Lamb Wave
Lamb waves, also known as plate waves, are another type of ultrasonic wave
used in the nondestructive inspection of materials. Lamb waves are
propagated in plates (made of composites or metals) only a few wavelengths
thick. A Lamb wave consists of a complex vibration that occurs throughout the
thickness of the material. The propagation characteristics of Lamb waves
depend on the density, elastic properties, and structure of the material as well
as the thickness of the test piece and the frequency. Their behavior in general
resembles that observed in the transmission of electromagnetic waves
through waveguides.
There are two basic forms of Lamb waves:
Symmetrical, or dilatational
Asymmetrical, or bending
The form is determined by whether the particle motion is symmetrical or
asymmetrical with respect to the neutral axis of the test piece. Each form is
further subdivided into several modes having different velocities, which can
be controlled by the angle at which the waves enter the test piece.
Theoretically, there are an infinite number of specific velocities at which Lamb
waves can travel in a given material. Within a given plate, the specific
velocities for Lamb waves are complex functions of plate thickness and
frequency.
In symmetrical (dilatational) Lamb waves, there is a compressional
(longitudinal) particle displacement along the neutral axis of the plate and an
elliptical particle displacement on each surface (Fig. 4a). In asymmetrical
(bending) Lamb waves, there is a shear (transverse) particle displacement
along the neutral axis of the plate and an elliptical particle displacement on
each surface (Fig. 4b). The ratio of the major to minor axes of the ellipse is a
function of the material in which the wave is being propagated.
Fig. 4 Diagram of the basic patterns of (a) symmetrical (dilatational) and (b)
asymmetrical (bending) Lamb waves. The wavelength, , is the distance
corresponding to one complete cycle.
Q1: The wave mode that has multiple or varying wave velocities is:
A. Longitudinal waves
B. Shear waves
C. Transverse waves
D. Lamb waves
2.2.7 Dispersive Wave:
Wave modes such as those found in Lamb wave have a velocity of
propagation dependent upon the operating frequency, sample thickness and
elastic moduli. They are dispersive (velocity change with frequency) in that
pulses transmitted in these mode tend to become stretched or dispersed.
Dispersion refers to the fact that in a real medium such as water, air, or glass,
a wave traveling through that medium will have a velocity that depends upon
its frequency. Dispersion occurs for any form of wave, acoustic,
electromagnetic, electronic, even quantum mechanical. Dispersion is
responsible for a prism being able to resolve light into colors and defines the
maximum frequency of broadband pulses one can send down an optical fiber
or through a copper wire. Dispersion affects wave and swell forecasts at
sea and influences the design of sound equipment. Dispersion is a physical
property of the medium and can combine with other properties to yield very
strange results. For example, in the propagation of light in an optical fiber, the
glass introduces dispersion and separates the wavelengths of light according
to frequency, however if the light is intense enough, it can interact with the
electrons in the material changing its refractive index. The combination of
dispersion and index change can cancel each other leading to a wave that
can propagate indefinitely maintaining a constant shape. Such a wave has
been termed a soliton.
http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/WWW/faculty/plawsky/Comsol%20Modules/DispersiveWave/DispersiveWave.html
Plate or Lamb waves are generated at an incident angle in which the parallel
component of the velocity of the wave in the source is equal to the velocity of
the wave in the test material.
Thickness Limitation:
One can not generate shear / surface (or Lamb?) wave on a plate that is
thinner than the wavelength.
2.3: Sound Propagation in Elastic Materials
In the previous pages, it was pointed out that sound waves propagate due to
the vibrations or oscillatory motions of particles within a material. An
ultrasonic wave may be visualized as an infinite number of oscillating masses
or particles connected by means of elastic springs. Each individual particle is
influenced by the motion of its nearest neighbor and both (1) inertial and (2)
elastic restoring forces act upon each particle.
A mass on a spring has a single resonant frequency determined by its spring
constant k and its mass m. The spring constant is the restoring force of a
spring per unit of length. Within the elastic limit of any material, there is a
linear relationship between the displacement of a particle and the force
attempting to restore the particle to its equilibrium position. This linear
dependency is described by Hooke's Law.
Spring model- A mass on a spring has a single resonant frequency
determined by its spring constant k and its mass m.
Spring model- A mass on a spring has a single resonant frequency
determined by its spring constant k and its mass m.
In terms of the spring model, Hooke's Law says that the restoring force due to
a spring is proportional to the length that the spring is stretched, and acts in
the opposite direction. Mathematically, Hooke's Law is written as F =-kx,
where F is the force, k is the spring constant, and x is the amount of particle
displacement. Hooke's law is represented graphically it the bottom. Please
note that the spring is applying a force to the particle that is equal and
opposite to the force pulling down on the particle.
Elastic Model
Elastic Model / Longitudinal Wave
Elastic Model / Longitudinal Wave
Elastic Model / Shear Wave
Elastic Model / Shear Wave
The Speed of Sound
Hooke's Law, when used along with Newton's Second Law, can explain a few
things about the speed of sound. The speed of sound within a material is a
function of the properties of the material and is independent of the amplitude
of the sound wave. Newton's Second Law says that the force applied to a
particle will be balanced by the particle's mass and the acceleration of the
particle. Mathematically, Newton's Second Law is written as F = ma. Hooke's
Law then says that this force will be balanced by a force in the opposite
direction that is dependent on the amount of displacement and the spring
constant (F = -kx). Therefore, since the applied force and the restoring force
are equal, ma = -kx can be written. The negative sign indicates that the force
is in the opposite direction.

F= ma = -kx
Since the mass m and the spring constant k are constants for any given
material, it can be seen that the acceleration a and the displacement x are the
only variables. It can also be seen that they are directly proportional. For
instance, if the displacement of the particle increases, so does its acceleration.
It turns out that the time that it takes a particle to move and return to its
equilibrium position is independent of the force applied. So, within a given
material, sound always travels at the same speed no matter how much force
is applied when other variables, such as temperature, are held constant.

ax
What properties of material affect its speed of sound?
Of course, sound does travel at different speeds in different materials. This is
because the (1) mass of the atomic particles and the (2) spring constants are
different for different materials. The mass of the particles is related to the
density of the material, and the spring constant is related to the elastic
constants of a material. The general relationship between the speed of sound
in a solid and its density and elastic constants is given by the following
equation:
Elastic constant
spring constants

Density
mass of the atomic particles
Where V is the speed of sound, C is the elastic constant, and p is the material
density. This equation may take a number of different forms depending on the
type of wave (longitudinal or shear) and which of the elastic constants that are
used. The typical elastic constants of a materials include:
Young's Modulus, E: a proportionality constant between uniaxial stress
and strain.
Poisson's Ratio, n: the ratio of radial strain to axial strain
Bulk modulus, K: a measure of the incompressibility of a body subjected to
hydrostatic pressure.
Shear Modulus, G: also called rigidity, a measure of a substance's
resistance to shear.
Lame's Constants, l and m: material constants that are derived from
Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio.
Q163 Acoustic velocity of materials are primary due to the material's:
a) density
b) elasticity
c) both a and b
d) acoustic impedance
Q50: The principle attributes that determine the differences in ultrasonic
velocities among materials are:
A. Frequency and wavelength
B. Thickness and travel time
C. Elasticity and density
D. Chemistry and permeability
When calculating the velocity of a longitudinal wave, Young's Modulus and
Poisson's Ratio are commonly used.

When calculating the velocity of a shear wave, the shear modulus is used. It
is often most convenient to make the calculations using

Lame's Constants, which are derived from Young's Modulus and Poisson's
Ratio.
E/N/G
It must also be mentioned that the subscript ij attached to C (Cij) in the above
equation is used to indicate the directionality of the elastic constants with
respect to the wave type and direction of wave travel. In isotropic materials,
the elastic constants are the same for all directions within the material.
However, most materials are anisotropic and the elastic constants differ with
each direction. For example, in a piece of rolled aluminum plate, the grains
are elongated in one direction and compressed in the others and the elastic
constants for the longitudinal direction are different than those for the
transverse or short transverse directions.

V longitudinal

V transverse
Examples of approximate compressional sound velocities in materials are:
Aluminum - 0.632 cm/microsecond
1020 steel - 0.589 cm/microsecond
Cast iron - 0.480 cm/microsecond.

Examples of approximate shear sound velocities in materials are:


Aluminum - 0.313 cm/microsecond
1020 steel - 0.324 cm/microsecond
Cast iron - 0.240 cm/microsecond.

When comparing compressional and shear velocities, it can be noted that


shear velocity is approximately one half that of compressional velocity. The
sound velocities for a variety of materials can be found in the ultrasonic
properties tables in the general resources section of this site.
Longitudinal Wave Velocity: VL
The velocity of a longitudinal wave is described by the following equation:

VL = Longitudinal bulk wave velocity


E = Youngs modulus of elasticity
= Poisson ratio
P = Material density
Shear Wave Velocity: VS
The velocity of a shear wave is described by the following equation:

Vs = Shear wave velocity


E = Youngs modulus of elasticity
= Poisson ratio
P = Material density
G = Shear modulus
2.4: Properties of Acoustic Plane Wave
Wavelength, Frequency and Velocity
Among the properties of waves propagating in isotropic solid materials are
wavelength, frequency, and velocity. The wavelength is directly proportional
to the velocity of the wave and inversely proportional to the frequency of the
wave. This relationship is shown by the following equation.
The applet below shows a longitudinal and transverse wave. The direction of
wave propagation is from left to right and the movement of the lines indicate
the direction of particle oscillation. The equation relating ultrasonic
wavelength, frequency, and propagation velocity is included at the bottom of
the applet in a reorganized form. The values for the wavelength, frequency,
and wave velocity can be adjusted in the dialog boxes to see their effects on
the wave. Note that the frequency value must be kept between 0.1 to 1 MHz
(one million cycles per second) and the wave velocity must be between 0.1
and 0.7 cm/us.
http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Physics/applet_2_4/applet_2_4.htm
http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Physics/applet_2_4/applet_2_4.htm
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As can be noted by the equation, a change in frequency will result in a
change in wavelength. Change the frequency in the applet and view the
resultant wavelength. At a frequency of .2 and a material velocity of 0.585
(longitudinal wave in steel) note the resulting wavelength. Adjust the material
velocity to 0.480 (longitudinal wave in cast iron) and note the resulting
wavelength. Increase the frequency to 0.8 and note the shortened wavelength
in each material.

In ultrasonic testing, the shorter wavelength resulting from an increase in


frequency will usually provide for the detection of smaller discontinuities. This
will be discussed more in following sections.

Keywords:
the shorter wavelength resulting from an increase in frequency will usually
provide for the detection of smaller discontinuities
The velocities sound waves
The velocities of the various kinds of sound waves can be calculated from the
elastic constants of the material concerned, that is the modulus of elasticity E
(measured in N/m2), the density p in kg/m3, and Poisson's ratio (a
dimensionless number).

for longitudinal waves:

for transverse waves:


The two velocities of sound are linked by the following relation:

For all solid materials Poisson's ratio lies between 0 and 0.5, so that the
numerical value of the expression

always lies between 0 and 0.707. In steel and aluminum, = 0.28 and 0.34,
respectively,

= 0.55 and 0.49 respectIvely.

--
2.5: Wavelength and Defect Detection
2.5.1 Sensitivity & Resolution
In ultrasonic testing, the inspector must make a decision about the frequency
of the transducer that will be used. As we learned on the previous page,
changing the frequency when the sound velocity is fixed will result in a
change in the wavelength of the sound.

The wavelength of the ultrasound used has a significant effect on the


probability of detecting a discontinuity. A general rule of thumb is that a
discontinuity must be larger than one-half the wavelength to stand a
reasonable chance of being detected.
Sensitivity and resolution are two terms that are often used in ultrasonic
inspection to describe a technique's ability to locate flaws. Sensitivity is the
ability to locate small discontinuities. Sensitivity generally increases with
higher frequency (shorter wavelengths). Resolution is the ability of the system
to locate discontinuities that are close together within the material or located
near the part surface. Resolution also generally increases as the frequency
increases.
Keywords:

Discontinuity must be larger than one-half the wavelength to stand a


reasonable chance of being detected.

Sensitivity is the ability to locate small discontinuities. Sensitivity generally


increases with higher frequency (shorter wavelengths).

Resolution is the ability of the system to locate discontinuities that are


close together within the material or located near the part surface.

Resolution also generally increases as the frequency increases, pulse


length decrease, bandwidth increase (highly damp)
2.5.2 Grain Size & Frequency Selection
The wave frequency can also affect the capability of an inspection in adverse
ways. Therefore, selecting the optimal inspection frequency often involves
maintaining a balance between the favorable and unfavorable results of the
selection. Before selecting an inspection frequency, the material's grain
structure and thickness, and the discontinuity's type, size, and probable
location should be considered.

As frequency increases, sound tends to scatter from large or course grain


structure and from small imperfections within a material. Cast materials often
have coarse grains and other sound scatters that require lower frequencies to
be used for evaluations of these products.

(1) Wrought and (2) forged products with directional and refined grain
structure can usually be inspected with higher frequency transducers.
Keywords:
Coarse grains Lower frequency to avoid scattering and noise,
Fine grains Higher frequency to increase sensitivity & resolution.
Since more things in a material are likely to scatter a portion of the sound
energy at higher frequencies, the penetrating power (or the maximum depth
in a material that flaws can be located) is also reduced. Frequency also has
an effect on the shape of the ultrasonic beam. Beam spread, or the
divergence of the beam from the center axis of the transducer, and how it is
affected by frequency will be discussed later.
It should be mentioned, so as not to be misleading, that a number of other
variables will also affect the ability of ultrasound to locate defects. These
include the pulse length, type and voltage applied to the crystal, properties of
the crystal, backing material, transducer diameter, and the receiver circuitry of
the instrument. These are discussed in more detail in the material on signal-
to-noise ratio.
Coarse grains Lower frequency to avoid scattering and noise,
Fine grains Higher frequency to increase sensitivity & resolution.

http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/ultrasonics/grain-noise
Detectability variable:
pulse length,
type and voltage applied to the crystal,
properties of the crystal,
backing material,
transducer diameter, and
the receiver circuitry of the instrument.
Keywords:

Higher the frequency, greater the scattering, thus less penetrating.

Higher the frequency better sensitivity and better resolution

If the grain size is 1/10 the wavelength, the ultrasound will be significantly
scattered.
Q7: When a material grain size is on the order of ______ wavelength or
larger, excessive scattering of the ultrasonic beam affect test result.

A. 1
B.
C. 1/10
D. 1/100
2.5.3 Further Reading

Detectability variable:
pulse length,
type and voltage applied to the crystal,
properties of the crystal,
backing material,
transducer diameter (focal length Cross sectional area), and
the receiver circuitry of the instrument.

Investigating on: Sonic pulse volume pulse length, transducer


Pulse Length:
A sound pulse traveling through a
metal occupies a physical
volume. This volume changes
with depth, being smallest in the
focal zone. The pulse volume, a
product of a pulse length L and a
cross-sectional area A, can be
fairly easily measured by
combining ultrasonic A-scans and
C-scans, as will be seen shortly.

For many cases of practical interest, the inspection simulation models predict
that S/N (signal to noise ratio) is inversely proportional to the square root of the
pulse volume at the depth of the defect. This is known as the pulse volume
rule-of-thumb and has become a guiding principle for designing
inspections. Generally speaking, it applies when both the grain size and the
lateral size of the defect are smaller than the sound pulse diameter.
http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/ultrasonics/grain-noise
Determining cross sectional area using reflector- A Scan (6db drop)
Determining cross sectional area using reflector- C Scan
Sonic pulse volume and S/N (defect resolution)
Pulse volume rule-of-thumb:
Competing grain noise (pulse volume)
2.6: Attenuation of Sound Waves
2.6.1 Material Attenuation:
Attenuation by definition is the rate of decrease of sound energy when a
ultrasound wave id propagating in a medium. The sound attenuation in
material depends on heat treatment, grain size, viscous friction, crystal
stricture (anisotropy or isotropy), porosity, elastic hysteresis, hardness,
Youngs modulus, etc.

Sound attenuations are affected by; (1) Geometric beam spread, (2)
Absorption, (3) Scattering.
Material attenuation affects item (2) & (3).
When sound travels through a medium, its intensity diminishes with distance.
In idealized materials, sound pressure (signal amplitude) is only reduced by
the (1) spreading of the wave. Natural materials, however, all produce an
effect which further weakens the sound. This further weakening results from
(2) scattering and (3) absorption. Scattering is the reflection of the sound in
directions other than its original direction of propagation. Absorption is the
conversion of the sound energy to other forms of energy. The combined
effect of scattering and absorption (spreading?) is called attenuation.
Ultrasonic attenuation is the decay rate of the wave as it propagates through
material.
Attenuation of sound within a material itself is often not of intrinsic interest.
However, natural properties and loading conditions can be related to
attenuation. Attenuation often serves as a measurement tool that leads to the
formation of theories to explain physical or chemical phenomenon that
decreases the ultrasonic intensity.
Absorption:
Sound attenuations are affected by; (1) Geometric beam spread, (2) Absorption,
(3) Scattering.
Absorption processes
1. Mechanical hysteresis
2. Internal friction
3. Others (?)

For relatively non-elastic material, these soft and pliable material include lead,
plastid, rubbers and non-rigid coupling materials; much of the energy is loss as
heat during sound propagation and absorption is the main reason that the
testing of these material are limit to relatively thin section/
Scattering:
Grain Size and Wave Frequency
The relative impact of scattering source of a material depends upon their
grain sizes in comparison with the Ultrasonic sound wave length. As the
scattering size approaches that of a wavelength, scattering by the grain is a
concern. The effects from such scattering could be compensated with the use
of increasing wavelength ultrasound at the cost of decreasing sensitivity and
resolution to detection of discontinuities.

Other effect are anisotropic columnar grain with different elastic behavior at
different grain direction. In this case the internal incident wave front becomes
distorted and often appear to change direction (propagate better in certain
preferred direction) in respond to material anisotropy.
Anisotropic Columnar Grains
with different elastic behavior at different grain direction.
Spreading/ Scattering / adsorption (reflection is a form of scattering)

Adsorption

Scattering

Spreading

Scatterbrain
The amplitude change of a decaying plane wave can be expressed as:

In this expression Ao is the unattenuated amplitude of the propagating wave


at some location. The amplitude A is the reduced amplitude after the wave
has traveled a distance z from that initial location. The quantity is the
attenuation coefficient of the wave traveling in the z-direction. The
dimensions of are nepers/length, where a neper is a dimensionless
quantity. The term e is the exponential (or Napier's constant) which is equal
to approximately 2.71828.
The units of the attenuation value in Nepers per meter (Np/m) can be
converted to decibels/length by dividing by 0.1151. Decibels is a more
common unit when relating the amplitudes of two signals.
Attenuation is generally proportional to the square of sound frequency.
Quoted values of attenuation are often given for a single frequency, or an
attenuation value averaged over many frequencies may be given. Also, the
actual value of the attenuation coefficient for a given material is highly
dependent on the way in which the material was manufactured. Thus, quoted
values of attenuation only give a rough indication of the attenuation and
should not be automatically trusted. Generally, a reliable value of attenuation
can only be obtained by determining the attenuation experimentally for the
particular material being used.

Attenuation Frequency (f )2
Attenuation can be determined by evaluating the multiple back wall reflections
seen in a typical A-scan display like the one shown in the image at the bottom.
The number of decibels between two adjacent signals is measured and this
value is divided by the time interval between them. This calculation produces
a attenuation coefficient in decibels per unit time Ut. This value can be
converted to nepers/length by the following equation.

Where v is the velocity of sound in meters per


second and Ut is in decibels per second.
Amplitude at distance Z

where:

Where v is the velocity of sound in meters per


second and Ut is in decibels per second.
Ao

Ut
A
2.6.2 Factors Affecting Attenuation:

1. Testing Factors
Testing frequency
Boundary conditions
Wave form geometry

2. Base Material Factors


Material type
Chemistry
Integral constituents (fiber, voids, water content, inclusion, anisotropy)
Forms (casting, wrought)
Heat treatment history
Mechanical processes(Hot or cold working; forging, rolling, extruding,
TMCP, directional working)
2.6.3 Frequency selection
There is no ideal frequency; therefore, frequency selection must be made with
consideration of several factors. Frequency determines the wavelength of the
sound energy traveling through the material. Low frequency has longer
wavelengths and will penetrate deeper than higher frequencies. To penetrate
a thick piece, low frequencies should be used. Another factor is the size of the
grain structure in the material. High frequencies with shorter wavelengths
tend to reflect off grain boundaries and become lost or result in ultrasonic
noise that can mask flaw signals. Low frequencies must be used with coarse
grain structures. However, test resolution decreases when frequency is
decreased. Small defects detectable at high frequencies may be missed at
lower frequencies. In addition, variations in instrument characteristics and
settings as well as material properties and coupling conditions play a major
role in system performance. It is critical that approved testing procedures be
followed.
2.6.4 Further Reading on Attenuation
Q94: In general, which of the following mode of vibration would have the
greatest penetrating power in a coarse grain material if the frequency of
the wave are the same?
a) Longitudinal wave
b) Shear wave
c) Transverse wave
d) All the above modes would have the same penetrating power

Q: The random distribution of crystallographic direction in alloys with large


crystalline structures is a factor in determining:

A. Acoustic noise levels


B. Selection of test frequency
C. Scattering of sound
D. All of the above
Q168: Heat conduction, viscous friction, elastic hysteresis, and scattering are
four different mechanism which lead to:
A. Attenuation
B. Refraction
C. Beam spread
D. Saturation
Q7: When the material grain size is in the order of ____ wavelength or larger,
excessive scattering of the ultrasound beam may affect test result:
A. 1
B.
C. 1/10
D. 1/100
2.7: Acoustic Impedance
Acoustic impedance is a measured of resistance of sound propagation
through a part.

From the table air has lower acoustic impedance than steel and for a given
energy Aluminum would travel a longer distance than steel before the same
amount of energy is attenuated.
Transmission & Reflection Animation:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/Partial_transmittance.gif
Sound travels through materials under the influence of sound pressure.
Because molecules or atoms of a solid are bound elastically to one another,
the excess pressure results in a wave propagating through the solid.
The acoustic impedance (Z) of a material is defined as the product of its
density (p) and acoustic velocity (V).

Z = pV
Acoustic impedance is important in:
1. the determination of acoustic transmission and reflection at the boundary
of two materials having different acoustic impedances.
2. the design of ultrasonic transducers.
3. assessing absorption of sound in a medium.
The following applet can be used to calculate the acoustic impedance for any
material, so long as its density (p) and acoustic velocity (V) are known. The
applet also shows how a change in the impedance affects the amount of
acoustic energy that is reflected and transmitted. The values of the reflected
and transmitted energy are the fractional amounts of the total energy incident
on the interface. Note that the fractional amount of transmitted sound energy
plus the fractional amount of reflected sound energy equals one. The
calculation used to arrive at these values will be discussed on the next page.

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Physics/applet_2_6/applet_2_6.htm
Reflection/Transmission Energy as a function of Z
Reflection/Transmission Energy as a function of Z
Q2.8: The acoustic impedance of material used to determined:
A. Angle of refraction at the interface
B. Attenuation of material
C. Relative amount of sound energy coupled through and reflected at an
interface
D. Beam spread within the material
2.8: Reflection and Transmission Coefficients (Pressure)
Ultrasonic waves are reflected at boundaries where there is a difference in
acoustic impedances (Z) of the materials on each side of the boundary. (See
preceding page for more information on acoustic impedance.) This difference
in Z is commonly referred to as the impedance mismatch. The greater the
impedance mismatch, the greater the percentage of energy that will be
reflected at the interface or boundary between one medium and another.
The fraction of the incident wave intensity that is reflected can be derived
because particle velocity and local particle pressures must be continuous
across the boundary.
When the acoustic impedances of the materials on both sides of the boundary
are known, the fraction of the incident wave intensity that is reflected can be
calculated with the equation below. The value produced is known as the
reflection coefficient. Multiplying the reflection coefficient by 100 yields the
amount of energy reflected as a percentage of the original energy.
Since the amount of reflected energy plus the transmitted energy must equal
the total amount of incident energy, the transmission coefficient is calculated
by simply subtracting the reflection coefficient from one.

Formulations for acoustic reflection and transmission coefficients (pressure)


are shown in the interactive applet below. Different materials may be
selected or the material velocity and density may be altered to change the
acoustic impedance of one or both materials. The red arrow represents
reflected sound and the blue arrow represents transmitted sound.

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Physics/applet_2_7/applet_2_7.htm
Reflection Coefficient:
Note that the reflection and transmission coefficients are often expressed in
decibels (dB) to allow for large changes in signal strength to be more easily
compared. To convert the intensity or power of the wave to dB units, take the
log of the reflection or transmission coefficient and multiply this value times
10. However, 20 is the multiplier used in the applet since the power of sound
is not measured directly in ultrasonic testing. The transducers produce a
voltage that is approximately proportionally to the sound pressure. The power
carried by a traveling wave is proportional to the square of the pressure
amplitude. Therefore, to estimate the signal amplitude change, the log of the
reflection or transmission coefficient is multiplied by 20.
Using the above applet, note that the energy reflected at a water-stainless
steel interface is 0.88 or 88%. The amount of energy transmitted into the
second material is 0.12 or 12%. The amount of reflection and transmission
energy in dB terms are -1.1 dB and -18.2 dB respectively. The negative sign
indicates that individually, the amount of reflected and transmitted energy is
smaller than the incident energy.
If reflection and transmission at interfaces is
followed through the component, only a small
percentage of the original energy makes it back
to the transducer, even when loss by attenuation
is ignored. For example, consider an immersion
inspection of a steel block. The sound energy
leaves the transducer, travels through the water,
encounters the front surface of the steel,
encounters the back surface of the steel and
reflects back through the front surface on its way
back to the transducer. At the water steel
interface (front surface), 12% of the energy is
transmitted. At the back surface, 88% of the
12% that made it through the front surface is
reflected. This is 10.6% of the intensity of the
initial incident wave. As the wave exits the part
back through the front surface, only 12% of 10.6
or 1.3% of the original energy is transmitted back
to the transducer.
Incident Wave other than Normal? Oblique Incident

http://www.slideshare.net/crisevelise/fundamentals-of-
ultrasound?related=1&utm_campaign=related&utm_medium=1&utm_sourc
e=29
Incident Wave other than Normal? Oblique Incident
Q: The figure above shown the partition of incident and reflected wave at
water-Aluminum interface at an incident angle of 20, the reflected and
transmitted wave are:

A. 60% and 40%


B. 40% and 60%
C. 1/3 and 2/3
D. 80% and 20%

Note: if normal incident the reflected 70% Transmitted 30%


Further Reading (Olympus Technical Note)
The boundary between two materials of different acoustic impedances is
called an acoustic interface. When sound strikes an acoustic interface at
normal incidence, some amount of sound energy is reflected and some
amount is transmitted across the boundary. The dB loss of energy on
transmitting a signal from medium 1 into medium 2 is given by:

dB loss of transmission = 10 log10 [ 4Z1Z2 / (Z1+Z2)2]

The dB loss of energy of the echo signal in medium 1 reflecting from an


interface boundary with medium 2 is given by:

dB loss of Reflection = 10 log10 [ (Z1-Z2)2 / (Z1+Z2)2]


For example: The dB loss on transmitting from water (Z = 1.48) into 1020
steel (Z = 45.41) is -9.13 dB; this also is the loss transmitting from 1020 steel
into water. The dB loss of the backwall echo in 1020 steel in water is -0.57
dB; this also is the dB loss of the echo off 1020 steel in water. The waveform
of the echo is inverted when Z2<Z1.

Finally, ultrasound attenuates as it progresses through a medium. Assuming


no major reflections, there are three causes of attenuation: diffraction,
scattering and absorption. The amount of attenuation through a material can
play an important role in the selection of a transducer for an application.
http://olympus-ims.com/data/File/panametrics/UT-technotes.en.pdf
Further Reading: Reflection & Transmission for Normal Incident

http://www.slideshare.net/crisevelise/fundamentals-of-
ultrasound?related=1&utm_campaign=related&utm_me
dium=1&utm_source=29
Q6: For an ultrasonic beam with normal incidence the transmission coefficient
is given by:

http://webpages.ursinus.edu/lriley/courses/p212/lectures/node19.html#eq:acousticR
http://sepwww.stanford.edu/sep/prof/waves/fgdp8/paper_html/node2.html
2.9: Refraction and Snell's Law
Refraction and Snell's Law
When an ultrasonic wave passes through an
interface between two materials at an oblique
angle, and the materials have different indices
of refraction, both reflected and refracted waves
are produced. This also occurs with light, which
is why objects seen across an interface appear
to be shifted relative to where they really are.
For example, if you look straight down at an
object at the bottom of a glass of water, it looks
closer than it really is. A good way to visualize
how light and sound refract is to shine a
flashlight into a bowl of slightly cloudy water
noting the refraction angle with respect to the
incident angle.
Vs1
Only If this medium support shear wave i.e. Solid
VL1
VL1

VS2 VL2
Refraction takes place at an interface due to the different velocities of the
acoustic waves within the two materials. The velocity of sound in each
material is determined by the material properties (elastic modulus and density)
for that material. In the animation below, a series of plane waves are shown
traveling in one material and entering a second material that has a higher
acoustic velocity. Therefore, when the wave encounters the interface between
these two materials, the portion of the wave in the second material is moving
faster than the portion of the wave in the first material. It can be seen that this
causes the wave to bend.

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Graphics/Flash/waveRefraction.swf
/
http://www.ni.com/white-paper/3368/en
Snell's Law describes the relationship between the angles and the velocities
of the waves. Snell's law equates the ratio of material velocities V1 and V2 to
the ratio of the sine's of incident (1) and refracted (2) angles, as shown in
the following equation.

Where:
VL1 is the longitudinal wave velocity
in material 1.
VL2 is the longitudinal wave velocity
in material 2.
Note that in the diagram, there is a reflected longitudinal wave (VL1' ) shown.
This wave is reflected at the same angle as the incident wave because the
two waves are traveling in the same material, and hence have the same
velocities. This reflected wave is unimportant in our explanation of Snell's Law,
but it should be remembered that some of the wave energy is reflected at the
interface. In the applet below, only the incident and refracted longitudinal
waves are shown. The angle of either wave can be adjusted by clicking and
dragging the mouse in the region of the arrows. Values for the angles or
acoustic velocities can also be entered in the dialog boxes so the that applet
can be used as a Snell's Law calculator.
Snell Law

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Physics/applet_2_8/applet_2_8.htm
Snell Law
When a longitudinal wave moves from a slower to a faster material, there is
an incident angle that makes the angle of refraction for the wave 90o. This is
know as the first critical angle. The first critical angle can be found from
Snell's law by putting in an angle of 90 for the angle of the refracted ray. At
the critical angle of incidence, much of the acoustic energy is in the form of an
inhomogeneous compression wave, which travels along the interface and
decays exponentially with depth from the interface. This wave is sometimes
referred to as a "creep wave." Because of their inhomogeneous nature and
the fact that they decay rapidly, creep waves are not used as extensively as
Rayleigh surface waves in NDT. However, creep waves are sometimes more
useful than Rayleigh waves because they suffer less from surface
irregularities and coarse material microstructure due to their longer
wavelengths.
Snell Law
Refraction and mode conversion occur
because of the change in L-wave
velocity as it passes the boundary from
one medium to another. The higher the
difference in the velocity of sound
between two materials, the larger the
resulting angle of refraction. L-waves
and S-waves have different angles of
refraction because they have dissimilar
velocities within the same material.
s the angle of the ultrasonic transducer
continues to increase, L-waves move
closer to the surface of the UUT.

The angle at which the L-wave is parallel with the surface of the UUT is
referred to as the first critical angle. This angle is useful for two reasons. Only
one wave mode is echoed back to the transducer, making it easy to interpret
the data. Also, this angle gives the test system the ability to look at surfaces
that are not parallel to the front surface, such as welds.
Example: Snells Law
L-wave and S-wave refraction angles are calculated using Snells law. You
also can use this law to determine the first critical angle for any combination
of materials.

Where:
2 = angle of the refracted beam in the UUT
1 = incident angle from normal of beam in the wedge or liquid
V1 = velocity of incident beam in the liquid or wedge
V2 = velocity of refracted beam in the UUT
For example, calculate the first critical angle for a transducer on a plastic
wedge that is examining aluminum.

V1 = 0.267 cm/s (for L-waves in plastic)


V2 = 0.625 cm/s (for L-waves in aluminum)
2 = 90 degree (angle of L-wave for first critical angle)
1 = unknown

The plastic wedge must have a minimum angle of 25.29 to transmit only S-
waves into the UUT. When the S-wave angle of refraction is greater than 90,
all ultrasonic energy is reflected by the UUT.
Snell Law: First critical angle
Snell Law: 1st / 2nd Critical Angles
Q155 Which of the following can occur when an ultrasound beam reaches the
interface of 2 dissimilar materials?
a) Reflection
b) refraction
c) mode conversion
d) all of the above
Q. Both longitudinal and shear waves may be simultaneously generated in a
second medium when the angle of incidence is:
a) between the normal and the 1st critical angle
b) between the 1st and 2nd critical angle
c) past the second critical angle
d) only at the second critical angle
Q: When angle beam contact testing a test piece, increasing the incident
angle until the second critical angle is reached results in:

A. Total reflection of a surface wave


B. 45 degree refraction of the shear wave
C. Production of a surface wave
D. None of the above
Typical angle beam assemblies make use of mode conversion and Snell's
Law to generate a shear wave at a selected angle (most commonly 30, 45,
60, or 70) in the test piece. As the angle of an incident longitudinal wave
with respect to a surface increases, an increasing portion of the sound energy
is converted to a shear wave in the second material, and if the angle is high
enough, all of the energy in the second material will be in the form of shear
waves. There are two advantages to designing common angle beams to take
advantage of this mode conversion phenomenon.

First, energy transfer is more efficient at the incident angles that generate
shear waves in steel and similar materials.

Second, minimum flaw size resolution is improved through the use of


shear waves, since at a given frequency, the wavelength of a shear wave
is approximately 60% the wavelength of a comparable longitudinal wave.
Snell Law:

http://techcorr.com/services/Inspection-and-Testing/Ultrasonic-Shear-Wave.cfm
Depth & Skip
More on Snell Law
Like light, when an incident ultrasonic wave encounters an interface to an
adjacent material of a different velocity, at an angle other than normal to the
surface, then both reflected and refracted waves are produced.

Understanding refraction and how ultrasonic energy is refracted is especially


important when using angle probes or the immersion technique. It is also the
foundation formula behind the calculations used to determine a materials first
and second critical angles.

First Critical Angle


Before the angle of incidence reaches the first critical angle, both longitudinal
and shear waves exist in the part being inspected. The first critical angle is
said to have been reached when the longitudinal wave no longer exists within
the part, that is, when the longitudinal wave is refracted to greater or equal
than 90, leaving only a shear wave remaining in the part.
Second Critical Angle
The second critical angle occurs when the angle of incidence is at such an
angle that the remaining shear wave within the part is refracted out of the part.
At this angle, when the refracted shear wave is at 90 a surface wave is
created on the part surface
Beam angles should always be plotted using the appropriate industry
standard, however, knowing the effect of velocity and angle on refraction will
always benefit an NDT technician when working with angle inspection or the
immersion technique.

The above calculator uses the following equation:


ultrasonic snells law formula
Where:
A1 = The angle of incidence.
V1 = The incident material velocity
A2 = The angle of refraction
V2 = The refracted material velocity
http://www.ndtcalc.com/calculators.html
2.10: Mode Conversion
When sound travels in a solid material, one form of wave energy can be
transformed into another form. For example, when a longitudinal waves hits
an interface at an angle, some of the energy can cause particle movement in
the transverse direction to start a shear (transverse) wave. Mode conversion
occurs when a wave encounters an interface between materials of different
acoustic impedances and the incident angle is not normal to the interface.
From the ray tracing movie below, it can be seen that since mode conversion
occurs every time a wave encounters an interface at an angle, ultrasonic
signals can become confusing at times.
Mode Conversion

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Graphics/Flash/ModeConversion/ModeConv.swf
In the previous section, it was pointed out
that when sound waves pass through an
interface between materials having different
acoustic velocities, refraction takes place at
the interface. The larger the difference in
acoustic velocities between the two
materials, the more the sound is refracted.
Notice that the shear wave is not refracted
as much as the longitudinal wave. This
occurs because shear waves travel slower
than longitudinal waves. Therefore, the
velocity difference between the incident
longitudinal wave and the shear wave is not
as great as it is between the incident and
refracted longitudinal waves.
Also note that when a longitudinal wave is reflected inside the material, the
reflected shear wave is reflected at a smaller angle than the reflected
longitudinal wave. This is also due to the fact that the shear velocity is less
than the longitudinal velocity within a given material.
Snell's Law holds true for shear waves as well as longitudinal waves and can
be written as follows

Where:
VL1 is the longitudinal wave velocity in material 1.
VL2 is the longitudinal wave velocity in material 2.
VS1 is the shear wave velocity in material 1.
VS2 is the shear wave velocity in material 2.
Snell's Law
In the applet below, the shear (transverse) wave ray path has been added.
The ray paths of the waves can be adjusted by clicking and dragging in the
vicinity of the arrows. Values for the angles or the wave velocities can also be
entered into the dialog boxes. It can be seen from the applet that when a
wave moves from a slower to a faster material, there is an incident angle
which makes the angle of refraction for the longitudinal wave 90 degrees. As
mentioned on the previous page, this is known as the first critical angle and
all of the energy from the refracted longitudinal wave is now converted to a
surface following longitudinal wave. This surface following wave is sometime
referred to as a creep wave and it is not very useful in NDT because it
dampens out very rapidly.
Reflections
Creep wave
VS1

VS2
Beyond the first critical angle, only the shear wave propagates into the
material. For this reason, most angle beam transducers use a shear wave so
that the signal is not complicated by having two waves present. In many
cases there is also an incident angle that makes the angle of refraction for the
shear wave 90 degrees. This is known as the second critical angle and at this
point, all of the wave energy is reflected or refracted into a surface following
shear wave or shear creep wave. Slightly beyond the second critical angle,
surface waves will be generated.

Keywords:
Longitudinal creep wave
Shear creep wave
Snell Law- 1st & 2nd Critical Angles
Note that the applet defaults to compressional velocity in the second material.
The refracted compressional wave angle will be generated for given
materials and angles. To find the angle of incidence required to generate a
shear wave at a given angle complete the following:

1. Set V1 to the longitudinal wave velocity of material 1. This material could


be the transducer wedge or the immersion liquid.
2. Set V2 to the shear wave velocity (approximately one-half its
compressional velocity) of the material to be inspected.
3. Set Q2 to the desired shear wave angle.
4. Read Q1, the correct angle of incidence.
Transverse wave can be introduced into the test material by various methods:

1. Inclining the incident L-wave at an angle beyond the first critical angle, yet
short of second critical angle using a wedge.
2. In immersion method, changing the angle of the normal search unit
manipulator,
3. Off-setting the normal transducer from the center-line for round bar or pipe.

for 45 refracted transverse wave, the rule


of thumb is the offset d= 1/6 of rod diameter
Offset of Normal probe above circular object

1
R
2
Calculate the offset for following conditions:
Aluminum rod being examined is 6" diameter, what is the off set needed for (a)
45 refracted shear wave (b) Logitudinal wave to be generated?
(L-wave velocity for AL=6.3x105cm/s, T-wave velocity for AL=3.1x105 cm/s,
Wave velocity in water=1.5X105 cm/s)

Question (a)
Refraction and mode conversion at non-perpendicular boundaries
Refraction and mode conversion at non-perpendicular boundaries

http://static4.olympus-ims.com/data/Flash/HTML5/incident_angle/IncidentAngle.html?rev=5E62
Refraction and mode conversion at non-perpendicular boundaries
Refraction and mode conversion at non-perpendicular boundaries
Refraction and mode conversion at non-perpendicular boundaries
Q1. From the above figures, if the incident angle is 50 Degree, what are the
sound wave in the steel?
Answer: 65 Degree Shear wave in steel.

Q2. If 50 Degree longitudinal wave in steel is used what is the possible


problem?
Answer: If 50 degree Longitudinal wave is generated in steel, shear wave at
28 degree is also generated and this may cause fault indications.
Q118: At the water-steel interface, the angle of incidence in water is 7 degree.
The principle mode of vibration that exist in steel is:
A. Longitudinal
B. Shear
C. Both A & B (Possible incorrect answer)
D. Surface

Hint: The keyword is the principle mode


Q: On Calculation:
Incident angle= 7
Refracted longitudinal wave = 29.11
Refracted shear wave = 15.49
Q72. In a water immersion test, ultrasonic energy is transmitted into steel at
an incident angle of 14. What is the angle of refracted shear wave within
the material? Vs = 3.2 x 105 cm/s, Vw = 1.5 x 105 cm/s

a) 45
b) 23
c) 31
d) 13
Q1. If you were requested to design a plastid shoe to generate Rayleigh wave
in aluminum, what would be the incident angle of the ultrasonic energy?
VA = 3.1 x 105 cm/s, Vp = 2.6 x 105 cm/s

a) 37
b) 57
c) 75
d) 48
Q53. The term used to determined the relative transmittance and reflectance
of an ultrasonic energy at an interface is called:

a) Acoustic attenuation
b) Interface reflection
c) Acoustic impedance ratio
d) Acoustic frequency
2.11: Signal-to-Noise Ratio
In a previous page, the effect that frequency and wavelength have on flaw
detectability was discussed. However, the detection of a defect involves many
factors other than the relationship of wavelength and flaw size. For example,
the amount of sound that reflects from a defect is also dependent on the
acoustic impedance mismatch between the flaw and the surrounding material.
A void is generally a better reflector than a metallic inclusion because the
impedance mismatch is greater between air and metal than between two
metals.
Often, the surrounding material has competing reflections. Microstructure
grains in metals and the aggregate of concrete are a couple of examples. A
good measure of detectability of a flaw is its signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). The
signal-to-noise ratio is a measure of how the signal from the defect compares
to other background reflections (categorized as "noise"). A signal-to-noise
ratio of 3 to 1 is often required as a minimum.
The absolute noise level and the absolute strength of an echo from a "small"
defect depends on a number of factors, which include:

1. The probe size and focal properties.


2. The probe frequency, bandwidth and efficiency.
3. The inspection path and distance (water and/or solid).
4. The interface (surface curvature and roughness).
5. The flaw location with respect to the incident beam.
6. The inherent noisiness of the metal microstructure.
7. The inherent reflectivity of the flaw, which is dependent on its acoustic
impedance, size, shape, and orientation.
8. Cracks and volumetric defects can reflect ultrasonic waves quite differently.
Many cracks are "invisible" from one direction and strong reflectors from
another.
9. Multifaceted flaws will tend to scatter sound away from the transducer.
The following formula relates some of the variables affecting the signal-to-
noise ratio (S/N) of a defect:
Sound Volume: Area x pulse length

Material properties
Flaw geometry: Figure of merit
FOM and amplitudes responds
Rather than go into the details of this formulation, a few fundamental
relationships can be pointed out. The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), and
therefore, the detectability of a defect:

1. Increases with increasing flaw size (scattering amplitude). The detectability


of a defect is directly proportional to its size.
2. Increases with a more focused beam. In other words, flaw detectability is
inversely proportional to the transducer beam width.
3. Increases with decreasing pulse width (delta-t). In other words, flaw
detectability is inversely proportional to the duration of the pulse (t)
produced by an ultrasonic transducer. The shorter the pulse (often higher
frequency), the better the detection of the defect. Shorter pulses
correspond to broader bandwidth frequency response. See the figure
below showing the waveform of a transducer and its corresponding
frequency spectrum.
Acoustic Volume: wxwyt
Determining cross sectional area using reflector- A Scan (6db drop)
Determining cross sectional area using reflector- C Scan
Sonic pulse volume and S/N (defect resolution)
4. Decreases in materials with high density and/or a high ultrasonic velocity.
The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is inversely proportional to material density
and acoustic velocity.
5. Generally increases with frequency. However, in some materials, such as
titanium alloys, both the "Aflaw" and the "Figure of Merit (FOM)" terms in the
equation change at about the same rate with changing frequency. So, in
some cases, the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) can be somewhat independent
of frequency.
Pulse Length
Pulse Length Affect Resolution
2.12: The Sound Fields
2.12.1 Wave Interaction or Interference
Before we move into the next section, the subject of wave interaction must
be covered since it is important when trying to understand the performance
of an ultrasonic transducer. On the previous pages, wave propagation was
discussed as if a single sinusoidal wave was propagating through the
material. However, the sound that emanates from an ultrasonic transducer
does not originate from a single point, but instead originates from many
points along the surface of the piezoelectric element. This results in a
sound field with many waves interacting or interfering with each other.
Transducer cut-out

http://ichun-chen.com/ultrasonic-transducer
When waves interact, they superimpose on each other, and the amplitude of
the sound pressure or particle displacement at any point of interaction is the
sum of the amplitudes of the two individual waves. First, let's consider two
identical waves that originate from the same point. When they are in phase
(so that the peaks and valleys of one are exactly aligned with those of the
other), they combine to double the displacement of either wave acting alone.
When they are completely out of phase (so that the peaks of one wave are
exactly aligned with the valleys of the other wave), they combine to cancel
each other out. When the two waves are not completely in phase or out of
phase, the resulting wave is the sum of the wave amplitudes for all points
along the wave.
UT Transducer
UT Transducer

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/infrastructure/structures/04042/index.cfm#toc
UT Transducer- Surface creep wave transducer
UT Transducer
UT Transducer
Wave Interaction

Complete in-phase Complete out of-phase not in-phase


When the origins of the two interacting waves are not the same, it is a little
harder to picture the wave interaction, but the principles are the same. Up
until now, we have primarily looked at waves in the form of a 2D plot of wave
amplitude versus wave position. However, anyone that has dropped
something in a pool of water can picture the waves radiating out from the
source with a circular wave front. If two objects are dropped a short distance
apart into the pool of water, their waves will radiate out from their sources and
interact with each other. At every point where the waves interact, the
amplitude of the particle displacement is the combined sum of the amplitudes
of the particle displacement of the individual waves.

With an ultrasonic transducer, the waves propagate out from the transducer
face with a circular wave front. If it were possible to get the waves to
propagate out from a single point on the transducer face, the sound field
would appear as shown in the upper image to the right. Consider the light
areas to be areas of rarefaction and the dark areas to be areas of
compression.
With an ultrasonic transducer, the waves propagate out from the transducer
face with a circular wave front. If it were possible to get the waves to
propagate out from a single point on the transducer face, the sound field
would appear as shown in the upper image to the right. Consider the light
areas to be areas of rarefaction and the dark areas to be areas of
compression.
However, as stated previously, sound waves originate from multiple points
along the face of the transducer. The lower image to the right shows what the
sound field would look like if the waves originated from just two points. It can
be seen that where the waves interact, there are areas of constructive and
destructive interference. The points of constructive interference are often
referred to as nodes.

The points of constructive interference


are often referred to as nodes
29. It is possible for a discontinuity smaller than the transducer to produce
indications of fluctuating amplitude as the search unit is moved laterally if
testing is being performed in the:
(a) Fraunhofer zone
(b) Near field
(c) Snell field
(d) Shadow zone
Q5: Acoustic pressure along the beam axis moving away from the probe has
various maxima and minima due to interference. At the end of the near field
pressure is:
a) a maximum
b) a minimum
c) the average of all maxima and minima
d) none of the above

Q4: For a plane wave, sound pressure is reduced by attenuation in a


_______ fashion.
a) linear
b) exponential
c) random
d) none of the above
2.12.2 Variations in sound intensity

Intensity

Distance
Of course, there are more than two points of origin along the face of a
transducer. The image below shows five points of sound origination. It can be
seen that near the face of the transducer, there are extensive fluctuations or
nodes and the sound field is very uneven. In ultrasonic testing, this in known
as the near field (near zone) or Fresnel zone. The sound field is more
uniform away from the transducer in the far field, or Fraunhofer zone, where
the beam spreads out in a pattern originating from the center of the
transducer. It should be noted that even in the far field, it is not a uniform
wave front. However, at some distance from the face of the transducer and
central to the face of the transducer, a uniform and intense wave field
develops.
The sound wave exit from a transducer can be separated into 2 zones or
areas; The Near Field (Fresnel) and the Far Field (Fraunhofer).
2.12.3 Fresnel & Fraunhofer Zone
Fresnel Field, the Near Field are region directly adjacent to the transducer
and characterized as a collection of symmetrical high and low pressure
regions cause by interference wave fronts emitting from the continuous or
near continuous sound sources.

http://blog.3bscientific.com/science_education_insight/2013/04/3b-scientific-makes-waves-with-new-physics-education-kit.html
The Near Field (Fresnel) and the Far Field (Fraunhofer).
The Near Field (Fresnel) Wave Interference (Maxima & Minima)
The sound field of a transducer is divided into two zones; the near field and
the far field. The near field is the region directly in front of the transducer
where the echo amplitude goes through a series of maxima and minima and
ends at the last maximum, at distance N from the transducer.
Near Field Effect: Because of the variations within the near field it can be
difficult to accurately evaluate flaws using amplitude based techniques.

Near Field Yo+ Far Field



Amplitude

Distance from Transducer face


Fresnel / Fraunhofer Zone
Near field (near zone)
or Fresnel zone

far field (far zone)


or Fraunhofer zone

Zf
Near field (near zone)
or Fresnel zone

Crystal Focus Angle of divergence


Accoustical axis
far field (far zone) 6
or Fraunhofer zone
D0

N
Near field Far field

Zf
Near/ Far Fields

http://miac.unibas.ch/PMI/05-UltrasoundImaging.html
Near/ Far Fields
where is the radius of the
transducer and the wavelength.
where D is the diameter of the transducer
and the wavelength.
K= is the spread factor
K=1.22 for null edges
K=1.08 for 20dB down point (10% of peak)
K=0.88 for 10dB down point (32% of peak)
K=0.7(0.56?) for 6dB down point (50% of peak)
Source for K, ASNT Study Guide UT by Matthew J Golis
The curvature and the area over which the sound is being generated, the
speed that the sound waves travel within a material and the frequency of the
sound all affect the sound field. Use the Java applet below to experiment with
these variables and see how the sound field is affected.

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Physics/appletUltrasoundPropagation/Applet.html
Fresnel & Fraunhofer Zone

10dB, K-0.88

6dB, K=0.7? Or 0.56?


Fresnel & Fraunhofer Zone
Fresnel & Fraunhofer Zone
Fresnel & Fraunhofer Zone

http://static1.olympus-ims.com/data/Flash/HTML5/beamSpread/BeamSpread.html?rev=6C43
http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/transducers/wave-front/
Q: Where does beam divergence occur?
A. Near field
B. Far field
C. At the crystal
D. None of the above
Q4: A transducer has a near field in water of 35 mm. When used in contact
on steel the near zone will be about:

a) 47 mm
b) 35 mm
c) 18 mm
d) 9 mm

Q8: A rectangular probe, 4 mm X 8 mm, will have its maximum half angle of
divergence:
a) in the 4 mm direction
b) in the 8 mm direction
c) in no particular orientation
d) constant in all directions
Q160 Beam divergence is a function of the dimensions of the crystal and the
wavelength of the beam transmitted through a medium, and it:
A. increase if the frequency or the crystal diameter is decrease
B. Decrease if the frequency or the crystal diameter is decrease
C. increase if the frequency is increase and the diameter is decrease
D. decrease if the frequency is increase and the crustal diameter is decrease

Q52: What is the transducer half-angle beam spread of a 1.25cm diameter


2.25 MHz transducer in water (VL= 1.5 x 105 cm/s)?

A. 2.5 degree
B. 3.75 degree
C. 37.5 degree
D. 40.5 degree
2.12.4 Dead Zone
In ultrasonic testing, the interval following the initial pulse where the
transducer ring time of the crystal that prevents detection or interpretation of
reflected energy (echoes). In contact ultrasonic testing, the area just below
the surface of a test object that can not be inspected because of the
transducer is still ringing down and not yet ready to receive signals. The dead
is minimized by the damping medium behind the crystal. The dead zone
increase when the probe frequency decrease and it only found in single
crystal contact techniques.
Dead Zone - The interval following the surface of a test object to the nearest
inspectable depth. Any interval following a reflected signal where no direct
echoes from discontinuities cannot be detected, due to characteristics of the
equipment.
dead zone after echo and dead zone after initial pulse, both are common
phenomena. Actually the dead zone cannot be determined as a single figure
without additional parameters, hence the echo can be recognized, however,
signal quality is important. Useful parameters are linearity or signal in a nice
ratio that can describe the echo amplitude quality within a dead zone. For this
reason standards such as GE specifications are needed to check equipment
capability. The appearance of inference effects, within the dead zone, has to
be considered as well.

Definition by: http://www.ndt.net/ndtaz/content.php?id=103


Dead Zone -The initial pulse is a technical necessity. It limits the detectability
of near-surface discontinuities. Reflectors in the dead zone, the non-
resolvable area immediately beneath the surface, cannot be detected (Figure
8-10). The dead zone is a function of the width of the initial pulse which is
influenced by the probe type, test instrument discontinuities and quality of the
interface.

The dead zone can be verified with an International Institute of Welding (IIW)
calibration block. With the time base calibrated to 50 mm, and the transducer
on position A (Figure 8-11), the extent of the dead zone can be inferred to be
either less than or greater than 5 mm. With the probe at position B, the dead
zone can be said to be either less than or greater than 10 mm.

This is done by ensuring that the peak from the Perspex insert appears
beyond the trailing edge of the initial pulse start. Excessive dead zones are
generally attributable to a probe with excessive ringing in the crystal.
Dead Zone -The initial pulse is a technical necessity. It limits the detectability
of near-surface discontinuities. Reflectors in the dead zone, the non-
resolvable area immediately beneath the surface, cannot be detected. The
dead zone is a function of the width of the initial pulse which is influenced by
the probe type, test instrument discontinuities and quality of the interface.

This is done by ensuring that the peak from the Perspex insert appears
beyond the trailing edge of the initial pulse start. Excessive dead zones are
generally attributable to a probe with excessive ringing in the crystal.
Dead Zone Illustration
http://www.ndt.net/ndtaz/content.php?id=103
Dead Zone

http://www.ni.com/white-paper/5369/en/
Q: On an A-scan display, the dead zone refers to:
A. The distance contained within the near field
B. The area outside the beam spread
C. The distance covered by the front surface pulse with and recovery
time
D. The area between the near field and the far field
Q36: To eliminate the decrease in sensitivity close to a wall which is parallel
to the beam direction, the transducer used should be:
A. As small as possible
B. As low frequency as possible
C. Both A & B
D. Large and with a frequency as high as possible

Q45: The length of the near field for a 2.5cm diameter, 5MHz transducer
placed in oil with V=1.4 x 105 cm/s is approximately:

A. 0.028 cm
B. 6.25 cm
C. 22.3 cm
D. 55.8 cm
2.13: Inverse Square Rule/ Inverse Rule
Large Reflector, a reflector larger than the extreme edge of beam / 3D away
from the Near Zone- Inverse Rule
Large Reflector Inverse Rule
Small Reflector, a reflector smaller than the extreme edge of beam / 3D away
from the Near Zone Inverse Square Rule
Small Reflector Inverse Square Rule
2.14: Resonance
Another form wave interference occurred when the normal incidence and
reflected plane wave interact within a narrow parallel interface. When the
phase of the reflected wave match that of incoming incident wave, the
amplitude of the superimposed wave doubling, creating a standing wave.

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/waves/string.html#c3

Resonance occurred when the thickness of the material is equal to half the
wave length or multiple of it. It also occur when longitudinal wave travel thru
a thin sheet of materials during immersion testing.
Fundamental Frequency
The lowest resonant frequency of a vibrating object is called its fundamental
frequency.
Most vibrating objects have more than one resonant frequency and those
used in musical instruments typically vibrate at harmonics of the fundamental.
A harmonic is defined as an integer (whole number) multiple of the
fundamental frequency.
Vibrating strings, open cylindrical air columns, and conical air columns will
vibrate at all harmonics of the fundamental. Cylinders with one end closed will
vibrate with only odd harmonics of the fundamental. Vibrating membranes
typically produce vibrations at harmonics, but also have some resonant
frequencies which are not harmonics. It is for this class of vibrators that the
term overtone becomes useful - they are said to have some non-harmonic
overtones.

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/waves/funhar.html
Thickness of Crystal at Fundamental Frequency
Fundamental resonance frequency = V/f
Harmonic resonance frequency = N. V/f (N = integer)

Piezoelectric crystal will has the greatest sensitivity when it is driven at its
fundamental frequency, this occurs when the thickness of the crystal is at
.

If the thickness is given, the fundamental frequency could be calculated:


Transducers Piezoelectric Thickness:
The resonant phenomenon occurred when piezoelectric are electrically
excited at their characteristic (fundamental resonance) frequency.

http://bme240.eng.uci.edu/students/09s/patelnj/Ultrasound_for_Nerves/Ultrasound_Background.html
Resonance UT Testing- The diagram below shown how resonance is used
to measured thickness and detect defect. However pulse-echo methods have
been refined to perform most of function of flaw detections and resonant
instruments are rarely used.
Application Case#1:
The specimen's geometry determines the number of its natural frequencies: a
rod has few whilst a complex work-piece has many such frequencies.
Typically, the information that can be obtained by acoustic resonance
analysis includes cracks, structural properties, cavities, layer separation,
chipping, density fluctuations etc. Damping behaviour depends firstly on the
material, and secondly, on how the specimen is positioned during its
excitation. In order to achieve high frequency resolution, signal duration
("ringing duration") should be as long as possible (> 50 ms).
From the natural frequencies it is possible to calculate specimen-specific
characteristics and assign them to quality attributes, e. g. pass / OK, cracked,
material structure, hardness deviation / partly hardened etc.
Application
Acoustic resonance testing can be applied to all work pieces that "sound".
Summary
Resonance analysis is a qualitative method, i.e. it can differentiate between
defective and non-defective parts, so that it is especially suitable for quality
assurance in the series production cycle. It compares the actual oscillatory
situation with the target one derived from a learning base. This learning base
is established by using defined standard parts. The number of self-resonant
frequencies is determined by the geometry of the object under test. For
instance a bar has few resonant frequencies, while a complex lattice-type
object has many natural resonances. After a systematic engineering
approach, it is possible to compensate the influence of the production scatter.

http://ndttechnologies.com/products/AcousticResonance.html
Application Case#2:
Electromagnetic Acoustic Resonance Nondestructive Testing (NDT)
Equipment Datasheets
Coating Thickness Gauge -- DTG-500
from OMEGA Engineering, Inc.
Digital coating thickness gauge with a range of 0 to 40.0 mils (0 to 1000
micrometers). SPECIFICATIONS. Display: 3-digit LCD with max readout of
1999 counts. Range: 0 to 40 mils/0 to 1000 m. Resolution: 0.
Instrument Information
Instrument Type: Coating Thickness
Instrument Technology: Electromagnetic Acoustic Resonance
Form Factor: Portable / Handheld / Mobile

http://www.globalspec.com/specsearch/PartSpecs?partid={0DBF141D-6832-4F31-9AB8-
B87F063BFDC4}&vid=99786&comp=2975
Q: The formula used to determine the fundamental resonance frequency is:
A. F= V/T
B. F= V/2T
C. F= T/V
D. F= VT
Q: When maximum sensitivity is required from a transducer:
A. A straight beam unit should be used
B. A large diameter crystal should be used
C. The piezoelectric element should be driven at its fundamental
frequency
D. The bandwidth of the transducer should be as large as possible
Q7: The resonance frequency of 2cm thick plate of Naval Brass (V=4.43 x 105
cm/s) is:
A. 0,903 MHz
B. 0.443 MHz
C. 0.222 MHz
D. 0.111 MHz

Q35: Resonance testing equipment generally utilized:


A. Pulsed longitudinal; waves
B. Continuous longitudinal waves
C. Pulsed shear wave
D. Continuous shear waves
2.15 Measurement of Sound
dB is a measures of ratio of 2 values in a logarithmic scale given by following
equation:

Unlike the SPL (standard pressure level) used in noise measurement, in UT testing,
we do not know the exactly ultrasonic sound level energy generated by the probe
(neither is it necessary). The used of the ratio of 2 values given by the above equation
is used .
Ultrasonic Formula - Signal Amplitude Gain/Loss Expressed in dB
The dB is a logarithmic unit that describes a ratio of two measurements. The
equation used to describe the difference in intensity between two ultrasonic or
other sound measurements is:

where: I is the difference in sound intensity expressed in decibels (dB), P1


and P2 are two different sound pressure amplitude measurements, and the
log is to base 10.
The Decibel
The equation used to describe the difference in intensity between two
ultrasonic or other sound measurements is:

where: I is the difference in sound intensity expressed in decibels (dB), P1


and P2 are two different sound pressure measurements, and the log is to
base 10.
What exactly is a decibel?
The decibel (dB) is one tenth of a Bel, which is a unit of measure that was
developed by engineers at Bell Telephone Laboratories and named for
Alexander Graham Bell. The dB is a logarithmic unit that describes a ratio of
two measurements. The basic equation that describes the difference in
decibels between two measurements is:
where: delta X is the difference in some quantity expressed in decibels, X1
and X2 are two different measured values of X, and the log is to base 10.
(Note the factor of two difference between this basic equation for the dB and
the one used when making sound measurements. This difference will be
explained in the next section.)
Why is the dB unit used?
Use of dB units allows ratios of various sizes to be described using easy to
work with numbers. For example, consider the information in the table.
From this table it can be seen that ratios from one up to ten billion can be
represented with a single or double digit number. Ease to work with numbers
was particularly important in the days before the advent of the calculator or
computer. The focus of this discussion is on using the dB in measuring sound
levels, but it is also widely used when measuring power, pressure, voltage
and a number of other things.
Use of the dB in Sound Measurements
Sound intensity is defined as the sound power per unit area perpendicular to
the wave. Units are typically in watts/m2 or watts/cm2. For sound intensity,
the dB equation becomes:

However, the power or intensity of sound is generally not measured directly.


Since sound consists of pressure waves, one of the easiest ways to quantify
sound is to measure variations in pressure (i.e. the amplitude of the pressure
wave). When making ultrasound measurements, a transducer is used, which
is basically a small microphone. Transducers like most other microphones
produced a voltage that is approximately proportionally to the sound pressure
(P). The power carried by a traveling wave is proportional to the square of the
amplitude. Therefore, the equation used to quantify a difference in sound
intensity based on a measured difference in sound pressure becomes:
However, the power or intensity of sound is generally not measured directly.
Since sound consists of pressure waves, one of the easiest ways to quantify
sound is to measure variations in pressure (i.e. the amplitude of the pressure
wave). When making ultrasound measurements, a transducer is used, which
is basically a small microphone. Transducers like most other microphones
produced a voltage that is approximately proportionally to the sound pressure
(P). The power carried by a traveling wave is proportional to the square of the
amplitude.

I P2 , I V2 where I=intensity, P=amplitude, V=voltage

Therefore, the equation used to quantify a difference in sound intensity based


on a measured difference in sound pressure becomes:

(The factor of 2 is added to the equation because the logarithm of the square of a
quantity is equal to 2 times the logarithm of the quantity.)
Since transducers and microphones produce a voltage that is proportional to
the sound pressure, the equation could also be written as:

where: I is the change in sound intensity incident on the transducer and


V1 and V2 are two different transducer output voltages.
Revising the table to reflect the relationship between the ratio of the measured
sound pressure and the change in intensity expressed in dB produces

From the table it can be seen that 6 dB equates to


a doubling of the sound pressure. Alternately,
reducing the sound pressure by 2, results in a 6
dB change in intensity.
Sound Levels- Relative
Sound Levels- Relative dB
Practice:
Absolute" Sound Levels
Sound pressure level (SPL) or sound level is a logarithmic measure of the
effective sound pressure of a sound relative to a reference value. It is
measured in decibels (dB) above a standard reference level. The standard
reference sound pressure in air or other gases is 20 Pa, which is usually
considered the threshold of human hearing (at 1 kHz).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DB_SPL#Sound_pressure_level
Absolute" Sound Levels
Whenever the decibel unit is used, it always represents the ratio of two values.
Therefore, in order to relate different sound intensities it is necessary to
choose a standard reference level. The reference sound pressure
(corresponding to a sound pressure level of 0 dB) commonly used is that at
the threshold of human hearing, which is conventionally taken to be 2105
Newton per square meter, or 20 micropascals (20Pa). To avoid confusion
with other decibel measures, the term dB(SPL) is used.
dB meter
97.3dB against standards sound pressure level
20log(P/20X10-6)=97.3
Absolute level =10 97.3/20 x 20 X 10-6
=1.46564 N/M2

Actual Sound pressure

Standard reference pressure 20 Mpa


Absolute:
The standard reference sound pressure in air or other gases is 20 Pa, which
is usually considered the threshold of human hearing (at 1 kHz).
Actual Sound pressure

Standard reference pressure 20 Mpa

Sound pressure level in dB as a ratio to


standard reference in logarithmic scale.

Absolute:
76db= 20log(P/20 Pa)
Log(P/20 Pa)=3.8dB
P= 103.8 x 20 Pa
=126191 Pa
http://www.ncvs.org/ncvs/tutorials/voiceprod/equation/chapter9/index.html
Exercise:
Find the absolute sound level in Pa for the following measurement of air
traffic noise.
Exercise: ANSWER
Find the absolute sound level in Pa for the following measurement of air
traffic noise.

SPL= 95.8 dB= 20log(P/20x10-6)


log(P/20x10-6)= 95.8/20
P= 1095.8/20 x 20x10-6
P= 1.233 N/M2#
Practice:

dB
Relative dB: Example Calculation 1
Two sound pressure measurements are made using an ultrasonic
transducer. The output voltage from the transducer is 600 mv for the first
measurement and 100 mv for the second measurement. Calculate the
difference in the sound intensity, in dB, between the two measurements?

The sound intensity changed by -15.56dB. In other words, the sound


intensity decreased by 15.56 dB
Example Calculation 2
If the intensity between two ultrasonic measurements increases by 6 dB, and
the first measurement produces a transducer output voltage of 30 mv, what
was the transducer output voltage for the second measurement?
Example Calculation 3
Consider the sound pressure difference between the threshold of human
hearing, 0 dB, and the level of sound often produce at a rock concert, 120 dB.
How much is the rock concert sound greater than that of the threshold of
human hearing.
What is the absolute rock concert sound pressure?
2.16 Practice Makes Perfect
Practice Makes Perfect
28. An advantage of using lower frequencies during ultrasonic testing is that:
(a) Near surface resolution is improved
(b) Sensitivity to small discontinuities is improved
(c) Beam spread is reduced
(d) Sensitivity to unfavorable oriented flaws is improved
Q104: If an ultrasonic wave is transmitted through an interface of two
materials in which the first material has a higher acoustic impedance value
but the same velocity value as the secong material, the angle of refraction
will be:
a) A greater than the incidence
b) Less than the angle of incidence
c) The same as the angle of incidence
d) Beyond the critical angle.









Section 3: Equipment & Transducers
Typical sound velocities
Wavelength in mm for Steel
Content: Section 3: Equipment & Transducers
3.1: Piezoelectric Transducers
3.2: Characteristics of Piezoelectric Transducers
3.3: Radiated Fields of Ultrasonic Transducers
3.4: Transducer Beam Spread
3.5: Transducer Types
3.6: Transducer Testing I
3.7: Transducer Modeling
3.8: Couplants
3.9: Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs)

Continues Next Page


3.10: Pulser-Receivers
3.11: Tone Burst Generators In Research
3.12: Arbitrary Function Generators
3.13: Electrical Impedance Matching and Termination
3.14: Transducer Quality Factor Q
3.15: Data Presentation
3.16: Testing Techniques
3.17: UT Equipment Circuitry
3.18: Further Reading on Sub-Section 3
3.19: Questions & Answers
3.1: Piezoelectric Transducers
The Definitions:
Nominal frequency (F) - nominal operating frequency of the transducer
(usually stamped on housing)
Peak frequency (PF) - the highest frequency response measured from
the frequency spectrum
Bandwidth center frequency (BCF) - the average of the lowest and
highest points at a -6 dB level of the frequency spectrum
Bandwidth (BW) - the difference between the highest and lowest
frequencies at the -6 dB level of the frequency spectrum; also % of BCF or
of PF
Pulse width (PW) - the time duration of the time domain envelope that is
20 dB above the rising and decaying cycles of a transducer response
Sensitivity is the ability of the search unit to detect reflections or echoes
from small defects or flaws.
The acoustic impedance of a transducer is the product of its density and
the velocity of sound within it.
Resolution is the resolving power includes the ability to separate
reflections from two closely spaced flaws or reflectors.
Front surface pulse (at crystal face), Initial pulse, or Main Bang - the
first indication on the screen, represents the emission of ultrasonic energy
from the crystal face.
Front surface pulse (at interface) - ?
Pulse width (PW) - the time duration of the time domain envelope that is 20
dB above the rising and decaying cycles of a transducer response
Bandwidth (BW) - the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies
at the -6 dB level of the frequency spectrum; also % of BCF or of PF
Piezoelectric Properties
The conversion of electrical pulses to mechanical vibrations and the
conversion of returned mechanical vibrations back into electrical energy is the
basis for ultrasonic testing. The active element is the heart of the transducer
as it converts the electrical energy to acoustic energy, and vice versa. The
active element is basically a piece of polarized material (i.e. some parts of the
molecule are positively charged, while other parts of the molecule are
negatively charged) with electrodes attached to two of its opposite faces.
When an electric field is applied across the material, the polarized molecules
will align themselves with the electric field, resulting in induced dipoles within
the molecular or crystal structure of the material.

The effectiveness of the search unit for a particular application depends on


Q factor, bandwidth, frequency, sensitivity, acoustic impedance, and resolving
power.
This alignment of molecules will cause the material to change dimensions.
This phenomenon is known as electrostriction. In addition, a permanently-
polarized material such as quartz (SiO2) or barium titanate (BaTiO3) will
produce an electric field when the material changes dimensions as a result of
an imposed mechanical force. This phenomenon is known as the
piezoelectric effect. Additional information on why certain materials produce
this effect can be found in the linked presentation material, which was
produced by the Valpey Fisher Corporation.

Keyword:
SiO2- Quartz
BaTiO3- Barium Titanate

Electric field is applied causing dimensional change: electrostriction


Electric field is generated by dimensional change: piezoelectric effect
Fig. 5.10: Basic design of a single
transducer Ultrasound head

Piezoelectric materials have two nice


properties:

1. Piezoelectric materials change their


shape upon the application of an
electric field as the orientation of the
dipoles changes.
2. Conversely, if a mechanical forces
is applied to the crystal a the
electric field is changed producing a
small voltage signal.

The piezoelectric crystals thus function


as the transmitter as well as the
receiver!
Transducer Effectiveness
The effectiveness of the search unit for a particular application depends on
Q factor, bandwidth, frequency, sensitivity, acoustic impedance, and resolving
power.
Piezoelectric crystals

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/EquipmentTrans/PiezoelectricEffect.ppt

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/EquipmentTrans/PiezoelectricElements.ppt
Piezoelectric crystals

http://www.ndt-kits.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/What-is-piezoelectric-transducer.gif
http://www.ndt-kits.com/blog/?cat=7
Piezoelectric crystals
Piezoelectric crystals
Piezoelectric crystals
Piezoelectric crystals
The active element of most acoustic transducers used today is a
piezoelectric ceramic, which can be cut in various ways to produce different
wave modes. A large piezoelectric ceramic element can be seen in the image
of a sectioned low frequency transducer. Preceding the advent of
piezoelectric ceramics in the early 1950's, piezoelectric crystals made from
quartz crystals and magnetostrictive materials were primarily used. The active
element is still sometimes referred to as the crystal by old timers in the NDT
field. When piezoelectric ceramics were introduced, they soon became the
dominant material for transducers due to their good piezoelectric properties
and their ease of manufacture into a variety of shapes and sizes. They also
operate at low voltage and are usable up to about 300C. The first
piezoceramic in general use was (1) barium titanate, and that was followed
during the 1960's by (2) lead Zirconate Titanate compositions, which are now
the most commonly employed ceramic for making transducers. New materials
such as piezo-polymers and composites are also being used in some
applications.
Keywords:
(1) Barium Titanate
(2) Lead Zirconate Titanate
The thickness of the active element is determined by the desired frequency of
the transducer. A thin wafer element vibrates with a wavelength that is twice
its thickness. Therefore, piezoelectric crystals are cut to a thickness that is
the desired radiated wavelength. The higher the frequency of the transducer,
the thinner the active element. The primary reason that high frequency
contact transducers are not produced is because the element is very thin and
too fragile.
The fundamental frequency of the transducer is determined by its thickness:

From the equation, it can be seen that for high frequency transducer, the
thickness is very thin , thus fragile; making its only suitable for immersion
techniques only.
At Interface: Reflection & Transmittance

1,87

Incoming wave 1,0 Transmitted wave


0,87

Reflected wave

Perspex Steel
At Interface: Reflection & Transmittance

Incoming wave Transmitted wave


1,0

0,13

-0,87
Reflected wave
Perspex Steel
At Interface: Reflection & Transmittance
At Interface: Reflection & Transmittance

At first glance a sound pressure exceeding


100 % seems paradoxical and one suspects
a contradiction of the energy law. However,
according to Eq. (1.4) the intensity, i.e. the
energy per unit time and unit area, is not
calculated from the sound pressure
(squared) only but also from the acoustic
impedance of the material in which the wave
travels. However, since this impedance in
steel is very much greater than in water, the
calculation shows that the intensity of the
transmitted wave is very much smaller there
than in water in spite of the higher sound
pressure.
Piezoelectric crystals may be X or Y cut depending on which orientation
they are sliced. The crystals used in UT testing are X cut, due to the mode of
vibration they produced (longitudinal wave). This means that the crystal is
sliced with it main axis perpendicular with the X axis.
Piezoelectric crystals
Q153 A quartz crystal cut so that its major faces are parallel to the X, Y axes
and perpendicular to the X axis is called:

a) a Y-cut crystal/ longitudinal wave


b) a Y-cut crystal/ shear wave
c) a X-cut crystal/ longitudinal wave
d) a X-cut crystal/ shear wave
e) a XY-cut crystal/ longitudinal wave

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hframe.html
Piezoelectric crystals
Piezoelectric crystals
Piezoelectric crystals
3.1.1: Type of Piezoelectric Crystal

Quartz is a Silicon Oxide (SiO3)


Lithium Sulphate LiSO4 Decomposed 130C
Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) Curies point 120C
Lead Metaniobate (PBNbO6)
Lead Zirconate Titanate (PBZrO3. PbTiO3)* Curies point 350C

*Pb[ZrxTi1-x]O3 (0x1).
Quartz is a Silicon Oxide (SiO3) crystal found naturally and X cut across
the crustal give compression wave, a Y cut produces shear wave.

Advantages:
1. Resistance to wear
2. insoluble in water
3. resistance to ageing
4. easy to cut to give the required frequency

Disadvantage
1. It is inefficient, needs a lot of energy to
produce small amount of ultrasound
2. Quart crystals are susceptible to
damages (nor robust)
3. High voltage to produce low frequency
sound
Quartz
SiO3-Silicon Quartz
Lithium Sulphate LiSO4, grows from Lithium Sulphate solution by
evaporation.

Advantages:
1. Lithium Sulphate is the most efficient receiver of ultrasound
2. It has low electric impedance
3. Operate well at low voltage
4. it does not age
5. it has very good resolution
6. crystals are easily damp and give a short pulse length

Disadvantage
1. It dissolves in water
2. It breaks easily
3. It decomposed at temperature above 130C (what is Curie temperature?)

All of which make it unsuitable for industrial used, except for medical
ultrasonic where the temperature restriction is not a concern.
Lithium Sulphate LiSO4
Followings are Piezoelectric crystals- Polarized crystals made by heating up
powders to high temperatures, pressing them into shape and allow them to
cool in a very strong electric fields.

Heat applied
Pressed Powders Fused polarized PZT

Heat applied
Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) are polarized crystals made by baking Barium
Titanate at 1250C and cooling in a 2KV/mm electric field.
Advantages
It is efficient ultrasound generator
It requires low voltage
It has good sensitivity
Disadvantages
Its curies point is about only 120C, above which it loss it functionality
It deteriorated over time
BaTiO3
BaTiO3
Lead Metaniobate (PBNbO6) crystals are made the similar way as
Barium Titanate
Advantages
It has high internal damping
It gives narrow pulse of ultrasound, which gives good resolution
Disadvantage
It has much less sensitivity than Lead Zirconate Titanate PZT
Fig. 3: Comparison between PZT (left) and 1-3 piezocomposite transducer
(right) on a prospect wedge
Fig. 4: Comparison between lead Metaniobate (left) and 1-3 piezocomposite
transducer (right) for a WSY70-4 probe

http://www.ndt.net/article/splitt/splitt_e.htm
Lead Zirconate Titanate (PBZrO3. PbTiO3)* is the best all round crystal
for industrial use.
Advantages
It has high Curies point 350C
It has good resolution
It does not dissolved in water
It is tough
It does not dissolve in water
It is easily damp.
Other Transducer> Polyvinylchloride probe for high frequency 15MHz, giving
high resolution and very high sensitivity.

*Pb[ZrxTi1-x]O3 (0x1).
Lead Zirconate Titanate PZT Curies point 350C

350C
350C is also goof for:
350C is also goof for:
350C is also goof for:
Curie Temperature: In physics and materials science, the Curie temperature
(Tc), or Curie point, is the temperature where a material's permanent
magnetism changes to induced magnetism. The force of magnetism is
determined by magnetic moments. The Curie temperature is the critical point
where a material's intrinsic magnetic moments change direction. Magnetic
moments are permanent dipole moments within the atom which originate from
electrons' angular momentum and spin. Materials have different structures of
intrinsic magnetic moments that depend on temperature. At a material's Curie
Temperature those intrinsic magnetic moments change direction.
Permanent magnetism is caused by the alignment of magnetic moments and
induced magnetism is created when disordered magnetic moments are forced
to align in an applied magnetic field. For example, the ordered magnetic
moments (ferromagnetic, figure 1) change and become disordered
(paramagnetic, figure 2) at the Curie Temperature. Higher temperatures make
magnets weaker as spontaneous magnetism only occurs below the Curie
Temperature. Magnetic susceptibility only occurs above the Curie
Temperature and can be calculated from the Curie-Weiss Law which is
derived from Curie's Law.
Lead zirconium Titanate is an intermetallic inorganic compound with the
chemical formula Pb[ZrxTi1-x]O3 (0x1). Also called PZT, it is a ceramic
perovskite material that shows a marked piezoelectric effect, which finds
practical applications in the area of electroceramics. It is a white solid that is
insoluble in all solvents.
Lead zirconium Titanate PZT

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead_zirconate_titanate
http://www.ndt.net/article/platte2/platte2.htm
Properties of Piezoelectric Materials
Ceramic Transducer
Q67: Which of the following transducer materials is the most efficient receiver
of ultrasonic energy?
(a) Lead metaniobate
(b) Quartz
(c) Lithium sulphate
(d) Barium titanate

Q69: An advantage of using lithium sulphate in search units it that:


(a) It is one of the most efficient generators of ultrasonic energy
(b) It is one of the most efficient receivers of ultrasonic energy
(c) It is insoluble
(d) It can withstand temperatures as high as 700C
Q68: Which of the following transducer materials is the most efficient
transmitter of ultrasonic energy?

(a) Lead metaniobate


(b) Quartz
(c) Lithium sulphate
(d) Barium titanate

Q17: Which of the following is the least efficient receiver of ultrasonic Energy?
(a) Quartz
(b) Lithium sulphate
(c) Lead metaniobate
(d) Barium titanate
Q21: An advantage of using a ceramic transducer in search units is that:
(a) It is one of the most efficient generators of ultrasonic energy
(b) It is one of the most efficient receivers of ultrasonic energy
(c) It has a very low mechanical impedance
(d) It can withstand temperatures as high as 700oC
Q73: Which of the following is the most durable piezoelectric material?
A. Barium titanate
B. Quartz
C. Dipotassoium tartrate
D. Rochelle salt

Q12: The 1 MHz transducer that should normally have the best time or
distance resolution is a:
A. Quartz transducer with air backing
B. Quartz transducer with phenolic backing
C. Barium titanate transducer with phenolic backing
D. Lithium Sulphate transducer with epoxy backing
3.2: Characteristics of Piezoelectric Transducers
The transducer is a very important part of the ultrasonic instrumentation
system. As discussed on the previous page, the transducer incorporates a
piezoelectric element, which converts electrical signals into mechanical
vibrations (transmit mode) and mechanical vibrations into electrical signals
(receive mode). Many factors, including material, mechanical and electrical
construction, and the external mechanical and electrical load conditions,
influence the behavior of a transducer. Mechanical construction includes
parameters such as the radiation surface area, mechanical damping, housing,
connector type and other variables of physical construction. As of this writing,
transducer manufacturers are hard pressed when constructing two
transducers that have identical performance characteristics.
Transducer
Transducer PZT & Matching Layer Thicknesses
3.2.1 Transducer Cut-Out
A cut away of a typical contact transducer is shown above. It was previously
learned that the piezoelectric element is cut to the desired wavelength. To
get as much energy out of the transducer as possible, an impedance
matching is placed between the active element and the face of the transducer.
Optimal impedance matching is achieved by sizing the matching layer so that
its thickness is of the desired wavelength. This keeps waves that were
reflected within the matching layer in phase when they exit the layer (as
illustrated in the image to the top). (HOW?)

For contact transducers, the matching layer is made from a material that has
an acoustical impedance Z between the active element and steel.
Immersion transducers have a matching layer with an acoustical impedance
Z between the active element and water.

Contact transducers also incorporate a wear plate to protect the matching


layer and active element from scratching.
Contact Transducer Types:

socket Delay / protecting face


crystal Electrical matching
Damping Cable

Straight beam probe TR-probe Angle beam probe


Transducer
Transducer: Straight Beam
Transducer: Angle Beam
Transducer Cut-Out
3.2.2 The Active Element (Crystal)
The active element, which is piezo or ferroelectric material, converts
electrical energy such as an excitation pulse from a flaw detector into
ultrasonic energy. The most commonly used materials are polarized
ceramics which can be cut in a variety of manners to produce different wave
modes. New materials such as piezo polymers and composites are also
being employed for applications where they provide benefit to transducer
and system performance.
3.2.3 Design of Matching Layer
The matching layer consists of a layer of material with acoustic impedance
that of intermediate between the top & bottom mediums. The thickness its
thickness is of the desired wavelength , determined from the center
operating frequency of the transducer and the speed of sound of the matching
layer.
Matching Layer: Immersion & Delay Transducers

Backing
As wear plate

/2 Active Element

/4 Matching Layer
3.2.4 Backing (Damping)
The backing is usually a highly attenuative, high density material that is used
to control the vibration of the transducer by absorbing the energy radiating
from the back face of the active element. When the acoustic impedance
of the backing matches the acoustic impedance of the active element,
the result will be a heavily damped transducer that displays good range
resolution but may be lower in signal amplitude. If there is a mismatch in
acoustic impedance between the element and the backing, more sound
energy will be reflected forward into the test material. The end result is a
transducer that is lower in resolution due to a longer waveform duration, but
may be higher in signal amplitude or greater in sensitivity.
Note on Backing:
The backing material supporting the crystal has a great influence on the
damping characteristics of a transducer.

Using a backing material with an impedance similar to that of the active


element will produce the most effective damping. Such a transducer will have
a wider bandwidth resulting in higher sensitivity.

As the mismatch in impedance between the active element and the backing
material increases, material penetration increases but transducer sensitivity is
reduced.

Keywords:
Backing impedance mismatch small: Higher sensitivity
Backing impedance mismatch high: Higher penetration.
3.2.5 Wear Plate
The basic purpose of the transducer wear plate is to protect the transducer
element from the testing environment. In the case of contact transducers, the
wear plate must be a durable and corrosion resistant material in order to
withstand the wear caused by use on materials such as steel.
Matching Layer (Wear Plate)
For immersion, angle beam, and delay line transducers the wear plate has
the additional purpose of serving as an acoustic transformer between the
high acoustic impedance of the active element and the water, the wedge
or the delay line all of which are of lower acoustic impedance.

This is accomplished by selecting a


matching layer that is
wavelength thick and of the desired
acoustic impedance (the active
element is nominally wavelength).
The choice of the wear surface
thickness is based upon the idea of
superposition that allows waves
generated by the active element to be
in phase with the wave reverberating
in the matching layer as shown in
Figure (4).
When signals are in phase, their amplitudes are additive, thus a greater
amplitude wave enters the test piece. Figure (12) shows the active element
and the wear plate, and when they are in phase. If a transducer is not tightly
controlled or designed with care and the proper materials, and the sound
waves are not in phase, it causes a disruption in the wave front.
Transducers
Transducers

http://www.ndt-kits.com/Angle-Beam-Ultrasonic-Transducer-UT0013-s-381-428.html
3.2.6 Transducer Efficiency, Bandwidth and Frequency
3.2.6.1 Resolution

Some transducers are specially fabricated to be more efficient transmitters


and others to be more efficient receivers. A transducer that performs well in
one application will not always produce the desired results in a different
application. For example, sensitivity to small defects is proportional to the
product of the efficiency of the transducer as a transmitter and a receiver.

Resolution, the ability to locate defects near the surface or in close proximity
in the material, requires a highly damped transducer.
Resolution: BS4331 Pt 3. the
recommended resolution should
be able to distinguished two
discrete echoes less than two
wavelength apart. By discrete
echoes mean they are split by
more than 6dB.

(Vertical spatial resolution)

50% Amplitude or
6dB line.
2

50% Amplitude or
6dB line.
2
In the early days of ultrasonic testing we used the 100, 91 and 85mm steps, at the radius end of
the V1 block to test resolving power. However, today this is regarded as too crude a test and BS
4331 Part 3 (now obsolete) recommended that we should be able to recognise two discrete
echoes less than two wavelengths apart. By discrete echoes they mean split by more than 6dB,
or to more than half the total height of the signals.
3.2.6.2 Transducer Damping
It is also important to understand the concept of bandwidth, or range of
frequencies, associated with a transducer. The frequency noted on a
transducer is the central or center frequency and depends primarily on the
backing material.

Highly damped transducers will respond to frequencies above and below the
central frequency. The broad frequency range provides a transducer with high
resolving power. Less damped transducers will exhibit a narrower frequency
range and poorer resolving power, but greater penetration.

The central frequency will also define the capabilities of a transducer. Lower
frequencies (0.5MHz-2.25MHz) provide greater energy and penetration in a
material, while high frequency crystals (15.0MHz-25.0MHz) provide reduced
penetration but greater sensitivity to small discontinuities. High frequency
transducers, when used with the proper instrumentation, can improve flaw
resolution and thickness measurement capabilities dramatically. Broadband
transducers with frequencies up to 150 MHz are commercially available.
Transducer Damping (illustration with X-axis frequency domain)

Less damped transducers will


exhibit a narrower frequency range
and poorer resolving power, but
greater penetration.

Highly damped transducers will


respond to frequencies above and
below the central frequency. The
broad frequency range provides a
transducer with high resolving
power.
Transducer (Backing) Damping:
Highly damped transducers will respond to frequencies above and below
the central frequency. The broad frequency range provides a transducer
with high resolving power.
Less damped transducers will exhibit a narrower frequency range and
poorer resolving power, but greater penetration.
Transducer Damping

Narrow
bandwidth

X-axis time domain

Wide
bandwidth

X-axis time domain


Transducer Damping
Transducer Damping
Transducer Damping at -20dB
Transducer Damping at -14dB
Transducer Damping
Transducer Damping- Pulse Length
Wave form Duration at -10dB
Transducer Damping- Low Damping (X-axis time domain)
Transducer Damping- High Damping (X-axis time domain)
48. A more highly damped transducer crystal results in:
(a) Better resolution
(b) Better sensitivity (mistake)
(c) Lower sensitivity
(d) Poorer resolution
3.2.6.3 Bandwidth:
It is also important to understand the concept of bandwidth, or range of
frequencies, associated with a ultrasonic transducer. The frequency noted on
a transducer is the central or center frequency and depends primarily on the
backing material.
Highly damped ultrasonic transducers will respond to frequencies above and
below the central frequency. The broad frequency range provides a
transducer with high resolving power.
Less damped transducers will exhibit a narrower frequency range and poorer
resolving power, but greater penetration.
The central frequency will also define the capabilities of a transducer. Lower
frequencies (0.5MHz-2.25MHz) provide greater energy and penetration in
material, while high frequency crystals (15.0MHz-25.0MHz) provide reduced
penetration but greater sensitivity to small discontinuities. High frequency
transducers, when used with the proper instrumentation, can improve flaw
resolution and thickness measurement capabilities dramatically. Broadband
transducers with frequencies up to 150 MHz are commercially available.
Bandwidth:
The unit for bandwidth is MHz
The unit for pulse length is mm or time
The central frequency will also define the capabilities of a transducer.

1. Lower frequencies (0.5MHz-2.25MHz) provide greater energy and


penetration in a material,

2. while high frequency crystals (15.0MHz-25.0MHz) provide reduced


penetration but greater sensitivity to small discontinuities. High frequency
transducers, when used with the proper instrumentation, can improve flaw
resolution and thickness measurement capabilities dramatically.
Bandwidth (BW) - the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies
at the -6 dB level of the frequency spectrum; also % of BCF or of PF
Bandwidth (BW) - the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies
at the -10 dB level of the frequency spectrum; also % of BCF or of PF
The relation between MHz bandwidth and waveform duration is shown
in Figure below. The scatter is wider at -40 dB because the 1% trailing end of
the waveform contains very little energy and so has very little effect on the
analysis of bandwidth. Because of the scatter it is most appropriate to specify
waveforms in the time domain (microseconds) and spectra in the frequency
domain.
Transducers are constructed to withstand some abuse, but they should be
handled carefully. Misuse, such as dropping, can cause cracking of the wear
plate, element, or the backing material. Damage to a transducer is often
noted on the A-scan presentation as an enlargement of the initial pulse.
The approximate relations shown in Figure (6) above, can be used to assist in
transducer selection. For example, if a -14 dB waveform duration of one
microsecond is needed, what frequency transducer should be selected?
From the graph, a bandwidth of approximately 1 to 1.2 MHz corresponds
to approximately 1 microsecond -14 dB waveform duration. Assuming a
nominal 50% fractional bandwidth transducer, this calculates to a nominal
center frequency of 2 to 2.4 MHz. Therefore, a transducer of 2.25 MHz or
3.5 MHz may be applicable.
http://olympus-ims.com/data/File/panametrics/UT-technotes.en.pdf
Instrumentation Filtered Band Width:
1. Broad band instrument means a wide array of frequencies could be
processed by the instrument. The frequencies shown will be a close
representation of the actual electrical signal measured by the receiver
transducer. The S/N may not be very good, the shape of the amplitude
tend to be the actual representation.

2. Narrow band instrument, suppressed a portion of frequencies above and


below the center frequency. With the high frequencies noise suppressed,
gain could be increase, leading to improved sensitivity. However the shape
and relative amplitude of pulse frequency components often altered
Instrumentation Band Width:
Q8: Receiver noise must often be filtered out of a test system. Receiver
amplifier noise increases proportionally to:
A. the square root of the amplifier bandwidth
B. the inverse square of the amplifier bandwidth
C. attenuation
D. temperature
Q164: The resolving power of a transducer is directly proportional to its:
A. Diameter
B. Bandwidth
C. Pulse repetition rate
D. None of the above
Bandwidth is the frequency range of the pulse, it is not the pulse length
Q48: The approximate bandwidth of the transducer with the frequency
response shown in figure 1 (-3dB) is:
A. 4 MHz (standard answer)
B. 8 MHz
C. 10 MHz
D. 12 MHz

6.5MHz
3.3: Radiated Fields of Ultrasonic Transducers
The sound that emanates from a piezoelectric transducer does not originate
from a point, but instead originates from most of the surface of the
piezoelectric element. Round transducers are often referred to as piston
source transducers because the sound field resembles a cylindrical mass in
front of the transducer. The sound field from a typical piezoelectric transducer
is shown below. The intensity of the sound is indicated by color, with lighter
colors indicating higher intensity.


Since the ultrasound originates from a number of points along the transducer
face, the ultrasound intensity along the beam is affected by constructive and
destructive wave interference as discussed in a previous page on wave
interference. These are sometimes also referred to as diffraction effects. This
wave interference leads to extensive fluctuations in the sound intensity near
the source and is known as the near field. Because of acoustic variations
within a near field, it can be extremely difficult to accurately evaluate flaws in
materials when they are positioned within this area.
The pressure waves combine to form a relatively uniform front at the end of
the near field. The area beyond the near field where the ultrasonic beam is
more uniform is called the far field. In the far field, the beam spreads out in a
pattern originating from the center of the transducer. The transition between
the near field and the far field occurs at a distance, N, and is sometimes
referred to as the "natural focus" of a flat (or unfocused) transducer. The
near/far field distance, N, is significant because amplitude variations that
characterize the near field change to a smoothly declining amplitude at this
point. The area just beyond the near field is where the sound wave is well
behaved and at its maximum strength. Therefore, optimal detection results
will be obtained when flaws occur in this area.
Near Field
Angular characteristics for large distances from the oscillator.

a: Values of the sound pressure in a linear plot;


b: the same plotted in dB
Angular characteristics: Lines of equal sound pressure, plotted in dB. Also
the distance from the radiator is plotted in a logarithmic measure
Angular characteristics: Spatial distribution of the sound pressure plotted in
linear values on a half plane through the radiator
Angular characteristics: Sound-pressure mountain measured in a plane
parallel to the oscillator
Angular characteristics: Sound pressure on the axis of a piston oscillator
For a piston source transducer of radius (a), frequency (f), and velocity (V) in
a liquid or solid medium, the applet below allows the calculation of the
near/far field transition point. In the Java applet below, the radius (a) and the
near field/far field distance can be in metric or English units (e.g. mm or inch),
the frequency (f) is in MHz and the sound velocity (V) is in metric or English
length units per second (e.g. mm/sec or inch/sec). Just make sure the length
units used are consistent in the calculation.
http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/EquipmentTrans/applet_3_3/applet_3_3.htm
Spherical or cylindrical focusing changes the structure of a transducer field by
"pulling" the N point nearer the transducer. It is also important to note that the
driving excitation normally used in NDT applications are either spike or
rectangular pulsars, not a single frequency. This can significantly alter the
performance of a transducer. Nonetheless, the supporting analysis is widely
used because it represents a reasonable approximation and a good starting
point.
Beam Spreads

http://www.eclipsescientific.com/Software/ESBeamToolAScan/index.html
Probe Dimension & Spread angle
,,.
Probe Dimension & Spread angle
,,.
Probe dimension & Zf, ,
,,.
Probe dimension & Zf, ,
,,.
3.4: Transducer Beam Spread
As discussed on the previous page, round transducers are often referred to
as piston source transducers because the sound field resembles a cylindrical
mass in front of the transducer. However, the energy in the beam does not
remain in a cylinder, but instead spreads out as it propagates through the
material. The phenomenon is usually referred to as beam spread but is
sometimes also referred to as beam divergence or ultrasonic diffraction. It
should be noted that there is actually a difference between beam spread and
beam divergence. Beam spread is a measure of the whole angle from side to
side of the main lobe of the sound beam in the far field. Beam divergence is a
measure of the angle from one side of the sound beam to the central axis of
the beam in the far field. Therefore, beam spread is twice the beam
divergence.

Far field, or Fraunhofer zone


Although beam spread must be considered when performing an ultrasonic
inspection, it is important to note that in the far field, or Fraunhofer zone, the
maximum sound pressure is always found along the acoustic axis (centerline)
of the transducer. Therefore, the strongest reflections are likely to come from
the area directly in front of the transducer.

Beam spread occurs because the vibrating particle of the material (through
which the wave is traveling) do not always transfer all of their energy in the
direction of wave propagation. Recall that waves propagate through the
transfer of energy from one particle to another in the medium. If the particles
are not directly aligned in the direction of wave propagation, some of the
energy will get transferred off at an angle. (Picture what happens when one
ball hits another ball slightly off center). In the near field, constructive and
destructive wave interference fill the sound field with fluctuation. At the start of
the far field, however, the beam strength is always greatest at the center of
the beam and diminishes as it spreads outward.
As shown in the applet below, beam spread is largely determined by the
frequency and diameter of the transducer. Beam spread is greater when
using a low frequency transducer than when using a high frequency
transducer. As the diameter of the transducer increases, the beam spread will
be reduced.

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Graphics/toplinks-rev2.swf
Near/ Far Fields
Near field, constructive and
destructive wave interference fill the
sound field with fluctuation
- reverberence

Far field, however, the


beam strength is always
greatest at the center of the
beam and diminishes as it
spreads outward.
Beam angle is an important consideration in transducer selection for a couple
of reasons. First, beam spread lowers the amplitude of reflections since
sound fields are less concentrated and, thereby weaker. Second, beam
spread may result in more difficulty in interpreting signals due to reflections
from the lateral sides of the test object or other features outside of the
inspection area. Characterization of the sound field generated by a transducer
is a prerequisite to understanding observed signals.

Numerous codes exist that can be used to standardize the method used for
the characterization of beam spread. American Society for Testing and
Materials ASTM E-1065, addresses methods for ascertaining beam shapes in
Section A6, Measurement of Sound Field Parameters. However, these
measurements are limited to immersion probes. In fact, the methods
described in E-1065 are primarily concerned with the measurement of beam
characteristics in water, and as such are limited to measurements of the
compression mode only. Techniques described in E-1065 include pulse-echo
using a ball target and hydrophone receiver, which allows the sound field of
the probe to be assessed for the entire volume in front of the probe.
For a flat piston source transducer, an approximation of the beam spread may
be calculated as a function of the transducer diameter (D), frequency (F), and
the sound velocity (V) in the liquid or solid medium. The applet below allows
the beam divergence angle (1/2 the beam spread angle) to be calculated.
This angle represents a measure from the center of the acoustic axis to the
point where the sound pressure has decreased by one half (-6 dB) to the side
of the acoustic axis in the far field.

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/EquipmentTrans/applet_3_4/applet_3_4.htm
3.5: Transducer Types
Ultrasonic transducers are manufactured for a variety of applications and can
be custom fabricated when necessary. Careful attention must be paid to
selecting the proper transducer for the application. A previous section on
Acoustic Wavelength and Defect Detection gave a brief overview of factors
that affect defect detectability. From this material, we know that it is important
to choose transducers that have the desired;

frequency, (thickness of piezoelectric material)


bandwidth, (Back damping)
Focusing (curvature probe)

to optimize inspection capability. Most often the transducer is chosen either to


enhance the sensitivity or resolution of the system. Transducers are classified
into groups according to the application.
3.5.1 Contact transducers
are used for direct contact inspections, and are generally hand manipulated.
They have elements protected in a rugged casing to withstand sliding contact
with a variety of materials. These transducers have an ergonomic design so
that they are easy to grip and move along a surface. They often have
replaceable wear plates to lengthen their useful life. Coupling materials of
water, grease, oils, or commercial materials are used to remove the air gap
between the transducer and the component being inspected.
Contact Transducers
Contact probe
Contact Transducer

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ultrasonic-transducers/dualelement/
http://static2.olympus-ims.com/data/Flash/dual.swf?rev=6C5C
Practice Makes Perfect
43. Which of the following is a disadvantage of contact testing?
(a) Ability to maintain uniform coupling on rough surface
(b) Ease of field use
(c) Greater penetrating power than immersion testing
(d) Less penetrating power than immersion testing
3.5.2 Immersion transducers
In immersion testing, the transducer do not contact the component. These
transducers are designed to operate in a liquid environment and all
connections are watertight. Immersion transducers usually have an
impedance matching layer that helps to get more sound energy into the water
and, in turn, into the component being inspected. Immersion transducers can
be purchased with a (1) planer, (2) cylindrically focused or (3) spherically
focused lens. A focused transducer can improve the sensitivity and axial
resolution by concentrating the sound energy to a smaller area. Immersion
transducers are typically used inside a water tank or as part of a squirter or
bubbler system in scanning applications.
Unfocused & Focused
Focusing Ration in water/steel (F=4)

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/flaw-detection/beam-characteristics/
Focused Transducer (Olympus)

ZB = Beginning of the Focal Zone


FZ = Focal Zone
ZE = End of the Focal Zone
D = Element Diameter
Focal Length Equation:
The focal length F is determined by following equation;

Where:

F = Focal Length in water


R = Curvature of the focusing lens
n = Ration of L-velocity of epoxy to L-velocity of water

F
Focal Length Variations

Focal Length Variations due to Acoustic Velocity and Geometry of the Test
Part. The measured focal length of a transducer is dependent on the material
in which it is being measured. This is due to the fact that different materials
have different sound velocities. When specifying a transducers focal length it
is typically specified for water. Since most materials have a higher velocity
than water, the focal length is effectively shortened. This effect is caused by
refraction (according to Snells Law) and is illustrated in Figure (18).
Focal Length Variations
This change in the focal length can be predicted by Equation (13).
For example, given a particular focal length and material path, this equation
can be used to determine the appropriate water path to compensate for the
focusing effect in the test material.
Eqn. 13
WP = F MP.(Ctm/Cw)

WP = Water Path
MP = Material Depth
F = Focal Length in Water
Ctm = Sound Velocity in the Test Material
Cw = Sound Velocity in the water

In addition, the curvature of surface of the test piece can affect focusing.
Depending on whether the entry surface is concave or convex, the sound
beam may converge more rapidly than it would in a flat sample or it may
spread and actually defocus.
Cylindrical & Spherical Focused
Cylindrical & Spherical Focused
Q79: What type of search unit allows the greatest resolving power with
standard ultrasonic testing equipment?
a) Delay tip
b) Focused
c) Highly damped
d) High Q

Q165: Acoustic lens elements with which of the following permit focusing the
sound energy to enter cylindrical surface normally or along a line of focus.

a) Cylindrical curvature
b) Spherical lens curvatures
c) Convex shapes
d) Concave shapes
Q18: Which of the following is an advantage of a focused transducer?
(a) Extended useful range
(b) Reduced sensitivity in localised area
(c) Improved signal to noise ratio over an extended range
(d) Higher resolution over a limited range
Q67: A divergent sound beam is produced by:
(a) Concave mirror
(b) Convex mirror
(c) Convex lens
(d) None of the above
Q78: Which of the following is not an advantage of a focused transducer?
(a) High sensitivity to small flaws
(b) Deep penetration
(c) High resolving power
(d) Not much affected by surface roughness

Q79: What type of search unit allows the greatest resolving power with
standard ultrasonic testing equipment?
(a) Delay tip
(b) Focused
(c) Highly damped
(d) High Q
3.5.3 Dual element transducers
contain two independently operated elements in a single housing. One of the
elements transmits and the other receives the ultrasonic signal. Active
elements can be chosen for their sending and receiving capabilities to provide
a transducer with a cleaner signal, and transducers for special applications,
such as the inspection of course grained material. Dual element transducers
are especially well suited for making measurements in applications where
reflectors are very near the transducer since this design eliminates the ring
down effect that single-element transducers experience (when single-element
transducers are operating in pulse echo mode, the element cannot start
receiving reflected signals until the element has stopped ringing from its
transmit function). Dual element transducers are very useful when making
thickness measurements of thin materials and when inspecting for near
surface defects. The two elements are angled towards each other to create a
crossed-beam sound path in the test material.
Keywords: For near surface effects
Fresnel zone (near zone)
Ring down effect
For a single crystal probe the length of the initial pulse is the dead zone and
any signal from a reflector at a shorter distance than this will be concealed
in the initial pulse. We deliberately delay the initial pulse beyond the left of
the time base, by mounting the transducers of a twin (or double) crystal
probe onto plastic wedges. This and the focusing of the crystals reduces the
dead zone considerably and it is only where the transmission and receptive
beams do not overlap that we cannot assess flaws.
A twin or double crystal probe is designed to minimise the problem of dead
zone. A twin crystal probe has two crystals mounted on Perspex shoes
angled inwards slightly to focus at a set distance in the test material. Were
the crystals not angled, the pulse would be reflected straight back into the
transmitting crystal.
The Perspex shoes hold the crystals away from the test surface so that the
initial pulse does not appear on the CRT screen. The dead zone is greatly
reduced to the region adjoining the test surface, where the transmission and
reception beams do not overlap.

More on Dead Zone BS EN 12668-Part1 Section: 3.5


Dead time after transmitter pulse
time interval following the start of the transmitter pulse during which the amplifier is
unable to respond to incoming signals, when using the pulse echo method, because of
saturation by the transmitter pulse
There are other advantages
1. Double crystal probes can be focused
2. Can measure thin plate
3. Can detect near surface flaws
4. Has good near surface resolution

Disadvantages
1. Good contact is difficult with curved surfaces
2. Difficult to size small defects accurately as the width of a double crystal
3. probe is usually greater than that of a single crystal probe
4. The amplitude of a signal decreases the further a reflector is situated
5. from the focal distance - a response curve can be made out.

Therefore single and twin crystal probes are complementary.


Other Reading (Olympus): Dual element transducers utilize separate
transmitting and receiving elements, mounted on delay lines that are usually
cut at an angle (see diagram on page 8). This configuration improves near
surface resolution by eliminating main bang recovery problems. In addition, the
crossed beam design provides a pseudo focus that makes duals more
sensitive to echoes from irregular reflectors such as corrosion and pitting.
One consequence of the dual element design is a sharply defined distance/
amplitude curve. In general, a decrease in the roof angle or an increase in
the transducer element size will result in a longer pseudo-focal distance and
an increase in useful range, as shown in Figure (13).
Advantages:
Improves near surface resolution (sensitivity?)
Provide a pseudo focus (improve sensitivity in the Far Zone?)
Less affected by surface roughness due to the pseudo focus effect
Disadvantage(?)
The pseudo focus by tilting the active elements (roof angle?) reduces the
useful range of transducer?
Figure (13).
Duo Elements Transducer

Acoustic
Barrier Receiving
Transmitting Crystal
Crystal

Roof Angle
Casing

Cross Beam
Sound path
Duo Elements Transducer
3.5.4 Delay line transducers
provide versatility with a variety of replaceable options. Removable delay line,
surface conforming membrane, and protective wear cap options can make a
single transducer effective for a wide range of applications. As the name
implies, the primary function of a delay line transducer is to introduce a time
delay between the generation of the sound wave and the arrival of any
reflected waves. This allows the transducer to complete its "sending" function
before it starts its "listening" function so that near surface resolution is
improved. They are designed for use in applications such as high precision
thickness gauging of thin materials and delamination checks in composite
materials. They are also useful in high-temperature measurement applications
since the delay line provides some insulation to the piezoelectric element from
the heat.
Delay Lined Transducer:
Advantages:
1. Heavily damped transducer combined with the use of a delay line provides
excellent near surface resolution
2. Higher transducer frequency improves resolution
3. Improves the ability to measure thin materials or find small flaws while
using the direct contact method
4. Contouring available to fit curved parts

Applications:
1. Precision thickness gauging
2. Straight beam flaw detection
3. Inspection of parts with limited contact areas
4. Replaceable Delay Line Transducers
5. Each transducer comes with a standard delay line and retaining ring
6. High temperature and dry couple delay lines are available
7. Requires couplant between transducer and delay line tip
Other Reading (Olympus): Delay Line Transducers
Delay line transducers are single element longitudinal wave transducers
used in conjunction with a replaceable delay line. One of the reasons for
choosing a delay line transducer is that near surface resolution can be
improved.
The delay allows the element to stop vibrating before a return signal from the
reflector can be received. When using a delay line transducer, there will be
multiple echoes from end of the delay line and it is important to take these
into account. Another use of delay line transducers is in applications in
which the test material is at an elevated temperature. The high
temperature delay
line options listed in this catalog (page 16, 17, 19) are not intended for
continuous contact, they are meant for intermittent contact only.
Advantages:
Improve near surface resolution
High temperature contact testing
Delay Lined Transducer
Delay lined Transducer
TR-Probe / Dual Crystal Probe- Transmitting Receiving Probe

http://www.weldr.net/simple/skill/html/content_10802.htm
Probe Delay with TR-Probe
Cross Talk at High Gain
Probe Delay
Probe Delay
Delay Line UT 1 Lab 8

www.youtube.com/embed/lelVZ9OGli8
3.5.5 Angle beam transducers
Angle beam transducer and wedges are typically used to introduce a
refracted shear wave into the test material. Transducers can be purchased in
a variety of (1) fixed angles or in (2) adjustable versions where the user
determines the angles of incidence and refraction.

In the fixed angle versions, the angle of refraction that is marked on the
transducer is only accurate for a particular material, which is usually steel.
The angled sound path allows the sound beam to be reflected from the
backwall to improve detectability of flaws in and around welded areas. They
are also used to generate surface waves for use in detecting defects on the
surface of a component.
Angle Beam Transducers- Angle beam transducers are typically used to
locate and/or size flaws which are oriented non-parallel to the test surface.
Angle Beam Transducers- Angle beam transducers are typically used to
locate and/or size flaws which are oriented non-parallel to the test surface.
Angle Beam Transducers- Angle beam transducers are typically used to
locate and/or size flaws which are oriented non-parallel to the test surface.
Angle Beam Transducers- Angle beam transducers are typically used to
locate and/or size flaws which are oriented non-parallel to the test surface.
Angle Beam Transducers- Angle beam transducers are typically used to
locate and/or size flaws which are oriented non-parallel to the test surface.
Angle Beam Transducers- Angle beam transducers are typically used to
locate and/or size flaws which are oriented non-parallel to the test surface.
Angle Beam Transducers- Angle beam transducers are typically used to
locate and/or size flaws which are oriented non-parallel to the test surface.
Angle Beam Transducers- Angle beam transducers are typically used to
locate and/or size flaws which are oriented non-parallel to the test surface.
Angle Beam Transducers- Angle beam transducers are typically used to
locate and/or size flaws which are oriented non-parallel to the test surface.
Angle Beam Transducers- Angle beam transducers are typically used to
locate and/or size flaws which are oriented non-parallel to the test surface.
Angle Beam Transducers

1L

2L 2S
Angle Beam Transducers

1L

2L 2S
Angle Beam Transducers- Mode Conversion
Figure (15) below shows the relationship between the incident angle and the
relative amplitudes of the refracted or mode converted longitudinal, shear,
and surface waves that can be produced from a plastic wedge into steel.
Angle Beam Transducers- Common Terms
= Refracted angle T= Thickness LEG1=LEG2= T/Cos
V PATH= 2x LEG= 2T/Cos SKIP= 2.T Tan


Angle Beam Transducers- Common Terms
= Refracted angle T= Thickness Surface Distance= S.Sin
Depth= S.Cos


Angle Beam Transducers- Longitudinal / Shear Wave Inspection
Many AWS inspections are performed using refracted shear waves.
However, grainy materials such as austenitic stainless steel may require
refracted longitudinal waves or other angle beam techniques for successful
inspections.
Angle Beam Transducer

/
http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ultrasonic-transducers/dualelement
http://static4.olympus-ims.com/data/Flash/wedge_weld.swf?rev=EF60
3.5.6 Normal incidence shear wave transducers
Normal Incidence Shear Wave transducers incorporate a shear wave crystal
in a contact transducer case. These transducers are unique because they
allow the introduction of shear waves directly into a test piece without the use
of an angle beam wedge. Rather than using the principles of refraction,
as with the angle beam transducers, to produce shear waves in a material,
the crystal itself produces the shear wave (Y-cut). Careful design has enabled
manufacturing of transducers with minimal longitudinal wave contamination.
The ratio of the longitudinal to shear wave components is generally below -
30dB.

Because shear waves do not propagate in liquids, it is necessary to use a


very viscous couplant when making measurements with these. When using
this type of transducer in a through transmission mode application, it is
important that direction of polarity of each of the transducers is in line with
the other. If the polarities are 90 off, the receiver may not receive the signal
from the transmitter.
Application of Normal incidence shear wave transducers
Typically these transducers are used to make shear velocity measurements
of materials. This measurement, along with a longitudinal velocity
measurement can be used in the calculation of Poissons Ratio, Youngs
Modulus, and Shear Modulus. These formulas are listed below for reference.

Keys:
S = Poissons Ratio
VL = Longitudinal Velocity
VT = Shear Velocity
r = Material Density
E = Youngs Modulus
G = Shear Modulus
Normal incidence shear wave transducers

http://static3.olympus-ims.com/data/Flash/shear_wave.swf?rev=3970
Normal incidence shear wave transducers
Advantages:
1. Generate shear waves which propagate perpendicular to the test surface
2. For ease of alignment, the direction of the polarization of shear wave is
nominally in line with the right angle connector
3. The ratio of the longitudinal to shear wave components is generally below
-30 dB

Applications:
1. Shear wave velocity measurements
2. Calculation of Young's Modulus of elasticity and shear modulus (see
Technical Notes, page 46)
3. Characterization of material grain structure

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ultrasonic-transducers/shear-wave/
3.5.7 Paint brush transducers
Paint brush transducers are used to scan wide areas. These long and narrow
transducers are made up of an array of small crystals that are carefully
matched to minimize variations in performance and maintain uniform
sensitivity over the entire area of the transducer. Paint brush transducers
make it possible to scan a larger area more rapidly for discontinuities. Smaller
and more sensitive transducers are often then required to further define the
details of a discontinuity.
Q: To evaluate and accurately locate discontinuities after scanning a part with
paintbrush transducer, it is generally necessary to uae a:

A. Transducer with a smaller crystal


B. Scrubber
C. Grid map
D. Crystal collimator
3.5.8 Wheel Transducer
Wheel Transducer Probe Features:
The main driving advantage of this dry coupled solid contact wheel probe is
that it works to overcome problems with couplant contamination (application
& removal) as well as eliminating the practicalities of immersion systems.
The "tyre" or delay material is constructed of hydrophilic polymers which have
acoustic properties that lend themselves ideally to the implementation of
ultrasonics. Applications include thickness measurement, composite
inspection, delamination detection and general flaw detection.
Q: A special scanning device with the transducer mounted in a tire-like
container filled with couplant is commonly called:

A. A rotating scanner
B. An axial scanner
C. A wheel transducer
D. A circular scanner

Q: A wheel transducer scanning method is consider as:

A. Contact method
B. Immersion method
C. Wheel method
D. Not allowed
UT Technician At works- Salute!
3.6: Transducer Testing
Some transducer manufacturers have lead in the development of transducer
characterization techniques and have participated in developing the AIUM
Standard Methods for Testing Single-Element Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic
Transducers as well as ASTM-E 1065 Standard Guide for Evaluating
Characteristics of Ultrasonic Search Units.
Additionally, some manufacturers perform characterizations according to
AWS, ESI, and many other industrial and military standards. Often,
equipment in test labs is maintained in compliance with MIL-C-45662A
Calibration System Requirements. As part of the documentation process, an
extensive database containing records of the waveform and spectrum of each
transducer is maintained and can be accessed for comparative or statistical
studies of transducer characteristics.
Manufacturers often provide time and frequency domain plots for each
transducer. The signals below were generated by a spiked pulser. The
waveform image on the left shows the test response signal in the time domain
(amplitude versus time). The spectrum image on the right shows the same
signal in the frequency domain (amplitude versus frequency). The signal path
is usually a reflection from the back wall (fused silica) with the reflection in the
far field of the transducer.
TRANSDUCER EXCITATION
As a general rule, all of our ultrasonic transducers are designed for negative
spike excitation. The maximum spike excitation voltages should be limited to
approximately 50 volts per mil of piezoelectric transducer thickness. Low
frequency elements are thick, and high frequency elements are thin.

A negative-going 600 volt fast rise time, short duration, spike excitation can
be used across the terminals on transducers 5.0 MHz and lower in frequency.
For 10 MHz transducers, the voltage used across the terminals should be
halved to about 300 volts as measured across the terminals.

Although negative spike excitation is recommended, continuous wave or tone


burst excitations may be used. However there are limitations to consider
when using these types of excitation. First, the average power dissipation to
the transducer should not exceed 125 mW to avoid overheating the
transducer and depoling the crystal.

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/5072pr/
Excitation: Spiked Pulser (negative spike excitation)

0V
10%

Pulse Width @50%

90%

Time

T
http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/5072pr/
Square Wave Spiked Pulser: (negative spike excitation)
Square wave has controlled rise and fall times with directly adjustable voltage
and pulse width. Precautions on the average power dissipation to the
transducer should not exceed 125 mW to avoid overheating the transducer
and depoling the crystal.

0V

Adjustable Voltage

Adjustable Pulse width

Time
Pulse energy: Broad band versus Narrow band.

30
Narrow band
25
Broad band
20
Energy (dB)

15
10
5
0

0.1 1.0 5.0 10 20

Frequency MHz
UT Flaw Detector Olympus EPOCH 600
Other tests may include the following:
Electrical Impedance Plots provide important information about the design
and construction of a transducer and can allow users to obtain electrically
similar transducers from multiple sources.
Beam Alignment Measurements provide data on the degree of alignment
between the sound beam axis and the transducer housing. This information is
particularly useful in applications that require a high degree of certainty
regarding beam positioning with respect to a mechanical reference surface.
Beam Profiles provide valuable information about transducer sound field
characteristics. Transverse beam profiles are created by scanning the
transducer across a target (usually either a steel ball or rod) at a given
distance from the transducer face and are used to determine focal spot size
and beam symmetry. Axial beam profiles are created by recording the pulse-
echo amplitude of the sound field as a function of distance from the
transducer face and provide data on depth of field and focal length.
Effects of Probe Frequencies:

1. Higher frequencies give better resolution


2. Higher frequencies give better sensitivity
3. Lower frequencies give better penetration
4. Lower frequencies less attenuation
5. Lower frequencies probe wider beam spread with more coverage to detect
reflectors and reflectors with unfavorable orientation.

6. Higher frequencies the beams are more focused and the sensitivity and
resolution are better.
Effects of Probe Sizes:

1. The larger the probe produce more energy thus more penetration
2. Small probe small near zone
3. The larger the probe the poorer the contacts on a curve substrate.

Single or Double Crustal Probe Selection:

1. Single crystal probe should be used for material thickness 15mm and
above, according to the probe the near zone
2. Single crystal probe should be used for thickness above 30mm
3. Double crystal should be used for thin material
As noted in the ASTM E1065 Standard Guide for Evaluating Characteristics
of Ultrasonic Transducers, the acoustic and electrical characteristics which
can be described from the data, are obtained from specific procedures that
are listed below:
Frequency Response--The frequency response may be obtained from one
of two procedures: shock excitation and sinusoidal burst.

Sinusoidal excitation.
Shock excitation
Relative Pulse-Echo Sensitivity--The relative pulse-echo sensitivity may be
obtained from the frequency response data by using a sinusoidal burst
procedure. The value is obtained from the relationship of the amplitude of the
voltage applied to the transducer and the amplitude of the pulse-echo signal
received from a specified target.
Time Response--The time response provides a means for describing the
radio frequency (RF) response of the waveform. A shock excitation, pulse-
echo procedure is used to obtain the response. The time or waveform
responses are recorded from specific targets that are chosen for the type of
transducer under evaluation, for example, immersion, contact straight beam,
or contact angle beam.
Frequency Response--The frequency response of the above transducer has
a peak at 5 MHz and operates over a broad range of frequencies. Its
bandwidth (4.1 to 6.15 MHz) is measured at the -6 dB points, or 70% of the
peak frequency. The useable bandwidth of broadband transducers, especially
in frequency analysis measurements, is often quoted at the -20 dB points.
Transducer sensitivity and bandwidth (more of one means less of the other)
are chosen based on inspection needs.

Complex Electrical Impedance--The complex electrical impedance may be


obtained with commercial impedance measuring instrumentation, and these
measurements may provide the magnitude and phase of the impedance of
the search unit over the operating frequency range of the unit. These
measurements are generally made under laboratory conditions with minimum
cable lengths or external accessories and in accordance with specifications
given by the instrument manufacturer. The value of the magnitude of the
complex electrical impedance may also be obtained using values recorded
from the sinusoidal burst.
Sound Field Measurements--The objective of these measurements is to
establish parameters such as the on-axis and transverse sound beam profiles
for immersion, and flat and curved transducers. These measurements are
often achieved by scanning the sound field with a hydrophone transducer to
map the sound field in three dimensional space. An alternative approach to
sound field measurements is a measure of the transducer's radiating surface
motion using laser interferometry.
3.7: Transducer Modeling
In high-technology manufacturing, part design and simulation of part
inspection is done in the virtual world of the computer. Transducer modeling
is necessary to make accurate predictions of how a part or component might
be inspected, prior to the actual building of that part. Computer modeling is
also used to design ultrasonic transducers.
As noted in the previous section, an ultrasonic transducer may be
characterized by detailed measurements of its electrical and sound radiation
properties. Such measurements can completely determine the response of
any one individual transducer.
There is ongoing research to develop general models that relate electrical
inputs (voltage, current) to mechanical outputs (force, velocity) and vice-versa.
These models can be very robust in giving accurate prediction of transducer
response, but suffer from a lack of accurate modeling of physical variables
inherent in transducer manufacturing. These electrical-mechanical response
models must take into account the physical and electrical components in the
figure below.
The Thompson-Gray Measurement Model, which makes very accurate
predictions of ultrasonic scattering measurements made through liquid-solid
interfaces, does not attempt to model transducer electrical-mechanical
response. The Thompson-Gray Measurement Model approach makes use of
reference data taken with the same transducer(s) to deconvolve electro-
physical characteristics specific to individual transducers. See Section 5.4
Thompson-Gray Measurement Model.

The long term goal in ultrasonic modeling is to incorporate accurate models of


the transducers themselves as well as accurate models of pulser-receivers,
cables, and other components that completely describe any given inspection
setup and allow the accurate prediction of inspection signals.
3.8: Couplants
A couplant is a material (usually liquid) that facilitates the transmission of
ultrasonic energy from the transducer into the test specimen. Couplant is
generally necessary because the acoustic impedance mismatch between air
and solids (i.e. such as the test specimen) is large. Therefore, nearly all of the
energy is reflected and very little is transmitted into the test material. The
couplant displaces the air and makes it possible to get more sound energy
into the test specimen so that a usable ultrasonic signal can be obtained. In
contact ultrasonic testing a thin film of oil, glycerin or water is generally used
between the transducer and the test surface.
Couplant
Immersion Method - Water as a couplant
When scanning over the part or making precise measurements, an immersion
technique is often used. In immersion ultrasonic testing both the transducer
and the part are immersed in the couplant, which is typically water. This
method of coupling makes it easier to maintain consistent coupling while
moving and manipulating the transducer and/or the part.
Squirter Column (bubbler)- Water as a couplant
Squirter Column (bubbler)- Water as a couplant

https://www.youtube.com/user/UltrasonicSciences
Couplant
Couplant
3.9: Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs)
As discussed on the previous page, one of the essential features of ultrasonic
measurements is mechanical coupling between the transducer and the solid
whose properties or structure are to be studied. This coupling is generally
achieved in one of two ways. In immersion measurements, energy is coupled
between the transducer and sample by placing both objects in a tank filled
with a fluid, generally water. In contact measurements, the transducer is
pressed directly against the sample, and coupling is achieved by the
presence of a thin fluid layer inserted between the two. When shear waves
are to be transmitted, the fluid is generally selected to have a significant
viscosity.
Electromagnetic-acoustic transducers (EMAT) acts through totally different
physical principles and do not need couplant. When a wire is placed near the
surface of an electrically conducting object and is driven by a current at the
desired ultrasonic frequency, eddy currents will be induced in a near surface
region of the object. If a static magnetic field is also present, these eddy
currents will experience Lorentz forces of the form
F=IxB
F the Lorentz force is the body force per unit volume, I is the induced
dynamic current density, and B is the static magnetic induction.
The most important application of EMATs has been in nondestructive
evaluation (NDE) applications such as (1) flaw detection or (2) material
property characterization. Couplant free transduction allows operation without
contact at elevated temperatures and in remote locations. The coil and
magnet structure can also be designed to excite complex wave patterns and
polarizations that would be difficult to realize with fluid coupled piezoelectric
probes. In the inference of material properties from precise velocity or
attenuation measurements, using EMATs can eliminate errors associated
with couplant variation, particularly in contact measurements.
F is the body force per unit volume, I is the induced dynamic current
density, and B is the static magnetic induction.
EMAT
A number of practical EMAT configurations are shown below. In each, the
biasing magnet structure, the coil, and the forces on the surface of the solid
are shown in an exploded view. The first three configurations will excite
beams propagating normal to the surface of the half-space and produce
beams with radial, longitudinal, and transverse polarizations, respectively.
The final two use spatially varying stresses to excite beams propagating at
oblique angles or along the surface of a component. Although a great number
of variations on these configurations have been conceived and used in
practice, consideration of these three geometries should suffice to introduce
the fundamentals.

http://www.mie.utoronto.ca/labs/undel/index.php?menu_path=menu_pages/projects_menu.html&content_path=content_pages/fac2_2.html&main_menu=projects&side_menu=page1&sub_side_menu=s2
Electromagnetic acoustic transducer
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_acoustic_transducer

Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) is a transducer for non-contact


sound generation and reception using electromagnetic mechanisms. EMAT is
an ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) method which does not require
contact or couplant, because the sound is directly generated within the
material adjacent to the transducer. Due to this couplant-free feature, EMAT
is particularly useful for automated inspection, and hot, cold, clean, or dry
environments. EMAT is an ideal transducer to generate Shear Horizontal (SH)
bulk wave mode, Surface Wave, Lamb waves and all sorts of other guided-
wave modes in metallic and/or ferromagnetic materials. As an emerging
ultrasonic testing (UT) technique, EMAT can be used for thickness
measurement, flaw detection, and material property characterization. After
decades of research and development, EMAT has found its applications in
many industries such as primary metal manufacturing and processing,
automotive, railroad, pipeline, boiler and pressure vessel industries.
Comparison between EMAT and Piezoelectric Transducers
As an Ultrasonic Testing (UT) method, EMAT has all the advantages of UT
compared to other NDT methods. Just like piezoelectric UT probes, EMAT
probes can be used in pulse echo, pitch-catch, and through-transmission
configurations. EMAT probes can also be assembled into phased array
probes, delivering focusing and beam steering capabilities.

Advantages
Compared to piezoelectric transducers, EMAT probes have the following
advantages:
1. No couplant is needed. Based on the transduction mechanism of EMAT,
couplant is not required. This makes EMAT ideal for inspections at
temperatures below the freezing point and above the evaporation point of
liquid couplants. It also makes it convenient for situations where couplant
handling would be impractical.
2. EMAT is a non-contact method. Although proximity is preferred, a physical
contact between the transducer and the specimen under test is not required.
3. Dry Inspection. Since no couplant is needed, the EMAT inspection can be
performed in a dry environment.
4. Less sensitive to surface condition. With contact-based piezoelectric
transducers, the test surface has to be machined smoothly to ensure
coupling. Using EMAT, the requirements to surface smoothness are less
stringent; the only requirement is to remove loose scale and the like.
5. Easier for sensor deployment. Using piezoelectric transducer, the wave
propagation angle in the test part is affected by Snells law. As a result, a
small variation in sensor deployment may cause a significant change in
the refracted angle.
6. Easier to generate SH-type waves. Using piezoelectric transducers, SH
wave is difficult to couple to the test part. EMAT provide a convenient
means of generating SH bulk wave and SH guided waves.
Challenges and Disadvantages
The disadvantages of EMAT compared to piezoelectric UT can be
summarized as follows:
1. Low transduction efficiency. EMAT transducers typically produce raw
signal of lower power than piezoelectric transducers. As a result, more
sophisticated signal processing techniques are needed to isolate signal
from noise.
2. Limited to metallic or magnetic products. NDT of plastic and ceramic
material is not suitable or at least not convenient using EMAT.
3. Size constraints. Although there are EMAT transducers as small as a
penny, commonly used transducers are large in size. Low-profile EMAT
problems are still under research and development. Due to the size
constraints, EMAT phased array is also difficult to be made from very
small elements.
4. Caution must be taken when handling magnets around steel products.
Applications of EMATs
EMAT has been used in a broad range of applications and has potential to be
used in many other applications. A brief and incomplete list is as follows.

1. Thickness measurement for various applications


2. Flaw detection in steel products
3. Plate lamination defect inspection
4. Bonded structure lamination detection
5. Laser weld inspection for automotive components
6. Various weld inspection for coil join, tubes and pipes.
7. Pipeline in-service inspection.
8. Railroad and wheel inspection
9. Austenitic weld inspection for power industry
10. Material characterization
http://mdienergy.com/emat.html
Cross-sectional view of a spiral coil EMAT exciting radially polarized shear
waves propagating normal to the surface.
EMAT Transducer

http://www-ndc.me.es.osaka-
u.ac.jp/pmwiki_e/pmwiki.php?n=Research.EMATs
Cross-sectional view of a tangential field EMAT for exciting polarized
longitudinal waves propagating normal to the surface.
Cross-sectional view of a normal field EMAT for exciting plane polarized
shear waves propagating normal to the surface.
EMATS

The bulk-shear-wave EMAT


consists of a pair of permanent
magnets and a spiral-elongated
coil. Driving currents in the coil
generate the electromagnet
forces (Lorentz force and
magnetostriction force) parallel
to the surface to generate the
shear waves propagating
normal to the surface
Cross-sectional view of a meander coil EMAT for exciting obliquely
propagating L or SV waves, Rayleigh waves, or guided modes (such as Lamb
waves) in plates.
Cross-sectional view of a periodic permanent magnet EMAT for exciting
grazing or obliquely propagating horizontally polarized (SH) waves or guided
SH modes in plates.
Practical EMAT designs are relatively narrowband and require strong
magnetic fields and large currents to produce ultrasound that is often weaker
than that produced by piezoelectric transducers. Rare-earth materials such as
Samarium-Cobalt and Neodymium-Iron-Boron are often used to produce
sufficiently strong magnetic fields, which may also be generated by pulsed
electromagnets.
The EMAT offers many advantages based on its couplant-free operation.
These advantages include the abilities to operate in remote environments at
elevated speeds and temperatures, to excite polarizations not easily excited
by fluid coupled piezoelectrics, and to produce highly consistent
measurements.
These advantages are tempered by low efficiencies, and careful electronic
design is essential to applications.
3.10: Pulser-Receivers
Ultrasonic pulser-receivers are well suited to general purpose ultrasonic
testing. Along with appropriate transducers and an oscilloscope, they can be
used for flaw detection and thickness gauging in a wide variety of metals,
plastics, ceramics, and composites. Ultrasonic pulser-receivers provide a
unique, low-cost ultrasonic measurement capability
The pulser section of the instrument generates short, large amplitude electric
pulses of controlled energy, which are converted into short ultrasonic
pulses when applied to an ultrasonic transducer. Most pulser sections
have very low impedance outputs to better drive transducers. Control
functions associated with the pulser circuit include:
1. Pulse length or damping (The amount of time the pulse is applied to the
transducer.)
2. Pulse energy (The voltage applied to the transducer. Typical pulser circuits
will apply from 100 volts to 800 volts to a transducer.)

100 volts to 800 volts (1KV~2KV could be used)


Transducer Cut-out
Pulse characteristics

Pulse energy

N= Pulse Rate
Pulse length
Pulse Length: BS4331 Pt2.

N= Pulse Rate

Pulse length

Pulse energy
Pulse Length: BS EN 12668- Part 1 Instrumentation

3.22
pulse duration
time interval during which the modulus of the amplitude of a pulse is 10 % or
more of its peak amplitude.
Pulse Length: A long pulse length may be 15 wavelength , a short pulse
length may be only 2 and a normal pulse length usually about 5 .

The longer the pulse length the more energy, thus more penetrating, however
the resolution and sensitivity deteriorated.
Pulse Length
Pulse Length
Pulse Length
Pulse Length
Pulse Length and Wave form
Pulse-Length and Wave form Quality Factor
Two different pulses with the same frequency, but different duration (pulse
length), i.e. Number of oscillations. The shortest pulse has a wider dispersion
of frequencies, i.e. a greater bandwidth.
Wave form Quality Factor
Pulse Length- x axis time domain
Quality factor- x axis frequency domain

Frequency

Q Factor = fo/(f1-f2)
Pulse-Echo mode of operation, narrow band excitation (tone burst).
Conventional air-coupled transducer with passive matching layers

Two types of excitation: Sinusoidal/Shock.

http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/13/5/5996/htm
Pulse-echo mode of operation, wideband excitation (spike). 1. (Red) Air-
coupled transducer with active matching layer. 2. (Blue) Conventional air-
coupled transducer with passive matching layers.

/4 impedance
matching layers
Modulus of the electrical impedance of the piezocomposite disk vs frequency.
Circles: experimental measurements, solid red line: theoretical calculation.

Z= pV
Sensitivity in pulse-echo mode of operation wideband excitation (spike). 1.
(Red) Air-coupled transducer with active matching layer. 2. (Blue)
Conventional air-coupled transducer with passive matching layers
Transducers
Damping:
Shock wave transducer and low damped transducer : Shock wave
transducers should always be used for wall thickness measurement. For
smaller wall thicknesses this is as important for the pulse separation as is the
frequency itself. For large wall thickness the shock wave is required also for a
perfect start and stop trigger of the time measurement. Low damped
transducers are not recommended.

http://www.ndt.net/article/rohrext/us_pk/us_pk_e.htm
In the receiver section the voltage signals produced by the transducer, which
represent the received ultrasonic pulses, are amplified. The amplified radio
frequency (RF) signal is available as an output for display or capture for
signal processing. Control functions associated with the receiver circuit
include:
1. Signal rectification (The RF signal can be viewed as positive half wave,
negative half wave or full wave.)
2. Filtering to shape and smooth return signals
3. Gain, or signal amplification
4. Reject control
The pulser-receiver is also used in material characterization work involving
sound velocity or attenuation measurements, which can be correlated to
material properties such as elastic modulus. In conjunction with a stepless
gate and a spectrum analyzer, pulser-receivers are also used to study
frequency dependent material properties or to characterize the performance
of ultrasonic transducers.
Pulse/Beam Characteristics
High frequency, short duration pulse exhibit better depth resolution but allow
less penetration. A short time duration pulse only a few cycle is known as
broad band pulse, because its frequency domain equivalent is large. Such
pulse exhibit good depth resolution.

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/thickness_gage/transducers/beam_characteristics/
Transducers of the kind most commonly used for ultrasonic gauging will have
these fundamental functional properties, which in turn affect the properties of
the sound beam that they will generate in a given material:

Type - The transducer will be identified according to its design and function
as a contact, delay line, or immersion type. Physical characteristics of the test
material such as surface roughness, temperature, and accessibility, as well
as its sound transmission properties and the range of thickness to be
measured, will all influence the selection of transducer type.

Diameter - The diameter of the active transducer element, which is normally


housed in a somewhat larger case. Smaller diameter transducers are often
most easily coupled to the test material, while larger diameters may couple
more efficiently into rough surfaces due to an averaging effect. Larger
diameters are also required for design reasons as transducer frequency
decreases.
Frequency - The number of wave cycles completed in one second, normally
expressed in Kilohertz (KHz) or Megahertz (MHz). Most ultrasonic gauging is
done in the frequency range from 500 KHz to 20 MHz, so most transducers
fall within that range, although commercial transducers are available from
below 50 KHz to greater than 200 MHz. Penetration increases with lower
frequency, while resolution and focal sharpness increase with higher
frequency.

Waveform duration - The number of wave cycles generated by the


transducer each time it is pulsed. A narrow bandwidth transducer has more
cycles than a broader bandwidth transducer. Element diameter, backing
material, electrical tuning and transducer excitation method all impact
waveform duration. A short wave duration (broadband response) is desirable
in most thickness gauging applications.
Bandwidth - Typical transducers for thickness gauging do not generate
sound waves at a single pure frequency, but rather over a range of
frequencies centered at the nominal frequency designation. Bandwidth is the
portion of the frequency response that falls within specified amplitude limits.
Broad bandwidth is usually desirable in thickness gauging applications
involving contact, delay line, and immersion transducers.
Sensitivity - The relationship between the amplitude of the excitation pulse
and that of the echo received from a designated target. This is a function of
the energy output of the transducer.

Beam profile - As a working approximation, the beam from a typical


unfocused disk transducer is often thought of as a column of energy
originating from the active element area that travels as a straight column for a
while and then expands in diameter and eventually dissipates, like the beam
from a spotlight.
In fact, the actual beam profile is complex, with pressure gradients in both the
transverse and axial directions. In the beam profile illustration below, red
represents areas of highest energy, while green and blue represent lower
energy.

The exact shape of the beam in a given case is determined by transducer


frequency, transducer diameter, and material sound velocity. The area of
maximum energy a short distance beyond the face of the transducer marks
the transition between beam components known as the near field and the far
field, each of which is characterized by specific types of pressure gradients.
Near field length is an important factor in ultrasonic flaw detection, since it
affects the amplitude of echoes from small flaws like cracks, but it is usually
not a significant factor in thickness gauging applications.
Focusing - Immersion transducers can be focused with acoustic lenses to
create an hourglass-shaped beam that narrows to a small focal zone and
then expands. Certain types of delay line transducers can be focused as well.
Beam focusing is very useful when measuring small diameter tubing or other
test pieces with sharp radiuses, since it concentrates sound energy in a small
area and improves echo response.
Attenuation - As it travels through a medium, the organized wave front
generated by an ultrasonic transducer will begin to break down due to
imperfect transmission of energy through the microstructure of any material.
Organized mechanical vibrations (sound waves) turn into random mechanical
vibrations (heat) until the wave front is no longer detectable. This process is
known as sound attenuation. Attenuation varies with material, and increases
proportionally to frequency. As a general rule, hard materials like metals are
less attenuating than softer materials like plastics. Attenuation ultimately limits
the maximum material thickness that can be measured with a given gage
setup and transducer, since it determines the point at which an echo will be
too small to detect.

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/thickness_gage/transducers/beam_characteristics/
Q15: A significant limitation of a lower frequency, single element transducer is:
a) Scatter of sound beam due to microstructure of test object
b) Increased grain noise or hash
c) (Less beam spread
d) Impaired ability to display discontinuities just below the entry surface

How & Why ?


Reasoning: Pulse/Beam Characteristics
High frequency, short duration pulse exhibit better depth resolution but allow
less penetration.
Lower frequency, longer duration pulse.
3.11: Tone Burst Generators In Research
Tone burst generators are often used in high power ultrasonic applications.
They take low-voltage signals and convert them into high-power pulse trains
for the most power-demanding applications. Their purpose is to transmit
bursts of acoustic energy into a test piece, receive the resulting signals, and
then manipulate and analyze the received signals in various ways. High
power radio frequency (RF) burst capability allows researchers to work with
difficult, highly attenuative materials or inefficient transducers such as EMATs.
A computer interface makes it possible for systems to make high speed
complex measurements, such as those involving multiple frequencies.
Tone burst generators
Tone burst generators

http://www.seekic.com/circuit_diagram/Signal_Processing/SINGLE_TONE_BURST_GENERATOR.html
3.12: Arbitrary Function Generators
Arbitrary waveform generators permit the user to design and generate
virtually any waveform in addition to the standard function generator signals
(i.e. sine wave, square wave, etc.). Waveforms are generated digitally from a
computer's memory, and most instruments allow the downloading of digital
waveform files from computers.
Ultrasonic generation pulses must be varied to accommodate different types
of ultrasonic transducers. General-purpose highly damped contact
transducers are usually excited by a wideband, spike-like pulse provided by
many common pulser/receiver units. The lightly damped transducers used in
high power generation, for example, require a narrowband tone-burst
excitation from a separate generator unit. Sometimes the same transducer
will be excited differently, such as in the study of the dispersion of a material's
ultrasonic attenuation or to characterize ultrasonic transducers.
Section of biphase modulated spread spectrum ultrasonic waveform

http://www.mpi-ultrasonics.com/content/mmm-signal-processing-examples
In spread spectrum ultrasonics (see spread spectrum page), encoded
sound is generated by an arbitrary waveform generator continuously
transmitting coded sound into the part or structure being tested. Instead of
receiving echoes, spread spectrum ultrasonics generates an acoustic
correlation signature having a one-to-one correspondence with the acoustic
state of the part or structure (in its environment) at the instant of
measurement. In its simplest embodiment, the acoustic correlation signature
is generated by cross correlating an encoding sequence (with suitable cross
and auto correlation properties) transmitted into a part (structure) with
received signals returning from the part (structure).
3.13: Electrical Impedance Matching and Termination
When computer systems were first introduced decades ago, they were large,
slow-working devices that were incompatible with each other. Today, national
and international networking standards have established electronic control
protocols that enable different systems to "talk" to each other. The Electronics
Industries Associations (EIA) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE) developed standards that established common terminology
and interface requirements, such as EIA RS-232 and IEEE 802.3. If a system
designer builds equipment to comply with these standards, the equipment will
interface with other systems. But what about analog signals that are used in
ultrasonics?
Data Signals: Input versus Output
Consider the signal going to and from ultrasonic transducers. When you
transmit data through a cable, the requirement usually simplifies into
comparing what goes in one end with what comes out the other. High
frequency pulses degrade or deteriorate when they are passed through
any cable. Both the height of the pulse (magnitude) and the shape of the
pulse (wave form) change dramatically, and the amount of change
depends on the data rate, transmission distance and the cable's electrical
characteristics. Sometimes a marginal electrical cable may perform
adequately if used in only short lengths, but the same cable with the same
data in long lengths will fail. This is why system designers and industry
standards specify precise cable criteria.

1. Recommendation: Observe manufacturer's recommended practices for


cable impedance, cable length, impedance matching, and any
requirements for termination in characteristic impedance.
2. Recommendation: If possible, use the same cables and cable dressing for
all inspections.
Cable Electrical Characteristics
The most important characteristics in an electronic cable are impedance,
attenuation, shielding, and capacitance. In this page, we can only review
these characteristics very generally, however, we will discuss capacitance in
more detail.
Impedance (Ohms) represents the total resistance that the cable presents to
the electrical current passing through it. At low frequencies the impedance is
largely a function of the conductor size, but at high frequencies conductor size,
insulation material, and insulation thickness all affect the cable's impedance.
Matching impedance is very important. If the system is designed to be 100
Ohms, then the cable should match that impedance, otherwise error-
producing reflections are created.
Attenuation is measured in decibels per unit length (dB/m), and provides an
indication of the signal loss as it travels through the cable. Attenuation is very
dependent on signal frequency. A cable that works very well with low
frequency data may do very poorly at higher data rates. Cables with lower
attenuation are better.
Shielding is normally specified as a cable construction detail. For example,
the cable may be unshielded, contain shielded pairs, have an overall
aluminum/mylar tape and drain wire, or have a double shield. Cable shields
usually have two functions: to act as a barrier to keep external signals from
getting in and internal signals from getting out, and to be a part of the
electrical circuit. Shielding effectiveness is very complex to measure and
depends on the data frequency within the cable and the precise shield design.
A shield may be very effective in one frequency range, but a different
frequency may require a completely different design. System designers often
test complete cable assemblies or connected systems for shielding
effectiveness.
Capacitance in a cable is usually measured as picofarads per foot (pf/m). It
indicates how much charge the cable can store within itself. If a voltage signal
is being transmitted by a twisted pair, the insulation of the individual wires
becomes charged by the voltage within the circuit. Since it takes a certain
amount of time for the cable to reach its charged level, this slows down and
interferes with the signal being transmitted. Digital data pulses are a string of
voltage variations that are represented by square waves. A cable with a high
capacitance slows down these signals so that they come out of the cable
looking more like "saw-teeth," rather than square waves. The lower the
capacitance of the cable, the better it performs with high speed data.
3.14 Transducer Quality Factor Q
The quality factor Q of tuned circuit, search units or individual transducer
element is a performance measurement of their frequency selectivity. It is thru
ration of search unit fundamental (resonance ) frequency fo to the band width
(f2-f1) at 3dB down point at both sides.
Quality Factor Q
Quality Factor Q
High quality Q-factor has a narrow frequency range (bandwidth) (i.e. little
damping) and a correspond long spatial pulse length, where as a Low quality
Q-factor transducer has a wide frequency range (bandwidth) and a shorter
spatial pulse length.

As discussed previously highly damped transducer, gives a wider frequency


range provide better spatial resolution. Thus a Low quality Q-factor does not
mean poor choice of transducer.

Continuous-wave ultrasound testing usually employed High qiality Q-factor


transducer.

http://www.slideshare.net/vsrbhupal/echo-meet-final?related=2&utm_campaign=related&utm_medium=1&utm_source=6
3.15: Data Presentation
Ultrasonic data can be collected and displayed in a number of different
formats. The three most common formats are know in the NDT world as:
A-scan,
B-scan
C-scan presentations
D-scan presentations.
Shadow Methods (modified A-Scan ?)
Each presentation mode provides a different way of looking at and evaluating
the region of material being inspected. Modern computerized ultrasonic
scanning systems can display data in all three presentation forms
simultaneously.
Data Presentation: A, B and C-scan recording and principle of scanning
Data Presentation:
3.15.1 A-Scan Presentation
The A-scan presentation displays the amount of
received ultrasonic energy as a function of time.
The relative amount of received energy is
plotted along the vertical axis and the elapsed
time (which may be related to the sound energy
travel time within the material) is displayed
along the horizontal axis. Most instruments with
an A-scan display allow the signal to be
displayed in its:
natural radio frequency form (RF),
as a fully rectified RF signal, or
as either the positive or negative half of the RF
signal.
In the A-scan presentation, relative discontinuity size can be estimated by
comparing the signal amplitude obtained from an unknown reflector to that
from a known reflector. Reflector depth can be determined by the position of
the signal on the horizontal sweep.
In the A-scan presentation, relative discontinuity size can be estimated by
comparing the signal amplitude obtained from an unknown reflector to that
from a known reflector. Reflector depth can be determined by the position of
the signal on the horizontal sweep.

Relative discontinuity size


Reflector depth
A-Scan
A-Scan

http://static3.olympus-ims.com/data/Flash/HTML5/a_scan/A-scan.html?rev=F2E2
In the illustration of the A-scan presentation to the right, the initial pulse
generated by the transducer is represented by the signal IP, which is near
time zero, the transducer is scanned along the surface of the part, four other
signals are likely to appear at different times on the screen. When the
transducer is in its far left position, only the IP signal and signal A, the sound
energy reflecting from surface A, will be seen on the trace. As the transducer
is scanned to the right, a signal from the backwall BW will appear later in time,
showing that the sound has traveled farther to reach this surface. When the
transducer is over flaw B, signal B will appear at a point on the time scale that
is approximately halfway between the IP signal and the BW signal. Since the
IP signal corresponds to the front surface of the material, this indicates that
flaw B is about halfway between the front and back surfaces of the sample.
When the transducer is moved over flaw C, signal C will appear earlier in time
since the sound travel path is shorter and signal B will disappear since sound
will no longer be reflecting from it.
3.15.2 B-Scan

http://static2.olympus-ims.com/data/Flash/HTML5/B_Scan/B-scan.html?rev=5E4D
B-Scan
B-Scan

http://static2.olympus-ims.com/data/Flash/HTML5/B_Scan/B-scan.html?rev=5E4D
B-Scan Presentation
The B-scan presentations is a profile (cross-sectional) view of the test
specimen. In the B-scan, the time-of-flight (travel time) of the sound energy is
displayed along the vertical axis and the linear position of the transducer is
displayed along the horizontal axis. From the B-scan, the depth of the
reflector and its approximate linear dimensions in the scan direction can be
determined. The B-scan is typically produced by establishing a trigger gate on
the A-scan. Whenever the signal intensity is great enough to trigger the gate,
a point is produced on the B-scan. The gate is triggered by the sound
reflecting from the backwall of the specimen and by smaller reflectors within
the material. In the B-scan image above, line A is produced as the transducer
is scanned over the reduced thickness portion of the specimen. When the
transducer moves to the right of this section, the backwall line BW is
produced. When the transducer is over flaws B and C, lines that are similar to
the length of the flaws and at similar depths within the material are drawn on
the B-scan. It should be noted that a limitation to this display technique is that
reflectors may be masked by larger reflectors near the surface.
It should be noted that a limitation to this display technique is that reflectors
may be masked by larger reflectors near the surface.

Masked by C above
B-Scan
Q: In a B-scan display, the length of a screen indication from a discontinuity is
related to:
A. A discontinuitys thickness as measured parallel to the ultrasonic beam
B. The discontinuitys length in the direction of the transducer travel
C. Both A and B
D. None of the above
3.15.3 C-Scan Presentation
The C-scan presentation provides a plan-type view of the location and size of
test specimen features. The plane of the image is parallel to the scan pattern
of the transducer. C-scan presentations are produced with an automated data
acquisition system, such as a computer controlled immersion scanning
system. Typically, a data collection gate is established on the A-scan and the
amplitude or the time-of-flight of the signal is recorded at regular intervals as
the transducer is scanned over the test piece. The relative signal amplitude or
the time-of-flight is displayed as a shade of gray or a color for each of the
positions where data was recorded. The C-scan presentation provides an
image of the features that reflect and scatter the sound within and on the
surfaces of the test piece.
C-Scan

The (1) relative signal


amplitude or (2) the time-
of-flight is displayed as a
shade of gray or a color
for each of the positions
where data was recorded.

http://www.ndt.net/article/pohl/pohl_e.htm
C-Scan
C-Scan / A-Scan
High resolution scans can produce very detailed images. Below are two
ultrasonic C-scan images of a US quarter. Both images were produced using
a pulse-echo technique with the transducer scanned over the head side in an
immersion scanning system. For the C-scan image on the left, the gate was
setup to capture the amplitude of the sound reflecting from the front surface of
the quarter. Light areas in the image indicate areas that reflected a greater
amount of energy back to the transducer. In the C-scan image on the right,
the gate was moved to record the intensity of the sound reflecting from the
back surface of the coin. The details on the back surface are clearly visible
but front surface features are also still visible since the sound energy is
affected by these features as it travels through the front surface of the coin.
C-Scan
C-Scan Recording
C-Scan Recording
3.15.4 The D scan- The D scan gives a side view of the defect seen from a
viewpoint normal to
the B scan. It is usually automated, and shows the length, depth and
through thickness of a defect. The D scan should not be confused with the
delta technique.
The D scan- The D scan gives a side view of the defect seen from a
viewpoint normal to
the B scan. It is usually automated, and shows the length, depth and
through thickness of a defect. The D scan should not be confused with the
delta technique.
AUT Displays
3.15.5 The Through Transmission Shadow Method
This method is also called the intensity-measurement or through-transmission
method and is explained in Fig. 12.1. The shadow of an in-homogeneity,
which is illuminated by an ultrasonic wave, reduces under certain conditions
the intensity of the wave received by a second probe. The name through-
transmission method arises obviously from the fact that two probes are often
positioned face to face on opposite sides of the specimen but that may not
always be the case. Figure 12.2 shows an alternative arrangement of the
shadow method where the beam is reflected before being influenced by the
defect, and equally is could also be reflected afterwards.
The transmission method, which may include either reflection or through
transmission, involves only the measurement of signal attenuation. This
method is also used in flaw detection.

http://static2.olympus-ims.com/data/Flash/HTML5/B_Scan/B-scan.html?rev=5E4D
In the pulse-echo method, it is necessary that an internal flaw reflect at least
part of the sound energy onto a receiving transducer. However, echoes from
flaws are not essential to their detection. Merely the fact that the amplitude of
the back reflection from a test piece is lower than that from an identical
workpiece known to be free of flaws implies that the test piece contains one
or more flaws. The technique of detecting the presence of flaws by sound
attenuation is used in transmission methods as well as in the pulse-echo
method. The main disadvantage of attenuation methods is that flaw depth
cannot be measured.
Fig. 12.1 Principle of the shadow method
Fig. 12.2 Shadow method with reflection
Fig. 12.3 Shadow method with guidance of the sound
3.15.6 Other Presentations
3.16 Testing Techniques
3.16.1 Pulse Echo Method
1. The advantages of pulse echo method is that the deflector could be locate
and assess accurately from one side of specimen.
2. The disadvantage ids that the sound path has to travel twice the distance,
thus more attenuations.
3. The presentation is an A-Scan Dispaly
3.16.2 Through Transmission Techniques
Two probes are used, positioned on opposite sides. The present of reflector is
indicated by reduction or loss of receiving signal amplitude.

1. The advantages is that the sound has to travel a single path, thus material
with higher attenuation could be checked, thicker material could be
checked and higher frequency with improved sensitivity and resolution
could be realized.
2. The disadvantages is that there is no indication of depth, access to both
sides of specimen is required and
change in coupling condition may
be mistaken as defect. More
elaborate set-up

3. The presentation is a Shadow Method


Through Transmission Techniques
The Through Transmission Shadow Method

http://static2.olympus-ims.com/data/Flash/HTML5/B_Scan/B-scan.html?rev=5E4D
3.16.3 The Tandem Techniques
The tandem method employed 2 probe on the same side , with each other
spaced at a predetermined length. One transmitting signal the other set to
received signal if reflected from a defect,\. The distance between the probe
depends on the probe angle, material thickness and the depth of expected
defects. The techniques are used to find for defects at predetermined depth
such as in the root of double V weld. The presentation could be a A-Scan
display.
The Tandem Techniques

Phased array: Complete coverage Conventional UT: Complete


with two probes coverage with > 24 probes

Illustration showing the inspection of one Illustration showing the inspection of


zone. Phased array technology allows the one zone. With conventional UT
simultaneous inspection of all zones with technology several probes are needed
the same probe. Phased array offers to cover all zones.
complete coverage of the weld with one
probe on either side of the weld.

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/pipewizard/
3.16.4 Immersion Methods
In immersion method, compressional probe is mounted on a bridge immersed
in water. The probe could be normal to the test piece as compressional probe
or the bridge could be tilted to generate shear wave of various shear angle.
Probe frequency of 25MHz is not uncommon for immersion method unlike the
contact methods where the thin crustal may be too fragile to handle. The
display could be a A, B, C Scans or through transmission shadow display.
During the set-up of immersion methods, the water path between the probe
and the material surface is delay off the screen, so that the Zero starting point
at the screen represent the front surface of the test material.

It is important to note that the longitudinal velocity in steel is 4 times of that of


water, so the testing of steel the water gap should be greater than one quarter
( ) of steel thickness

Gap water > Steel Thickness, <


(e.g. for 100mm steel the water gap shall be >25mm)
T

T
3.17 UT Equipment Circuitry & Controls
As with computers, the technology concerning ultrasonic equipment and
systems is becoming somewhat transitory. Ultrasonic systems are either
battery operated portable units, multi-component laboratory ultrasonic
systems, or something in between. Whether they are based on modern digital
technology or the fast disappearing analog original, systems (often defined as
instrument plus transducer and cable) basically comprise the following
components circuitry and controls.
3.17.1 Instrument Circuitry:
Although the electronic equipment used for ultrasonic inspection can vary
greatly in detail among equipment manufacturers, all general-purpose units
consist of a power supply, a pulser circuit, a search unit, a receiver-amplifier
circuit, an oscilloscope, and an electronic clock. Many systems also include
electronic equipment for signal conditioning, gating, automatic interpretation,
and integration with a mechanical or electronic scanning system. Moreover,
advances in microprocessor technology have extended the data acquisition
and signal-processing capabilities of ultrasonic inspection systems.
Instrument Circuitry: Time base
The function of the time base, also called "sweep generator" in analog-display
instruments, is to establish a display of sound travel time on the horizontal
scale of the display. The horizontal scale can then be used for distance
readout. The range (coarse range, test range) control adjusts the scale for the
range of distance to be displayed.
Instrument Circuitry: Screen picture of a specimen with back echo R and a
group of defect indications F, with normal sweep at I-m range (a) and with
scale expansion to 250 mm (b)
Instrument Circuitry: Power Supply.
Circuits that supply current for all functions of the instrument constitute the
power supply, which is usually energized by conventional 115-V or 230-V
alternating current. There are, however, many types and sizes of portable
instruments for which the power is supplied by batteries contained in the unit.

Instrument Circuitry: Pulser Circuit.


When electronically triggered, the pulser circuit generates a burst of
alternating voltage. The principal frequency of this burst, its duration, the
profile of the envelope of the burst, and the burst repetition rate may be either
fixed or adjustable, depending on the flexibility of the unit.
Instrument Circuitry: Receiver-amplifier circuits
electronically amplify return signals from the receiving transducer and often
demodulate or otherwise modify the signals into a form suitable for display.
The output from the receiver-amplifier circuit is a signal directly related to the
intensity of the ultrasonic wave impinging on the receiving transducer. This
output is fed into an oscilloscope or other display device.

Instrument Circuitry: Oscilloscope.


Data received are usually displayed on an oscilloscope in either video mode
or radio frequency mode. In video mode display, only peak intensities are
visible on the trace; in the RF mode, it is possible to observe the waveform of
signal voltages. Some instruments have a selector switch so that the operator
can choose the display mode, but others are designed for single-mode
operation only
Instrument Circuitry: Signal-conditioning and gating
circuits are included in many commercial ultrasonic instruments. One
common example of a signal-conditioning feature is a circuit that
electronically compensates for the signal-amplitude loss caused by
attenuation of the ultrasonic pulse in the test piece. Electronic gates, which
monitor returning signals for pulses of selected amplitudes that occur within
selected time-delay ranges, provide automatic interpretation. The set point of
a gate corresponds to a flaw of a certain size that is located within a
prescribed depth range. Gates are often used to trigger alarms or to operate
automatic systems that sort test pieces or identify rejectable pieces.
Instrument Circuitry: Image- and Data-Processing Equipment.
As a result of the development of microprocessors and modern
electronics, many ultrasonic inspection systems possess substantially
improved capabilities in terms of signal processing and data acquisition. This
development allows better flaw detection and evaluation (especially in
composites) by improving the acquisition of transient ultrasonic waveforms
and by enhancing the display and analysis of ultrasonic data. The
development of microprocessor technology has also been useful in portable
C-scan systems with hand-held transducers (see the section "Scanning
Equipment" in this article).
Instrument Circuitry: Clock
The clock circuit initiates a chain of events that results in one complete cycle
of a UT examination. The clock sends a trigger signal, at a regular interval, to
both the (1) time base and to the (2) pulser. As the name clock' implies, this
trigger signal is repeated at a given frequency, called the pulse repetition rate
(PRR). On some instruments pulse repetition rate is adjustable by the
examiner; other instruments do it automatically. The electronic clock, or timer,
serves as a source of logic pulses, reference voltage, and reference
waveform. The clock coordinates operation of the entire electronic system.
Instrument Circuitry: Pulse Repetition Rate PRR
The pulse repetition rate establishes the number of times per second that a
complete test cycle will occur. In instruments with adjustable pulse repetition
rate, adjustment is made by a pulse repetition rate control, sometimes labeled
REP RATE.
Instrument Circuitry: Pulser-Receiver
The pulser emits the electrical signal that activates the transducer. This
signal, known as the initial pulse, is quite brief, usually lasting only several
nanoseconds (10-9, billionths of a second). The output of the initial pulse is in
the order of hundreds of volts; the brief duration provides a fast rise time to
the full voltage. The pulser is connected via output connectors on the
instrument front panel to the transducer cable. The pulser is also connected,
internally, through the receiver circuit, to the display, thus making available
(depending upon the delay setting) a displayed initial pulse signal. This signal
is, of course, present whether or not a transducer is connected to the
instrument. When a transducer is connected, it is in the signal path between
the pulser and the receiver and its output is displayed.
3.17.2 Instrument Control:
Even though the nomenclature used by different instrument manufacturers
may vary, certain controls are required for the basic functions of any
ultrasonic instrument. These functions include power supply, clock, pulser,
receiver-amplifier, and display. In most cases, the entire electronic assembly,
including the controls, is contained in one instrument.
Instrument Control: REJECT Control
It is intended for preventing the display of undesired low amplitude signals,
called grass or hash, caused by metal noise such as echoes from material
grain boundaries or inherent fine porosity. There are two types of REJECT
controls installed on UT instruments: nonlinear REJECT and the more
recently linear REJECT controls. Linear REJECT controls offer the advantage
in that they do not affect vertical linearity of the display.
Instrument Control: DELAY and RANGE Controls
The controls are used to adjust the instruments time base for proper display
of distances. The delay control shifts the horizontal signals to the left and right
without altering the spacing between them. The RANGE control expands or
contracts the spacing between horizontal signals, corresponding to the Range
of the sound travel to be displayed.
Instrument Control: GAIN Control
The sound amplitudes of individual reflectors returning to the transducer
determine the relative heights of the corresponding vertical signals on the
CRT. By adjusting the Gain Control, vertical display sensitivity and therefore
determines the actual amplitude at which signals are displayed.

Gain controls for the receiver-amplifier circuit usually consist of fine- and
coarse-sensitivity selectors or one control marked "sensitivity." For a clean
video display, with low-level electronic noise eliminated, a reject control can
be provided.
Instrument Control: Display Control
The display (oscilloscope) controls are usually screwdriver-adjusted, with the
exception of the scale illumination and power on/off. After initial setup and
calibration, the screwdriver-adjusted controls seldom require additional
adjustment. The controls and their functions for the display unit usually
consist of the following:
Controls for vertical position of the display on the oscilloscope screen.
Controls for horizontal position of display on the oscilloscope screen.
Controls for brightness of display.
Control for adjusting focus of trace on the oscilloscope screen.
Controls to correct for distortion or astigmatism that may be introduced as
the electron beam sweeps across the oscilloscope screen.

An optical system with astigmatism is one where rays that propagate in two
perpendicular planes have different foci. If an optical system with astigmatism
is used to form an image of a cross, the vertical and horizontal lines will be in
sharp focus at two different distances.
A control that varies the level of illumination for a measuring grid usually
incorporated in the transparent faceplate covering the oscilloscope screen.
Timing controls, which usually consist of sweep-delay and sweep-rate
controls, to provide coarse and fine adjustments to suit the material and
thickness of the test piece. The sweep-delay control is also used to
position the sound entry point on the left side of the display screen, with a
back reflection or multiples of back reflections visible on the right side of
the screen.
On/off switch.
Instrument Controls:
A marker circuit, which provides regularly spaced secondary indications
(often in the form of a square wave) on or below the sweep line to serve
the same purpose as scribe marks on a ruler. This circuit is activated or
left out of the display by a marker switch for on/off selection. Usually there
will also be a marker-calibration or marker-adjustment control to permit
selection of marker-circuit frequency. The higher the frequency, the closer
the spacing of square waves, and the more accurate the measurements.
Marker circuits are controlled by timing signals triggered by the electronic
clock. Most modern ultrasonic instruments do not have marker circuits
A Gain circuit to electronically compensate for a drop in the amplitude of
signals reflected from flaws located deep in the test piece. This circuit may
be known as distance-amplitude correction, sensitivity-time control, time-
corrected gain, or time-varied gain
Damping controls that can be used to shorten the pulse duration and
thus adjust the length of the wave packet emanating from the transducer.
Resolution is improved by higher values of damping
High-voltage or low-voltage driving current, which is selected for the
transducer with a transducer voltage switch.
Gated alarm units, which enable the use of automatic alarms when flaws
are detected. This is accomplished by setting up controllable time spans
on the display that correspond to specific zones within the test piece.
Signals appearing within the gates may automatically operate visual or
audible alarms. These signals may also be passed on to display devices
or strip-chart recorders or to external control devices. Gated alarm units
usually have three controls: the gate-start or delay control, which adjusts
the location of the leading edge of the gate on the oscilloscope trace; the
gate-length control, which adjusts the length of the gate or the location of
the gate trailing edge; and the alarm-level or sensitivity control, which
establishes the minimum echo height necessary to activate an alarm
circuit. A positive/negative logic switch determines whether the alarm is
triggered above or below the threshold level.
Instrument Control: Gates
Most UT equipment is equipped with gates that can be superimposed on the
time base so that a rapid response from a particular reflector can be obtained
when they reach a certain predetermined amplitude. This can be adapted as
a go/no-go monitoring device for some examinations. Gates can be set for
an alarm to be triggered at a pre-determined amplitude (positive) with an
increasing signal or (negative) with a decreasing signal amplitude. Gates are
essential for some types of recording systems where they also serve to
provide information to the recording devices or storage systems.
3.17.3 Pulse-Echo Instrumentation (A-Scan)
The UT system includes: the instrument, transducers, calibration standards,
and the object being examined. These elements function together to form a
chain of events during a typical UT that can be summarized as follows:

1. The instruments pulser electrically activates the transducer, causing it to


send sound pulses into the test object.
2. The activation signal, called the initial pulse, is displayed as a vertical
signal on the CRT.
3. As sound travels through the test object, it reflects from boundaries as well
as from discontinuities within the material.
4. The instrument's time base initiates readout of time/distance information
on the horizontal scale of the display.
5. A reflection from the surface opposite the entry surface is called a back
reflection. These reflections reach the transducer, which converts them
into electrical signals that are displayed on the CRT.
Figure above Block diagram circuitries are:
1. Transducer
2. Pulser (clock)
3. Receiver/amplifier
4. Display (screen)

To understand how a typical ultrasonic system operates, it is necessary to


view one cycle of events, or one pulse. The sequence is as follows.

1. The clock signals the pulser to provide a short, high-voltage pulse to the
transducer while simultaneously supplying a voltage to the time-base trigger
module.

2. The time-base trigger starts the spot in the CRT on its journey across the
screen.
3. The voltage pulse reaches the transducer and is converted into mechanical
vibrations (see piezoelectricity ), which enter the test piece. These vibrations
(energy) now travel along their sound path through the test piece. All this
time, the spot is moving horizontally across the CRT.

4. The energy in the test piece now reflects off the interface (back wall) back
toward the transducer, where it is reconverted into a voltage. (The
reconverted voltage is a fraction of its original value.)

5. This voltage is now received and amplified by the receiver/amplifier


- Gain
- Frequency
Pulse Repetition Rate - Reject

Sweep & Range


Typical block diagram of an analog A-scan setup, including video-mode
display, for basic pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection
A basic instrument contains several circuits:
power supply, clock (also called synchronizer or timer),
time base (called sweep generator),
pulser (also called transmitter),
receiver (also called receiver-amplifier), and
display.
3.17.4 B Scan Block diagram:
B-scan display is a plot of time versus distance, in which
one orthogonal axis on the display corresponds to elapsed time (depth),
while the other axis represents the position of the transducer along a line
on the surface of the test piece relative to the position of the transducer at
the start of the inspection.
Echo intensity is not measured directly as it is in A-scan inspection, but is
often indicated semi quantitatively by the relative brightness of echo
indications on an oscilloscope screen. A B-scan display can be likened to an
imaginary cross section through the test piece where both front and back
surfaces are shown in profile. Indications from reflecting interfaces within the
test piece are also shown in profile, and the position, orientation, and depth of
such interfaces along the imaginary cutting plane are revealed.
Applications.
The chief value of B-scan presentations is their ability to reveal the
distribution of flaws in a part on a cross section of that part. Although B-scan
techniques have been more widely used in medical applications than in
industrial applications, B-scans can be used for the rapid screening of parts
and for the selection of certain parts, or portions of certain parts, for more
thorough inspection with A-scan techniques. Optimum results from B-scan
techniques are generally obtained with small transducers and high
frequencies.
Typical B-scan setup, including video-mode display, for basic pulse-echo
ultrasonic inspection
First, the display is generated on an oscilloscope screen that is composed
of a long-persistence phosphor, that is, a phosphor that continues to
fluoresce long after the means of excitation ceases to fall on the
fluorescing area of the screen. This characteristic of the oscilloscope in a
B-scan system allows the imaginary cross section to be viewed as a whole
without having to resort to permanent imaging methods, such as
photographs. (Photographic equipment, facsimile recorders, or x-y plotters
can be used to record B-scan data, especially when a permanent record is
desired for later reference.)

Second, the oscilloscope input for one axis of the display is provided by an
electromechanical device that generates an electrical voltage or digital
signals proportional to the position of the transducer relative to a reference
point on the surface of the test piece. Most B-scans are generated by
scanning the search unit in a straight line across the surface of the test
piece at a uniform rate. One axis of the display, usually the horizontal axis,
represents the distance traveled along this line.
Third, echoes are indicated by bright spots on the screen rather than by
deflections of the time trace. The position of a bright spot along the axis
orthogonal to the search-unit position axis, usually measured top to bottom
on the screen, indicates the depth of the echo within the test piece. Finally,
to ensure that echoes are recorded as bright spots, the echo-intensity
signal from the receiver-amplifier is connected to the trace-brightness
control on the oscilloscope. In some systems, the brightness
corresponding to different values of echo intensity may exhibit enough
contrast to enable semi quantitative appraisal of echo intensity, which is
related to flaw size and shape.
Signal Display.
The oscilloscope screen in Fig. 11 above illustrates the type of video-mode
display that is generated by B-Scan equipment. On this screen, the internal
flaw in the test piece shown at left in Fig. 11 above is shown only as a profile
view of its top reflecting surface. Portions of the test piece that are behind this
large reflecting surface are in shadow. The flaw length in the direction of
search-unit travel is recorded, but the width (in a direction mutually
perpendicular to the sound beam and the direction of search-unit travel) is not
recorded except as it affects echo intensity and therefore echo-image
brightness. Because the sound beam is slightly conical rather than truly
cylindrical, flaws near the back surface of the test piece appear longer than
those near the front surface.
3.17.5 C-scan display
C-scan display records echoes from the internal portions of test pieces as a
function of the position of each reflecting interface within an area. Flaws are
shown on a readout, superimposed on a plan view of the test piece, and both
flaw size (flaw area) and position within the plan view are recorded. Flaw
depth normally is not recorded, although it can be measured semi
quantitatively by restricting the range of depths within the test piece that is
covered in a given scan. With an increasing number of C-scan systems
designed with on-board computers, other options in image processing and
enhancement have become widely used in the presentation of flaw depth and
the characterization of flaws. An example of a computer-processed C-scan
image is shown in Fig. 11, in which a graphite-epoxy sample with impact
damage was examined using time-of-flight data. The depth of damage is
displayed with a color scale in the original photograph.
Typical C-scan setup, including display, for basic pulse-echo ultrasonic
immersion inspection
System Setup.
In a basic C-scan system, shown schematically in Fig. 12 above, the search
unit is moved over the surface of the test piece in a search pattern. The
search pattern may take many forms; for example, a series of closely spaced
parallel lines, a fine raster pattern, or a spiral pattern (polar scan). Mechanical
linkage connects the search unit to x-axis and y-axis position indicators,
which in turn feed position data to the x-y plotter or facsimile device. Echo
recording systems vary; some produce a shaded-line scan with echo intensity
recorded as a variation in line shading, while others indicate flaws by an
absence of shading so that each flaw shows up as a blank space on the
display (Fig. 12) above.
Gating. (Depth Gate)
An electronic depth gate is another essential element in C-scan systems. A
depth gate is an electronic circuit that allows only those echo signals that are
received within a limited range of delay times following the initial pulse or
interface echo to be admitted to the receiver-amplifier circuit. Usually, the
depth gate is set so that front reflections and back reflections are just barely
excluded from the display. Thus, only echoes from within the test piece are
recorded, except for echoes from thin layers adjacent to both surfaces of the
test piece. Depth gates are adjustable. By setting a depth gate for a narrow
range of delay times, echo signals from a thin slice of the test piece parallel to
the scanned surface can be recorded, with signals from other portions being
excluded from the display.
Some C-scan systems, particularly automatic units, incorporate additional
electronic gating circuits for marking, alarming, or charting. These gates can
record or indicate information such as flaw depth or loss of back reflection,
while the main display records an overall picture of flaw distribution.
Q79: In the pulse echo instrument, the synchronizer, clock, or timer circuit
determine the:
a) Pulse length
b) Gain
c) Pulse repetition rate
d) Sweep range
Q1: In an ultrasonic test system where signal amplitudes are displayed, an
advantage of a frequency independent attenuator over a continuously
variable gain control is that:
A. The pulse shape is less distorted
B. The signal amplitude measured using the attenuator is independent
of frequency
C. The dynamic range of the system id decreased
D. The effect of amplification threshold is avoided.

Definition: Switch that controls the output power of the HV generator is


the attenuator.
Q1: The rate generator in B-scan equipment will invariably be directly
connected to the:
A. The display intensity circuit
B. The pulser circuit
C. The RF amplifier circuit
D. The horizontal sweep circuit
Q30: The time from the start of the ultrasonic pulse to the reverberations
complete decay limit the maximum usable:
A. Pulse time-flaw rate
B. Pulse/receiver rate
C. Pulse repetition rate
D. Modified pulse-time rate

Hint: A/B/D could not be the correct answers as they were not even the standard terms used.
Q129: An A-scan display, which shows a signal both above and below the
sweep line is called:
A. A video display
B. A RF display
C. An audio display
D. Frequency modulated display
Q166: In a basic pulse echo instrument, the sunchronizer, clock or timer
circuit determines the:
A. Pulse length
B. Gain
C. Pulse repetition rate
D. Sweep length
Q32: On many ultrasonic testing instruments, an operator conducting an
immersion test can remove that portion of the screen presentation that
represents water distance by adjusting a:
A. Pulse length control.
B. Reject control.
C. Sweep delay control.
D. Sweep length control.
121. In an ultrasonic instrument, the number of pulses produced by an
instrument in a given period of time is known as the:
A. Pulse length of the instrument
B. Pulse recovery time
C. Frequency
D. Pulse repetition rate

122. In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that


coordinates the action and timing of other components is called a:
A. Display unit
B. Receiver
C. Marker circuit or range marker circuit
D. Synchronizer, clock, or timer
123. In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that
produces the voltage that activates the transducer is called:

A. An amplifier
B. A receiver
C. A pulser
D. A synchronizer

124. In basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that produces
the time base line is called a:

A. Sweep circuit
B. Receiver
C. Pulser
D. Synchronizer
125. In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that
produces visible signals on the CRT which are used to measure distance is
called a:
A. Sweep circuit
B. Marker circuit
C. Receiver circuit
D. Synchronizer

126. Most basic pulse echo ultrasonic instruments use:


A. Automatic read-out equipment
B. An A-scan presentation
C. A B-scan presentation
D. A C-scan presentation
3.18 Further Reading on Sub-Section 3
3.18.1 What is reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference?
What exactly is reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference?
Reflection occurs when a wave hits something and then bounces it off it.
Refraction is the bending of a wave caused by a change in its speed as it
moves from one medium to another.
Diffraction occurs when an object causes a wave to change direction and
bend around it. Interference is when two or more waves overlap and combine
to make a new wave of lesser or more amplitude.
This picture shows how reflection of light works
and the names of the beams in a reflection.

http://light-and-sound-
project.wikispaces.com/3.+What+is+reflection,+refraction,+diffraction,+
and+interference%3F
3.18.2 Reflection

In this picture there is two different beams, and those beams create angles.
The beams are referred to as the reflected beam and the incident beam. The
dotted line is the line that is perpendicular to the mirror, and it splits the large
angle into the two different angles. The first angle is the angle of reflection,
and it is formed by the reflected beam and the perpendicular line. The other
angle is the angle of incidence which is formed by the incident beam and the
perpendicular line. These two angles are always the same measure, although
it sometimes might be a larger or smaller angle.
How do reflection, refraction, and diffraction relate to light?
Reflection happens when a light is turned on, and it is in an enclosed area. If
someone is in a enclosed area, and a light is turned on they are going to be
able to see it. Then the light will continue, hit a wall, and it would reflect back
to the human eye.
This picture shows how water waves will diffract around an island. This
picture also shows constructive and destructive interference.

The diffraction happens in this picture when the water waves pass between
the two rocks. When the waves get onto the other side of the two rocks the
waves are shaped as an arc (a U shape). The constructive and destructive
interference happens by the rock in the middle of the picture to the left. The
waves that are passing between the two rocks meet up with the waves
passing around the one rock to the left, and the waves combine. Some waves
will cancel each other out, and some will add to each other and make a
bigger amplitude.
3.18.3 Refraction happens
when light is shown through
another material, and it changes
the way it is being shown. An
example is when you fill a cup
with water, and then you place
a pencil in the water. When you
look at the pencil from the side
it looks as though the pencil is
broken where the pencil enters
the water. This is due to
refraction, and the bending of
the waves before it enters your
eyes. This picture shows the
broken pencil experiment.
3.18.4 Diffraction
Diffraction
Diffraction
Diffraction
Diffraction
Diffraction
Diffraction
Diffraction happen when light tries to go through an opening. If you are in a
dark hallway, and a room has a light on, you will be able to see he light, but it
will only light up a section of the hallway, and you won't be in the light until
you are almost directly in front of the room.
This diagram shows an interference. In this diagram it happens to be
constructive interference, but this is not the only type of interference.
3.18.5 Interference
Interference
Interference
3.19 Questions & Answers
Q11: When maximum sensitivity is required from a transducer:
A. Straight beam transducer should be used
B. Large diameter crystals are required
C. The piezoelectric element should be driven at its fundamental
frequency
D. The bandwidth of the transducer should be as large as possible.
Q12: The 1 MHz transducer that should normally have the best time of
distance resolution is a:
A. Quartz crystal with air backing
B. Quartz crystal with phenolic backing
C. Barium titanate transducer with phenolic backing
D. Lithium Sulphate transducer with epoxy backing

Hint: 1 MHz as Lithium Sulphate is not easily cut to very thin thickness, best
distance resolution due to the fact the Lithium Sulphate is the best receiver of
ultrasound energy.
Q3: The ultrasonic instrument used for examination of welding shall be
capable of generating frequencies:

A. more than 5 MHz


B. more than 10 MHz
C. less than 1 MHz
D. 1 MHz to 5 MHz

Q4. Calibration of ultrasonic equipment shall be done


A. at beginning of examination
B. both at beginning and end of the examination
C. both at beginning and also at every two hours interval
D. at beginning end, every two hours interval and whenever a change
operator
Q4. Calibration of ultrasonic equipment shall be done
at beginning of examination
both at beginning and end of the examination
both at beginning and also at every two hours interval
at beginning end, every two hours interval and whenever a change
operator
Q15: Entry surface resolution is a characteristic of an ultrasonic testing
system which defines its ability to:

A. Detect discontinuities oriented in a direction parallel to the ultrasonic beam.


B. Detect discontinuities located in the center of a forging containing a fine
metallurgic structure.
C. Detect minute surface scratches.
D. Detect discontinuities located just beneath the entry surface in the
part being tested.
Discussion Topic: Factors affecting the Entry Surface Resolution

Q15: Entry surface resolution is a characteristic of an ultrasonic testing system which defines its ability to:

A. Detect discontinuities oriented in a direction parallel to the ultrasonic beam.


B. Detect discontinuities located in the center of a forging containing a fine metallurgic structure.
C. Detect minute surface scratches.
D. Detect discontinuities located just beneath the entry surface in the part being tested.

List of factors:
Expert at Works-Salute!
Experts at Work-Salute!
Section 4: Calibration Methods
Content: Section 4: Calibration Methods
4.1: Calibration Methods
4.2: The Calibrations
4.2.1: Distance Amplitude Correction (DAC)
4.2.2: Finding the probe index
4.2.3: Checking the probe angle
4.2.4: Calibration of shear waves for range V1 Block
4.2.5: Dead Zone
4.2.7: Transfer Correction
4.2.8: Linearity Checks (Time Base/ Equipment Gain/ Vertical Gain)
4.2.9: TCG-Time Correction Gain
4.3: Curvature Correction
4.4: Calibration References & Standards
4.5: Questions & Answers
4.6: Video Time
4.1: Calibration Methods
Calibration refers to the act of evaluating and adjusting the precision and
accuracy of measurement equipment. In ultrasonic testing, several forms of
calibration must occur. First, the electronics of the equipment must be
calibrated to ensure that they are performing as designed. This operation is
usually performed by the equipment manufacturer and will not be discussed
further in this material. It is also usually necessary for the operator to perform
a "user calibration" of the equipment. This user calibration is necessary
because most ultrasonic equipment can be reconfigured for use in a large
variety of applications. The user must "calibrate" the system, which includes
the equipment settings, the transducer, and the test setup, to validate that the
desired level of (1) precision and (2) accuracy are achieved. The term
calibration standard is usually only used when an absolute value is measured
and in many cases, the standards are traceable back to standards at the
National Institute for Standards and Technology.
Calibrations
In ultrasonic testing, there is also a need for reference standards. Reference
standards are used to establish a general level of consistency in
measurements and to help interpret and quantify the information contained in
the received signal. Reference standards are used to validate that the
equipment and the setup provide similar results from one day to the next and
that similar results are produced by different systems. Reference standards
also help the inspector to estimate the size of flaws. In a pulse-echo type
setup, signal strength depends on both the size of the flaw and the distance
between the flaw and the transducer. The inspector can use a reference
standard with an artificially induced flaw of known size and at approximately
the same distance away for the transducer to produce a signal. By comparing
the signal from the reference standard to that received from the actual flaw,
the inspector can estimate the flaw size.
This section will discuss some of the more common calibration and reference
specimen that are used in ultrasonic inspection. Some of these specimens
are shown in the figure above. Be aware that there are other standards
available and that specially designed standards may be required for many
applications. The information provided here is intended to serve a general
introduction to the standards and not to be instruction on the proper use of the
standards.
Introduction to the Common Standards
Calibration and reference standards for ultrasonic testing come in many
shapes and sizes. The type of standard used is dependent on the NDE
application and the form and shape of the object being evaluated. The
material of the reference standard should be the same as the material being
inspected and the artificially induced flaw should closely resemble that of the
actual flaw. This second requirement is a major limitation of most standard
reference samples. Most use drilled holes and notches that do not closely
represent real flaws. In most cases the artificially induced defects in reference
standards are better reflectors of sound energy (due to their flatter and
smoother surfaces) and produce indications that are larger than those that a
similar sized flaw would produce. Producing more "realistic" defects is cost
prohibitive in most cases and, therefore, the inspector can only make an
estimate of the flaw size. Computer programs that allow the inspector to
create computer simulated models of the part and flaw may one day lessen
this limitation.
The IIW Type Calibration Block
The IIW Type Calibration Block
The IIW Type 2 Calibration Block
The IIW Type I Calibration Block
EN12223:1999 Calibration Block
The IIW Phase Array Calibration Block
The IIW Calibration Block
1st Check Index / Check Range
The IIW Calibration Block
2nd Check Angle
The IIW Calibration Block
2nd Check Angle
Find probe angle

Find Index/Range/Resolution
The IIW Phase Array Calibration Block
3rd Check Resolution

Check Resolution
V2 Calibration Block
The IIW 2 Calibration Block
Check focal point
Check probe angle
Check range
Can not Check resolution
Calibration Blocks
Calibration Blocks- Area Amplitude Block
The standard shown in the above figure is commonly known in the US as an
IIW type reference block. IIW is an acronym for the International Institute of
Welding. It is referred to as an IIW "type" reference block because it was
patterned after the "true" IIW block but does not conform to IIW requirements
in IIS/IIW-23-59. "True" IIW blocks are only made out of steel (to be precise,
killed, open hearth or electric furnace, low-carbon steel in the normalized
condition with a grain size of McQuaid-Ehn #8) where IIW "type" blocks can
be commercially obtained in a selection of materials. The dimensions of "true"
IIW blocks are in metric units while IIW "type" blocks usually have English
units. IIW "type" blocks may also include additional calibration and references
features such as notches, circular groves, and scales that are not specified by
IIW. There are two full-sized and a mini versions of the IIW type blocks. The
Mini version is about one-half the size of the full-sized block and weighs only
about one-fourth as much. The IIW type US-1 block was derived the basic
"true" IIW block and is shown below in the figure on the left. The IIW type US-
2 block was developed for US Air Force application and is shown below in the
center. The Mini version is shown on the right.
IIW Blocks- US-1

IIW Type US-1


IIW Blocks- IIW Type US-2
IIW Blocks- IIW Type Mini
V1/5, A2 Block
IIW type blocks are used to calibrate instruments for both angle beam and
normal incident inspections. Some of their uses include setting metal-distance
and sensitivity settings, determining the sound exit point and refracted angle
of angle beam transducers, and evaluating depth resolution of normal beam
inspection setups. Instructions on using the IIW type blocks can be found in
the annex of American Society for Testing and Materials Standard E164,
Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Examination of Weldments.

The Miniature Angle-Beam or ROMPAS Calibration Block


DSC Block, Mini block, Rompas Block are all mini blocks.

ROMPAS Calibration Block

AWS Shear Wave


Distance/Sensitivity
Calibration (DSC) Block
A block that closely resembles the miniature angle-beam block and is used in
a similar way is the DSC AWS Block. This block is used to determine the
beam exit point and refracted angle of angle-beam transducers and to
calibrate distance and set the sensitivity for both normal and angle beam
inspection setups. Instructions on using the DSC block can be found in the
annex of American Society for Testing and Materials Standard E164,
Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Examination of Weldments.
A block that closely resembles the miniature angle-beam block and is used in
a similar way is the DSC AWS Block. This block is used to determine the
beam exit point and refracted angle of angle-beam transducers and to
calibrate distance and set the sensitivity for both normal and angle beam
inspection setups. Instructions on using the DSC block can be found in the
annex of American Society for Testing and Materials Standard E164,
Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Examination of Weldments.
DSC AWS Block
Calibration Range Using DSC AWS Block

www.youtube.com/embed/TEQ8Qrz4D-A
AWS Shear Wave Distance Calibration (DC) Block
AWS Shear Wave Distance Calibration (DC) Block
The DC AWS Block is a metal path distance and beam exit point calibration
standard that conforms to the requirements of the American Welding Society
(AWS) and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO). Instructions on using the DC block can be found in the
annex of American Society for Testing and Materials Standard E164,
Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Examination of Weldments.
AWS Resolution Calibration (RC) Block
The RC Block is used to determine the resolution of angle beam transducers
per the requirements of AWS and AASHTO. Engraved Index markers are
provided for 45, 60, and 70 degree refracted angle beams.
The RC Block is used to determine the resolution of angle beam transducers
per the requirements of AWS and AASHTO. Engraved Index markers are
provided for 45, 60, and 70 degree refracted angle beams.
30 FBH Resolution Reference Block

The 30 FBH resolution reference block is used to evaluate the near-surface


resolution and flaw size/depth sensitivity of a normal-beam setup. The block
contains number 3 (3/64"), 5 (5/64"), and 8 (8/64") ASTM flat bottom holes at
ten metal-distances ranging from 0.050 inch (1.27 mm) to 1.250 inch (31.75
mm).
Miniature Resolution Block

The miniature resolution block is used to evaluate the near-surface resolution


and sensitivity of a normal-beam setup It can be used to calibrate high-
resolution thickness gages over the range of 0.015 inches (0.381 mm) to
0.125 inches (3.175 mm).
Step and Tapered Calibration Wedges

Step and tapered calibration wedges come in a large variety of sizes and
configurations. Step wedges are typically manufactured with four or five steps
but custom wedge can be obtained with any number of steps. Tapered
wedges have a constant taper over the desired thickness range.
Distance/Sensitivity (DS) Block

The DS test block is a calibration standard used to check the horizontal


linearity and the dB accuracy per requirements of AWS and AASHTO.
Area Amplitude Blocks provide standards for discontinuities of different size
at the same depth

Distance Amplitude Blocks provide standards for discontinuities of same size


at the different depth
The ASTM basic set of Area/Distance Amplitude Blocks consists of ten, two
inches diameter blocks
The ASTM basic set of Area/Distance Amplitude Blocks consisits of ten, two
inches diameter blocks
Distance/Area-Amplitude Blocks
Distance/area amplitude correction blocks typically are purchased as a ten-
block set, as shown above. Aluminum sets are manufactured per the
requirements of ASTM E127 and steel sets per ASTM E428. Sets can also be
purchased in titanium. Each block contains a single flat-bottomed, plugged
hole. The hole sizes and metal path distances are as follows:

3/64" at 3"
5/64" at 1/8", 1/4", 1/2", 3/4", 11/2", 3", and 6"
8/64" at 3" and 6"

Sets are commonly sold in 4340 Vacuum melt Steel, 7075-T6 Aluminum, and
Type 304 Corrosion Resistant Steel. Aluminum blocks are fabricated per the
requirements of ASTM E127, Standard Practice for Fabricating and Checking
Aluminum Alloy Ultrasonic Standard Reference Blocks. Steel blocks are
fabricated per the requirements of ASTM E428, Standard Practice for
Fabrication and Control of Steel Reference Blocks Used in Ultrasonic
Inspection.
ASTM E 127
Area-Amplitude Blocks
Area-amplitude blocks are also usually purchased in an eight-block set and
look very similar to Distance/Area-Amplitude Blocks. However, area-
amplitude blocks have a constant 3-inch metal path distance and the hole
sizes are varied from 1/64" to 8/64" in 1/64" steps. The blocks are used to
determine the relationship between flaw size and signal amplitude by
comparing signal responses for the different sized holes. Sets are commonly
sold in 4340 Vacuum melt Steel, 7075-T6 Aluminum, and Type 304 Corrosion
Resistant Steel. Aluminum blocks are fabricated per the requirements of
ASTM E127, Standard Practice for Fabricating and Checking Aluminum Alloy
Ultrasonic Standard Reference Blocks. Steel blocks are fabricated per the
requirements of ASTM E428, Standard Practice for Fabrication and Control of
Steel Reference Blocks Used in Ultrasonic Inspection.
Distance-Amplitude #3, #5, #8 FBH Blocks
Distance-amplitude blocks also very similar to the distance/area-amplitude
blocks pictured above. Nineteen block sets with flat-bottom holes of a single
size and varying metal path distances are also commercially available. Sets
have either a #3 (3/64") FBH, a #5 (5/64") FBH, or a #8 (8/64") FBH. The
metal path distances are 1/16", 1/8", 1/4", 3/8", 1/2", 5/8", 3/4", 7/8", 1", 1-1/4",
1-3/4", 2-1/4", 2-3/4", 3-14", 3-3/4", 4-1/4", 4-3/4", 5-1/4", and 5-3/4". The
relationship between the metal path distance and the signal amplitude is
determined by comparing signals from same size flaws at different depth.
Sets are commonly sold in 4340 Vacuum melt Steel, 7075-T6 Aluminum, and
Type 304 Corrosion Resistant Steel. Aluminum blocks are fabricated per the
requirements of ASTM E127, Standard Practice for Fabricating and Checking
Aluminum Alloy Ultrasonic Standard Reference Blocks. Steel blocks are
fabricated per the requirements of ASTM E428, Standard Practice for
Fabrication and Control of Steel Reference Blocks Used in Ultrasonic
Inspection.
Key Words:
Distance Amplitude Blocks
DSC Distance sensitivity calibration
DC Distance calibration
SC Sensitivity calibration
AWS RC AWS Resolution Calibration.
Q56: On the area-amplitude ultrasonic standard test blocks, the flat-bottomed
holes in the blocks are:

A. All of the same diameter


B. Different in diameter, increasing by 1/64 inch increments from the
No. 1 block to the No. 8 block
C. Largest in the No. 1 block and smallest in the No. 8 block
D. Drilled to different depths from the front surface of the test block
Q: A primary purpose of a reference standard is:

A. To provide a guide for adjusting instrument controls to reveal


discontinuities that are considered harmful to the end use of the
product.
B. To give the technician a tool for determining exact discontinuity size
C. To provide assurance that all discontinuities smaller than a certain
specified reference reflector are capable of being directed by the test.
D. To provide a standard reflector which exactly simulates natural
discontinuities of a critical size.
4.2: The Calibrations
4.2.1: Distance Amplitude Correction (DAC)
Distance Amplitude Correction (DAC): Acoustic signals from the same
reflecting surface will have different amplitudes at different distances from the
transducer. Distance amplitude correction (DAC) provides a means of
establishing a graphic reference level sensitivity as a function of sweep
distance on the A-scan display. The use of DAC allows signals reflected from
similar discontinuities to be evaluated where signal attenuation as a function
of depth has been correlated. Most often DAC will allow for loss in amplitude
over material depth (time), graphically on the A-scan display but can also be
done electronically by certain instruments. Because near field length and
beam spread vary according to transducer size and frequency, and materials
vary in attenuation and velocity, a DAC curve must be established for each
different situation. DAC may be employed in both longitudinal and shear
modes of operation as well as either contact or immersion inspection
techniques.
DAC Curve
http://www.huatecgroup.com/china-digital_portable_dac_avg_curves_ultrasonic_flaw_detector_ut_flaw_detector_fd350-632512.html
DAC- Distance Amplitude Correction
DAC- Distance Amplitude Correction
DGS- Distance Gain Size
A distance amplitude correction curve is constructed from the peak amplitude
responses from reflectors of equal area at different distances in the same
material. A-scan echoes are displayed at their non-electronically
compensated height and the peak amplitude of each signal is marked on the
flaw detector screen or, preferably, on a transparent plastic sheet attached to
the screen. Reference standards which incorporate side drilled holes (SDH),
flat bottom holes (FBH), or notches whereby the reflectors are located at
varying depths are commonly used. It is important to recognize that
regardless of the type of reflector used, the size and shape of the reflector
must be constant. Commercially available reference standards for
constructing DAC include ASTM Distance/Area Amplitude and ASTM E1158
Distance Amplitude blocks, NAVSHIPS Test block, and ASME Basic
Calibration Blocks.
The following applet shows a test block with a side drilled hole. The
transducer was chosen so that the signal in the shortest pulse-echo path is in
the far-field. The transducer may be moved finding signals at depth ratios of 1,
3, 5, and 7. Red points are "drawn" at the peaks of the signals and are used
to form the distance amplitude correction curve drawn in blue. Start by
pressing the green "Test now!" button. After determining the amplitudes for
various path lengths (4), press "Draw DAC" and then press the green "Test
now!" button.
DAC Java

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/CalibrationMeth/applet2/applet2.htm
Developing a Distance Amplitude Correction (DAC) Curve

Distance Amplitude Correction (DAC) provides a means of establishing a


graphic reference level sensitivity as a function of sweep distance on the A-
scan display. The use of DAC allows signals reflected from similar
discontinuities to be evaluated where signal attenuation as a function of depth
may be correlated. In establishing the DAC curve, all A-scan echoes are
displayed at their non-electronically compensated height.

Construction of a DAC involves the use of reference standards which


incorporate side drilled holes (SDH), flat bottom holes (FBH), or notches
whereby the reflectors are located at varying depths. It is important to
recognize regardless of the type of reflector that is used in constructing the
DAC, the size and shape of the reflector must be constant over the sound
path distance. Commercially available reference standards for constructing
DAC include ASTM Distance/Area Amplitude and ASTM E1158 Distance
Amplitude blocks, NAVSHIPS Test block, and ASME Basic Calibration
Blocks.
Sequence for constructing a DAC curve when performing a straight
beam contact inspection on 1 thick material.

1.) Using a suitable reference standard, calibrate the sweep for a distance
appropriate for the material to be inspected, i.e.. using a 1 thick standard,
calibrate the sweep for 2 of material travel.
Back Wall Echo
Back Wall Echo

Sweep 2 / Distance 1
2.) This example represents the use a 1 3/4 thick reference standard with
1/8 side drilled holes located at 1/4 T and 3/4 T respectively. T being equal
to the block thickness.
3.) Position the transducer over the 1/4T hole and peak the signal to
approximately 80% FSH (Full screen height), mark the peak of the echo on
the display using a suitable marker, and record the gain setting.
4.) With no further adjustments to the gain control, position the transducer
over the 3/4T hole and peak the signal, mark the peak of the echo on the
display.
5.) To complete the DAC curve connect the dots with a smooth line. The
completed curve represents the reference level sensitivity for this application.
Plotting DAC Curve
DAC Curve
DAC Curve
Gain Control for FSH: It should be remember that the dB is a means of
comparing signals. All UT sets are different and a FSH with a gain controls of
36dB in one UT set and be at FSH at another UT set with a gain control
reading of 26dB.

The gain controls allow us to set sensitivity and form the basis of Ultrasonic
Sizing Techniques.
Birring NDT Series, Ultrasonic Distance Amplitude Correction - DAC

www.youtube.com/embed/qUqaF0PnLGA?list=UUZncq6JFram3pfQDlzGggwA
Alta Vista UT Calibration DAC Curve

www.youtube.com/embed/VNgMKlp43I8
4.2.2: Finding the probe index
Exit Point
A2 Block
Exit Point- A5 Block
Q16: Notches are frequently used as a reference reflector for:
A. Distance amplitude calibration for shear wave
B. Area amplitude calibration
C. Thickness calibration for plate
D. Determining the near-surface resolution
Checking the probe angle
Probe Angles- A2 Block
Probe Angles- A5 Block
4.2.4: Calibration of shear waves for range V1 Block
Calibration of shear waves for range V1 Block
1st Echo from circular Section
Echo from 100mm circular Section
Calibration of shear waves for range V1 Block

Test block 1 for calibrating the


time base (depth scale) of a flaw
detector for vertical probes
(longitudinal waves) for angle
probes (transverse waves), for
determining the probe index and
beam angle of angle probes, and
for checking the short term
consistency of the sensitivity of
vertical probes
Calibration of shear waves for range V2 Block
25 mm radius from V2 Block
50 mm radius from V2 Block
100 mm radius from K2 Block
Calibration of shear waves for range V2 Block
Shear Wave Distance Calibration IIW Block & DSC Blocks

www.youtube.com/embed/RmtHmtOozic
Exit Point /Range/Probe Angle calibration using IIW Block (Repeat-Code1)

www.youtube.com/embed/Qr0dGNuq9yY
4.2.5: Dead Zone
Determine the dead zone by finding the hole echo which is easily
identifiable from the probe noise at the shortest range
Dead Zone

Determine the dead zone by


finding the hole echo which is
easily identifiable from the probe
noise at the shortest range
4.2.6: 20 dB Profile- A5 Block
20 dB Profile
Probe Beam Line of Symmetry
20 dB Profile
Probe Beam Sound Pressure
4.2.7: Transfer Correction
Methods of compensating for transfer and attenuation loss differences for
0attenuation 000compression probes and for shear wave compression
probes. These are based on obtaining similar echo responses on both the
calibration block and on the component.

For 0degree probes backwall echoes are used to probes establish transfer
and attenuation correction.

For shear wave probes two identical probes are used in pitch-catch in
order to obtain what are effectively backwall echoes.

either method cannot be used if the either component does not have a
convenient parallel section.
Example:
0 degree Probe Calibration
40mm thick block Gain to achieve FSH
Example:
0 degree Probe Calibration
30mm thick block Gain to achieve FSH
TRANSFER & ATTENUATION CORRECTION:
0 degree Probes

If the results are plotted on


log -linear paper they will
form straight parallel lines
provided that there is no
attenuation difference if an
attenuation difference
occurs then the resultant
lines will no longer be
parallel.
Transfer and Attenuation Correction: Shear Probe
The principle for obtaining transfer correction for shear wave probes is the
same as it was for compression probes except that backwall echoes are
replaced by pitch --catch responses.
4.2.8: Linearity Checks (Time Base / Equipment Gain / Vertical Gain)
4.2.8.1: Linearity of time base
General
This check may be carried out using a standard calibration block eg A2,
and a compressional wave probe. The linearity should be checked over a
range at least equal to that which is to be used in subsequent testing.

Method
a) Place the probe on the 25mm thickness of the A2 block and adjust the
controls to display ten BWEs.
b) Adjust the controls so that the first and last BWEs coincide with the scale
marks at 1 and 10.
c) Increase the gain to bring successive backwall echoes to 80% FSH. The
leading edge of each echo should line up with the appropriate reticules
line.
d) Record any deviations at approximately half screen height. Deviations
should be expressed as a percentage of the range between the first and
last echoes displayed (ie 225mm).
Tolerance
Unless otherwise specified by the testing standard, a tolerance of 2% is
considered acceptable.
Frequency of checking
This check shall be carried out at least once per week.
Ultrasonic Testing - Horizontal Linearity (Calibration)

www.youtube.com/embed/NuS6j0SmjKQ
4.2.8.2: Linearity of Equipment Gains
General
This is a check on both the linearity of the amplifier within the set and the
calibrated gain control. It can be carried out on any calibration block
containing a side-drilled hole and should be the probe to be used in
subsequent testing. Reject/suppression controls shall be switched off.

Method
Position the probe on a calibration block to obtain a reflected signal from a
small reflector eg 1.5mm hole in the A2 block.
Adjust the gain to set this signal to 80% FSH and note the gain setting (dB).
- Increase the gain by 2dB and record the amplitude of the signal.
- Remove the 2dB and return the signal to 80% FSH.
- Reduce the gain by 6dB and record signal amplitude.
- Reduce the gain by a further 12dB (18 intotal) and record signal amplitude.
- Reduce the gain by a further 6dB (24 in total) and record signal amplitude.
Tolerance

Frequency of checking
The check shall be carried out at least once per week.
5.2.8.3-1: Linearity of vertical display to EN12668-1
Procedure: Test the ultrasonic instrument screen linearity by altering the
amplitude of a reference input using an external calibrated attenuator and
observing the change in the signal height on the ultrasonic instrument
screen. Report the gain setting at the beginning of the test. Check the
linearity at prescribed intervals from 0 dB to - 26 dB of full screen height.
Repeat the test for centre frequencies for of each filter as measured in 9.5.2.

Using the same set-up shown in Figure 6 set the external calibrated attenuator
to 2 dB and adjust the input signal and the gain of the ultrasonic instrument
so the signal is 80 % of full screen height. Without changing the gain of the
ultrasonic instrument switch the external calibrated attenuator to the values
given in the Table 4. For each setting measure the amplitude of the signal on
the ultrasonic instrument screen.
Extract from: BS EN 12668-1:2010 Non-destructive testing- Characterization and verification of ultrasonic examination equipment
Part 1: Instruments
Figure 6 General purpose set-up for equipment
4.2.8.3-2: Linearity of vertical display to ASTM E317-01
Vertical Limit and Linearity:
SignificanceVertical limit and linearity have significance when echo signal
amplitudes are to be determined from the display screen or corresponding
output signals, and are to be used for evaluation of discontinuities or
acceptance criteria. A specified minimum trace deflection and linearity limit
may
be required to achieve the desired amplitude accuracy. For other situations they
may not be important, for example, go/no-go examinations with flaw alarms
or evaluation by comparison with a reference level using calibrated gain
controls.
This practice describes both the two-signal ratio technique (Method A) and the
input/output attenuator technique (Method B).
Extract from: ASTM E317-01 Standard Practice for Evaluating Performance Characteristics of Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Examination
Instruments and Systems without the Use of Electronic Measurement Instruments

Note: Method A: two-signal ratio technique collecting 2 signal from the


reflectors of same size at different depth.
Method A:
6.3.2.1 ApparatusA test block is required that produces two non interfering
signals having an amplitude ratio of 2 to 1. These are compared over the
usable screen height as the instrument gain is changed. The two amplitudes
will be referred to as HA and HB (HA > HB). The two signals may occur in
either screen order and do not have to be successive if part of a multiple-
echo pattern. Unless otherwise specified in the requesting document, any
test block that will produce such signals at the nominal test settings specified
can be used. For many commonly used search units and test conditions, the
test block shown in Fig. 1 will usually be satisfactory when the beam is
directed along the H dimension toward the two holes. The method is
applicable to either contact or immersion tests; however, if a choice exists,
the latter may be preferable for ease of set-up and coupling
stability(more)
4.2.9: Time Correction Gain (TCG)

Please read:
http://aqualified.com/tcg-dac-ndt-ultrasound/
Q61: The vertical linear range of a test instrument may be determined by
obtaining ultrasonic responses from:
A. a set of distance amplitude blocks
B. steel ball located at several different water path distances
C. a set of area amplitude blocks
D. all of the above
Q29: Test sensitivity correction for a metal distance and discontinuity area
responses are accomplished by using:
A. An area amplitude set of blocks
B. An area amplitude and a distance amplitude set of blocks
C. A distance amplitude set of blocks
D. Steel balls of varying diameters.
4.3: Curvature Correction
Curvature in the surface of a component will
have an effect on the shape of the ultrasonic
beam. The image to the right shows the beam
from a focused immersion probe being
projected on to the surface of a
component. Lighter colors represent areas of
greater beam intensity. It can be seen that
concave surfaces work to focus the beam and
convex surfaces work to defocus the
beam. Similar effects are also seen with
contact transducers. When using the
amplitude of the ultrasonic signal to size flaws
or for another purpose, it is necessary to
correct for surface curvature when it is
encountered. The "correction" value is the
change in amplitude needed to bring signals
from a curved surface measurement to the flat
surface or DAC value.
Convex surfaces work to defocus the beam

Diverge if the surface is convex.

Concave surface contour-


Focusing effects
Concave surfaces work to focus the beam

Diverge if the surface is convex.

Concave surface contour-


Focusing effects
convex surfaces work to defocus the beam
Convex surfaces work to defocus the beam
Convex surfaces work to defocus the beam- When sound travels from a
liquid through a metal, it will converge if the surface is concave or diverge if
the surface is convex.
Q: In an immersion method, the incident sound path enter the specimen
interface with convex geometry, the sound path on entry into the specimen,
the convex surface works to

a) De-focus the sound


b) Focus the sound
c) Has no effect on the focusing or de-focusing the sound
d) Reflected totally all the incident sound.
Q: In transmitting sound energy into a part shown below in a immersion
testing, the sound beam will be:
a) Diverge
b) Converge
c) Straight into
d) Will not enter
A curvature correction curve can be generated experimentally in a manner
similar to that used to generate a DAC curve, This simply requires a
component with a representative reflector at various distances below the
curved surface. Since any change in the radius will change the focus of the
sound beam, it may be necessary to develop reference standards with a
range of surface curvatures.

However, computer modeling can also be used to generate a close


approximation of the curvature correction value. Work by Ying and Baudry
(ASME 62-WA175, 1962) and by Birchak and Serabian (Mat. Eval. 36(1),
1978) derived methods for determining "correction factors" to account for
change in signal amplitude as a function of the radius of curvature of convex,
cylindrical components.

An alternative model for contact and immersion probe inspection was more
recently by researchers at the Center for NDE at Iowa State University. This
mathematical model further predicts transducer radiation patterns using the
Gauss-Hermite model, which has been used extensively for simulation of
immersion mode inspections.
The resulting model allows computationally efficient prediction of the full
ultrasonic fields in the component for

1. any frequency, including broadband measurements.


2. both circular and rectangular crystal shapes.
3. general component surface curvature
4. both normal and oblique incidence (e.g., angle beam wedges) transducers.

When coupled with analytical models for defect scattering amplitudes, the
model can be used to predict actual flaw waveforms. The image shown
above was generated with this model.
The plot to the right shows an example curvature correction curve and DAC
curve. This curvature correction curve was generated for the application of
detecting a #4 flat bottom hole under a curved surface as shown in the
sketch and photograph. An immersion techniques was used generate a
shear wave since the reflective surface of the target flaw was not parallel with
the surface. The DAC curve drops monotonically since the water path
ensures that the near field of the sound beam is always outside the part. The
correction factor starts out negative because of the focusing effect of the
curved surface. At greater depths, the correction factor is positive due to the
increased beam spread beyond the focal zone caused by the surface
curvature.
Curvature Corrections
A table of correction values and the DAC and curvature correction curves for
different size radiuses can be found at the following link.

https://www.nde-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/CalibrationMeth/table/table.htm
Curvature Correction
Curvature Correction
4.4: Calibration References & Standards
What are standards?
Standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications or
other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or
definitions of characteristics, in order to ensure that materials, products,
processes, and services are fit for their purpose.
For example, the format of the credit cards, phone cards, and "smart" cards
that have become commonplace is derived from an ISO International
Standard. Adhering to the standard, which defines such features as an
optimal thickness (0.76 mm), means that the cards can be used worldwide.
An important source of practice codes, standards, and recommendations for
NDT is given in the

Annual Book of the American Society of Testing and Materials,


ASTM. Volume 03.03, Nondestructive Testing

is revised annually, covering acoustic emission, eddy current, leak testing,


liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiography, thermography, and
ultrasonics.

There are many efforts on the part of the National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) and other standards organizations, both national and
international, to work through technical issues and harmonize national and
international standards.
Reference Reflectors:
are used as a basis for establishing system performance and sensitivity.
Spherical reflectors are often used in immersion techniques for assessing
sound fields.

1. Omni direction
2. Sphere directivity patterns reduce reflectance as compare with plane
reflector
3. Sphere of any materials could be used, however steel balls are often
preferred.
Reference Reflectors are used as a basis for establishing system
performance and sensitivity.
4.5: Questions & Answers
Exercises
Q80: The 50 mm diameter hole in an IIW block is used to:
(a) Determine the beam index point
(b) Check resolution
(c) Calibrate angle beam distance
(d) Check beam angle

Q81: The 100 mm radius in an IIW block is used to:


(a) Calibrate sensitivity level
(b) Check resolution
(c) Calibrate angle beam distance
(d) Check beam angle
Q6: The Notches are frequently used for reference reflectors for:
A. Distance amplitude calibration for shear wave
B. Area amplitude calibration
C. Thickness calibration of plate
D. Determine of near surface resolution

Q17: Notches provide good reference discontinuities when UT examination is


conducted to primarily detect defects such as:
A. Porosity in rolled plate
B. Inadequate penetration at the root of weld
C. Weld porosity
D. Internal inclusion
4.6: Video Time

http://v.pps.tv/play_315ARS.html
Birring NDT Series, UT of Welds Part 1 of 2 - CALIBRATION

https://www.youtube.com/embed/SRJktrHUlM4
Birring NDT Series, Ultrasonic Testing # 4, Angle Beam Shear Wave UT as
per AWS D1.1

www.youtube.com/embed/vXcAI-Zci30
Section 5: Measurement Techniques
Content: Section 5: Measurement Techniques
5.1: Normal Beam Inspection
5.2: Angle Beams
5.3: Reflector Sizing
5.4: Automated Scanning
5.5: Precision Velocity Measurements
5.6: Attenuation Measurements
5.7: Spread Spectrum Ultrasonics
5.8: Signal Processing Techniques
5.9: Scanning Methods
5.10: Scanning Patterns
5.11: Pulse Repetition Rate and Penetration
5.12: Interferences & Non Relevant Indications
5.13: Entry Surface Variables
5.14: The Concept of Effective Distance
5.15: Exercises
Expert at works
5.1: Normal Beam Inspection
Pulse-echo ultrasonic measurements can determine the location of a
discontinuity in a part or structure by accurately measuring the time required
for a short ultrasonic pulse generated by a transducer to travel through a
thickness of material, reflect from the back or the surface of a discontinuity,
and be returned to the transducer. In most applications, this time interval is a
few microseconds or less. The two-way transit time measured is divided by
two to account for the down-and-back travel path and multiplied by the
velocity of sound in the test material. The result is expressed in the well-
known relationship:

where d is the distance from the surface to the discontinuity in the test piece,
v is the velocity of sound waves in the material, and t is the measured
round-trip transit time.

d = vt/2 or v = 2d/t
d1 = vt d2 = vt

= d1+d2

2vt 2vt
A-Scan
A Scan

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/MeasurementTech/applet_4_1/applet_4_1.htm
Precision ultrasonic thickness gages usually operate at frequencies between
500 kHz and 100 MHz, by means of piezoelectric transducers that generate
bursts of sound waves when excited by electrical pulses. A wide variety of
transducers with various acoustic characteristics have been developed to
meet the needs of industrial applications. Typically,

1. lower frequencies are used to optimize penetration when measuring thick,


highly attenuating or highly scattering materials,

2. while higher frequencies will be recommended to optimize resolution in


thinner, non-attenuating, non-scattering materials.

0.5 MHz ~ 100 MHz


In thickness gauging, ultrasonic techniques permit quick and reliable
measurement of thickness without requiring access to both sides of a part.
Accuracy's as high as 1 micron or 0.0001 inch can be achieved in some
applications. It is possible to measure most engineering materials
ultrasonically, including metals, plastic, ceramics, composites, epoxies, and
glass as well as liquid levels and the thickness of certain biological specimens.
On-line or in-process measurement of extruded plastics or rolled metal often
is possible, as is measurements of single layers or coatings in multilayer
materials. Modern handheld gages are simple to use and very reliable.
5.2: Angle Beams I
Angle Beam Transducers and wedges are typically used to introduce a
refracted shear wave into the test material. An angled sound path allows the
sound beam to come in from the side, thereby improving detectability of flaws
in and around welded areas.

= Angle of reflection, T=Material thickness, S= Sound path,


Surface distance = Sin x S, Depth= Cos x S
A-Scan

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/MeasurementTech/applet_4_2/applet_4_2.htm
Angle Beam Transducers and wedges are typically used to introduce a
refracted shear wave into the test material. The geometry of the sample
below allows the sound beam to be reflected from the back wall to improve
detectability of flaws in and around welded areas.

= Angle of reflection, T=Material thickness, S= Sound path,


Skip = 2(T x Tan), Leg = T/Cos, V Path = 2 x Leg
A-Scan

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/MeasurementTech/applet_4_3/applet_4_3.htm
Flaw Location and Echo Display
Flaw Location and Echo Display
Flaw Location and Echo Display
Flaw Location and Echo Display
Flaw Location and Echo Display
Flaw Location and Echo Display
Dead Zone
Near Surface Detectability with Angle Beam Transducer
Flaw Location
Flaw Location with Angle Beam Transducer
Flaw Location with Angle Beam Transducer
Flaw Location with Angle Beam Transducer
Flaw Location with Angle Beam Transducer
Why angle beam assemblies are used
Cracks or other discontinuities perpendicular to the surface of a test piece, or
tilted with respect to that surface, are usually invisible with straight beam test
techniques because of their orientation with respect to the sound beam.
Perpendicular cracks do not reflect any significant amount of sound energy
from a straight beam because the beam is looking at a thin edge that is much
smaller than the wavelength, and tilted cracks may not reflect any energy
back in the direction of the transducer. This situation can occur in many types
of welds, in structural metal parts, and in many other critical components. An
angle beam assembly directs sound energy into the test piece at a selected
angle. A perpendicular crack will reflect angled sound energy along a path
that is commonly referred to as a corner trap, as seen in the illustration below.

/
http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/applications/angle-beam-transducers
The angled sound beam is highly sensitive to cracks perpendicular to the far
surface of the test piece (first leg test) or, after bouncing off the far side, to
cracks perpendicular to the coupling surface (second leg test). A variety of
specific beam angles and probe positions are used to accommodate different
part geometries and flaw types. In the case of angled discontinuities, a
properly selected angle beam assembly can direct sound at a favorable angle
for reflection back to the transducer.
/
http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/applications/angle-beam-transducers
How they work -- Snell's Law
A sound beam that hits a surface at perpendicular incidence will reflect
straight back. A sound beam that hits a surface at an angle will reflect forward
at the same angle.
Sound energy that is transmitted from one material to another bends in
accordance with Snell's Law of refraction. Refraction is the bending of a
sound beam (or any other wave) when it passes through a boundary between
two materials of different velocities. A beam that is traveling straight will
continue in a straight direction, but a beam that strikes a boundary at an angle
will be bent according to the formula:

Typical angle beam assemblies make use of mode conversion and Snell's
Law to generate a shear wave at a selected angle (most commonly 30, 45,
60, or 70 degrees) in the test piece. As the angle of an incident
longitudinal wave with respect to a surface increases, an increasing
portion of the sound energy is converted to a shear wave in the second
material, and if the angle is high enough, all of the energy in the second
material will be in the form of shear waves.
There are two advantages to designing common angle beams to take
advantage of this mode conversion phenomenon:

(1) First, energy transfer is more efficient at the incident angles that
generate shear waves in steel and similar materials.

(2) Second, minimum flaw size resolution is improved through the use of
shear waves, since at a given frequency, the wavelength of a shear
wave is approximately 60% the wavelength of a comparable longitudinal
wave, and minimum flaw size resolution increases as the wavelength of
a sound beam gets smaller.
Selecting the right angle beam assembly
The parameters that affect angle beam performance include not only the
(1) beam angle generated by the wedge, but also (2) transducer frequency
and (3) element size. The optimum beam angle will generally be governed
by the geometry of the test piece and the orientation of the discontinuities
that the test is intended to find. Transducer frequency affects penetration
and flaw resolution:
1. As frequency increases, the distance the sound wave will travel in a given
material decreases, but resolution of small discontinuities improves.
2. As frequency decreases, the distance the sound wave will travel increases
but the minimum detectable flaw size will become larger.
3. Similarly, larger element sizes may decrease inspection time by increasing
coverage area, but the reflected echo amplitude from small discontinuities
will decrease. Smaller element sizes will increase reflection amplitude from
small discontinuities, but the inspection may take longer because the
smaller beam covers less area.
These conflicting factors must be balanced in any given application, based on
specific test requirements.
Contoured wedges
The IIW recommends the use of a contoured wedge whenever the gap
between the wedge and the test surface exceeds 0.5 mm (approximately
0.020 in.). Under this guideline, a contoured wedge should be used whenever
part radius is less than the square of a wedge dimension (length or width)
divided by four:

where
R = radius of test surface
W = width of wedge if testing in axial orientation, length of wedge if testing in
circumferential orientation
Of course switching to a small wedge, if possible within the parameters of
inspection requirements, will improve coupling on curved surfaces. As a
practical matter, contouring should be considered whenever signal strength
diminishes or couplant noise increases to a point where the reliability of an
inspection is impaired.
Focused dual element angle beams
The vast majority of angle beam assemblies use single element, unfocused
transducers. However, in some tests involving highly attenuating or scattering
materials such as coarse grain cast stainless steel, focused dual element
angle beams are useful. Because they have separate transmitting and
receiving elements, dual element transducers can typically be driven at higher
excitation energies without noise problems associated with ringdown or
wedge noise. Focusing permits a higher concentration of sound energy at a
selected depth within the test piece, increasing sensitivity to discontinuities in
that region.
High temperature wedges
Standard angle beam assemblies are designed for use at normal
environmental temperatures only. For situations where metal must be
inspeced at elevated temperature, special high temperature wedges are
available. Some of these wedges will tolerate brief contact with surfaces as
hot as 480 C or 900 F. However, it is important to note that high
temperature wedges require special attention with regard to the sound path
they generate. With any high temperature wedge, sound velocity in the wedge
material will decrease as it heats up, and thus the refracted angle in metals
will increase as the wedge heats up. If this is of concern in a given test,
refracted angle should be verified at actual operating temperature. As a
practical matter, thermal variations during testing will often make precise
determination of the actual refracted angle difficult.

Surfaces as hot as 480C / 900F


threaded

snap-in

steel with a shear wave velocity of approximately 3,250 M/S or 0.1280 in/uS.
5.3: Reflector Sizing
There are many sizing methods, these include:
5.3.1 Crack Tip Diffraction
When the geometry of the part is relatively uncomplicated and the orientation
of a flaw is well known, the length (a) of a crack can be determined by a
technique known as tip diffraction. One common application of the tip
diffraction technique is to determine the length of a crack originating from on
the backside of a flat plate as shown below. In this case, when an angle beam
transducer is scanned over the area of the flaw, the principle echo comes
from the base of the crack to locate the position of the flaw (Image 1). A
second, much weaker echo comes from the tip of the crack and since the
distance traveled by the ultrasound is less, the second signal appears earlier
in time on the scope (Image 2).
Crack Tip Diffraction Methods

No animation.
Crack height (a) is a function of the ultrasound velocity (v) in the material, the
incident angle (Q2) and the difference in arrival times between the two signal
(dt). Since the incident angle and the thickness of the material is the same in
both measurements, two similar right triangle are formed such that one can
be overlayed on the other. A third similar right triangle is made, which is
comprised on the crack, the length dt and the angle Q2. The variable dt is
really the difference in time but can easily be converted to a distance by
dividing the time in half (to get the one-way travel time) and multiplying this
value by the velocity of the sound in the material. Using trigonometry an
equation for estimating crack height from these variables can be derived as
shown below.
Crack Tip Diffraction Method

The equation is complete once


distance dt is calculated by dividing
the difference in time between the
two signals (dt) by two and
multiplying this value by the sound
velocity.
5.3.2 6 dB Drop Sizing-
For Large Reflector (greater than beam width), i.e. there is no BWE.
6 dB Drop Method
6 dB Drop Method
6 dB Drop Method

www.youtube.com/embed/hsR17WA3nHg
6 dB Drop Method
5.3.3 The 20 dB drop sizing method
We can use a beam plot to find the edge of a defect by using the edge of
the sound beam.
If we know the width of a beam at a certain distance from the crystal, we
can mark the distance across a defect from where the extreme edges of
the beam touch each end of the defect and then subtract the beam width to
get the defect size.

When the signal from the defect drops by 20dB from its peak, we judge
that the edge of the beam is just touching the end of the defect. We can
find the width of the sound beam at that range by consulting the beam plot
that we have made

Note: The peak of the defect is normally taken as being the last peak on
the screen before the probe goes off the end of the defect, not necessarily
the maximum signal from a defect.
20 dB Drop Method
20 dB Drop Sizing- For Small Reflector (smaller than beam width).
To use this method the transducer beam width need to be first determined.
Construction of a beam edge plot -20dB Normal Beam
Find the hole at a depth of 13mm on an IOW block with a 0 degree probe and
maximise the signal. Move the probe until you get the highest signal you
can from the hole, then turn the signal to FSH using gain. Mark the position
of the middle of the probe on the side of the block.

Move the probe to one side until the signal drops to 10%FSH (-20dB) and
mark the centre of the probe on the side of the block.
Move the probe to the other side of the hole until the signal drops to
10%FSH (-20dB) and mark the centre of the probe on the block.

Use the distances between the marks on the block to plot the beam on a
piece of graph paper. Measure 13mm depth on the paper then mark the
distances of the probe centre at -20dB from the beam centre at 100%FSH
on either side.
Now find the 25mm hole and maximise the signal, turning it to 100%FSH.
Move the probe to either side of the hole marking the centre of the probe
on the side of the block where the signal drops by 20dB.
Measure 25mm on the paper and use the distances on the block to plot the
beam dimensions at 25mm.

Repeat using the 32mm hole. Join up the points marking the probe centre
at 20dB to obtain a beam plot.
Note that we have only drawn the beam width in one plane, so the probe
must be marked accordingly and used to measure defects in this plane.
We use knowledge of the beam spread to size defects, find the edges and
hence their width, length and sometimes orientation.
Construction of a beam edge plot -20dB Angle Beam
5.3.4 Equalization Back Wall Sizing- The probe moving off the edges of
the reflector until the amplitude is equal to the rising BWE
5.3.5 Maximum Amplitude Techniques
The technique is used for small reflector. The probe moving off the edges of
the reflector until the amplitude is maximum and the line joining the boundary
is the size of reflector cluster.
5.3.6 The DGS Method
Distance Gain Size Method. The technique is used to find the equivalent
reflector size by comparing the gain between the flaw and the known size
reflector.
5.4: Automated Scanning
Ultrasonic scanning systems are used for automated data acquisition and
imaging. They typically integrate a ultrasonic instrumentation, a scanning
bridge, and computer controls. The signal strength and/or the time-of-flight of
the signal is measured for every point in the scan plan. The value of the data
is plotted using colors or shades of gray to produce detailed images of the
surface or internal features of a component. Systems are usually capable of
displaying the data in A-, B- and C-scan modes simultaneously. With any
ultrasonic scanning system there are two factors to consider:

how to generate and receive the ultrasound.


how to scan the transducer(s) with respect to the part being inspected.
Automatic Scanning
The most common ultrasonic scanning systems involve the use of an
immersion tank as shown in the image above. The ultrasonic transducer and
the part are placed under water so that consistent coupling is maintained by
the water path as the transducer or part is moved within the tank. However,
scanning systems come in a large variety of configurations to meet specific
inspection needs. In the image to the right, an engineer aligns the heads of a
squirter system that uses a through-transmission technique to inspect aircraft
composite structures. In this system, the ultrasound travels through columns
of forced water which are scanned about the part with a robotic system. A
variation of the squirter system is the "Dripless Bubbler" scanning system,
which is discussed below.
Dripless Bubbler
It is often desirable to eliminate the need for the water coupling and a number
of state-of-the-art UT scanning systems have done this. Laser ultrasonic
systems use laser beams to generate the ultrasound and collect the resulting
signals in an noncontact mode. Advances in transducer technology has lead
to the development of an inspection technique known as air-coupled
ultrasonic inspection. These systems are capable of sending ultrasonic
energy through air and getting enough energy into the part to have a useable
signal. These system typically use a through-transmission technique since
reflected energy from discontinuities are too weak to detect.
The second major consideration is how to scan the transducer(s) with respect
to the part being inspected. When the sample being inspected has a flat
surface, a simple raster-scan can be performed. If the sample is cylindrical, a
turntable can be used to turn the sample while the transducer is held
stationary or scanned in the axial direction of the cylinder. When the sample
is irregular shaped, scanning becomes more difficult. As illustrated in the
beam modeling animation, curved surface can steer, focus and defocus the
ultrasonic beam. For inspection applications involving parts having complex
curvatures, scanning systems capable of performing contour following are
usually necessary.

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Graphics/Flash/AppleScan/Apple2.swf
5.5: Precision Velocity Measurements
Changes in ultrasonic wave propagation speed, along with energy losses,
from interactions with a materials microstructures are often used to
nondestructively gain information about a material's properties.
Measurements of sound velocity and ultrasonic wave attenuation can be
related to the elastic properties that can be used to characterize the texture of
polycrystalline metals. These measurements enable industry to replace
destructive microscopic inspections with nondestructive methods.
Of interest in velocity measurements are longitudinal wave, which propagate
in gases, liquids, and solids. In solids, also of interest are transverse (shear)
waves. The longitudinal velocity is independent of sample geometry when the
dimensions at right angles to the beam are large compared to the beam area
and wavelength. The transverse velocity is affected little by the physical
dimensions of the sample.
Pulse-Echo and Pulse-Echo-Overlap Methods
Rough ultrasonic velocity measurements are as simple as measuring the time
it takes for a pulse of ultrasound to travel from one transducer to another
(pitch-catch) or return to the same transducer (pulse-echo). Another method
is to compare the phase of the detected sound wave with a reference signal:
slight changes in the transducer separation are seen as slight phase changes,
from which the sound velocity can be calculated. These methods are suitable
for estimating acoustic velocity to about 1 part in 100. Standard practice for
measuring velocity in materials is detailed in ASTM E494.

ASTM E494 - 10
Measuring Ultrasonic Velocity in Materials
Active Standard ASTM E494 | Developed by Subcommittee: E07.06
Book of Standards Volume: 03.03
Precision Velocity Measurements (using EMATs)
Electromagnetic-acoustic transducers (EMAT) generate ultrasound in the
material being investigated. When a wire or coil is placed near to the surface
of an electrically conducting object and is driven by a current at the desired
ultrasonic frequency, eddy currents will be induced in a near surface region. If
a static magnetic field is also present, these currents will experience Lorentz
forces of the form
F=JxB
where F is a body force per unit volume, J is the induced dynamic current
density, and B is the static magnetic induction.
EMATs

http://www.resonic.com/error%20scan.swf
http://www.resonic.com/scan2.swf

http://www.resonic.com/emar_how_it_works.html
The most important application of EMATs has been in nondestructive
evaluation (NDE) applications such as flaw detection or material property
characterization. Couplant free transduction allows operation without contact
at elevated temperatures and in remote locations. The coil and magnet
structure can also be designed to excite complex wave patterns and
polarizations that would be difficult to realize with fluid coupled piezoelectric
probes. In the inference of material properties from precise velocity or
attenuation measurements, use of EMATs can eliminate errors associated
with couplant variation, particularly in contact measurements.
Differential velocity is measured using a T1-T2---R fixed array of EMAT
transducer at 0, 45, 90 or 0, 90 relative rotational directions depending on
device configuration:
EMAT Driver Frequency: 450-600 KHz (nominal)
Sampling Period: 100 ns
Time Measurement Accuracy:
-- Resolution 0.1 ns
-- Accuracy required for less than 2 KSI Stress Measurements:
Variance 2.47 ns
-- Accuracy required for texture: Variance 10.0 Ns
------ W440 < 3.72E-5
------ W420 < 1.47E-4
------ W400 < 2.38E-4
Time Measurement Technique
Fourier Transform-Phase-Slope determination of delta time between received
RF bursts (T2-R) - (T1-R), where T2 and T1 EMATs are driven in series to
eliminate differential phase shift due to probe liftoff.

Slope of the phase is determined by linear regression of weighted data points


within the signal bandwidth and a weighted y-intercept. The accuracy obtained
with this method can exceed one part in one hundred thousand (1:100,000).
5.6: Attenuation Measurements
Ultrasonic wave propagation is influenced by the microstructure of the
material through which it propagates. The velocity of the ultrasonic waves is
influenced by the elastic moduli and the density of the material, which in turn
are mainly governed by the amount of various phases present and the
damage in the material. Ultrasonic attenuation, which is the sum of the
(1)absorption and the (2)scattering, is mainly dependent upon the damping
capacity and scattering from the grain boundary in the material. However, to
fully characterize the attenuation required knowledge of a large number of
thermo-physical parameters that in practice are hard to quantify.

Ao
Ut
A
Relative measurements such as the change of attenuation and simple
qualitative tests are easier to make than absolute measure. Relative
attenuation measurements can be made by examining the exponential decay
of multiple back surface reflections. However, significant variations in
microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties often produce only
a relatively small change in wave velocity and attenuation. Absolute
measurements of attenuation are very difficult to obtain because the echo
amplitude depends on factors in addition to amplitude.
The most common method used to get quantitative results is to use an
ultrasonic source and detector transducer separated by a known distance.
By varying the separation distance, the attenuation can be measured from the
changes in the amplitude. To get accurate results, the influence of coupling
conditions must be carefully addressed. To overcome the problems related to
conventional ultrasonic attenuation measurements, ultrasonic spectral
parameters for frequency-dependent attenuation measurements, which are
independent from coupling conditions are also used. For example, the ratio of
the amplitudes of higher frequency peak to the lower frequency peak, has
been used for microstructural characterization of some materials.
Attenuation:

Ao

Ut
A
Attenuation:
5.7: Spread Spectrum Ultrasonics
Spread spectrum ultrasonics makes use of the correlation of continuous
signals rather than pulse-echo or pitch-catch techniques.
Spread spectrum ultrasonics is a patented new broad band spread-spectrum
ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation method. In conventional ultrasonics, a
pulse or tone burst is transmitted, then received echoes or through-
transmission signals are received and analyzed.
In spread spectrum ultrasonics, encoded sound is continuously transmitted
into the part or structure being tested. Instead of receiving echoes, spread
spectrum ultrasonics generates an acoustic correlation signature having a
one-to-one correspondence with the acoustic state of the part or structure (in
its environment) at the instant of the measurement. In its simplest
embodiment, the acoustic correlation signature is generated by cross
correlating an encoding sequence, with suitable cross and auto correlation
properties, transmitted into a part (structure) with received signals returning
from the part (structure).
Section of bi-phase modulated spread spectrum ultrasonic waveform

Multiple probes may be used to ensure that acoustic energy is propagated


through all critical volumes of the structure. Triangulation may be incorporated
with multiple probes to locate regions of detected distress. Spread spectrum
ultrasonics can achieve very high sensitivity to acoustic propagation changes
with a low level of energy.
Two significant applications of Spread Spectrum Ultrasonics are:
1. Large Structures that allow ultrasonic transducers to be "permanently"
affixed to the structures, eliminating variations in transducer registration
and couplant. Comparisons with subsequent acoustic correlation
signatures can be used to monitor critical structures such as fracture
critical bridge girders. In environments where structures experience a
great many variables such as temperature, load, vibration, or
environmental coupling, it is necessary to filter out these effects to obtain
the correct measurements of defects.

In the example below, simulated defects were created by setting a couple of


steel blocks on the top of the bridge girder.
Spread Spectrum UT
2. Piece-part assembly line environments where transducers and couplant
may be precisely controlled, eliminating significant variations in transducer
registration and couplant. Acoustic correlation signatures may be statistically
compared to an ensemble of known "good" parts for sorting or
accepting/rejecting criteria in a piece-part assembly line environment.
Impurities in the incoming steel used to forge piece parts may result in sulfite
stringer inclusions. In this next example simulated defects were created by
placing a magnetized steel wire on the surface of a small steel cylindrical
piston used in hydraulic transmissions.
Two discrimination technique are tested here, which are SUF-1 and SUF-2,
with the latter giving the best discrimination between defect conditions. The
important point being that spread spectrum ultrasonics can be extremely
sensitive to the acoustic state of a part or structure being tested, and
therefore, is a good ultrasonic candidate for testing and monitoring, especially
where scanning is economic unfeasible.
EMATs with Spread Spectrum Ultrasonic

http://www.resonic.com/error%20scan.swf
http://www.resonic.com/scan2.swf

http://www.resonic.com/emar_how_it_works.html
5.8: Signal Processing Techniques
Signal processing involves techniques that improve our understanding of
information contained in received ultrasonic data. Normally, when a signal is
measured with an oscilloscope, it is viewed in the time domain (vertical axis is
amplitude or voltage and the horizontal axis is time). For many signals, this is
the most logical and intuitive way to view them. Simple signal
processing often involves the use of gates to isolate the signal of interest or
frequency filters to smooth or reject unwanted frequencies.
When the frequency content of the signal is of interest, it makes sense to view
the signal graph in the frequency domain. In the frequency domain, the
vertical axis is still voltage but the horizontal axis is frequency.
Display

Time/Magnitude Frequency
domain /Magnitude domain
The frequency domain display shows how much of the signal's energy is
present as a function of frequency. For a simple signal such as a sine wave,
the frequency domain representation does not usually show us much
additional information. However, with more complex signals, such as the
response of a broad bandwidth transducer, the frequency domain gives a
more useful view of the signal.

Fourier theory says that any complex periodic waveform can be decomposed
into a set of sinusoids with different amplitudes, frequencies and phases. The
process of doing this is called Fourier Analysis, and the result is a set of
amplitudes, phases, and frequencies for each of the sinusoids that makes up
the complex waveform. Adding these sinusoids together again will reproduce
exactly the original waveform. A plot of the frequency or phase of a sinusoid
against amplitude is called a spectrum.
Fourier Analysis
Fourier Analysis
Fourier Analysis
The following Fourier Java applet, adapted with permission of Stanford
University, allows the user to manipulate discrete time domain or frequency
domain components and see the relationships between signals in time and
frequency domains.
The top row (light blue color) represents the real and imaginary parts of the
time domain. Normally the imaginary part of the time domain signal is
identically zero.
The middle row (peach color) represents the the real and imaginary parts of
the frequency domain.
The bottom row (light green color) represents the magnitude (amplitude) and
phase of the frequency domain signal. Magnitude is the square root of the
sum of the squares of the real and imaginary components. Phase is the
angular relationship of the real and imaginary components. Ultrasonic
transducer manufactures often provide plots of both time domain and
frequency domain (magnitude) signals characteristic of each transducer. Use
this applet to explore the relationship between time and frequency domains.
Fourier Analysis
5.9: Scanning Methods

Direct contact, Direct contact,


Fixed delay
single element probe dual element probe

Through transmission Immersion testing


5.9.1 Pulse Echo Method
Pulse Echo Method: Sound pressure on axis (schematic) for the incident
wave (top) and the wave reflected from a reflector in form a circular disc
(bottom).
Pulse Echo Method
Pulse Echo Method
Pulse Echo Method- Schematic screen pictures obtained by the pulse-echo
method. a Small flaw in sound beam; b two small flaws in sound beam; c
large flaw in sound beam, smaller second flaw and back wall masked; d large,
obliquely orientated flaw, back wall masked; e small flaw but no back wall
echo because the axis of the beam is not incident at right angles on back wall;
f strong attenuation of sound beam due to scattering, no echo from flaw or
back wall, only "grass"
Pulse Echo Method
Pulse Echo Method- Multiple echoes in a plate. a schematic; b actual screen
picture without time or thickness scale; steel plate 50 mm thick, frequency 4
MHz
Amplitude loss: Inverse Square Law
Influence of Shadow on axial defects
Influence of reflector orientation on signal
Influence of reflector size on signal
Pulse Echo Method

IP

BE

delamination 0 2 4 6 8 10
plate
IP = Initial pulse
F = Flaw
BE = Backwall echo
Pulse Echo Method

Probe
Sound travel path
Flaw

Work piece
5.9.2 Pitch-Catch Methods

Advantage:
Sensitive to near surface defect
Capable of penetrating thicker material due to pitch-catch mode.

Disadvantage:
It measures only sound energy loss at the receiver, without giving details
information of location.
5.9.2.1 Pitch-Catch Methods- Through Transmission
Through transmission testing uses two search units; one unit is used as a
transmitter and the other unit is used as a receiver, as shown in Figure below.
With this technique, the ultrasonic beam passes through the test piece or is
attenuated by one or more discontinuities. Total or partial attenuation of the
signal is possible depending on the severity of the discontinuity. Both
transducers must be properly coupled with a liquid coupling agent to obtain
reliable results. As with other techniques using two search units, greater
efficiency may be obtained by using a ceramic element in the transmitting
search unit and a lithium sulfate element in the receiving unit.
Pitch-Catch Methods- Through Transmission
Pitch-Catch Methods- Through Transmission

Through transmission signal

1 T R 1

2 T R 2
0 2 4 6 8 10

Flaw
Back wall Echo
5.9.2.2 Pitch-Catch Methods- Tandem
The tandem method, the examination is normally carried out using two similar
45 angle probes, one probe operating as the transmitter and the other probe
as receiver. For wall thicknesses greater than approximately 160 mm, probes
with different transducer sizes are preferred in order to ensure approximately
the same beam diameters in the examination zone.

The use of probe angles other than 45 may be necessary to comply with
particular geometrical conditions. Probe angles that give rise to mode
conversions shall be avoided. The probes are located in a line with their
acoustic axis in the same direction. In this way the sound beam from the rear
probe will, after reflection from the opposite surface, intersect the sound beam
from the front probe at the centre of the examination zone.

Extract from: EN 583-4 Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic examination - Part 4: Examination for discontinuities
perpendicular to the surface
Figure 1 shows the relationship between the spacing of the probes (y) and the
examination depth of the cross point (tm) and the height of the examination
zone (tz). When examining objects with plane parallel surfaces the distance
between the probes can be defined using the following equation:
y = 2 tan (d tm) or 2 tan (bottom depth)
Distance Between Transmitter / Receiver Probes

Depth tm

x Plate Thickness d

tan = L / (d + d - tm) , L = 2d- tm tan ,


tan = x / tm , x = tm tan
y = L - x = (2d - tm tan ) (tm tan )
y = tan (2d-tm- tm) = 2 tan (d - tm)
Video on Through Transmission Methods

www.youtube.com/embed/bRgCLb2cDU4?list=UUSOUDD4-FPV4tzqvUnquwXQ
5.9.3 Immersion Methods
Many of the same techniques used in contact testing can be used in
immersion testing. One advantage of immersion testing is that water makes a
very effective coupling agent. A wetting agent is often used with the water to
reduce surface tension and minimize air bubble formation on probes and test
parts.
The main advantages of immersion testing are:
speed of inspection,
immersion medium provides excellent coupling,
ability to direct the sound at any desired angle, and
the ease of incorporating automatic scanning techniques.
With immersion testing, the time to send the beam through the water is
usually greater than the time to send the beam through the test piece. All
immersion search units are basically straight beam units that are directed to
produce either longitudinal or shear waves in the test material.
Immersion Methods
For immersion testing of steel and aluminum in water, the water path shall be
at least 1 for every 4 thickness of the specimen (or of specimen thickness
minimum). If the transducer is too close, the 2nd front reflection will appeared
between the 1st front reflection and the 1st backwall echo and this may be
wrong interpreted as discontinuity.
Immersion Methods- Since sound waves travel about four times faster in
steel and aluminum than they do in water, a general rule of thumb is that the
water distance should be 1/4 Ts the part thickness plus 1/4 in (6mm). When
immersion testing is used for tapered plates, there should be a uniform water
path above the test surface. With immersion testing, false indications from
contoured surfaces will result in broad-based noise echoes.

Ts Minimum + [ 6mm (?)]


Immersion Methods- The water path shall be of specimen thickness
minimum. (plus 6mm)

Minimum + [ (?)]
Modified Immersion Methods- Bubbler Chamber
Modified Immersion Methods Irrigation Dam
Angle Beam Immersion Methods
Note the small front surface reflection. This due to the inclined incident angle
reflected away from the transducer.
Straight Beam Immersion Methods

1 2
water delay
surface = sound entry

backwall flaw

IP 1 IP 2
IE IE

BE BE
F

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Angle Beam Immersion Methods- Pipe & Tubing Testing
.
Angle Beam Immersion Methods- Weld Testing
Immersion Testing Set-up
Immersion Testing Set-up
Manipulators
The manipulator is primarily intended to provide a means of scanning the test
specimen with an immersed transducer.

The manipulator is mounted on a traversing mechanism, which allows


movement of the manipulator from side to side.

The traversing mechanism is an integral component of the bridge


assembly.

A search tube is usually held rigid at right angles to the surface of the test
specimen. Locking knobs are provided on the manipulator to allow positioning
of the search tube in two planes for angle-beam testing.
Manipulators

Bridge

Bridge

Manipulator
Bridges
When the manipulator is automated, electric motors are added to power the
bridge carriage, the traversing mechanism, and the up and down movement
of the search tube. The pulse-echo unit and the recording unit are also
mounted on the bridge, with all power cords secured overhead to allow
movement of the bridge along the full length of the tank.
Wands / Support Tubes
The support tube for the immersion probe is sometimes called a wand. Its
vertical height can be adjusted to vary water path distance and the adjuster
which can manipulate probe angle of incidence at the tip of the wand.
Immersion Testing Set-up

Manipulator

Bridge

Wand / Tube
Immersion Testing Set-up

Manipulator

Bridge

Wand / Tube
Immersion Testing Set-up
Manipulator

Bridge

Wand / Tube
Other Reading (Olympus)- Angle Beam Immersion Methods
Immersion transducers offer three major advantages over contact transducers:
1. Uniform coupling reduces sensitivity variations.
2. Reduction in scan time due to automated scanning.
3. Focusing of immersion transducers increases sensitivity to small reflectors.

Focusing Configurations
Immersion transducers are available in three different configurations:
unfocused (flat),
spherically (spot) focused, and
cylindrically (line) focused.
Focusing is accomplished by either the addition of a lens or by
curving the element itself. The addition of a lens is the most
common way to focus a transducer.
An unfocused transducer may be used in general applications or for
penetration of thick materials. A spherically focused transducer is commonly
used to improve sensitivity to small flaws and a cylindrical focus is typically
used in the inspection of tubing or bar stock. Examples of spherical and
cylindrical focusing are shown in Figure (17) below.

Cylindrical Spherical
Unfocused transducer
By definition, the focal length of a transducer is the distance from the face
of the transducer to the point in the sound field where the signal with the
maximum amplitude is located. In an unfocused transducer, this occurs at a
distance from the face of the transducer which is approximately equivalent
to the transducers near field length. Because the last signal maximum occurs
at a distance equivalent to the near field, a transducer, by definition, can not
be acoustically focused at a distance greater than its near field.
Focus may be designated in three ways:
FPF (Flat Plate Focus) - For an FPF focus, the lens is designed to produce
a maximum pulse/echo response from a flat plate target at the distance
indicated by the focal length

PTF (Point Target Focus) - For a PTF focus, the lens is designed to produce
a maximum pulse/echo response from a small ball target at the distance
indicated by the focal length

OLF (Optical Limit Focus) - The OLF designation indicates that the lens is
designed according to the lens makers formula from physical
optics and without reference to any operational definition of
focal length. The OLF designation describes the lens and
ignores diffraction effects.
Video on Immersion Testing

www.youtube.com/embed/W07-Z9at=UUSOUDD4-FPV4tzqvUnquwXQ
Q: In immersion testing, to remove the second water reflection (2nd entry
surface signal) from between the entry surface signal and the first back
reflection, you should:
A. Increase repetition rate
B. Decrease frequency
C. Decrease sweep length
D. Increase water depth

Q110: In addition to other functions, a transducer manipulator in a mechanical


immersion-scanning unit permits:
A. Use of the through transmission techniques
B. Use of high scanning speed
C. Detection of obliquely oriented discontinuities
D. Utilization of skill operators
Q1: Which of the following scanning methods could be classified as an
immersion type test?
A. Tank in which the transducer and test piece are immersed
B. Squirter bubbler method in which the sound is transmitted in a column of
flowing water
C. Scanning with a wheel-type transducer with the transducer inside a liquid
filled tire
D. All of the above
Q2: In an immersion test of a piece of steel or aluminum, the water distance
appears on the display as a fairly wide space between the initial pulse and
the front surface reflection because of:
A. Reduced velocity of sound in water as compared to test specimen
B. Increased velocity of sound in water as compared to test specimen
C. Temperature of the water
D. All of the above
Q2: Using the immersion method, a distance amplitude curve (DAC) for a 19
mm diameter, 5 MHz transducer shows the high point of the DAC at the
B/51 mm block. One day later, the high point of the DAC for the same
transducer is at the J/102 mm block. Assuming the calibration has not
change, this would indicate that the transducer:
A. Is improving in resolution
B. Is becoming defective
C. Has the beam of smaller transducer
D. Both A & B
Hint: B leads to C, thus D is the standard answer.
http://www.ndt-instrument.com/UltrasonicThicknessGauge.asp?sort=Ultrasonic+Flaw+Detector
Q176: To evaluate and accurately locate discontinuities after scanning a part
with a paintbrush transducer, it is generally necessary to use a:
A. Transducer with a smaller crystal
B. Scrubber
C. Grid map
D. Crystal collimator
38. The component in a conventional immersion system which spans the
width of the immersion tank is called:
A. An articulator.
B. A bridge.
C. A manipulator.
D. A search tube.
5.10: Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
5.11: Pulse Repetition Rate and Penetration
The energy of the generated sound depend on the pulse repetition rate, the
higher the repetition rate the higher the energy and the sound able to
penetrate thicker material. However if the PRR is excessive, ghost signal may
formed, this is due to the fact that the next sequence of pulse is generated
before the expected returning signal reaching the receiver.
1. The pulse repetition frequency or pulse repetition rate PRR:
is the number of pulse of ultrasonic energy that leave the probe in a given
time (per second). Each pulse of energy that leave the probe must return
before the next pulse leave, otherwise they will collide causing ghost
echoes.
2. Transit time: The time taken for the pulse to travel from the probe and
return
3. Clock interval: The time between pulse leaving the probe.

The transit time must be shorter than the Clock interval else, ghost signal may
formed. Typically the Clock interval should be 5 time the transit time.
PRR- Pulse Repetitive Frequency/Rate and Maximum Testable Thickness
Clock interval = 1/PRR
When Transit time = Clock interval
For pulse echo method:
Maximum testable length = x Velocity x Clock interval
Typically the Clock interval should be 5 time the transit time, i.e. the sound
path should travel 5 times the maximum testable length. (1st BWE, 2nd BWE,
3rd BWE, 4th BWE to 5th BWE.)

Note: The Clock interval has neglected the time occupied by each pulse.
Pulse Repetition Rate and Penetration
Pulse Repetition Rate and Penetration
Pulse-Length and Near Surface Sensitivity
Q186: The maximum scanning speed possible is primarily determined by:
A. The frequency of transducer
B. Viscous drag problem
C. The pulse repetition rate of test instrument
D. The persistency of the ultrasonic instrument display

Q200: When setting up an ultrasonic inspection, the repetition frequency for


the ultrasonic instrument should be set:
A. So that its period is at least as long as the operating time
B. The same as the transducer resonance frequency
C. As low as possible to avoid over-pulsing and distortion
D. According to the instrument manual
E. None of the above
5.12: Interferences & Non-Relevant Indications
Following are signal interferences that may produce non-relevant UT
indications:
1. Electrical interference
2. Transducer interference
3. Test specimen geometric interference
4. Test specimen surface interferences
5. Test material structure interferences
6. Test material internal mode conversion interference
7. UT techniques induced interferences (In correct PRR/ Band width/
Frequency selection/ Excessive Beam Spread/ etc.)
Transducer Interference- Transducer internal reflections & Mode conversion
may cause interference
Specimen Surface Interference

Excessive surface roughness,


air bubbles on the surface (on the transducer front, specimen front and back
for immersion techniques.
Surface wave for testing near the edges
Specimen Surface Interference

?
Specimen Surface Interference- You can determined whether the signal is
from the surface wave or the refracted wave simply by touching the surface
ahead of the wave (assuming the velocity of surface wave at 0.9 of the shear
wave)
Mode Conversion Interference
The mode conversion interference during testing of long cylindrical specimen
with longitudinal wave often appeared after the first back wall echo. The
signal can be easily distinguished and ignore.
Material Geometric Interference
False signals may generated due to the test specimen structural
configurations resulting in spurious signals.
Non Relevant Indications
Transducer with Excessive Beam Spread may generate signal, usually after
the 1st BWE. The example below the convex surface defocused the beam
and lead to excessive beam spread, using a proper contoured probe may
eliminate the problem. However excessive contour may results in generation
of surface wave.
Non Relevant Indication
Large grain size especially casting may cause excessive hash or grass signal.
Properly selecting probe with lower frequency may relieve the problem.
However this can only de accomplished with reduction in sensitivity.
Non Relevant Indication
Large grain size at heat affected zone HAZ (CGHAZ) may cause localized
signal due to large grain size. The signal may be wrongly assessed as a
defect.
Non Relevant Indications
The geometric abnormalities at root penetration and weld surface (crown)
may reflect the sound path, returning to the receiver as signals. To
distinguished the non relevant indications, finger touching will damped the
signals. Further testing may be necessary to ensure the signals were not from
the surface defects like surface crack. Any near surface indication that are
unusually consistent could be a non relevant indication.
5.13: Entry Surface Variables

Entry surface variables include:


1. surface roughness
2. surface coatings
3. couplant condition.

5.13.1 Surface Roughness


Surface roughness will have several possible effects on the inspection of a
test piece. In contact testing roughness on a gross scale results from: weld
spatter, plate scale, dirt (sand) and rough cast surfaces from sand casting.
These irregularities will cause some points of contact to push away the
couplant and force it into the lower areas around the probe. If the couplant is
not sufficiently viscous it will drain away quickly and fail to couple the probe to
the test piece. See Figure 8-3.

http://www.ndt.net/article/v04n06/gin_ut2/gin_ut2.htm
Entry surface variables: Surface roughness

Air Gap
Low Viscosity
Couplant

High Points of Rough Surface


In addition to reduced coupling, which will reduce signal amplitudes, the
rough surface increases the rate of wear on the probe. On an otherwise
smooth surface isolated protrusions such as weld spatter can hinder or stop
probe motion or in the case of mechanized systems there may be sufficient
force to move the probe past the obstruction but this could result in damaging
the probe by either tearing it from its mounting or severely scoring the plastic
wedge. When the dirt on the test piece is very fine (similar to a flour texture)
coupling can be prevented due to surface tension preventing the liquid
couplant penetrating to the metal. Unless a transfer value has been
established between test piece and calibration piece, this could go
undetected.

In addition to affecting coupling, surface roughness tends to reduce signal


amplitude by scattering and focusing the beam. This applies to both contact
and immersion testing.
Whether uniform or irregular, a rough surface has the potential to present a
scattering effect at an interface where a beam impinges. The degree of
scattering is based on the ratio of roughness to wavelength.
When roughness is less than about 1/10 a wavelength, scatter will be
negligible.
To reduce signal losses due to scattering an operator can select a lower
frequency probe. With a wavelength of 0.37mm in water for a 4MHz probe,
signal loss due to scatter can occur for irregularities as small as about
0.04mm.

In addition to signal reduction another effect of surface irregularities is to


redirect and mode convert some energy which when returned to the probe
can be the source of spurious signals. In contact testing false indications from
standing waves resulting from scatter on rough surfaces will normally have
short sound paths. They can be eliminated as true flaws by failing to locate
any trace of indication from the full skip or from the opposite side.
Unless done properly, removal of surface roughness by mechanical means
can result in further scattering problems. Small curved gouges left by a
grinding wheel used to remove spatter or machining grooves can form small
lenses. The affect of grinding can be unpredictable. Some of the lensing may
concentrate the beam thereby increasing signal amplitude, or, the lens effect
may be a de-focusing of the beam, again resulting in lower than expected
signal amplitudes.
Uniform surface preparation by sand or shot blasting usually provides a good
surface for ultrasonic testing. Removal of excess metal by a hand held
grinding wheel is commonly used on weld caps and roots. When a pipe weld
has had its root ground flush and inspection can only be performed from the
outside diameter, quality of grinding can result in unnecessary repair calls if
grinding has been along the weld axis. The small grooves made by the
grinding wheel run parallel to the root edge and are easily confused with lack
of fusion, missed edge or undercut defects.
Keywords on Rough Surface:
1. The degree of scattering is based on the ratio of roughness to
wavelength. When roughness is less than about 1/10 a wavelength,
scatter will be negligible.
2. Consequences of Surface Roughness:
Signal reduction
Redirect and mode convert some energy which when returned to the
probe can be the source of spurious signals.

3. The False Indications: In contact testing false indications from standing


waves resulting from scatter on rough surfaces will normally have short
sound paths. They can be eliminated as true flaws by failing to locate any
trace of indication from the full skip or from the opposite side
5.13.2 Surface Coatings
Surface coatings are added to protect a surface from corrosion or to enhance
its appearance. Thin films, such as oxide layers, anodizing layers or
electroplated finishes, and the slightly thicker coatings of paint or lacquer are
usually well bonded to the surface. Quality of bond may be compared to the
uncoated reference block by a simple transfer value. Even a slight loss due to
the coating may be preferable to removing the coating and trying to inspect
on the rough surface it hides.

When thickness testing is done on a painted surface the paint thickness can
add error to the reading. For example:
A nominal 25mm steel plate has a cellulose paint coating of 0.5mm. Vsteel =
5980m/s, V paint = 2600m/s.

If a digital thickness meter is calibrated on a 25mm thick piece of the steel


plate without the paint coating and then placed on the painted surface an
error will occur.
The coating is sufficiently thin that its interface with the metal will occur in the
dead zone but the duration of time spent in the paint is added to the travel
time to the opposite wall of the plate. If the true plate thickness at the point of
measurement is 25.16mm and the paint coating is 0.5mm thick, the time in
the paint is 0.5/ 2.6 x 106 = 0.19s. 0.19 microseconds is equivalent to
1.15mm in steel. The reading on the digital meter would combine the two
thickness as though all travel was in steel. This results in 25.16 + 1.15 =
26.31mm as the indicated thickness.

This problem can be overcome by using an A-scan display and measuring


the interval between the first and second echo instead of the main bang and
first echo. This is shown in Figure 8-4.
Thickness Measurement with Surface Coating
Figure 8-4.
5.13.3 Couplant Condition
Both contact and immersion methods utilize intervening media to transfer
sound from the probe into the test piece and back to the receiver. With
immersion methods it is accomplished by a single fluid medium. In contact
testing there are nearly always at least two intervening media; the delayline or
protective face and the thin film of coupling fluid or grease. Attenuation and
acoustic velocity are the two main properties that dictate the performance of a
couplant. Attenuation affects amplitude of the signal and velocity will
determine both transit time and refracted angles. But attenuation and velocity
of couplants are not independent properties. Each is a function of other
parameters. Unless these parameters are controlled or in some way
compensated for, gross variations from the reference value or calibration
conditions can result.
Attenuation of couplants varies with material composition as would be
expected. Published attenuation values are available for many materials as
indicated in the table below. Attenuation coefficients are often quoted in
Neper which allow for frequency dependence. 1 Np = 8.686 dB.

Attenuation per unit length= Attenuation Coefficient x f 2 x 8.686 dB/cm.

Table 8-1 indicates Attenuation Coefficient of some common liquids.


-15
In more practical terms, for water with longitudinal wave of 500KHz this would
mean an attenuation of about 5 dB per meter.

Example:
Attenuation factor for water = 25.3x 10-15 Neper
Frequency= 0.5MHz
The attenuation = Attenuation Coefficient x f 2
The attenuation = 25.3 x 10-15 x (0.5x106)2 Neper/ cm
The attenuation = 25.3 x 10-15 x (0.5x106)2 x 8.686 = 0.055 dB/cm or 5.5 dB/m

Since such long water path lengths are not normally used the 0.005 dB/mm
attenuation is considered negligible. But for the heavier oils attenuations 200
to 500 times greater can have significant effects on signal amplitude and
frequency content.

For the fixed delay-lines or wedge materials used in contact testing


attenuation variations can be far more pronounced and variation between
manufacturers can cause considerable response differences.
Table 8.2

For example the plastics listed in table 8-2 are typical wedge materials
selected by manufacturers and based on velocity for refraction purposes, but
attenuation differences would result in noticeable amplitude response
variation and frequency content of transmitted waveforms. Since the operator
rarely knows what wedge material a manufacturer has used, little can be
done to correct for potential variations in periodic inspections where results of
tests taken with one or more years separation are compared.
For example the plastics listed in table 8-2 are typical wedge materials
selected by manufacturers and based on velocity for refraction purposes, but
attenuation differences would result in noticeable amplitude response
variation and frequency content of transmitted waveforms. Since the operator
rarely knows what wedge material a manufacturer has used, little can be
done to correct for potential variations in periodic inspections where results of
tests taken with one or more years separation are compared.
5.13.4 More Reading: What is Neper ?
The Neper (unit symbol Np) is a logarithmic unit for ratios of measurements of
physical field and power quantities, such as gain and loss of electronic
signals. The unit's name is derived from the name of John Napier, the
inventor of logarithms. As is the case for the decibel and Bel, the Neper is unit
of the International System of Quantities (ISQ), but not part of the
International System of Units (SI), but it is accepted for use alongside the SI.
The Neper is a natural linear unit of relative difference, meaning in Neper
(logarithmic units), relative differences add, rather than multiply. This property
is shared with logarithmic units in other bases, such as the Bel.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neper
Like the decibel, the Neper is a unit in a logarithmic scale. While the Bel uses
the decadic (base-10) logarithm to compute ratios, the Neper uses the natural
logarithm, based on Euler's number (e 2.71828).

The value of a ratio in Neper is given by

where x1 and x2 are the values of interest, and ln is the natural logarithm.
In the ISQ, the Neper is defined as 1 Np = 1.

1 Np = ln (2.718) when the ration of = 2.718

The neper is defined in terms of ratios of field quantities (for example, voltage
or current amplitudes in electrical circuits, or pressure in acoustics), whereas
the decibel was originally defined in terms of power ratios. A power ratio 10
log r dB is equivalent to a field-quantity ratio 20 log r dB, since power is
proportional to the square (Joule's laws) of the amplitude.
Hence the Neper and dB are related via: The decibel and the Neper have a
fixed ratio to each other. Example: For a ratio of (x1/x2) The (voltage) level
ratio is:
Hence:
Q31: Rough surfaces can cause undesirable effects which are noticeable
when parts are tested ultrasonically, include:
A. Annular maximum rings
B. An increase in width of front face echo and consequent loss of
resolving power
C. Acoustic mismatch
D. Asymmetrical modes

Q32: Rough surfaces cause echo amplitude from discontinuities within the
part to:
A. Increase
B. Decrease
C. Not change
D. Change frequency
5.14 The Concept of Effective Distance

Effective distance in ultrasonic testing is a distance which take into account of


the required sound beam overlap and hits. The effective distance always
smaller in the calculation.

Keywords:
Loop or full path = Thickness x 2
Effective Distance Deff = Beam Diameter / overlap, or
Effective Distance Deff = Beam Diameter / No. of hits
Effective Distance Deff = Loop x hits
T = Time (of interest)
T = Deff / Velocity
PRR = 1/T
RPM = Revolution per minute
Maximum linear traversing speed V for effective inspection = RPM x Deff
Scanning Speed:
Scanner speed = (PRR Effective diameter of probe / Number of hits)
Speed of test part = (PRR Effective diameter of probe / Number of hits)

Where:
Effective dia. of probe = Dia. of probe 2 [ (Dia. of probe) (Percent of
overlap between scan / 100) ]

Linear speed of disc or pipe in mm/ s = (2r x RPM / 60)


Q&A on The Concept of Effective Distance

ce
an
ist
D
Q1: A tubular product is tested by AUT (or UT). The tube is rotated at 500
RPM If beam diameter is 10 mm and overlap between scan is 50%.
Calculate maximum length of the tube that can be tested.
Answer:
The effective distance covered by each revolution (Deff) is 5mm.
For 500 RPM the total distance covered: 500 x 5 mm = 2500 mm
The inspection rate = 2500/ minute#

Effective coverage
50% overlap = 5mm

Beam diameter (coverage) =10mm


Q2: A steel bar with 200 mm thick is scanned by UT. Minimum number of hits
required is 10. What is the maximum PRR to avoid the ghost echo. (VL,
steel = 0.59 cm/s )
Answer:
The total distance to travel Deff = Thickness x [2 x 10 hits] = 400cm = 4m
The time taken to complete the 10 loops (T) = [effective distance / Velocity]
T= 4/ 5900 =1/1475
The maximum pulse repetition rate PRR = 1/T = 1475

Distance travelled by 200mm


10hits= 10x 200x2=4m

10 hits
Q3: Minimum number of hits required is 2. What is the maximum allowable
axial speed for a probe with effective diameter of 102 mm and PRR of 800
Hz.
Answer:
The diameter of the beam = 102mm
The effective distance by one pulse, Deff = Beam Diameter / No of hits
Deff = 102/2 = 51mm
The total distance covered 800 pulse = 51x800 =40.8m
The axial speed is 40.8m/s
Q4: Assuming that Minimum 3 pulses are required to trigger the alarm in
AUT (or UT) . What would be (maximum) scanning speed to detect 0.5
mm size defect while using 4 MHz probe, 10 mm beam diameter with PRR
of 0.5 kHz.
Answer:
The distance Covered by scan in 1 second
= PRR x Diameter = 500 x 10 = 5m/s
The effective distance covered = D/ hits = 5/3 = 1.667m/s
Hint: the size of the defect and mode frequency has no implication of the
calculation
Q5: What is the maximum PRR is needed for contact test of steel material
with 100 mm thick using longitudinal wave. Minimum number of hits
required is 10. (VL, steel = 0.59 cm/s )
Answer:
Distance = 100 x 2 =200mm for single loop.
Effective distance Deff = 200 x10 =2000 mm
Time = Deff / Velocity = 1/2950
PRR = 1/T = 2950
Q6: What is the maximum PRR is needed for immersion testing of aluminum
with 80 mm thick using longitudinal wave. The water path is 10 mm.
Minimum number of hits required is 20. (VL, aluminum = 6.32 103 m/s,
VL, water = = 1.48 103 m/s)
Answer:
Single Water path =10mm, Single Al path= 80mm
LoopH2O = 0.02 m, loopAl = 0.16 m
Time for traversing single hit = [0.02/1480] + [0.16/6320] = 3.883 x 10-5 s
Time for traversing 20 hits T = 20 x T = 3.883s
PRR = 1/T = 1287
Q7: A steel plate size 6.2 m 1.8 m 0.1m is scanned using 25 mm
diameter normal probe and overlap between scan is 20%. Minimum
number of hits required is 15. Calculate the inspection time if scanning
speed is 500 mm/s.
Answer: (Standard Answer)
Effective area of probe = 25 x0.8 x 500 = 10000 mm2
Area of plate = 6200 x 1800 mm2
T = (6200 x 1800)/ 10000 = 1116 s

20% overlap

25mm
Effective area = 25 x 500 x
0.8 = mm2

Scanning speed 500 mm/s


Q7: A steel plate size 6.2 m 1.8 m 0.1m is scanned using 25 mm
diameter normal probe and overlap between scan is 20%. Minimum
number of hits required is 15. Calculate the inspection time if scanning
speed is 500 mm/s.
Answer: In-correct answer.
Area covered by probe in 1 second = 25 x 500 = 12500 mm2
Effective plate area = 6200 x 1800 x 1.2 mm2
Time to scan the plate = [6200 x1800 x 1.2 / 12500] = 1071.36s
(maintaining the probe area, increase the surface area by the overlap)

Hint: the plate thickness is of no concern.


Q8: Assume that the minimum PRR is needed for contact test of a given
steel plate is 240 Hz. How much volume would be covered under test if the
PRR is set at 120 Hz.
Answer:
Volume inspected by ultrasound per unit time
= PRR x Pulse length x Cross sectional area of beam at point of interest.
= PRR x constant (k)
Where k = Pulse length x Cross sectional area of beam at point of interest
The ration of volume covered = 120k / 250k x 100 = 50%
5.15: Questions & Answers
Exercises
The 6 dB Method
For Large Reflector (greater than beam width), i.e. there is no BWE.
Compared 6 dB Drop Sizing with Equalization Technique
The Equalization Back Wall Sizing- The probe moving off the edges of the
reflector until the amplitude is equal to the rising BWE
Q1 What is the correct water path between the transducer and the steel front
surface to focused a transducer for a area of interest at below a steel
surface?
Given that:
Focal length of transducer in water = 6
Velocity of sound in water= 1484 m/s
Velocity of sound in steel = 5920 m/s

Equivalent depth in water for steel depth = 4x = 2


The water path= 6- 2 = 4
Q5: Ultrasonic inspection is being for a circumferential weld of a pressure
vessel. Equipment is calibrated at the beginning of the examination and
scanning started at 9.00 AM. In between calibration is also done and at
12.00 noon the equipment is not functioning properly. Still 30 % of weld
is to be examined. As per procedure and as level II one can:

A. go ahead with the scanning by doing recalibration


B. perform the inspection fully from the beginning after recalibration
C. bring another equipment and proceed scanning from the left out place
D. check and recalibrate the equipment and continue scanning
from the portion where scanning started after calibration
at 11.00 AM
Q5: When dissimilar metal welds is to be tested ultrasonically and scanning
is to be performed from both sides of the weld the calibration blocks shall
be made from:

A. material having higher tensile strength


B. both the materials
C. material subjected to heat treatment
D. calibration block material is aluminum
Break Time

mms://a588.l3944020587.c39440.g.lm.akamaistream.net/D/588/
39440/v0001/reflector:20587?BBC-
UID=e5203c9d59fef1a79c12d8c601e839f58db16f7d5d6448f556
74c540f1856834&amp;SSO2-UID=
Section 6: Selected Applications
& Techniques
My Self Study Notes for My Coming Exam
2014
Content: Section 6: Selected Applications & Techniques
6.1: Defects & Discontinuities
6.2: Rail Inspection
6.3: Weldments (Welded Joints)
6.4: Pipe & Tube
6.5: Echo Dynamic
6.6: Technique Sheets
6.7: Material Properties-Elastic Modulus Measurements
6.8: High Temperature Ultrasonic Testing
6.9: Thickness Gauging
6.10: In-Service Inspection

Continues next page.


6.11: Casting
6.12: Inspection of bonded Joints
6.13: Corrosion Monitoring
6.14: Crack Monitoring
6.15: Residual Stress Measurements
Appendix: (Non-exam)
6. App-1: TOFD Introduction
6.1: Defects & Discontinuities
6.1.0 Flaw Orientation: Parallel / Perpendicular / Normal

Probe
Sound travel path
Flaw

Work piece

Flaw at PERPENDICULAR (NORMAL) to the sound path.


Flaw Orientation: Parallel / Perpendicular / Normal

Probe
Sound travel path
Flaw

Work piece

Flaw at PARALLEL to the sound path.


Q28. A crack 13mm that is 13mm (0.5 in.) oriented perpendicular to the
sound beam is displayed:
A. Only by a straight beam technique
B. As a wide reflection with a high amplitude
C. As a sharp reflection
D. As a wide reflection with a low amplitude

Keywords:
Oriented perpendicular to the sound beam
6.1.1 Casting Defects & Discontinuities
Casting Defects & Discontinuities
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- A Cold Shut is caused when a molten
metal is poured over solidified metal without fusing.
Casting Defects & Discontinuities Hot tear or shrinkage crack forms
when the molten section of unequal thickness solidified and the shrinkage
stress tear the partially molten apart.
Casting Defects & Discontinuities
Micro-shrinkage is usually many small subsurface holes that appear at the
gate of casting / can also occur when molten metal must flow from a thin
section into thicker section of casting.

Blow hole are small hole at the surface of the casting caused by gas which
comes from the mold itself. (wet sand mould forming steam resulting in blow-
hole)

Porosity is caused by entrapped gas. It is usually subsurface or surface


depending on the mold design.
Casting Defects & Discontinuities
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Hot Tear
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Blister
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Porosity
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Porosity
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Porosity
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Porosity
Casting Defects & Discontinuities - Mismatch
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Cold Shut
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Missrun
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Misrun
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Blow Hole
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Gas Porosity
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Porosity
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Cold Shut
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Shrinkage Cavity
Casting Defects & Discontinuities- Assorted
6.1.2 Processing Defects & Discontinuities
Processing Defects & Discontinuities
Expert at works
Processing Defects & Discontinuities- Lamination formed when the
casting defects are flatten during rolling, forging, extrusion or other
mechanical working processes.
Processing Defects & Discontinuities- Stringers formed when the billet is
rolled into shape the casting non metallic inclusions are squeezed into long
and thinner inclusions.
Processing Defects & Discontinuities- Forging lap is caused by folding of
metal on the surface, usually when some of the metal is squuaed ot between
the two dies.
Processing Defects & Discontinuities- Forging burst is a rupture causes
by forging at improper temperature. The burst may be internal or external.
Processing Defects & Discontinuities
Q9: The preferred method of ultrasonically inspecting a complex-shape
forging:

A. Is an automated immersion test of the finished forging using instrument


containing a calibrated attenuator in conjunction with a C-scan recorder
B. Combined thorough inspection of the billet prior to forging with a
careful inspection of the finished part in all areas where shape permit
C. Is a manual contact test of the finished part
D. Is an automated immersion test of the billet prior to forging
6.1.3 Welding Defects & Discontinuities
Welding Defects & Discontinuities
Welding Defects & Discontinuities
Welding Defects & Discontinuities
Welding Defects & Discontinuities
Welding Defects & Discontinuities
Welding Defects & Discontinuities
Welding Defects & Discontinuities- Incomplete Penetration
Welding Defects & Discontinuities- Slag Inclusion
Welding Defects & Discontinuities- Cluster Porosity
Welding Defects & Discontinuities- Lack of Sidewall Fusion (with Slag
entrapped)
Welding Defects & Discontinuities- Wagon Track
(slag inclusion at hot pass)
Welding Defects & Discontinuities- Burn Thru
Welding Defects & Discontinuities- Offset with LOP
Welding Defects & Discontinuities- Excessive Penetration
Welding Defects & Discontinuities- Internal (Root) Under Cut
Welding Defects & Discontinuities- Transverse Crack
Welding Defects & Discontinuities- Tungsten Inclusion
Welding Defects & Discontinuities- Root Pass Porosity
6.1.4 Service Induced Defects & Discontinuities
Service Induced Defects & Discontinuities

http://failure-analysis.info/2010/05/analyzing-material-fatigue/
Service Induced Defects & Discontinuities- Fatigue Cracks
Figure 4-24 In a carbon steel sample, metallographic section through a
thermal fatigue crack indicates origin at the toe of an attachment weld. Mag.
50X, etched.
Figure 4-26 Metallographic cross-section of a superheated steam outlet that
failed from thermal fatigue. Unetched.
Figure 4-36 Weld detail used to join a carbon steel elbow (bottom) to a weld
overlaid pipe section (top) in high pressure wet H2S service. Sulfide stress
cracking (SSC) occurred along the toe of the weld (arrow), in a narrow zone
of high hardness.
Figure 4-37 High magnification photomicrograph of SSC in pipe section
shown in Figure 4-36.
Figure 4-38 Failure of DMW joining 1.25Cr-0.5Mo to Alloy 800H in a Hydro-
dealkylation (HAD) Reactor Effluent Exchanger. Crack propagation due to
stresses driven at high temperature of 875F (468C) and a hydrogen
partial pressure of 280 psig (1.93 MPa).
Figure 4-57 Vibration induced fatigue of a 1-inch socket weld flange in a
thermal relief system shortly after startup.
Figure 4-58 Cross-sectional view of the crack in the socket weld in Figure 4-
57.
Figure 5-1 Localized amine corrosion at the weld found in piping from
reboiler to regenerator tower in an MEA unit. Many other similar cases found,
some going as deep as half thickness. They were originally found and
mistaken as cracks with shear wave UT inspection.
Figure 5-2 Hot Lean Amine Corrosion of Carbon Steel:
Figure 5-3 Preferential weld corrosion in lean amine (Reference 5)
Figure 5-46 Overhead interstage knockout drum vapor outlet nozzle.
Figure 5-47 Carbonate cracking adjacent to a weld (Reference 6).
Figure 5-48 Metallographic sample showing intergranular carbonate
cracking developed after 6 months service (Reference 6).lean amine
(Reference 5)
Figure 5-49 Most cracks originate in base metal but this weldment
contained a crack that originated at the root and propagated through the weld
metal. Other cracks appear to have initiated in the HAZ (Reference 7).
Longitudinal cracks- Detected by fluorescent MPI
6.2: Rail Inspection
Rail Inspection
One of the major problems that railroads have faced since the earliest days is
the prevention of service failures in track. As is the case with all modes of
high-speed travel, failures of an essential component can have serious
consequences. The North American railroads have been inspecting their
most costly infrastructure asset, the rail, since the late 1920's. With increased
traffic at higher speed, and with heavier axle loads in the 1990's, rail
inspection is more important today than it has ever been. Although the focus
of the inspection seems like a fairly well-defined piece of steel, the testing
variables present are significant and make the inspection process challenging.
Rail inspections were initially performed solely by visual means. Of course,
visual inspections will only detect external defects and sometimes the subtle
signs of large internal problems.
The need for a better inspection method became a high priority because of a
derailment at Manchester, NY in 1911, in which 29 people were killed and 60
were seriously injured. In the U.S. Bureau of Safety's (now the National
Transportation Safety Board) investigation of the accident, a broken rail was
determined to be the cause of the derailment. The bureau established that the
rail failure was caused by a defect that was entirely internal and probably
could not have been detected by visual means. The defect was called a
transverse fissure (example shown on the bottom). The railroads began
investigating the prevalence of this defect and found transverse fissures were
widespread.
Transverse Fissure
Transverse Fissure
Transverse Fissure
One of the methods used to inspect rail is ultrasonic inspection. Both
normal- and angle-beam techniques are used, as are both pulse-echo and
pitch-catch techniques. The different transducer arrangements offer different
inspection capabilities. Manual contact testing is done to evaluate small
sections of rail but the ultrasonic inspection has been automated to allow
inspection of large amounts of rail.

Fluid filled wheels or sleds are often used to couple the transducers to the
rail. Sperry Rail Services, which is one of the companies that perform rail
inspection, uses Roller Search Units (RSU's) comprising a combination of
different transducer angles to achieve the best inspection possible. A
schematic of an RSU is shown below.
Techniques: Wheel Probe
Techniques: Examples of axles with outside bearings of the Deutsche
Bundesbahn. (a) Of goods truck; (b) axle with roller bearing, bearing ring not
removed; c same with additional brake disc
Techniques: (c) same with additional brake disc
6.3: Weldments (Welded Joints)
6.3.1: UT of Weldments (Welded Joints)
The most commonly occurring defects in welded joints are porosity, slag
inclusions, lack of side-wall fusion, lack of inter-run fusion, lack of root
penetration, undercutting, and longitudinal or transverse cracks.
With the exception of single gas pores all the defects listed are usually well
detectable by ultrasonics. Most applications are on low-alloy construction
quality steels, however, welds in aluminum can also be tested. Ultrasonic flaw
detection has long been the preferred method for nondestructive testing in
welding applications. This safe, accurate, and simple technique has pushed
ultrasonics to the forefront of inspection technology.
Ultrasonic weld inspections are typically performed using a straight beam
transducer in conjunction with an angle beam transducer and wedge. A
straight beam transducer, producing a longitudinal wave at normal incidence
into the test piece, is first used to locate any laminations in or near the heat-
affected zone. This is important because an angle beam transducer may not
be able to provide a return signal from a laminar flaw.
UT of Weldments (Welded Joints)

a = s sin
F
a' = a - x = probe angle
s s = sound path
a = surface distance
d' = s cos a = reduced surface distance
d = virtual depth
0 20 40 60 80 100
d = 2T - t' d = actual depth
T = material thickness

a
x a'
d
Lack of fusion
Work piece with welding s
UT Calculator
Flaw Detection- Depth Determination
The second step in the inspection involves using an angle beam transducer
to inspect the actual weld. Angle beam transducers use the principles of
refraction and mode conversion to produce refracted shear or longitudinal
waves in the test material. [Note: Many AWS inspections are performed using
refracted shear waves. However, material having a large grain structure, such
as stainless steel may require refracted longitudinal waves for successful
inspections.] This inspection may include the root, sidewall, crown, and heat-
affected zones of a weld. The process involves scanning the surface of the
material around the weldment with the transducer. This refracted sound wave
will bounce off a reflector (discontinuity) in the path of the sound beam. With
proper angle beam techniques, echoes returned from the weld zone may
allow the operator to determine the location and type of discontinuity.
T = Plate Thickness
= Shear wave angle
LEG = T/Cos , V path= 2 x LEG.
Skip = 2.T Tan
https://www.mandinasndt.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=32%253A
ut-angle-beam-calculator&catid=12%253Atools&Itemid=18

https://www.nde-ed.org/GeneralResources/Formula/AngleBeamFormula/AngleBeamTrig.htm
Flaw Detection- Triangulations of reflector
= Refracted angle T= Thickness LEG1=LEG2= T/Cos
V PATH= 2x LEG= 2T/Cos SKIP= 2.T Tan


Flaw Detection- Triangulations of reflector
= Refracted angle T= Thickness Surface Distance= S.Sin
Depth= S.Cos


To determine the proper scanning area for the weld, the inspector must first
calculate the location of the sound beam in the test material. Using the
refracted angle, beam index point and material thickness, the V-path and skip
distance of the sound beam is found. Once they have been calculated, the
inspector can identify the transducer locations on the surface of the material
corresponding to the crown, sidewall, and root of the weld.
6.3.2 Weld Scanning
Expert at works
Typical Scanning Patterns:
Typically the weld should be inspected in the 1st or 2nd leg (1st Skip).
Typically scanning patterns
Weld Scanning
Weld Scanning
Weld Scanning
Weld Scanning
Echo Dynamic- Position of Defects
Sometimes it will be possible to differentiate between these 2 defects simply
by plotting their position within the weld zone:
Echo Dynamic- Position of Defects
Plate Weld Scanning
Plate Weld Scanning
Plate Weld Scanning
Plate Weld Scanning
Plate Weld Scanning
Practice Makes Perfect
52. One of the most apparent characteristics of a discontinuity echo, as
opposed to a non-relevant indication is:
(a) Lack of repeatability
(b) Sharp, distinct signal
(c) Stable position with fixed transducer position
(d) High noise level
58. What useful purpose may be served by maintaining grass on the baseline?
(a) To estimate casting grain size
(b) To provide a reference for estimating signal to noise ratio
(c) To verify adequate coupling to the test piece
(d) All of the above
Practice Makes Perfect
62. Which of the following conditions would be most likely to cause strong,
interfering surface waves?
(a) High frequency transducers
(b) Testing on a small diameter surface
(c) Testing on a flat surface
(d) Testing on a curved surface with a contoured wedge and transducer
6.4: Pipe & Tube
Pipe & Tube
Pipe & Tube
Experts at work
Pipe Scanning
Pipe Scanning
Pipe Scanning

48.59o max
30o max
Pipe Scanning
Pipe Scanning
Pipe Scanning- thickness/OD ratio
Pipe Scanning- thickness/OD ratio

When the t/OD ratio = .2 , t=.2OD, ID=OD-2t= OD-.4OD= .6OD

max = Sin-1(ID/OD), max = Sin-1(0.6), max = 37 Max.

For the sound path to scans the inner face the maximum shear angle shall be
37 Max. Therefore 45 /60 /70 probe can not scan the pipe inner face.
Pipe Scanning- Contact Methods
Pipe Scanning- Contact Methods
Pipe Scanning- Contact Methods
Q: Calculate the maximum shear wave angle and the range for 360
revolution scanning when the shear wave angle is 45.
Given that the OD=6 Thickness=3/4

Answer:
(a)
The maximum shear wave angle = Sin-1(ID/OD) = Sin-1(2.25/3)
= 48.6 Max.
(b) ?
Answer part B

a/Sin A = b/Sin B

b 2.25/ Sin 45 = b / Sin B, 3.182= b/ Sin B,


c c = a.Sin B, Sin B= c/a
3.182= b/c x 2.25, b/c= 1.414
a
Q35: During immersion testing of pipe or tubing the incident longitudinal wave
angle must be limited to a narrow range. The reason for the upper limit is:
(a) To avoid complete reflection of ultrasound from the test piece
(b) To prevent formation of Rayleigh waves
(c) To prevent formation of shear waves
(d) To avoid saturating the test piece with ultrasound
Q35: Which of the following may result in a narrow rod if the beam
divergence results in a reflection from a side of the test piece before the
sound wave reaches the back surface:
A. Multiple indications before the first back reflection
B. Indications from multiple surface reflections
C. Conversion from longitudinal mode to shear mode
D. Loss of front surface indications
6.5: Echo Dynamic
Expert at works
6.5.1 Basic echodynamic pattern of reflectors
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Non-destructive testing of welds -
Ultrasonic testing - Characterization of indications in welds; German version
EN 1713:1998 + A1:2002
Basic echodynamic pattern of reflectors
C.1 Pattern 1
Point-like reflector response, figure C.1. At any probe position the A-scan
show a single sharp echo. As the probe is moved this rises in amplitude
smoothly to a single maximum before falling smoothly to noise level.

4
5

3
2 6

1 7
C.1 Pattern 1 Point-like reflector
C.1 Pattern 1 Point-like reflector
C.2 Pattern 2
Extended (elongated) smooth reflector respond, figure C.2. At any probe
position the A-scan shows a single sharp echo. When the ultrasound beam is
moved over the reflector the echo rises smoothly to a plateau and is
maintained with minor variation in magnitude up to 4 dB, until the beam
moves off the reflector, when the echo fall smoothly to noise level.
C.2 Pattern 2
Extended (elongated) smooth reflector
C.2 Pattern 2
Extended (elongated) smooth reflector
C.2 Pattern 2
Extended (elongated) smooth reflector
(figure modified to depict obliquely oriented planar face)

Extended (elongated)
smooth reflector-planar
face obliquely oriented
C.3 Pattern 3
Extended (elongated) rough reflector response. There are two variants of this
pattern, depending upon the angle of incident of the probe beam on the
reflector.
C.3 Pattern 3a
Extended (elongated) rough reflector response. Near normal incidence, figure
C.3a At any probe position the A-scan shows a single but rugged echo. As
the probe moved this may undergo large (>+/- 6dB) random fluctuation in
amplitude. The fluctuation are caused by reflection from the different facets of
the reflector and by interference of waves scattered from the groups of facets.
C.3 Pattern 3a
Extended (elongated) rough reflector response.
C.3 Pattern 3a
Extended (elongated) rough reflector response.
C.3 Pattern 3b
Oblique incidence, travelling echo pattern, figure C.3 b At any probe position,
the A-scan shows an extended train of signals (subsidiary peaks) within a
bell-shaped pulse envelope. As the probe is moved each subsidiary peak
travels through the pulse envelop, rising to its own maximum toward the
center envelop and then falling. The overall signal may shown large (>+/-6dB)
random fluctuation in amplitude.
C.3 Pattern 3b
Oblique incidence, travelling echo pattern
C.3 Pattern 3b
Oblique incidence, travelling echo pattern
C.4 Pattern 4
Multiple reflector respond, figure C.4. At any probe position the A-scan shows
a cluster of signal which may or may not be well resolved in range. As the
probe is moved the signals rise and fall at random but the signal from each
separate reflector element ,if resolved, shows pattern 1 respond.
C.4 Pattern 4
Multiple reflector respond
C.4 Pattern 4
Multiple reflector respond
Echodynamic- Change of echo height and echo shape when the direction of
irradiation is changed. (a) On flat or linear flaw; (b) on rounded flaw
Echodynamic- Differences between the indications of inclusions and cracks,
drawn schematically and exaggerated for greater clarity. a Inclusions; b flake
cracks. The echoes of the more distant flaws, because of divergence and
attenuation of the sound beam, are rather weak
Break Time
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Flaw detection
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Flaw Detection
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Flaw detections
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Improper flaw orientation
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Improper flaw orientation
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Reflection angle
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Angles of reflection
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Improper flaw orientation
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Perfect flaw orientation
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Improper flaw orientation
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Vertical near surface flaw
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Tandem Techniques
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Tandem Techniques

a2 = 2T Tan ( T- d)
Echo Dynamic of Discontinuity- Tandem Techniques
Echo Dynamic
Echo Dynamic- Root Concavity
Echo Dynamic
Echo Dynamic
Echo Dynamic
Echo Dynamic
Echo Dynamic

Crack
Echo Dynamic- Broad indication with low amplitude
Echo Dynamic- Shaper indication and higher amplitude than porosity
Echo Dynamic
Echo Dynamic
Threadlike defects, point defects and flat planar defects orientated near-
normal to the beam axis all produce an echo response which has a single
peak
Echo Dynamic
The echo response from a large slag inclusion or a rough crack is likely to
have multiple peaks:
Echo Dynamic
In case a it will be difficult to determine whether the defect is slag or a crack.
Rotational- Swivel or orbital probe movements may help:
Echo Dynamic
Typical Echo Dynamic Patterns
Echo Dynamic
Typical Echo Dynamic Patterns
Echo Dynamic
Typical Echo Dynamic Patterns
Q. A smooth flat discontinuity whose major plane is not perpendicular to the
direction of sound propagation may be indicated by:
A. An echo amplitude comparable in magnitude to the back surface reflection
B. A complete loss of back surface reflection
C. An echo amplitude larger in magnitude than the back surface reflection
D. All of the above
Q183. In immersion testing, irrelevant or false indications caused by
contoured surfaces are likely to result in a:
A. Broad base indication
B. Peaked indication
C. Hashy signal
D. Narrow based indication
Q24. During inspection of a parallel sided machined forging using straight
beam immersion techniques, a diminishing back reflection in a localized
area in the absence of a defect indication would least likely represent:
A. A course grain structures
B. A small non-metallic stringer
C. A defect oriented at a severe angle to the entry surface
D. A large inclusion.
Q46. Which best describes a typical display of a crack whose major surface is
perpendicular to the ultrasound beam?
A. A broad indication
B. A sharp indication
C. A indication will not show due to improper orientation
D. A broad indication with high amplitude
Q50: The reflection amplitude of a nonmetallic inclusion is lower than the
amplitude of a crack due to:
a) Variation with the reflection angle
b) Variation in impedance
c) Sound wave propagation
d) The test frequency used
Crack Macro- Air filled Crack has greater impedance mismatch
Crack - Air filled Crack has greater impedance mismatch
Because the acoustic impedance of air is so much different than that of the
commonly used transducers and test materials, its presence reflects an
objectionable amount of acoustic energy at coupling interfaces, but is the
main reason ultrasonic testing is effective with air-filled cracks and similar
critical discontinuities.
Inclusion Macro- Nonmetallic Inclusion has lower impedance mismatch
Inclusion Macro- Nonmetallic Inclusion has lower impedance mismatch
Q46. A smooth flat discontinuities whose major plane is not perpendicular to
the direction of sound propagation may be indicated by:
A. An echo amplitude comparable in magnitude to the back surface reflection
B. A complete loss of back surface reflection
C. An echo amplitude larger in magnitude than the back surface reflection
D. All of the above
6.6: Technique Sheets
Expert at works
Hanger Pin Testing using Shear Wave
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/infrastructure/structures/04042/index.cfm#toc
Physical Dimension
Physical Dimension
Physical Dimension
Physical Dimension
Reporting: Basic Pin Information
Reporting: Scanning Report Top of Pin
Reporting: Scanning Report Bottom of Pin
Mock-Up
Mock-Up
Mock-Up
Mock-Up
Mock-Up
Reporting: Basic Pin Information
Hanger Pin Testing using Shear Wave
Pitch and Catch Methods- Echo Dynamic
Pitch and Catch Methods- Set-up
Pitch and Catch Methods- Echo Dynamic
6.7: Material Properties-
Elastic Modulus Measurements
6.7.1 Determination of Microstructural Differences
Ultrasonic methods can be used to determine microstructural differences in
metals. For this, contact testing with the pulse-echo technique is used. The
testing can be either the measurement of (1) ultrasonic attenuation or the (2)
measurement of bulk sound velocity.
6.7.2 The attenuation method
The attenuation method is based on the decay of multiple echoes from test
piece surfaces. Once a standard is established, other test pieces can be
compared to it by comparing the decay of these echoes to an exponential
curve. This test is especially suited for the microstructural control of
production parts, in which all that is necessary is to determine whether or not
the parts conform to a standard. An example of the use of ultrasonic
attenuation in the determination of differences in microstructure is the control
of graphite-flake size in gray iron castings, which in turn controls tensile
strength. In one application, a water-column search unit that produced a
pulsed beam with a frequency of 2.25 MHz was used to test each casting
across an area of the casting wall having uniform thickness and parallel front
and back surfaces.
A test program had been first carried out to determine the maximum size of
graphite flakes that could be permitted in the casting and still maintain a
minimum tensile strength of 200 MPa (30 ksi). Then, ultrasonic tests were
made on sample castings to determine to what intensity level the second
back reflection was lowered by the attenuation effects of graphite flakes larger
than permitted. Next, a gate was set on the ultrasonic instrument in the region
of the second back reflection, and an alarm was set to signal whenever the
intensity of this reflection was below the allowable level. The testing
equipment was then integrated into an automatic loading conveyor, where the
castings were 100% inspected and passed or rejected before any machining
operation.
6.7.3 Velocity Measurements
Velocity Measurements When considering the compressional and shear
wave velocities given in Table 1, there may be small deviations for crystalline
materials because of elastic anisotropy. This is important and particularly
evident in copper, brass, and austenitic steels. The following example
illustrates the variation of sound velocity with changes in the microstructure of
leaded free-cutting brass.
6.7.4 Elastic Modulus Measurement
Application:
Measurement on Young's Modulus and Shear Modulus of Elasticity, and
Poisson's ratio, in non-dispersive isotropic engineering materials.

Background:
1. Young's Modulus of Elasticity is defined as the ratio of stress (force per
unit area) to corresponding strain (deformation) in a material under tension
or compression.
2. Shear Modulus of Elasticity is similar to the ratio of stress to strain in a
material subjected to shear stress.
3. Poisson's Ratio is the ratio of transverse strain to corresponding axial
strain on a material stressed along one axis.

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/applications/elastic-modulus-measurement/
http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/applications/?347[search][sCategoryId][1166017122]=1166017163&347[search][submit]=Search
Elastic Modulus Measurement Youngs Modulus & Shear Modulus

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shear_modulus
Elastic Modulus Measurement- Poisson Ratio
These basic material properties, which are of interest in many manufacturing
and research applications, can be determined through computations based
on measured sound velocities and material density.

Sound velocity can be easily measured using ultrasonic pulse-echo


techniques with appropriate equipment. The general procedure outlined
below is valid for any (1) homogeneous, (2) isotropic, (3) non-dispersive
material (velocity does not change with frequency).

This includes most common metals, industrial ceramics, and glasses as long
as cross sectional dimensions are not close to the test frequency wavelength.
Rigid plastics such as polystyrene and acrylic can also be measured,
although they are more challenging due to higher sound attenuation.

Keyword:
non-dispersive material (velocity does not change with frequency).
Rubber cannot be characterized ultrasonically because of its high dispersion
and nonlinear elastic properties. Soft plastics similarly exhibit very high
attenuation in shear mode and as a practical matter usually cannot be tested.
In the case of anisotropic materials, elastic properties vary with direction, and
so do longitudinal and/or shear wave sound velocity. Generation of a full
matrix of elastic moduli in anisotropic specimens typically requires six
different sets of ultrasonic measurements.
Porosity or coarse granularity in a material can affect the accuracy of
ultrasonic modulus measurement since these conditions can cause variations
in sound velocity based on grain size and orientation or porosity size and
distribution, independent of material elasticity.

Keyword:
anisotropic materials, elastic properties vary with direction
Equipment:
The velocity measurements for modulus calculation are most commonly
made with precision thickness gages such as models 38DL PLUS and 45MG
with Single Element software, or a flaw detector with velocity measurement
capability such as the EPOCH series instruments. Pulser/receivers such as
the Model 5072PR or 5077PR can also be used with an oscilloscope or
waveform digitizer for transit time measurements.
This test also requires two transducers appropriate to the material being
tested, for pulse-echo sound velocity measurement in longitudinal and shear
modes. Commonly used transducers include an M112 or V112 broadband
longitudinal wave transducer (10 MHz) and a V156 normal incidence shear
wave transducer (5 MHz). These work well for many common metal and fired
ceramic samples. Different transducers will be required for very thick, very
thin, or highly attenuating samples. Some cases may also require use of
through transmission techniques, with pairs of transducers positioned on
opposite sides of the part. It is recommended that in all cases the user consult
Olympus for specific transducer recommendations and assistance with
instrument setup.
The test sample may be of any geometry that permits clean pulse/echo
measurement of sound transit time through a section on thickness. Ideally
this would be a sample at least 0.5 in. (12.5 mm) thick, with smooth
parallel surfaces and a width or diameter greater than the diameter of the
transducer being used. Caution must be used when testing narrow
specimens due to possible edge effects that can affect measured pulse
transit time. Resolution will be limited when very thin samples are used
due to the small changes in pulse transit time across short sound paths.
For that reason we recommend that samples should be at least 0.2 in. (5
mm) thick, preferably thicker. In all cases the thickness of the test sample
must be precisely known.

Keywords:
1. Caution must be used when testing narrow specimens due to possible
edge effects that can affect measured pulse transit time.
2. Resolution will be limited when very thin samples are used due to the
small changes in pulse transit time across short sound paths.
Testing Procedure: Equipment Used.
Measure the (1) longitudinal and (2) shear wave sound velocity of the test
piece using the appropriate transducers and instrument setup.
The shear wave measurement will require use of a specialized high viscosity
couplant such as our SWC. A Model 38DL PLUS a 45MG thickness gage
can provide a direct readout of material velocity based on an entered sample
thickness, and an EPOCH series flaw detector can measure velocity through
a velocity calibration procedure. In either case, follow the recommended
procedure for velocity measurement as described in the instrument's
operating manual. If using a pulser/receiver, simply record the round-trip
transit time through an area of known thickness with both longitudinal and
shear wave transducers, and compute:

Question: For measurement of shear wave velocity is normal incident


transverse wave used? (hint by the used of highly viscous couplant
requirement)
Testing Procedure: Velocity Measurements & Calculations
Velocity= Distance / ( Round trip traverse time)
Convert units as necessary to obtain velocities expressed as inches per
second or centimeters per second. (Time will usually have been measured in
microseconds, so multiply in/uS or cm/uS by 106 to obtain in/S or cm/S.) The
velocities thus obtained may be inserted into the following equations.

Poisson Ratio (v) =

Youngs Modulus =

Shear Modulus =
Velocity & Equations

Poisson Ratio (v) =

Youngs Modulus (E) =

Shear Modulus (G) = ,

VL, VS = Longitudinal and Shear Velocity


v = Poisson ratio
p = Material density
Note on units: If sound velocity is expressed in cm/S and density in g/cm3,
then Young's modulus will be expressed in units of dynes/cm2. If English units
of in/S and lbs/in3 are used to compute modulus in pounds per square inch
(PSI), remember the distinction between "pound" as a unit of force versus a
unit of mass. Since modulus is expressed as a force per unit area, when
calculating in English units it is necessary to multiply the solution of the above
equation by a mass/force conversion constant of (1 / Acceleration of Gravity)
to obtain modulus in PSI. Alternately, if the initial calculation is done in metric
units, use the conversion factor 1 psi = 6.89 x 104 dynes/cm2. Another
alternative is to enter velocity in in/S, density in g/cm 3, and divide by a
conversion constant of 1.07 x 104 to obtain modulus in PSI.
6.8: High Temperature Ultrasonic Testing
Experts at work
1.0 Background:
Although most ultrasonic flaw detection and thickness gauging is performed
at normal environmental temperatures, there are many situations where it is
necessary to test a material that is hot. This most commonly happens in
process industries, where hot metal pipes or tanks must be tested without
shutting them down for cooling, but also includes manufacturing situations
involving hot materials, such as extruded plastic pipe or thermally molded
plastic immediately after fabrication, or testing of metal ingots or castings
before they have fully cooled. Conventional ultrasonic transducers will
tolerate temperatures up to approximately 50 C or 125 F. At higher
temperatures, they will eventually suffer permanent damage due to internal
disbonding caused by thermal expansion. If the material being tested is hotter
than approximately 50 C or 125 F, then high temperature transducers and
special test techniques should be employed.

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/applications/high-temperature-ultrasonic-testing/
This application note contains quick reference information regarding selection
of high temperature transducers and couplants, and important factors
regarding their use. It covers conventional ultrasonic testing of materials at
temperatures up to approximately 500C or 1000F. In research applications
involving temperatures higher than that, highly specialized waveguide
techniques are used. They fall outside the scope of this note.

Testing Methods used:


Methods used to increase the useful range for high temperature application
are:
Delay Line
High temperature Couplants
Testing Techniques & Equipment Requirements
Temperature Limitation:
Conventional ultrasonic
transducers 50C
Temperature Limitation:
Conventional ultrasonic
transducers 50C
Temperature Limitation:
Conventional ultrasonic
transducers 50C

http://amazingunseentravel.blogspot.com/2011_08_28_archive.html
Temperature Limitation:
Conventional ultrasonic
transducers 50C
Temperature Limitation:
Conventional ultrasonic
transducers 50C

http://www.wisdompetals.com/index.php/photos/138-wonder-of-the-world-crescent-lake-in-gopi-deser
Temperature Limitation:
Conventional ultrasonic
transducers 50C

http://www.wisdompetals.com/index.php/photos/138-wonder-of-the-world-crescent-lake-in-gopi-deser
- 50

http://www.cc6uu.com/science/article/raiders/2407
High Temperature Conventional UT-
Good Till & No-More.
2.0 Methods used for H.Temperature Scanning
2.1 Transducers- H.Temperature Delay Line Material
Panametrics-NDT high temperature transducers fall into two categories,
dual element transducers and
delay line transducers.
In both cases, the delay line material (which is internal in the case of duals)
serves as thermal insulation between the active transducer element and the
hot test surface.
For design reasons, there are no high temperature contact or immersion
transducers in the standard product line. High temperature duals and delay
line transducers are available for both thickness gaging and flaw detection
applications. As with all ultrasonic tests, the best transducer for a given
application will be determined by specific test requirements, including the
material, the thickness range, the temperature, and in the case of flaw
detection, the type and size of the relevant flaws.
(1a) Thickness gauging
The most common application for high temperature thickness gaging is
corrosion survey work, the measurement of remaining metal thickness of hot
pipes and tanks with corrosion gages such as Models 38DL PLUS and 45MG.
Most of the transducers that are designed for use with Olympus corrosion
gages are suitable for high temperature use. The commonly used D790
series transducers can be used on surfaces as hot as 500 C or 930 F. For a
complete list of available corrosion gauging duals that includes temperature
specifications, see this link: Corrosion Gage Duals.
For precision thickness gauging applications using the Models 38DL PLUS or
Model 45MG with Single Element software ,such as hot plastics, any of the
standard Micro-scan delay line transducers in the M200 series (including
gage default transducers M202, M206, M207, and M208) can be equipped
with high temperature delay lines. DLHT-1, -2, and -3 delay lines may be
used on surfaces up to 260 C or 500 F. DLHT-101, -201, and -301 delay
lines may be used on surfaces up to 175 C or 350 F. These delay lines are
listed in the Delay Line Option Chart.
In challenging applications requiring low frequency transducers for increased
penetration, the Videoscan Replaceable Face Transducers and appropriate
high temperature delay lines can also be used with 38DL PLUS and 45MG
thickness gages incorporating the HP (high penetration) software option.
Custom transducer setups will be required. Standard delay lines for this
family of transducers can be used in contact with surfaces as hot as 480 C
or 900 F. For a full list of transducers and delay lines, see this link:
Replaceable Face Transducers.
(1b) Flaw detection
As in high temperature thickness gaging applications, high temperature flaw
detection most commonly uses dual element or delay line transducers. All
standard Panametrics-NDT flaw detection duals offer high temperature
capability. Fingertip, Flush Case, and Extended Range duals whose
frequency is 5 MHz or below may be used up to approximately 425 C or
800 F, and higher frequency duals (7.5 and 10 MHz) may be used up to
approximately 175 C or 350 F. For a full list of transducers in this category,
see this link: Flaw Detection Duals.

All of the Videoscan Replaceable Face Transducers can be used with


appropriate high temperature delay lines in flaw detection applications. The
available delay lines for this family of transducers can be used in contact with
surfaces as hot as 480 C or 900 F. For a full list of transducers and delay
lines suitable for various maximum temperatures, see this link: Replaceable
Face Transducers.
Applications involving thin materials are often best handled by the delay line
transducers in the V200 series (most commonly the V202, V206, V207, and
V208), any of which can be equipped with high temperature delay lines.
DLHT-1, -2, and -3 delay lines may be used on surfaces up to 260 C or 500
F. DLHT-101, -201, and -301 delay lines may be used on surfaces up to 175
C or 350 F. These transducers and delay lines are listed on the Delay Line
Transducer List.

We also offers special high temperature wedges for use with angle beam
transducers, the ABWHT series for use up to 260 C or 500 F and the
ABWVHT series for use up to 480 C or 900 F. Detailed information on
available sizes is available from the Sales Department.
2.2 High Temperature Couplants
Most common ultrasonic couplants such as propylene glycol, glycerin, and
ultrasonic gels will quickly vaporize if used on surfaces hotter than
approximately 100 C or 200 F. Thus, ultrasonic testing at high temperatures
requires specially formulated couplants that will remain in a stable liquid or
paste form without boiling off, burning, or releasing toxic fumes. It is important
to be aware of the specified temperature range for their use, and use them
only within that range. Poor acoustic performance and/or safety hazards may
result from using high temperature couplants beyond their intended range.

At very high temperatures, even specialized high temperature couplants must


be used quickly since they will tend to dry out or solidify and no longer
transmit ultrasonic energy. Dried couplant residue should be removed from
the test surface and the transducer before the next measurement.
Note that normal incidence shear wave coupling is generally not possible at
elevated temperatures because commercial shear wave couplants will liquify
and lose the very high viscosity that is necessary for transmission of shear
waves.

We offer two types of high temperature couplant:

Couplant E - Ultratherm Recommended for use between 500 and


970 F (260 to 520 C)
Couplant G - Medium Temperature Couplant Recommended for use at
temperatures up to 600 F (315 C).
For a complete list of couplants available from Olympus, along with further
notes on each, please refer to the application note on Ultrasonic Couplants.
Keyword:
Note that normal incidence shear wave coupling is generally not possible at
elevated temperatures because commercial shear wave couplants will liquify
and lose the very high viscosity that is necessary for transmission of shear
waves.

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/applications/normal-incidence-shear-wave-transducers/
http://static5.olympus-ims.com/data/Flash/shear_wave.swf?rev=3970
http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ultrasonic-transducers/shear-wave/
2.3 Test Techniques
The following factors should always be taken into consideration in
establishing a test procedure for any high temperature application:
Transducer Time of Contacts
All standard high temperature transducers are designed with a duty cycle in
mind. Although the delay line insulates the interior of the transducer, lengthy
contact with very hot surfaces will cause significant heat buildup, and
eventually permanent damage to the transducer if the interior temperature
becomes hot enough. For most dual element and delay line transducers, the
recommended duty cycle for surface temperatures between approximately
90 C and 425 C (200 F to 800 F) is no more than ten seconds of contact
with the hot surface (five seconds is recomended), followed by a minimum of
one minute of air cooling. Note that this is guideline only; the ratio of contact
time to cooling time becomes more critical at the upper end of a given
transducer's specified temperature range.
As a general rule, if the outer case of the transducer becomes too hot to
comfortably hold with bare fingers, then the interior temperature of the
transducer is reaching a potentially damaging temperature and the transducer
must be allowed to cool down before testing continues.

Some users have employed water cooling to accelerate the cooling process,
however Olympus publishes no official guidelines for water cooling and its
appropriateness must be determined by the individual user

Keyword:
10 second contact follows by 60 second air cooling
Water cooling is not guarantee by Olympus NDT
Coupling Technique: The combination of transducer duty cycle
requirements and the tendency of couplants to solidify or boil off at the upper
end of their usable thickness range requires quick work on the part of the
operator. Many users have found the best technique to be to apply a drop of
couplant to the face of the transducer and then press the transducer firmly to
the test surface, without twisting or grinding it (which can cause transducer
wear). Any dried couplant residue should be removed from the transducer tip
between measurements.
2.4 Equipment Functions
Freeze Function
Olympus Epoch series flaw detectors and all thickness gages have freeze
functions that can be used to freeze the displayed waveform and reading. The
freeze function is very useful in high temperature measurements because it
allows the operator to capture a reading and quickly remove the transducer
from the hot surface. With gages, the fast screen update mode should be
used to help minimize contact time.
High Gain Boost
Gain Boost: The 38DL PLUS and 45MG gages have user adjustable gain
boost functions, as do all Epoch series flaw detectors. Because of the higher
attenuation levels associated with high temperature measurements, it is often
useful to increase gain before making measurements.
3.0 High Temperature Testing and Variability
3.1 Velocity Variation:
Sound velocity in all materials changes with temperature, slowing down as
the material heats up. Accurate thickness gaging of hot materials always
requires velocity recalibration. In steel, this velocity change is approximately
1% per 55C or 100F change in temperature. (The exact value varies
depending on the alloy.) In plastics and other polymers, this change is much
greater, and can approach 50% per 55C or 100F change in temperature up
to the melting point. If a temperature/velocity plot for the material is not
available, then a velocity calibration should be performed on a sample of the
test material at the actual test temperature. The temperature compensation
software function in the 38DL PLUS gage can be used to automatically adjust
velocity for known elevated temperatures based on a programmed
temperature/velocity constant.

Keyword:
Velocity change of -1% (minus) per 55C or 100F change in temperature
Temperature versus velocity plot
Keyword:
Velocity change of -1% (minus) per 55C or 100F change in temperature
Temperature versus velocity plot
3.2 Zero Recalibration:
When performing thickness gaging with dual element transducers, remember
that the zero offset value for a given transducer will change as it heats up due
to changes in transit time through the delay line. Thus, periodic re-zeroing is
necessary to maintain measurement accuracy. With Olympus corrosion
gages this can be quickly and easily done through the gage's auto-zero
function; simply press the 2nd Function > DO ZERO keys.
3.3 Increased Attenuation:
Sound attenuation in all materials increases with temperature, and the effect
is much more pronounced in plastics than in metals or ceramics. In typical
fine grain carbon steel alloys, attenuation at 5 MHz at room temperature is
approximately 2 dB per 100 mm one-way sound path (equivalent to a round
trip path of 50 mm each way). At 500C or 930C, attenuation increases to
approximately 15 dB per 100 mm of sound path. This effect can require use
of significantly increased instrument gain when testing over long sound paths
at high temperature, and can also require adjustment to distance/amplitude
correction (DAC) curves or TVG (Time Varied Gain) programs that were
established at room temperature.
Temperature/attenuation effects in polymers are highly material dependent,
but will be typically be several times greater than the above numbers for steel.
In particular, long high temperature delay lines that have heated up may
represent a significant source of total attenuation in a test.
Keyword:
In typical fine grain carbon steel alloys, attenuation at 5 MHz at room
temperature is approximately 2 dB per 100 mm one-way sound path
(equivalent to a round trip path of 50 mm each way).

At 500C or 930C, attenuation increases to approximately 15 dB per 100


mm of sound path.
3.4 Angular Variation in Wedges:
With any high temperature wedge, sound velocity in the wedge material will
decrease as it heats up, and thus the refracted angle in metals will increase
as the wedge heats up. If this is of concern in a given test, refracted angle
should be verified at actual operating temperature. As a practical matter,
thermal variations during testing will often make precise determination of the
actual refracted angle difficult.

Keyword:
As a practical matter, thermal variations during testing will often make precise
determination of the actual refracted angle difficult.
Discussion: An offshore installation of Topside to Jacket Legs, hot
conventional Ultrasonic Testing at elevated temperature below 500 C was
proposed. What are the critical information to be reviewed?

Hints:
High temperature testing methods used & limitations
Variability due to high temperature & concerns
6.9: Dimension-Measurement Applications
6.9.1 Dimension-Measurement Applications
Ultrasonic inspection methods can be used for measurement of metal
thickness. These same methods can also be used to monitor the deterioration
of a surface and subsequent thinning of a part due to wear or corrosion and to
determine the position of a solid object or liquid material in a closed metallic
cavity.
6.9.2 Thickness measurements
are made using pulse-echo techniques. Resonance techniques were also
used in the past, but have become obsolete. The results can be read on an
oscilloscope screen or on a meter, or they can be printed out. Also, the same
data signals can be fed through gates to operate sorting or marking devices
or to sound alarms. Resonance thickness testing was most often applied to
process control inspection where opposite sides of the test pieces are smooth
and parallel, such as in the inspection of hollow extrusions, drawn tubes, tube
bends, flat sheet and plate, or electroplated parts.

The maximum frequency that can be used for the test determines the
minimum thickness that can be measured. The maximum thickness that can
be measured depends on such test conditions as couplant characteristics,
test frequency, and instrument design and on material type, metallurgical
condition, and surface roughness.
Pulse-echo thickness gages with a digital readout are widely used for
thickness measurement. Pulse-echo testing can measure such great
thickness that it can determine the length of a steel reinforcing rod in a
concrete structure, provided one end of the rod is accessible for contact by
the search unit. Although pulse-echo testing is capable of measuring
considerable thicknesses, near-field effects make the use of pulse-echo
testing ineffective on very thin materials.
6.9.3 Position measurements
Position measurements of solid parts or liquid materials in closed metallic
cavities are usually made with pulse echo type equipment. One technique is
to look for changes in back reflection intensity as the position of the search
unit is changed. In one variation of this technique, the oil level in differential
housings was checked to see if the automated equipment used to put the oil
in the housing on an-assembly line had malfunctioned. The test developed for
this application utilized a dual-gated pulse-echo system that employed a 1.6-
MHz immersion-type search unit with a thin, oil filled rubber gland over its
face. The search unit was automatically placed against the outside surface of
the housing just below the proper oil level, as shown in Fig. 60(a).
With oil at the correct level, sufficient beam energy was transmitted across
the boundary between the housing wall and the oil to attenuate the reflected
beam so that multiple back reflections were all contained in the first gate (Fig.
60b). The lack of oil at the correct level allowed the multiple back reflections
to spill over into the second gate (Fig. 60c). Thus, the test was a fail-safe test
that signaled "no test" (no signal in the first gate), "go" (signals in the first gate
only), and "no go" (signals in both gates).
Fig. 60 Method of determining correct oil level in on automobile differential
housing by use of an ultrasonic pulse-echo system. See text.
In another position measurement system, a set of two contact-type 4-MHz
search units was utilized in a through transmission pitch-catch arrangement to
determine the movement of a piston in a hydraulic oil accumulator as both
precharge nitrogen-gas pressure and standby oil pressure varied (Fig. 61).
The two search units were placed 180 apart on the outside surface of the
accumulator wall at a position on the oil side of the piston, as shown in Fig.
61.
When a high energy pulse was sent from the transmitting unit, the beam was
able to travel straight through the oil, and a strong signal was picked up by
the receiving unit. However, as the search units were moved toward the
piston (see locations drawn in phantom in Fig. 61), the sloping sides of the
recess in the piston bottom deflected the beam so that very little signal was
detected by the receiving unit.
Fig. 61 Setup for determining the position of a piston in a hydraulic oil
accumulator by use of two contact search units utilizing a through
transmission arrangement
Q144. A thin sheet may be inspected with the ultrasonic wavw direction
normal to the surface by observing:
A. The amplitude of the front surface reflection
B. The multiple reflection pattern
C. All front surface reflection
D. None of the above
6.10: In-Service Inspection
In-Service Inspection
The methods described above are applied in the course of and immediately
after the production process and are therefore called production tests. To
survey highly stressed parts, especially in power plants, repeated tests or in-
service inspections are becoming more and more important. In these
inspections any defects identified earlier but not being a cause for rejection
can be observed for any changes caused by the service conditions. In
addition service-produced defects must be detected, these being mainly
cracks caused by thermal shock, fatigue or creep, or by corrosion attack.
In-Service Inspection- Testing for fatigue cracks on crankshafts and
crankpins. a Without bore; b with bore
In-Service Inspection- Oblique or skewed fatigue cracks on crankpins
In-Service Inspection- (a) Crack test on press columns, pump rods, etc.
(b) Crack test on thread in the shadow of a sound beam; schematic screen
picture above
In-Service Inspection- (a) Probe for detecting fatigue cracks in turbine discs
(design Krautkriimer-Branson) (b) Detection of cracks in riveted turbine
blades
In-Service Inspection- (a) Testing methods for conical defects in a bolt
(b) Testing for fatigue cracks in bolts
In-Service Inspection- (a) Cross-section through a leaf spring for railway
cars with quenching crack showing testing with small angle probe or normal
probe. The use of surface waves is unfavorable due to roughness
(b)Testing a helical spring for quenching cracks, using surface waves
6.11: Casting
Casting
In castings flaw detection is almost exclusively concerned with manufacturing
defects and only rarely as in-service inspection. Suitable testing techniques
and the subsequent evaluation of indications in castings is very different from
the testing of forged and worked material so that the differences must not be
forgotten or difficulties can occur. In-service inspection, as in the case of
forgings, depends on the local stresses and the piece geometry so it is not
necessary to treat it specially in this section.
Casting- Typical casting defects and their detection methods
Casting
Casting- Detection of shrinkage cavities with normal and angle probes
6.12: Bonded Joint
Inspection of Bonded Joints
If the shape of a joint is favorable, ultrasonic inspection can be used to
determine the soundness of joints bonded either adhesively or by any of the
various metallurgical methods, including brazing and soldering. Both pulse-
echo and resonance techniques have been used to evaluate bond quality in
brazed joints.

A babbitted sleeve bearing is a typical part having a metallurgical bond that is


ultrasonically inspected for flaws. The bond between babbitt and backing
shell is inspected with a straight-beam pulse-echo technique, using a contact-
type search unit applied to the outside of the steel shell. A small-diameter
search unit is used to ensure adequate contact with the shell through the
couplant. Before inspection, the outside of the steel shell and the inside of the
cast babbitt liner are machined to a maximum surface roughness of 3.20 m
(125 in.) (but the liner is not machined to final thickness).
During inspection, the oscilloscope screen normally shows three indications:
the initial pulse, a small echo from the bond line (due to differences in
acoustical impedance of steel and babbitt), and the back reflection from the
inside surface of the liner. Regions where the bond line indication is minimum
are assumed to have an acceptable bond. Where the bond line signal
increases, the bond is questionable. Where there is no back reflection at all
from the inside surface of the liner (babbitt), there is no bond.
Inspection of other types of bonded joints is often done in a manner similar to
that described above for babbitted bearings. An extensive discussion of the
ultrasonic inspection of various types of adhesive-bonded joints (including
two-component lap joints, three component sandwich structures, and
multiple-component laminated structures) is available in the article "Adhesive-
Bonded Joints" in this Volume.
Olympus Data on Bond Testing
Our complete line of bond testing (BT) flaw detectors provides unmatched
capabilities for the location of discontinuities and other flaws in composite
structures. We offer a wide range of measurement features and application-
specific options for flaw detection. Some of the primary applications include
the location, identification and sizing of dis-bonds, delamination, and repair
(putty) areas of honeycomb composite and composite laminates in aircraft
structures (wings and flaps), high-performance racing vehicles, and boat hulls.

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/bondtesting/
Bond Testing: BondMaster 1000e+
The BondMaster 1000e+ allows users to select the best method for a
particular application and to inspect a wide variety of composite materials. Its
high performance, light weight, and rugged durability make it the ideal choice
for applications related to the manufacturing, maintenance, and repair of
composite materials.

With customer-interchangeable displays, the BondMaster 1000e+ offers


users the highest resolution available today. The availability of a color or
monochrome LCD for indoor or bright outdoor conditions, or a high-bright
electroluminescent display (ELD) for normal to dark conditions provides the
ultimate in flexibility and convenience. Its rugged, well-designed housing,
uncomplicated front panel, SmartKnob, and built-in PowerLink
technology make the BondMaster 1000e+ a truly revolutionary and user-
friendly handheld flaw detector.

The BondMaster 1000e+ uses PowerLink technology to automatically


configure the instrument when a probe is connected. Built-in calibration
modes assist the user in optimizing the test parameters. A variety of probes is
available for each of the test technologies.
The BondMaster 1000e+.
Bond Testing: OmniScan MX ECA/ECT

Bond Testing Improvements


C-scan imagery.
Can drive up to eight different frequencies at the same time.
Dimensioning capabilities.
Improved POD.
Phase/Amplitude display mode

Important to Note
Detection similar to that of the BondMaster 1000e+ instrument, since the
same probes are used.
Designed to support pitch-catch probes.
Two-axis encoding scanner is required to produce the C-scan.
OmniScan MX ECA/ECT: Advanced Composite Inspection
Olympus is proud to launch our new bond testing OmniScan solutiona big
step forward in the field of composite inspection. Now, easy-to-read C-scan
imagery is possible using a portable instrument. This OmniScan solution is
ideally suited for disbond detection in honeycomb composite, as well as
equally accurate delamination detection. Primarily designed for aerospace in-
service inspection, this solution is also useful for the manufacturing sector,
including the automotive and naval industries (e.g., for composite boat hulls).
OmniScan MX ECA/ECT: Eight Frequencies in the Same Scan
Advanced Composite Inspection
Olympus is proud to launch our new bond testing OmniScan solutiona big
step forward in the field of composite inspection. Now, easy-to-read C-scan
imagery is possible using a portable instrument. This OmniScan solution is
ideally suited for disbond detection in honeycomb composite, as well as
equally accurate delamination detection. Primarily designed for aerospace in-
service inspection, this solution is also useful for the manufacturing sector,
including the automotive and naval industries (e.g., for composite boat hulls).
Customers who already own an OmniScan ECA or ECT module only need
to order the standard BondMaster probes (P14 and SPO-5629) and the
BondMaster cable that are required to complete this solution.

Our customized MXB software has been developed especially for composite
inspection; new features, such as the wizard and normalization, help to keep
operation simple for the user.
Encoded system: any two-axis encoding scanner can be used to inspect a
part. Olympus offers two options: the GLIDER scanner, which is well-suited
for flat or slightly curved surfaces, and the WING scanner, which is
specially designed for scanning curved parts (e.g., aircraft fuselages) and can
even be used upsidedown due to its Venturi vacuum-cup system. For more
versatility, a handheld one-axis encoding scanner, equipped with an Indexer
Clicker, is also compatible with this system.

Innovative C-Scan Display

Again, Olympus innovates by introducing a new way of displaying on-screen


data. For each C-scan, the operator has two viewing options to choose from:
the amplitude C-scan displays color variation based on the amplitude of the
signal, regardeless of the phase, which is ideal for clear and efficient disbond
detection; or, the phase C-scan uses a 0 to 360 color palette to display
changes in the phase angle, making it easy to distinguish between different
types of indications, such as putty (repair) and delamination.

Phased C-scan, cursor over potting


OmniScan MX ECA/ECT
OmniScan MX ECA/ECT
Q41: The best type of frequency for a search unit used to inspect the bond
quality of similar metals using a straight beam technique would be:

a) Focused at 2 MHz
b) Unfocused at 5 MHz
c) Focused at 20 MHz (standard answer)
d) Unfocused at 10 MHz
6.13: Corrosion Monitoring
Corrosion Monitoring
Ultrasonic inspection can be used for the in situ monitoring of corrosion by
measuring the thickness of vessel walls with ultrasonic thickness gages. The
advantage of this method is that internal corrosion of a vessel can be
monitored without penetration.

There are, however, some disadvantages. Serious problems may exist in


equipment that has a metallurgically bonded internal lining, because it is not
obvious from which surface the returning signal will originate. A poor surface
finish, paint, or a vessel at high or low temperature may also complicate the
use of contact piezoelectric transducers (although this difficulty might be
addressed by noncontact in situ inspection with an EMA transducer).
Despite these drawbacks, ultrasonic thickness measurements are widely
used to determine corrosion rates. To obtain a corrosion rate, a series of
thickness measurements is made over an interval of time, and the metal loss
per unit time is determined from the measurement samples. Hand-held
ultrasonic thickness gages are suitable for these measurements and are
relatively easy to use.

However, depending on the type of transducer used, the ultrasonic thickness


method can overestimate metal thicknesses when the remaining thickness is
under approximately 1.3 mm (0.05 in.). Another corrosion inspection method
consists of monitoring back-surface roughness with ultrasonic techniques.
The following example describes an application of this method in the
monitoring of nuclear waste containers.
6.14: Crack Monitoring
Crack Monitoring
Laboratory and in-service monitoring of the initiation and propagation of
cracks that are relatively slow growing (such as fatigue cracks, stress-rupture
cracks, and stress-corrosion cracks) has been accomplished with ultrasonic
techniques. An example of the ultrasonic detection of stress-rupture cracks
resulting from creep in reformer-furnace headers is given in the article
"Boilers and Pressure Vessels" in this Volume. A relatively new and improved
approach for monitoring the growth of cracks is done with ultrasonic imaging
techniques.
Monitoring of fatigue cracks in parts during laboratory tests and while in
service in the field has been extensively done using ultrasonic techniques.
Reference 13 describes the use of surface waves to detect the initiation of
cracks in cylindrical compression-fatigue test pieces having a circumferential
notch. The surface waves, which were produced by four angle-beam search
units on the circumference of each test piece, were able to follow the contour
of the notch and detect the cracks at the notch root.

Monitoring the crack-growth rate was accomplished by periodically removing


the cracked test piece from the stressing rig and measuring the crack size by
straight-beam, pulse-echo immersion inspection. It was found necessary to
break open some of the cracked test pieces (using impact at low temperature)
and visually measure the crack to establish an accurate calibration curve of
indication height versus crack size.
The use of pulse-echo techniques for monitoring fatigue cracks in pressure
vessels in laboratory tests is described in Ref 14. These techniques use
several overlapping angle-beam (shear wave) search units, which are glued
in place to ensure reproducible results as fatigue testing proceeded. The in-
service monitoring of fatigue cracking of machine components is often
accomplished without removing the component from its assembly.
For example, 150 mm (6 in.) diam, 8100 mm (320 in.) long shafts used in
pressure rolls in papermaking machinery developed fatigue cracks in their
500 mm (20 in.) long threaded end sections after long and severe service.
These cracks were detected and measured at 3-month intervals, using a
contact-type straight-beam search unit placed on the end of each shaft,
without removing the shaft from the machine.

When the cracks were found to cover over 25% of the cross section of a shaft,
the shaft was removed and replaced. In another case, fatigue cracking in a
weld joining components of the shell of a ball mill 4.3 m (14 ft) in diameter by
9.1 m (30 ft) long was monitored using contact type angle-beam search units.
The testing was done at 3-month intervals until a crack was detected; then it
was monitored more frequently. When a crack reached a length of 150 mm (6
in.), milling was halted and the crack repaired.
6.15: Stress Measurements
Stress Measurements
With ultrasonic techniques, the velocity of ultrasonic waves in materials can
be measured and related to stress (Ref 16). These techniques rely on the
small velocity changes caused by the presence of stress, which is known as
an acousto-elastic effect. The technique is difficult to apply because of the
very small changes in velocity with changes in stress and because of the
difficulty in distinguishing stress effects from material variations (such as
texture; see Ref 17). However, with the increased ability to time the arrival of
ultrasonic pulses accurately (1 ns), the technique has become feasible for a
few practical applications, such as the measurement of axial loads in steel
bolts and the measurement of residual stress (Ref 5).
.
The real limitation of this technique is that in many materials the ultrasonic
pulse becomes distorted, which can reduce the accuracy of the measurement.
One way to avoid this problem is to measure the phase difference between
two-tone bursts by changing the frequency to keep the phase difference
constant (Ref 5). Small specimens are used in a water bath, and the pulses
received from the front and back surfaces overlap. The presence of stress
also rotates the plane of polarization of polarized shear waves, and there is
some correlation between the angle of rotation and the magnitude of the
stress. Measurement of this rotation can be used to measure the internal
stress averaged over the volume of material traversed by the ultrasonic beam.
Family Day
6. App-1: TOFD Introduction
NOTE: Not in the exam syllabus or BOK
6.App-1.1 TOFD Basic Theory
TOFD is usually performed using longitudinal waves as the primary detection
method. Ultrasonic sensors are placed on each side of the weld. One sensor
sends the ultrasonic beam into the material and the other sensor receives
reflected and diffracted ultrasound from anomalies and geometric reflectors.
TOFD provides a wide area of coverage with a single beam by exploiting
ultrasonic beam spread theory inside the wedge and the inspected material.
When the beam comes in contact with the tip of a flaw, or crack, diffracted
energy is cast in all directions. Measuring the time of flight of the diffracted
beams enables accurate and reliable flaw detection and sizing, even if the
crack is off-oriented to the initial beam direction.
During typical TOFD inspections, A-scans are collected and used to create B-
scan (side view) images of the weld. Analysis is done on the acquisition unit
or in post-analysis software, positioning cursors to measure the length and
through-wall height of flaws.

Keywords:
Tip Diffraction
Off-oriented to the initial beam direction
Time of Flight
A-scan / B-scan
Post analysis software
6.App-1.2 Main Benefits of TOFD for Weld Inspection
Based on diffraction, so relatively indifferent to weld bevel angles and flaw
orientation
Uses time of arrival of signals received from crack tips for accurate defect
positioning and sizing
Precise sizing capability makes it an ideal flaw monitoring method
Quick to set up and perform an inspection, as a single beam offers a large
area of coverage
Rapid scanning with imaging and full data recording
Can also be used for corrosion inspections
Required equipment is more economical than phased array, due to
conventional nature (single pulser and receiver) and use of conventional
probes
Highly sensitive to all weld flaw types
TOFD offers rapid weld inspection with excellent flaw detection and sizing
capacities. The diffraction technique provides critical sizing capability with
relative indifference to bevel angle or flaw orientation. TOFD can be utilized
on its own or in conjunction with other NDT techniques.
6.App-1.3 More Reading on Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD)
6.App-1.3.1 The Theory
Time of flight diffraction (TOFD) detects flaws using the signals diffracted from
the flaws extremities. Two angled compression wave probes are used in
transmit-receive mode, one each side of the weld. The beam divergence is
such that the majority of the thickness is inspected, although, for thicker
components, more than one probe separation may be required. When the
sound strikes the tip of a crack, this acts as a secondary emitter which
scatters sound out in all directions, some in the direction of the receiving
probe. A lateral wave travelling at the same velocity as the compression
waves, travels directly from the transmitter to the receiver. The time difference
between the lateral wave and the diffracted signal from the flaw
provides a measure of its distance from the scanned surface.
If the flaw is large enough in the through wall dimension, it may
be possible to resolve the tip diffracted signals from its top and
bottom, thereby allowing the through wall height of the flaw to be
measured.
http://www.iteglobal.com/services/advanced-ndt/time-of-flight-diffraction-tofd/
Due to the low amplitude of the diffracted signals, TOFD is usually carried out
using a preamplifier and hardware designed to improve signal-to-noise
performance. As the probes are scanned along the weld, the RF A-Scan
signals are digitised and displayed in the form of a grey-scale image showing
flaws as alternating white and black fringes.

Depending on which direction the probes are moved over the component
surface, it is possible to construct end-view; (B-scan TOFD) or side-view
(D-scan TOFD) cross-sectional slices. TOFD can also utilise Synthetic
Aperture focusing or beam modelling software to minimise the effects of
beam divergence, thereby providing more accurate location and sizing
information.
TOFD is generally recognised as the most accurate ultrasonic technique for
measuring the through-wall height of planar flaws that lie perpendicular to the
surface and as a method for detecting and quantifying crevice corrosion at the
weld root. At present, national standards for the application of TOFD exist,
however, no acceptance criteria have been agreed upon.

The TOFD technique is suited for the detection and sizing of all types of
embedded flaws, especially those planar in nature. However, the detection of
small near the scan surface flaws can be more difficult due to the presence of
the lateral wave response which often occupies several millimeters of the
depth axis on images.
Tips Diffractions
TOFD

Transmitter Receiver

Diffracted wave from upper end of crack


Diffracted wave from lower end of crack
Crack
Back-wall echo

Crack height can be calculate by measuring propagation


delayed time of diffraction wave

Diffracted
wave from
upper end of
crack

Lateral wave

Diffracted wave from lower end of crack


TOFD
6.App-1.2 Application Examples
TOFD for Weld Root Corrosion and Erosion
For piping and other flow systems, certain conditions exist that lead to
corrosion and erosion in the weld root and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of
the weld. The contributing factors are often metallurgical, chemical, or flow
related, and the resulting metal loss can lead to failure of the weld/base metal.
The shape of the corroded or eroded weld or base metal can make ultrasonic
inspection extremely difficult to apply, thus impeding accurate detection and
measurement of anomalies.
The time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique proves to be a valid option for
evaluating weld root corrosion and erosion, as well as similar conditions such
as FAC (flow-accelerated corrosion). The goal of any of these inspections is
to accurately measure the wall thickness, the weld, and the HAZ. The
unpredictable shape of the remaining material often makes pulse-echo
ultrasonic inspection ineffective.

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/applications/tofd-for-weld-root-corrosion-and-erosion/
TOFD has been used for some time for general weld inspections. It has
proven to be a rapid and easily deployable method with an excellent capacity
for sizing. One of the inherent strengths of TOFD for detection and sizing
purposes is its relative indifference to the orientation of defects because of its
primary use of diffracted versus reflected energy.
The TOFD technique utilizes two transducers: a transmitter transducer floods
the inspected region with sound in the forward direction; on the opposite side
of the weld, a receiver transducer is positioned to receive diffracted and
reflected energy from the back wall or from anomalies present in the region.
Common pulse-echo techniques can be misdirected by the shape of the
region, resulting in imprecise measurement and assessment.
Figure 5-3 Preferential weld corrosion in lean amine (Reference 5)
Figure 5-2 Hot Lean Amine Corrosion of Carbon Steel:
Weld Root Corrosion and Erosion

Pulse-echo shear wave beam being reflected at an off angle.

Illustration of diffracted energy reflecting off weld root/HAZ in all directions.


For these types of weld inspections, TOFD is typically performed from three
positions for each weld: (1) centered on the weld, (2) offset to the left, and (3)
offset to the right.
Scanning from these particular positions helps to achieve the best results.
This method ensures detection of the highest point of material loss,
determines from which side of the weld the erosion/corrosion indications are
originating, and eliminates any masking caused by the back wall signal.
Depending on the instrument, these scans can be run concurrently or in
separate acquisitions.
TOFD is deployed by scanning the weld with a semiautomatic or fully
automatic scanner. Scan settings are set to determine scan resolution. The
resulting data file can be saved indefinitely for review and comparison to
future scans. After data is acquired, it is analyzed to identify any areas of
concern, either directly on the instrument or in post-analysis software. Shifts
in data (time/depth) are measured in order to assess the severity of metal
loss. The cursors can then be positioned to define areas for depth or
thickness measurement readings. Weld defects such as porosity, lack of
fusion, and cracking can also be detected when scanning for corrosion and
erosion.
Scan of weld with cursor positioned on an uncorroded area; A-scan shows
good lateral wave and back wall signal with no indications in between.
Scan of weld with cursor positioned on a corroded area; A-scan shows shift in
time of back wall signal from material loss.
Measurement of good area shows thickness as 7.39 mm; TOFD (m-r) reading
shows the distance between the positioned cursors.
Measurement of corroded area shows thickness as 5.28 mm; cursors are
positioned at top of plate (0) and highest point of material loss. In this
example, there is 2.11 mm of material loss due to corrosion.
6.11.3.3TOFD for Corrosion Measurement Equipment (Typical)
OmniScan SX or MX2 (PA or UT models, depending on the number of
channels desired and if phased array capability is needed).
TOFD circumferential scanner (HST-Lite or similar, depending on the
desired number of probe holders and other application specifics; for
example, pipe versus plate).
TOFD probe and wedges (various frequencies, angles, and materials).
Couplant delivery system, WTR-SPRAYER-8L or similar.
TomoView Analysis or OmniPC post-analysis software (optional).
6.App-1.3.4 TOFD Benefits for Corrosion/Erosion Measurement
Rapid scanning.
Cost effective.
Auditable and retrievable permanent data sets.
Accurate sizing capability.
Excellent detection, even on irregularly shaped areas of metal loss.
Fast post-acquisition analysis results.
Portable and user-friendly TOFD scanning packages.
TOFD for Weld- TOFD Parallel Scanning
6.App-1.3.5 Overview on Scanning Direction
Most typical TOFD inspections are performed with the send and receive
transducers on opposite sides of the weld and scanning movement parallel to
the weld axis. The main purpose of this perpendicular (defined by beam to
weld relationship) scanning is to quickly perform weld inspection with the weld
cap or re-enforcement in place. This technique can give location in the scan
axis, the indication length, height of indication and flaw characterization
information. One of the weaknesses of this technique is the lack of index
positioning (or where between the probes) the indication is located. This
information is usually obtained with complimentary pulse echo ultrasonics
when the weld is left in place.
Perpendicular Scanning
Scanning direction parallel to the weld axis. Beam direction perpendicular
to the weld axis.

? Carriage movement
direction

One of the weaknesses of this technique is the lack of index positioning (or
where between the probes) the indication is located.
Parallel TOFD scanning:
Where the scan direction and beam direction are the same is less used, for
obvious reasons of not being able to cover the entire length of weld rapidly,
more complex movement pattern required of scanner mechanisms, and
complexity of the data output of an entire weld inspected. This technique does
have advantages when it is possible to be performed.
Typical Perpendicular Weld Scanning Setup and Data Collected. Data is
side view of weld from scan start to scan finish down the weld. Position of
encoder and scanning direction are highlighted.
Typical Parallel Weld Scanning Setup and Data Collected. Data is side view
of weld from scan start to scan finish across the weld. Position of encoder and
scanning direction are highlighted.
Benefit of TOFD Parallel Scanning
Although perpendicular TOFD scanning down the weld can give highly
accurate depth measurement, generally speaking a parallel scan will give
more accurate depth information as well as flaw information, and location in
the index position in the weld. With perpendicular scanning, no index position
is possible without multiple offset scans being performed or complimentary
NDT techniques to position the flaw. In parallel scanning Index position is
ascertained by locating the minimum time peak, which corresponds to when
the indication is centered between the two probes. For these reasons this
technique is often used in critical crack sizing inspections, as well as change
monitoring, in other words, monitoring a crack or other defect for growth until
it reaches a critical level at which time it is repaired or replaced. For these
reasons the technique is often performed on critical components that are
costly to shut down for repair, often in the Power Generation industry. More
information is often gathered from the flaw as diffraction occurs across the
flaw instead of just down the flaw.
6.App-1.3.6 Further Reading- Introduction to Phased Array

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/intro/ut/
The Experts at work.
Break Time

mms://a588.l3944020587.c39440.g.lm.akamaistream.net/D/588/39440/v0001/reflector:20587?BBC-
UID=e5203c9d59fef1a79c12d8c601e839f58db16f7d5d6448f55674c540f1856834&amp;SSO2-UID
Break Time

mms://a588.l3944020587.c39440.g.lm.akamaistream.net/D/588/39440/v0001/reflector:20587?BBC-
UID=e5203c9d59fef1a79c12d8c601e839f58db16f7d5d6448f55674c540f1856834&amp;SSO2-UID
Break Time

mms://a588.l3944020587.c39440.g.lm.akamaistream.net/D/588/39440/v0001/reflector:20587?BBC-
UID=e5203c9d59fef1a79c12d8c601e839f58db16f7d5d6448f55674c540f1856834&amp;SSO2-UID
Break Time
Sail Off
Section 7:
Reference Materials
Content: Section 7: Reference Material
7.1: UT Material Properties
7.2: General References & Resources
7.3: Video Time
7.1: UT Material Properties
Acoustic Properties - Piezoelectric Materials
Acoustic Properties - Transducers
Acoustic Properties - Metals
Acoustic Properties - Powdered Metals
Acoustic Properties - Liquid Metals
Acoustic Properties - Plastics, Resins
Acoustic Properties - Rubber
Acoustic Properties - Ceramics
Acoustic Properties - Wood
Acoustic Properties - Liquids
Acoustic Properties - Liquid Gases
Acoustic Properties - Gases
Acoustic Properties - Vapors
Acoustic Properties - Body Tissue

https://www.nde-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Reference%20Information/matproperties.htm
7.2: General References & Resources
Auld, B.A., Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids, Vol I & II, 2nd edition Krieger
Publishing Company, February 1990; ISBN: 089874783X

Cartz, Louis, Nondestructive Testing : Radiography, Ultrasonics, Liquid


Penetrant, Magnetic Particle, Eddy Current, ASM Intl; ISBN: 0871705176

Krautkramer, Josef and Krautkramer, Herbert, Ultrasonic Testing of Materials,


4th/revised edition, Springer Verlag, November 1990, ISBN: 0387512314

Diederichs, Rolf and Ginzel, Ed, Nondestructive Testing Encyclopedia, UT


Formulae, NDT net
http://www.ndt.net/ndtaz/ndtaz.php

Ultrasonic Characterization of Materials, NIST, Materials Reliability Division


7.3: Video Time
Calibrating 70 Probe with IIW Block (50%FSH on 1.5mm SDH) to AWS D1.1
(Repeat-Code1)

www.youtube.com/embed/Qr0dGNuq9yY
Section 8: Ultrasonic Inspection Quizzes
Content: Section 8: Ultrasonic Inspection Quizzes
8.1: Ultrasonic Inspection Quizzes
8.2: Online UT Quizzes
8.1: Ultrasonic Inspection Quizzes
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/TCS-45_web.pdf
Ultrasonic Inspection Quizzes
Ultrasonic Inspection Quizzes

http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/www.nrcan.gc.ca/files/mineralsmetals/files/pdf/ndt-end/rad-rad-eng.pdf
8.2: Online UT Quizzes
https://www.nde-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Quiz/UT%20Quizzes.htm
http://www.ndtcalc.com/index.php?page=quiz&method=ut&qs=10
http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/ut-asnt-level-ii/deck/6278710
Addendum-01a
Equipment Calibrations
My ASNT Level III UT Study Notes.
2014-June
Normal Beams Calibration Techniques
Attenuation due to Beam spread for:
Large Reflector
Small Reflector
Attenuation Due to Beam Spread: Large Reflector
Attenuation Due to Beam Spread: Small Reflector

SH1

D1

D2

SH2
Material Attenuation Determination:
Material Attenuation Determination: Actual BWE display
IF zero Material attenuation: The second BWE at twice the distance will be
exactly 6dB less (50% less), half the 1st BWE height ( FSH). However this
is never the case!
dB = total Material attenuation at twice distance travel.

Material attenuation =

dB

D1 D2
Material Attenuation in 100mm = YdB-XdB-6dB
Material attenuation in dB/mm = (YdB-XdB-6dB)/100

YdB-XdB-6dB
X dB Y dB
Construction of beam edges plot- Normal Transducer
Construction of Beam Edges:
20dB drop to find edges of beam
The other edge:
Construction of beam spread at 13mm:
Construction of beam spread at 25mm:
Construction of beam spread at 32mm:
Angle Beams Calibration Techniques
Perspex as Matching Layer/Wedge

Tunsten impregnated
epoxy resin
s1
2730m/s

s2

3250m/s
Perspex as Matching Layer/Wedge

1. The Shear wave velocity of Perspex is 2730m/s, the shear wave velocity
od steel is 3250m/s. The refracted angle of Perspex S1 is always smaller
than S2
2. Pespex is very absortive and attenuated efficiently, thus reflected
compressional wavw will be dampen.
First/ Second Critical Angles
VL1= 2730m/s,
VS2= 3250m/s, VL2= 5900m/s
1st / 2nd critical angle

27.56

57.14
Ist Critical angle= 27.56

2nd Critical angle= 57.14

33.42
First/ Second Critical Angles

27.56

57.14

33.42
Finding the probe index
Finding the probe index
Checking the probe Angle:
Calibration for range:
Calibration for range:
Angle Beam- Beam edges Proving (Vertical Axis) using IOW Block
Stand Off Measurement Techniques.

Stand-off 2

Stand-off 1
Stand off 2
Angle Beam- Beam edges Proving (Vertical Axis) using IOW Block
Botoom edge.
Angle Beam- Beam edges Proving (Vertical Axis) using IOW Block
Bottom Edge.
The IOW Block: The Institute of Welding Block
The Proofing:
Plot out the Stand-Off1 & 2 readings on a transparent slide, superimposed the
ploted transparent slide on IOW Block
Angle Beam- Beam edges Proving (Horizontal Axis) using IIW Block
Angle Beam- Beam edges Proving (Horizontal Axis) using IIW Block
Angle Beam- Beam edges Proving (Horizontal Axis) using IIW Block

Scanned at
, 1, 1 Skips
Angle Beam- Beam edges Proving (Horizontal Axis) using IIW Block
Angle Beam- Beam edges Proving (Horizontal Axis) using IIW Block

Skip
1 Skip
1 Skip
The DAC
The DAC
DAC Curve
DAC Curve
DAC Curve Plot

1. Obtained the signal from the refernce reflector and mark on the
graticule/traspatrent sheet with gain setting at 80% FSH.

2. Set the gain control -6bB and marks the 50% mark.

3. Set the gain contril to the

4. Obtained the signal at the gain setting in item 1 and repeat the process at
different sound paths.

5. Plot the curves at the gain setting and -6dB.

6. Determined the transfer correction.

7. Scanned the work pieces at the Gain Setting + Transfer Correction


FLAT Bottom Holes FBH
FLAT Bottom Holes FBH
Reading on: FLAT Bottom Holes FBH

https://www.cnde.iastate.edu/ultrasonics/grain-noise
FLAT Bottom Holes FBH
A type of reflector commonly used in reference standards. The end (bottom)
surface of the hole is the reflector.E
quivalent:, the size of a flat-bottom hole which at the same range, gives an
ultrasonic indication equal to the one from the discontinuity. This reflector is
used in DGS curves, or many calibration blocks, or standards such as the GE
specification.
Transfer Corection
Transfer Correction: Reference surface are smooth and scale free unlike
the actual work pieces. These call for transfer correction to account for
transfer loss resulting from actual scanning.
Transfer Correction: Reference surface are smooth and scale free unlike
the actual work pieces. These call for transfer correction to account for
transfer loss resulting from actual scanning.
Transfer Correction: Reference surface are smooth and scale free unlike
the actual work pieces. These call for transfer correction to account for
transfer loss resulting from actual scanning.
Transfer Correction:
Transfer Correction: Comparison of BWE for Compression Probe

Test Material curve

Reference Block curve


Gain Setting

Transfer correction
at thickness

Measured point

Beam path
Transfer Correction: Compression Probe Method, Plot a curve of gain
setting for FSH at different south paths for actual and reference block, the
different in gain control at thickness is the transfer correction.
Transfer Correction: Angle Probes Methos, used 2 eaqual angle probes,
pitch and catch in the test material ans using the reference block. The
differences in gain setting is the transfer correction,
DGS- Distance Gain Size

http://www.sonostarndt.com/EnProductShow.asp?ID=198
FLAT Bottom Holes FBH
DGS/AVG
DGS is a sizing technique that relates the amplitude of the echo from a
reflector to that of a flat bottom hold at the same depth or distance. This is
known as Equivalent Reflector Size or ERS. DGS is an acronym for
Distance/Gain/Size and is also known as AVG from its German name,
Abstand Verstarkung Grosse. Traditionally this technique involved manually
comparing echo amplitudes with printed curves, however contemporary
digital flaw detectors can draw the curves following a calibration routine and
automatically calculate the ERS of a gated peak. The generated curves are
derived from the calculated beam spreading pattern of a given transducer,
based on its frequency and element diameter using a single calibration point.
Material attenuation and coupling variation in the calibration block and test
specimen can be accounted for.

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/flaw-detection/dgs-avg/
DGS is a primarily mathematical technique originally based on the ratio of a
circular probes calculated beam profile and measurable material properties
to circular disk reflectors. The technique has since been further applied to
square element and even dual element probes, although for the latter, curve
sets are empirically derived. It is always up to the user to determine how the
resultant DGS calculations relate to actual flaws in real test pieces.

An example of a typical DGS curve set is seen below. The uppermost curve
(Curve #1) represents the relative amplitude of the echo from a flat plate
reflector in decibels, plotted at various distances from the transducer, and the
curves below (Curve #2) represent the relative amplitude of echoes from
progressively smaller disk reflectors over the same distance scale.
(Curve #1) represents the relative amplitude of the echo from a flat plate
reflector in decibels, plotted at various distances from the transducer
(Curve #2) represent the relative amplitude of echoes from progressively
smaller disk reflectors over the same distance scale.
As implemented in contemporary digital flaw detectors, DGS curves are
typically plotted based on a reference calibration off a known target such as a
backwall reflector or a flat bottom hole at a given depth. From that one
calibration point, an entire curve set can be drawn based on probe and
material characteristics. Rather than plotting the entire curve set, instruments
will typically display one curve based on a selected reflector size (registration
level) that can be adjusted by the user. In the example below, the upper curve
represents the DGS plot for a 2 mm disk reflector at depths from 10 mm to 50
mm. The lower curve is a reference that has been plotted 6 dB lower.

In the screen at left, the red gate marks the reflection from a 2 mm diameter
flat bottom hole at approximately 20 mm depth. Since this reflector equals the
selected registration level, the peak matches the curve at that depth. In the
screen at right, a different reflector at a depth of approximately 26 mm has
been gated. Based on its height and depth in relation to the curve the
instrument calculated an ERS of 1.5 mm.
(Curve #2) represent the relative amplitude of echoes from progressively
smaller disk reflectors over the same distance scale.
More reading on DGS
DGS- Different sizes of FBH at different distance
DGS

# of near field
What is DGS
TCG is a time-corrected DAC so that equal dimension reflectors give equal amplitude
responses for all sound path distances. Used for PAUT Sectorial scans where it would
be otherwise impossible to set every angle and sound path to the same sensitivity
level using DAC's.
ASTM E-1316: DGS (distance gain size-German AVG)distance amplitude curves
permitting prediction of reflector size compared to the response from a back surface
reflection.
The probe manufacturer supplies data sheet diagams for each probe which shows the
amplitude response curves from the backwall and a range of diameters of flat-bottom
holes along the length of the soundfield.
Have a look at EN 583-2:2001 Sensitivity and range setting for excellent authoritative
descriptions of DAC/TCG and DGS. You'll have to look at AWS D1.1. for instance
for knowledge of their sensitivity setting requirements.
Knowledge of these techniques is desirable but will such knowledge really improve
your inspection method? You use DAC because the Codes and standards you work to
require you to assess indications to those DAC's. A report that a reflector was 3,5 mm
equivalent FBH size to DGS would most probably be rejected.
DGS-If you have a signal feom a flaw at a certain depth, you can compare the
signal of BWE from the FBH at that depth. The defect then could be sized as
equivalent of the size of the FBH.

Size 0.24

Size 0.24

2.4depth

http://www.ndt.net/article/berke/berke_e.htm
Locating & Sizing Flaws
Locating reflectors with an angle-beam probe
Fig. 53 Scanning a reflector using an angle beam probe
The echo of a discontinuity on the instrument display does not now give us
any direct information about its position in the material. The only available
information for determination of the reflector position is the scale position and
therefore the sound path s, this means the distance of the discontinuity from
the index point (sound exit point) of the probe, Fig. 53.

The mathematics of the right-angled triangle helps us to evaluate the Surface


Distance and the Depth of a reflector which are both important for the
ultrasonic test, Fig. 54a. We therefore now have the possibility to instantly
mark a detected flaw's position on the surface of the test object by
measurement of the surface distance from the sound exit point and to give
the depth. For practical reasons, the reduced surface distance is used
because this is measured from the front edge of the probe. The difference
between the surface distance and the reduced surface distance corresponds
to the x-value of the probe, this is the distance of the sound exit point to the
front edge of the probe, Fig. 54b.
With ultrasonic instruments having digital echo evaluation these calculations
are naturally carried out by an integrated microprocessor and immediately
displayed so that the operator does not need to make any more time-
consuming calculations, Fig. 55. This is of great help with weld testing
because with the calculation of the flaw depth an additional factor must be
taken into account, namely: whether the sound pulses were reflected from the
opposing wall. If this is the case then an apparent depth of the reflector is
produced by using the depth formula which is greater than the thickness T of
the test object. The ultrasonic operator must acertain whether a reflection
comes from the opposite wall and then proceed with calculating the reflector
depth, Fig. 56b.
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns
Scanning Patterns

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/flaw-detection/common-test-practices/
Practice Makes Perfect
81. The 100 mm radius in an IIW block is used to:
(a) Calibrate sensitivity level
(b) Check resolution
(c) Calibrate angle beam distance
(d) Check beam angle

80. The 50 mm diameter hole in an IIW block is used to:


(a) Determine the beam index point
(b) Check resolution
(c) Calibrate angle beam distance
(d) Check beam angle
Practice Makes Perfect
35. The 2 mm wide notch in the IIW block is used to:
(a) Determine beam index point
(b) Check resolution
(c) Calibrate angle beam distance
(d) Check beam angle
Addendum-01b
Equipment Calibration
My ASNT Level III UT Study Notes
2014-June.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
The Circuitry:

Voltage activation of the PE crystal


Ultrasound formation
Propagation
Reflection
Charge formation of crystal
Processing
Display
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation

Transmitter

TRX Receiver Scan


Detector
Amplifier Converter

Display

TGC

TGC Time Gain Compensation Circuit


Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Pulser Components

1. HV pulse generator

2. The clock generator

3. The transducer
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Applied Voltage Generated Wave

+ +
V P
TIME

TIME
-
-
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
The Pulser rate is known as the pulse repetition frequency
(PRF).

Typical PRF 3,000 5,000.

PRF automatically adjusted as a function of imaging depth.


Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Switch that controls the output power of the HV generator is
the attenuator.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation

PULSER TRX

ATTENUATOR
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
CLOCK GENERATOR

Controls the actual number of pulses which activate the crystal.


Responsible for sending timing signal to the

1. Pulse generator
2. TGC circuitry
3. Memory
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation

CLOCK TGC UNIT


GENERATOR

HV
GENERATOR MEMORY

TRS

TRX CRT
DISPLAY
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Sensitivity refers to the weakest echo signal that the
instrument is
capable of detecting and displaying.

Factors that determine sensitivity are

1. Transducer frequency
2. Overall and TGC receiver gain
3. Reject control
4. Variable focal zone on array real-time instruments.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Increasing the voltage causes

1. Greater amplitude greater penetration

2. Longer pulses degrades axial resolution

3. Increase exposure
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Transducer has dual roles; transmitting and receiving signals.

The transducer is capable of handling a wide range of


voltage amplitude.

The Receiver is capable of handling only smaller signals

Therefore it is desirable to isolate the pulser circuit from the


receiver circuit.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
The Transmit Receive Switch

TRS positioned at the input of the receiver and is designed to


pass only voltages signals originating at the transducer by the
returning echoes.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
The Receiver Unit consist of

1. Radiofrequency Amplifier

2. Time gain compensation TGC unit

3. Demodulation Circuit

4. Detector Circuit

5. Video Amplifier
MEMORY
PULSER TGC UNIT

RF
TRX TRS
RECEIVER

CRT
DISPLAY

DEMODULATOR

DETECTOR

VIDEO
AMPLIFIER
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Radio-Frequency Amplifier

Amplify weak voltage signals.

This is called GAIN


Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Electric signals generated by the transducer are weak and
needs amplification.

The gain is the ratio of the output to input Voltage or Power.

Gain = Voltage Out


Voltage In
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
The Imaging effect of adjusting gain are:

1. Increasing the gain - increased sensitivity, better


penetration

2. Decreasing the gain decreased sensitivity, less


penetration

3. Too high a gain overloads the display, loss or spatial


resolution
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation

Amplitude Saturation Level

Normal Gain

Distance
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation

Excess Gain
Saturation Level
Amplitude

Distance
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Primary objective of grayscale pulse-echo imaging is to make
all like reflectors appear the same in the Image regardless
where they are located in the sound beam.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Time Gain Compensation TGC

TGC - electronic process of adjusting the overall system


gain as a function of the transmit time.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
TGC Controls

Near Gain

Slope Delay

Slope

Knee

Far Gain

Body Wall
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation

KNEE MAX GAIN

Gain NEAR GAIN SLOPE


dB

DELAY
Depth cm
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
KNEE MAX GAIN

NEAR GAIN
Gain SLOPE
dB

Depth cm
Body wall
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
KNEE

Gain SLOPE
CUT-OFF
dB

DELAY
Depth cm
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
The slide potentiometer allows adjustment of receiver gain for
small discrete depth increments.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Slide Potentiometer

Gain
dB

Depth (Time)
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Frequency Tuning of the Receiver

The frequency band width of the receiver refers to the range


of ultrasound signal frequencies that the receiver can amplify
with a maximum gain.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Types of Amplifiers

Wide-Band
Narrow-Band
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Wide-band amplifier Narrow-band amplifier

Gain Gain

Frequency MHz Frequency MHz


Pulse-Echo Instrumentation

Receiver Unit
Receiver A

Receiver B
Output
TRX To
System

Receiver C

Frequency Receiver D
Selector
Switch
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
DYNAMIC RANGE

The dynamic range is a measure of the range of echo signal


amplitudes.

The dynamic range can be measured at any point.

The dynamic range decreases from transducer, to receiver to


scan converter and finally to display.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Large range in signal amplitudes is due to:

1. Normal variation in the reflection amplitude.


2. Frequency dependent tissue attenuation.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
RF amplifier can handle a wide range of signal amplitude at its
input but cannot accommodate the corresponding output using
linear amplification.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Linear amplification - all voltages amplitudes, regardless of
size at the point of input are amplified with the same gain
factor.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
LOGARITHMIC AMPLIFICATION

In Logarithmic amplification weak echoes amplitudes are


amplified more than strong echoes.

This can reduced the dynamic range by as much as 50%.

The process of reducing the signal DR by electronic means is


called COMPRESSION
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation

A Linear Amplification
Gain

B
Logarithmic Amplification

Input signal
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
R-F amplifier can also set the electronic level in the machine.

S-N level compares real echo signals the system can handle
versus the non-echo signals presents (Noise).

The Higher the SN ratio better the operation of the system.


Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Pre-amplification is a technique to reduce system noise.

Positioning of part of the amplifier circuitry in the transducer


housing reduces system noise.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
REJECTION
Rejection is the receiver function that enables the operator to
systematically increase or decrease the minimum echo signal
amplitude which can be displayed.

Alternate names = Threshold, Suppression.


Pulse-Echo Instrumentation

Saturation Level

Rejection Level
Dynamic
Range

Noise
Level
Zero Signal Level
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
SIGNAL PROCESSING

RF waveform oscillating type of voltage signal (AC)

First Step in processing the signal is Demodulation.

Demodulation is the process of converting the electric


signal from one form to another.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
DEMODULATION

Rectification

Detection
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
RECTIFICATION

Rectification results in the elimination of the negative


portion of the RF signals

Half Wave Rectification

Full wave Rectification


Pulse-Echo Instrumentation

Half-Wave
Rectification
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation

Full-Wave
Rectification
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
DETECTION

The main effect of detecting the rectified RF signal is to


round out or smooth the signal as to have a single broad
peak.

The rectified RF signal following detection is referred to as a


Video Signal.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Smoothing
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
The video signal is then further amplified by the
VIDEO AMPLIFIER.

The output from the video amplifier is forwarded to

1. CRT or

2. Scan converter
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
DIGITAL SCAN CONVERTER

The device that stores the echo signal is called a Scan


converter.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
All Scan Converters are designed to

1. Store echoes in appropriate location

2. Encode echoes in shade of gray

3. Read out echoes in a horizontal raster format


Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
4. Digital Memory is divided into small squares = Pixel.

5. The Pixels form the Image Matrix

6. Total # of storage location = rows x columns

7. x and y location = ADDRESS


Matrix

Rows x, coordinates
Matrix

Columns, y coordinates
Matrix

Pixel
10x
10y

X, Y ADDRESS

8x
7y

5x
5y

3x
3y

1x
1y
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
In the Scan converter the echoes are processed on a first-
come first-in basis.
X X
X X
X X
X X
X X
X X
X X
X X
X X
X X
X X
X X
50 50

50 50

50 50

50 50

50 50

50 50
Raster
Process
50 50

50 50

50 50

50 50

50 50

50 50
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
DIGITAL SCAN CONVERTER

Convert echo voltage signal into a numerical value.

Each numerical value corresponds to a shade of gray.


Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
The number of shades of gray is determined by the BIT
CAPACITY.

# of shades of gray = 2
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Echoes
dB
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Bit Shades of Gray
1 2
2 4
3 8
4 16
5 32
6 64
7 128
8 256
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Gray Scale Resolution = dynamic range (dB)
# of gray shades
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Operator can select different A/D conversion scheme
(Preprocessing).

Each preprocessing curve is called an algorithm and assigns a


specific percentage amount of shades of gray to regions of
the echo amplitude.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
% Available
Shade of gray

100%
1
2

50%
3
4

0%
Echo Strength
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
POST PROCESSING

Assignment of specific display brightness


to numerical echo amplitudes read out of
the digital memory.
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation

9 7 8 8 8 8 8 8

8 9 8 7 8 8 8 8

7 8 8 9 8 8 8 8

SMOOTHING
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
The DSC is not necessary for image display, but is needed for
the following post-processing functions.

Video Invert

Display Invert

Display Subdivision

Zoom Magnification
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Zoom Magnification

Read Zoom

Write Zoom
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
Resolution at the DSC

1. Find Matrix size

2. Determine FOV ( width/length)

3. Calculate pixels/cm

4. Find linear distance/pixel = resolution


Pulse-Echo Instrumentation

Data Data
Pre- Post-
Processing M Processing
R A

Data Data
Collection Reformatting
ADC
&
Formatting

Echo Positional
Signal Data

Display
Pulse-Echo Instrumentation
1. ROM

2. PROM

3. RAM
65. In Figure 3, transducer A is being used to establish:
A. Verification of wedge angle
B. Sensitivity calibration
C. Resolution
D. An index point
66. In Figure 3, transducer C is being used to check:
A. Distance calibration
B. Resolution
C. Sensitivity calibration
D. Verification of wedge angle
67. In Figure 3, transducer D is being used to check:

A. Sensitivity calibration
B. Distance calibration
C. Resolution
D. Verification of wedge angle
68. When the incident angle is chosen to be between the first and second
critical angles, the ultrasonic wave generated within the part will be:
A. Longitudinal
B. Shear
C. Surface
D. Lamb
69. In Figure 4, transducer B is being used to check:

A. The verification of wedge angle


B. Resolution
C. Sensitivity calibration
D. Distance calibration
Q: In a UT test system where signal amplitudes are displayed on a CRT, an
advantage of a frequency-independent attenuator over a continuously
variable gain control is that:
A. the pulse shape distortion is less
B. the signal amplitude measured using the attenuator is independent
of frequency
C. the dynamic range of the system is decreased
D. the effect of amplification threshold is avoided

Q: An amplifier in which received echo pulses must exceed a certain


threshold voltage before they can be indicated might be used to:
A. suppress amplifier noise, unimportant scatter echoes, or small flaw
echoes which are of no consequence
B. provide a screen display with nearly ideal vertical linearity characteristics
C. compensate for the unavoidable effects of material attenuation loss
D. provide distance amplitude correction automatically
Q: The output voltage from a saturated amplifier is:
A) 180 degrees out of phase from the input voltage
B) lower than the input voltage
C) nonlinear with respect to the input voltage
D) below saturation

Q: The transmitted pulse at the output of the pulser usually has a voltage of
100 to 1000V, whereas the voltages of the echo at the input of the amplifier
are on the order of:
A) 10 Volts
B) 50 Volts
C) .001 to 1 Volts
D) 1 to 5 Volts
Q: The intended purpose of the adjustable calibrated attenuator of a UT
instrument is to:
A) control transducer dampening
B) increase the dynamic range of the instrument
C) broaden the frequency range
D) attenuate the voltage applied to the transducer
Addendum-02
Equations & Calculations
My ASNT Level III UT Study Notes
2014-June.
Trigonometry

http://www.mathwarehouse.com/trigonometry/sine-cosine-tangent.php
Contents:
1. Material Acoustic Properties
2. Ultrasonic Formula
3. Properties of Acoustic Wave
4. Speed of Sound
5. Attenuation
6. What id dB
7. Acoustic Impedance
8. Snells Law
9. S/N Ratio
10. Near / Far Field
11. Focusing & Focal Length
12. Offsetting for Circular Specimen
13. Quality Q Factors
14. Inverse Law & Inverse Square Law

http://www.ndt-ed.org/GeneralResources/Calculator/calculator.htm
1.0 Material Acoustic Properties
Material Logitudinal wave Shear wave Z Acoustic
mm/s mm/s Impedence

Acrylic resin 2.74 1.44 3.23


(Perspex)
Steel - SS 300 5.613 3.048 44.6
Series

Steel - SS 400 5.385 2.997 41.3


Series

Steel 1020 5.893 3.251 45.4

Steel 4340 5.842 3.251 45.6

http://www.ndtcalc.com/utvelocity.html
2.0 Ultrasonic Formula

http://www.ndt-ed.org/GeneralResources/Calculator/calculator.htm
Ultrasonic Formula
Ultrasonic Formula

= Transducer radius
3.0 Properties of Acoustic Plane Wave
Wavelength, Frequency and Velocity
Among the properties of waves propagating in isotropic solid materials are
wavelength, frequency, and velocity. The wavelength is directly proportional
to the velocity of the wave and inversely proportional to the frequency of the
wave. This relationship is shown by the following equation.
4.0 The Speed of Sound
Hooke's Law, when used along with Newton's Second Law, can explain a few
things about the speed of sound. The speed of sound within a material is a
function of the properties of the material and is independent of the amplitude
of the sound wave. Newton's Second Law says that the force applied to a
particle will be balanced by the particle's mass and the acceleration of the the
particle. Mathematically, Newton's Second Law is written as F = ma. Hooke's
Law then says that this force will be balanced by a force in the opposite
direction that is dependent on the amount of displacement and the spring
constant (F = -kx). Therefore, since the applied force and the restoring force
are equal, ma = -kx can be written. The negative sign indicates that the force
is in the opposite direction.

F= ma = -kx
What properties of material affect its speed of sound?
Of course, sound does travel at different speeds in different materials. This is
because the (1) mass of the atomic particles and the (2) spring constants are
different for different materials. The mass of the particles is related to the
density of the material, and the spring constant is related to the elastic
constants of a material. The general relationship between the speed of sound
in a solid and its density and elastic constants is given by the following
equation:
V is the speed of sound
Eleatic constant
spring constants

Density
mass of the atomic particles
Where V is the speed of sound, C is the elastic constant, and p is the material
density. This equation may take a number of different forms depending on the
type of wave (longitudinal or shear) and which of the elastic constants that are
used. The typical elastic constants of a materials include:
Young's Modulus, E: a proportionality constant between uniaxial stress
and strain.
Poisson's Ratio, n: the ratio of radial strain to axial strain
Bulk modulus, K: a measure of the incompressibility of a body subjected to
hydrostatic pressure.
Shear Modulus, G: also called rigidity, a measure of a substance's
resistance to shear.
Lame's Constants, l and m: material constants that are derived from
Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio.
E/N/G
5.0 Attenuation
The amplitude change of a decaying plane wave can be expressed as:

In this expression Ao is the unattenuated amplitude of the propagating wave


at some location. The amplitude A is the reduced amplitude after the wave
has traveled a distance z from that initial location. The quantity is the
attenuation coefficient of the wave traveling in the z-direction. The
dimensions of are nepers/length, where a neper is a dimensionless
quantity. The term e is the exponential (or Napier's constant) which is equal
to approximately 2.71828.

http://www.ndt.net/article/v04n06/gin_ut2/gin_ut2.htm
Spreading/ Scattering/ adsorption (reflection is a form of scaterring)

Adsoprtion

Scaterring

Spreading

Scaterrring
Attenuation can be determined by evaluating the multiple backwall reflections
seen in a typical A-scan display like the one shown in the image at the bottom.
The number of decibels between two adjacent signals is measured and this
value is divided by the time interval between them. This calculation produces
a attenuation coefficient in decibels per unit time Ut. This value can be
converted to nepers/length by the following equation.

Where v is the velocity of sound in meters per


second and Ut is in decibels per second.
Amplitude at distance Z

Where v is the velocity of sound in meters per second and Ut is in decibels


per second (attenuation coefficient).
is the attenuation coefficient of the wave traveling in the z-direction. The
dimensions of are nepers/length (nepers constant).
Attenuation is generally proportional to the square of sound frequency.
Quoted values of attenuation are often given for a single frequency, or an
attenuation value averaged over many frequencies may be given. Also, the
actual value of the attenuation coefficient for a given material is highly
dependent on the way in which the material was manufactured. Thus, quoted
values of attenuation only give a rough indication of the attenuation and
should not be automatically trusted. Generally, a reliable value of attenuation
can only be obtained by determining the attenuation experimentally for the
particular material being used.

Attenuation Frequency2 (f )2
Which Ut?

U0t , A0o

U1t , A1o , 1
1 1
7.0 Acoustic Impedance
Sound travels through materials under the influence of sound pressure.
Because molecules or atoms of a solid are bound elastically to one
another, the excess pressure results in a wave propagating through the
solid.
The acoustic impedance (Z) of a material is defined as the product of its
density (p) and acoustic velocity (V).

Z = pV
Acoustic impedance is important in:
1. the determination of acoustic transmission and reflection at the boundary
of two materials having different acoustic impedances.
2. the design of ultrasonic transducers.
3. assessing absorption of sound in a medium.
The following applet can be used to calculate the acoustic impedance for any
material, so long as its density (p) and acoustic velocity (V) are known. The
applet also shows how a change in the impedance affects the amount of
acoustic energy that is reflected and transmitted. The values of the reflected
and transmitted energy are the fractional amounts of the total energy incident
on the interface. Note that the fractional amount of transmitted sound energy
plus the fractional amount of reflected sound energy equals one. The
calculation used to arrive at these values will be discussed on the next page.

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Physics/applet_2_6/applet_2_6.htm
Reflection/Transmission Energy as a function of Z
Reflection and Transmission Coefficients (Pressure)

This difference in Z is commonly referred to as the impedance


mismatch.
The value produced is known as the reflection coefficient. Multiplying
the reflection coefficient by 100 yields the amount of energy reflected as a
percentage of the original energy.
the transmission coefficient is calculated by simply subtracting the
reflection coefficient from one.

Ipedence
mismatch

Reflection coefficient
Using the above applet, note that the energy reflected at a water-stainless
steel interface is 0.88 or 88%. The amount of energy transmitted into the
second material is 0.12 or 12%. The amount of reflection and transmission
energy in dB terms are -1.1 dB and -18.2 dB respectively. The negative sign
indicates that individually, the amount of reflected and transmitted energy is
smaller than the incident energy.
If reflection and transmission at interfaces is
followed through the component, only a small
percentage of the original energy makes it back
to the transducer, even when loss by attenuation
is ignored. For example, consider an immersion
inspection of a steel block. The sound energy
leaves the transducer, travels through the water,
encounters the front surface of the steel,
encounters the back surface of the steel and
reflects back through the front surface on its way
back to the transducer. At the water steel
interface (front surface), 12% of the energy is
transmitted. At the back surface, 88% of the
12% that made it through the front surface is
reflected. This is 10.6% of the intensity of the
initial incident wave. As the wave exits the part
back through the front surface, only 12% of 10.6
or 1.3% of the original energy is transmitted back
to the transducer.
Practice Makes Perfect
Following are the data:
Q1: What is the percentage of initial incident sound wave that will reflected
from the water/Aluminum interface when the sound first enter Aluminum?

R= (Z1-Z2)2 / (Z1+Z2)2 = (0.149-1.72)2/(0.149+1.72)2


R= 0.707, Answer= 70.7%
Q2: What is the percentage of sound energy that will finally reenter the water
after reflected from the backwall of Aluminum? (Do not consider material
attenuation and other factors)
Answer: 6%

0.706 initial Back wall

0.207x 0.2934=0.0609
Second Backwall echo
0.2934

0.2934x 0.706 =
0.207
8.0 Snells Law
Snell's Law holds true for shear waves as well as longitudinal waves and can
be written as follows

Where:
VL1 is the longitudinal wave velocity in material 1.
VL2 is the longitudinal wave velocity in material 2.
VS1 is the shear wave velocity in material 1.
VS2 is the shear wave velocity in material 2.
Snells Law

http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/refraction-dispersion-definition-snells-law-index-of-refraction.html#lesson
Practice Makes Perfect
5. For an ultrasonic beam with normal incidence, the reflection coefficient is
given by:
(a) [(Z1+Z2)2]/[(Z1-Z2)2]
(b) (Z1+Z2)/(Z1-Z2)
(c) [(4) (Z1)(Z2)]/[(Z1+Z2)2]
(d) [(Z1-Z2)2]/[Z1+Z2)2]

6. For an ultrasonic beam with normal incidence the transmission coefficient


is given by:
(a) [(Z1+Z2)2]/[(Z1-Z2)2]
(b) (Z1+Z2)/(Z1-Z2)
(c) [(4) (Z1)(Z2)]/[(Z1+Z2)2]
(d) [(Z1-Z2)2]/[Z1+Z2)2]
Practice Made Perfect
7. Snell's law is given by which of the following:
(a) (Sin A)/(Sin B) = VB/VA
(b) (Sin A)/(Sin B) = VA/VB
(c) (Sin A)/ VB = V(Sin B)/VA
(d) (Sin A)[VA] = (Sin B)[ VB]

8. Snell's law is used to calculate:


(a) Angle of beam divergence
(b) Angle of diffraction
(c) Angle of refraction
(d) None of the above
Practice Makes Perfect
9. Calculate the refracted shear wave angle in steel [VS = 0.323cm/microsec]
for an incident longitudinal wave of 37.9 degrees in Plexiglas [VL = 0.267cm/
microsec]
(a) 26 degrees
(b) 45 degrees
(c) 48 degrees
(d) 64 degrees

10. Calculate the refracted shear wave angle in steel [VS = 0.323cm/microsec]
for an incident longitudinal wave of 45.7 degrees in Plexiglas [VL = 0.267cm/
microsec]
(a) 64 degrees
(b) 45.7 degrees
(c) 60 degrees
(d) 70 degrees
Practice Makes Perfect
11. Calculate the refracted shear wave angle in aluminium [VS = 0.31cm/
microsec] for an incident longitudinal wave of 43.5 degrees in Plexiglas [VL =
0.267cm/microsec]
(a) 53 degrees
(b) 61 degrees
(c) 42 degrees
(d) 68 degrees

12. Calculate the refracted shear wave angle in aluminium [VS =


0.31cm/microsec] for an incident longitudinal wave of 53 degrees in Plexiglas
[VL = 0.267cm/microsec]
(a) 53 degrees
(b) 61 degrees
(c) 42 degrees
(d) 68 degrees
9.0 S/N Ratio
The following formula relates some of the variables affecting the signal-to-
noise ratio (S/N) of a defect:

FOM: Factor of merits at center frequency


The following formula relates some of the variables affecting the signal-to-
noise ratio (S/N) of a defect:
Sound Volume: Area x pulse length t

Material properties
Flaw geometry at center frequency:
Figure of merit FOM and
amplitudes responds
10. Near/ Far Fields

http://miac.unibas.ch/PMI/05-UltrasoundImaging.html
where is the radius of the transducer and the wavelength.

For beam edges at null condition K=1.22


Modified Near Zone

Modified Zf
T Perspex
Example: Calculate the modified Near Zone for;
5 MHz shear wave transducer
10mm crystal
10 mm perspex wedge

Perspex L-wave: 2730 m/s


Steel S-wave: 3250 m/s
Steel L-wave: 5900 m/s

Modified NZ= (0.012 x f) / (4v) 0.01(2730/3250)


=0.0300m
= 30mm
Apparent Near Zone distance
11.0 Focusing & Focal Length

http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/flaw-detection/beam-characteristics/
The focal length F is determined by following equation;

Where:

F = Focal Length in water


R = Curvature of the focusing len
n = Ration of L-velocity of epoxy to L-velocity of water
12.0 Offset of Normal probe above circular object

V1

1
R
2 V2
Calculate the offset for following conditions:

Aluminum rod being examined is 6" diameter, what is the off set needed for (a)
45 refracted shear wave (b) Longitudinal wave to be generated?
(L-wave velocity for AL=6.3x105cm/s, T-wave velocity for AL=3.1x105 cm/s,
Wave velocity in water=1.5X105 cm/s)
Question (a)

Question (b)
13.0 Q Factor

3dB down
14.0 Inverse Law and Inverse Square Law
For a small reflector where the size of reflector is smaller than the beam width,
the echoes intensity from the same reflector varies inversely to the square of
the distance.

5cm
7.5cm

75% FSH 33% FSH


Inverse Square Law

http://www.cyberphysics.co.uk/general_pages/inverse_square/inverse_square.htm
Inverse Law:
For large reflector, reflector greater than the beam width, e.g. backwall
echoes from the same reflector at different depth; the reflected signal
amplitude varies inversely with the distance.

10cm 7.5cm
DGS Distance Gain Sizing

Y-axis shows the


Gain
size of reflector is given as
a ratio between the size of
the disc and the size of
the crystal.

X-axis shows the Distance from the probe in # of Near Field


Distance Gain Size is a method of setting sensitivity or assessing the signal
from an unknown reflector based on the theoretical response of a flat-
bottomed hole reflector perpendicular to the beam axis. (DGS does not size
the flaw, but relate it with a equivalent reflector) The DGS system was
introduced by Krautkramer in 1958 and is referred to in German as AVG. A
schematic of a general DGS diagram is shown in the Figure. The Y-axis
shows the Gain and X-axis shows the Distance from the probe. In a general
DGS diagram the distance is shown in units of Near Field and the scale is
logarithmic to cover a wide range.
The blue curves plotted show how the amplitudes obtained from different
sizes of disc shaped reflector (equivalent to a FBH) decrease as the distance
between the probe and the reflector increases.
In the general diagram the size of reflector is given as a ratio between the
size of the disc and the size of the crystal. The red curve shows the response
of a backwall reflection. The ratio of the backwall to the crystal is infinity ().

Specific DGS curves for individual probes can be produced and so both the
distance axis and the reflector sizes can be in mm.

If the sensitivity for an inspection is specified to be a disc reflector of a given


size, the sensitivity can be set by putting the reflection from the backwall of a
calibration block or component to the stated %FSH. The gain to be added can
be then obtained by the difference on the Y-axis between the backwall curve
at the backwall range and the curve of the disc reflector of the given size at
the test range. If the ranges of the backwall and the disc reflector are different,
then attenuation shall be accounted for separately. Alternatively, the curves
can be used to find the size of the disc shaped reflector which would give the
same size echo as a response seen in the flaw detector screen.
20-4dB=16dB (deduced)

20dB
Flaw =30-16=14dB (measured)

Data:
Probe frequency: 5MHz
Diameter: 10mm compression probe
Plate thickness: 100mm steel
Defect depth: 60mm deep
Gain for flaw to FSH: 30dB
BWE at 100mm: 20dB
Example: If you has a signal at a certain depth, you can compare the signal of
the flaw to what the back wall echo (BWE) from the same depth and estimate
the FBH that would give such a signal at the same depth. The defect can then
be size according to a FBH equivalent.

Data:
Probe frequency: 5MHz
Diameter: 10mm compression probe
Plate thickness: 100mm steel
Defect depth: 60mm deep
Gain for flaw to FSH: 30dB
BWE at 100mm: 20dB
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Near field: 21mm, flaw location= 3xNear Field
From the chart BWE at 60mm will be 20-4dB=16dB
Flaw signal Gain is 30dB-16dB= 14dB
Used the flaw signal Gain and locate the equivalent reflector size is between
0.4 to 0.48 of the probe diameter, say 0.44 x10mm = 4.4mm equivalent
reflector size.
http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/atlas/dgs/
More on DGS/AVG by Olympus
http://www.olympus-ims.com/en/ndt-tutorials/flaw-detection/dgs-avg/

DGS is a sizing technique that relates the amplitude of the echo from a
reflector to that of a flat bottom hole at the same depth or distance. This is
known as Equivalent Reflector Size or ERS. DGS is an acronym for Distance-
Gain-Size and is also known as AVG from its German name, Abstand
Verstarkung Grosse. Traditionally this technique involved manually
comparing echo amplitudes with printed curves, however contemporary
digital flaw detectors can draw the curves following a calibration routine and
automatically calculate the ERS of a gated peak. The generated curves are
derived from the calculated beam spreading pattern of a given transducer,
based on its frequency and element diameter using a single calibration point.
Material attenuation and coupling variation in the calibration block and test
specimen can be accounted for.
DGS is a primarily mathematical technique originally based on the ratio of a
circular probes calculated beam profile and measurable material properties
to circular disk reflectors. The technique has since been further applied to
square element and even dual element probes, although for the latter, curve
sets are empirically derived. It is always up to the user to determine how the
resultant DGS calculations relate to actual flaws in real test pieces.

An example of a typical DGS curve set is seen below. The uppermost curve
represents the relative amplitude of the echo from a flat plate reflector in
decibels, plotted at various distances from the transducer, and the curves
below represent the relative amplitude of echoes from progressively smaller
disk reflectors over the same distance scale.
As implemented in contemporary digital flaw detectors, DGS curves are
typically plotted based on a reference calibration off a known target such as a
backwall reflector or a flat bottom hole at a given depth. From that one
calibration point, an entire curve set can be drawn based on probe and
material characteristics. Rather than plotting the entire curve set, instruments
will typically display one curve based on a selected reflector size (registration
level) that can be adjusted by the user.

In the example below, the upper curve represents the DGS plot for a 2 mm
disk reflector at depths from 10 mm to 50 mm. The lower curve is a reference
that has been plotted 6 dB lower. In the screen at left (figure 1), the red gate
marks the reflection from a 2 mm diameter flat bottom hole at approximately
20 mm depth. Since this reflector equals the selected registration level, the
peak matches the curve at that depth. In the screen at right (Figure 2), a
different reflector at a depth of approximately 26 mm has been gated. Based
on its height and depth in relation to the curve the instrument calculated an
ERS of 1.5 mm.
Figure1:
Figure2:
15.0 Pulse Repetitive Frequency/Rate and Maximum
Testable Thickness

Clock interval = 1/PRR

Maximum testable length = x Velocity x Clock interval

Note: The Clock interval has neglected the time occupied by each pulse.
16.0 Immersion Testing of Circular Rod
Q4-12
Answer:
First calculate the principle offset d; = Sin-1(1483/3250 xSin45)=18.8
d=R.Sin18.8= 0.323 (Assume R=1).
Wobbling 10%; d=0.355 ~ 0.290
d=0.355, = Sin-1(0.355)=20.8
giving inspection = Sin-1(3250/1483xSin20.8)=51, 13.3% above 45
d=0.290, = Sin-1(0.290)=16.9
giving inspection = Sin-1(3250/1483xSin16.9)=39.6, 12% below 45
Maximum

max = Sin-1 (ID/OD)


Addendum-03
Questions & Answers I
Collection of My Pitfalls
Uncertain Questions

21. Which type of calibration block is used to determine the resolution of


angle beam transducers per requirements of AWS and AASHTO

a. An IIW block
b. A DSC block
c. A rompus block
d. An RC block

24. Resonance or standing waves are a result of:

a. mode conversion
b. interference from reflected waves
c. beam divergence (spread)
d. attenuation of the sound waves
Make mistakes now,
not during exam!
RC- Resolution Calibration Block
30. On an A-scan display the dead zone refers to:

a. the distance contained within the near field (incorrect)


b. the area outside the beam spread
c. the distance covered by the front surface pulse width and recovery
time
d. the area between the near field and the far field

40. The second critical angle is the angle of the incident beam at which:

a. the angle of the refracted compression wave is 900


b. the angle of the reflected compression wave is 90
c. total reflection occurs
d. surface waves are produced

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
17. Surface waves are used to detect discontinuities in the test materials:
a. At half the depth.
b. Above the lower surface.
c. On the surface where the probe is in contact.
d. None of the above.

26. Which of the following probes is most commonly used for testing welded
metals for laminations before angle beam inspection.
a. Surface wave probe.
b. Twin crystal 0 probe.
c. Single crystal probe.
d. An angle probe.
29. Artificial flaws can be produced by using:

Side drilled holes


Flat bottom holes
EDM notches (http://www.phtool.com/pages/edm.asp)
All of the above
31. As the acoustic impedance ratio between two materials approaches 1 the
amount of sound reflected at an interface:

a. increases.
b. decreases.
c. is not affected.
d. varies depending upon the velocity of the materials.

34. Significant errors in ultrasonic thickness measurements can occur if;


a. Test frequency is varying at a constant rate.
b. The velocity of propagation deviates substantially from an assumed
constant value for a given material.
c. Water is employed as a couplant between the transducer and the part
being measured.
d. None of the above should cause errors.
45. When examining thin materials for planar discontinuities oriented parallel
to the part surface, what testing method is most often used:

a. Angle beam
b. Through-transmission
c. Straight beam - single crystal
d. Straight beam - dual crystal

7. The ultrasonic test method in which finger damping in most effective in


locating a discontinuity is:

a. shear wave
b. longitudinal wave
c. surface wave
d. compressional wave
15. Which type of test block is used to check horizontal linearity and the dB
accuracy per requirements of AWS and AASHTO?

a. Distance/Sensitivity block
b. A DSC block
c. A rompus block
d. A shear wave calibration block
Mistake Made --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Question: Which probe will be used for critical examination in a forged
component with a curved surface.:
Your answer: 1 megahertz, 10mm dia.
Correct answer: 10 megahertz, 25mm dia.

Question: A general term applied to all cracks, inclusions, blow holes etc,
which cause a reflection of sonic energy is:
Your answer: a refractor
Correct answer: a discontinuity

Question: On an A-scan display the dead zone refers to:


Your answer: the distance contained within the near field
Correct answer: the distance covered by the front surface pulse width and
recovery time
Mistake Made --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Question: Dead zone size depends on:


Your answer: construction of the probe.
Correct answer: All of the above.

Question: The second critical angle is the angle of the incident beam at which:
Your answer: total reflection occurs
Correct answer: surface waves are produced
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mistake Made --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Question: When a longitudinal wave encounters an interface between two


material with different accoustic impedances, what occurs when the Your
answer: Reflection and refraction Correct answer: Reflection

Question: In an ultrasonic instrument, the number of pulses produced by an


instrument in a given period of time in known as the:Your answer: pulse
length of the instrument Correct answer: pulse repetition rate

Question: Which probe will be used for critical examination in a forged


component with a curved surface.:Your answer: 10 megahertz, 10mm
dia.Correct answer: 10 megahertz, 25mm dia.
Question: Which type of screen presentation displays a profile or cross-
sectional view of the test specimen? Your answer: A-scan Correct answer:
B-scan

Question: When a longitudinal wave encounters an interface between two


material with different accoustic impedances, what occurs when the Your
answer: Refraction Correct answer: Reflection
Questions & Answers
Table 1.2
Chapter 1: Physical Principles
Q1-10 The acoustic energy reflected at a plexiglass-quartz interface is equal
to?
Answer: R= (Z1-Z2)2 / (Z1+Z2)2 = (3.2-15.2)2 / (3.2+15.2)2= 42.53%

Q1-11 The acoustic energy transmitted through a plexiglass-water interface is


equal to?
Answer: R= (Z1-Z2)2 / (Z1+Z2)2 = (3.2-1.5)2 / (3.2+1.5)2 = 13%, T= 1-R = 87%

Q1-12 The first critical angle at a water-plexiglass interface will be?


Answer: = Sin-1 (1483/2730) = 32.9
Q1-13 The second critical angle at water-plexiglass interface will be?
Answer: = Sin-1 (1483/1430) = Error!

Q1-14 The incident angle need in immersion testing to develop a 70 shear


wave in plexiglass is equal to?
Answer: = Sin-1 (1483/1430 x sin70) = 77
Q1-20 Two plate yield different back-wall reflections in pulse-echo testing
(18dB) with their only apparent difference being in the second material void
content. The plate are both 3 thick. What is the effective change in acoustic
attenuation between the first and second plate?
Answer: Sound path 2 x thickness = 6 Attenuation = 18dB/6 = 3dB/in.

Comment:
The answer could be confused if the pulse-echo testing, 2-ways path length
was not considered, arriving with the incorrect answer of 6dB/in
For evaluating material properties always remember to divide the result
with the actual sweep distance if necessary! It was not a one-waytrip!
Q1-15 At a water-Aluminum interface, at an incident angle of 20, the
reflected and transmitted wave are?

Answer: 60% transmitted and 40% reflected.


Q1-22 The beam spread half angle I the far field of a I diameter transducer
sending 5MHz longitudinal wave into Plexiglas block is?
Answer: = Sin-1 (K /D) Assumed K=1.2 for null beam edge,

= Sin-1 (K /D) =Sin-1(1.2V/DF)= Sin-1[1.2x2730x103/ (25.4x5x106)]


=1.478

Q1-23 The near field of a round 1/2 diameter contact L-wave transducer
being used on a steel test part operating at 3MHz is?
Answer: Z= D2/4 = 12.72 3x106 x / (4x5900x103) = 20.5mm
Chapter 2: Equipment
Q2-5 A 5MHz 0.5 diameter flat search unit in water has a near field length of
approximately?
Answer: Z= D2/4 = (12.72 x 5x106) / (4x 1480X103) = 136mm = 5.36

Q2-7 A 10MHz,0.5 diameter transducer placed on steel and acrylic in


succession, the beam spread in these 2 material is?
= sin-1(K /D).
Fe = sin-1(1.2x5920x103/10x106x12.7) = 3.2,
Acrylic = sin-1(1.2x2730x103/10x106x12.7) = 1.48
Q2-12 An angle beam produce a 45 shear wave in steel, what is the incident
angle? (Vs for steel=0.125in/ms, VL for plastid=0.105in/ms)
Answer: Snells Law; incident = Sin-1[(0.105/0.125) xSin45] = 36.43

Q2-13 Aluminum rod 6 diameter being examined in immersion technique,


what is the required offset to generate a 45 refracted shear wave?
Answer: First find the incident angle using Snells Law
incident = Sin-1[(1.5/3.1) xSin45] = 20
Offset = rSin20 = 3Sin20 = 1.026
Q2-14 What is the offset required, if 45 refracted longitudinal wave to be
generated?
Answer: First find the incident angle using Snells Law
incident = Sin-1[(1.5/6.3) xSin45] = 9.69
Offset = r.Sin9.69 = 3.Sin9.69 = 0.505
Q2-16 In a longitudinal wave immersion test of Titanium plate, an echoes
pulse from an internal defect is observed 6.56s following front echo. How
deep is the defect below the front surface?
Answer: Sound path travel= 6100000 x 6.56 x 10-6 = 40mm
The actual depth = sound path / 2 = 20mm
Q2-17 A change in echo amplitude from 20% of FSH to 40% of FSH is a
change of how many dB?
Answer: dB= 20log(20/40) = 6dB drop or -6dB.

Q2-20 What is the lens radius of curvature is needed in order to have a 20mm
diameter 5MHz transducer focus in water at a distance of 40mm drom the
lens face?
Answer:
R=F(n-1/n), n= V Lens/V water , n= 2.67/1.49= 1.792.
R=40(0.792/1.792) = 17.7mm
Q2-18 In Fig.29 what is the rate of attenuation in dB/in of 5MHz transducer in
Far Field, the horizontal scale is 0.5 per division and the vertical scale is
linear.
Answer:
I = 20log(1.25/2) D=<2 , Attenuation = 2.04dB/in or
I = 20log(1.25/2) D=1.85 , Attenuation = 2.21dB/in or
I = 20log(1.075/2.2) D=3 , Attenuation = 2.07dB/in
Q2-19 What is the rate of attenuation for 2.25MHz transducer?
Answer:
I = 20log(0.9/2.2) D=2.5 , Attenuation = 3.11dB/in
Q2-21 Two signals were compared to each other. The second was found to
be 14dB less than the first. This change could be represented by a change of?
Answer:
I = 20Log(I/Io),
-14dB= 20Log(I/Io), (I/Io)= 0.2

2 answers could be confused:


70% FSH to 14% FSH, a drop of 80%
20% FSH to 100% FSH, an increase of 80%
Q2-11 A change in 16dB on the attenuator correspond to an amplitude ration
of:
Answer:
I = 20Log(I/Io),
16dB= 20Log(I/Io), (I/Io)= 6.3
Charter 3: Common Practices
Q3-6 In Fig. 3.7 the respond from 3.23mm FBH at a depth of 25mm is above
that detected from 1mm FBH by?
Answer:
dB= 20Log(2.1/0.6) = 10.88
Q3-7 The half angle beam spread of the reflected wave front from #8 FBH in
an aluminum A block being immersion tested using 25MHz transducer is?
Answer:
Focal size = 8/64 x 25.4 =3.175mm diameter.
The beam spread is in aluminum block, the wave velocity VL=6300 m/s
The half angle beam spread = Sin-1(K/D)
= Sin-1[(1.2x6300x103)/(3.175x 25 x 106)] = 5.47

Comment: Be careful with the unit used, my mistake is:


= Sin-1[(1.2x6300x103)/(3.175x 10-3 x 25 x 106)]
Always Check the units correctly!!!! Only Donkey made such mistake!
Monkey made mistake too!
Smart Engineer do not made
mistake with UNIT USED, so do
you!
Smart Himba Girl do not made
mistake with UNIT USED too, so
do you!
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orm=QBIR
Smart Himba Girl do not made
mistake with UNIT USED too, so
do you!

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Smart Himba Girl do not made
mistake with UNIT USED too, so
do you!

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Smart Papua New Guianese do
not made mistake with UNIT
USED too, so do you!

http://www.tennenaturephotography.com/gallery/papua/Native_Dancer_Face?full=1
Q3-8
Answer: The next SDH used will be 5/4T,
first SDH after backwall echo.
The node is 5/(4x2) = 5/8 node
Q3-11 When using a focued, straight beam search unit for lamination
scanning in an immersion test of steel plate, a change in water path of 0.2
will result in the focal point moving in the steel a distance of?
Answer: The change in water path=0.2 correspond to 0.2 x 1483/5900 = 0.05

Q3-12 A search unit with a foal length in water of 4 is used. A steel plate 8
thick velocity 0.230/ms is place at a water depth of 2 from the search unit, At
what depth is the focal point in steel?
Answer: Focal depth in steel = 2 x Vwater/ Vsteel = 2x1480/5900 = 0.5
Q3-13 During examination, an indication of 25% FSH is detected and
maximized. Foe better analysis the gain is increase by 12bB and the
indication increase to 88% FSH. What value should be reached and what is
the apparent problem?
Answer:
12dB= 20Log(I/25), I/25= 3.98, I=100%
Q3-23 A air filled #3 FBH 0.5 into the bottom of 4.5 aluminum block, will
return to the 0.75 diameter sending immersion transducer ans echo signal
equal to ? Of the initial pulse. Assume no attenuation to beam divergence or
other causes.
Answer:
The size of reflector = 3/64 = 0.046875.
For a small reflector used inverse square law;
Echo1/Echo2 = Area 2 / Area 1
100/x= 0.0468752 / 0.752 , x = 0.39%
Q3-15 In contact testing, the back surface signal from a 2 plate was set at full
screen height. Passing over a coarse grained area, the back surface signal
dropped to 10% FSH. What is the change in attenuation in this area?
Answer:
I=20Log(10/100), the drop in dB= 20dB.
The sweep distance = 4
The attenuation is 20/4 = 5dB/in.

Comment: Remember that the attenuation is cause by the sound path


traversing thru the sweep distance.
Q4-12
Answer:
First calculate the principle offset d; = Sin-1(1483/3250 xSin45)=18.8
d=R.Sin18.8= 0.323 (Assume R=1).
Wobbling 10%; d=0.355 ~ 0.290
d=0.355, = Sin-1(0.355)=20.8
giving inspection = Sin-1(3250/1483xSin20.8)=51, 13.3% above 45
d=0.290, = Sin-1(0.290)=16.9
giving inspection = Sin-1(3250/1483xSin16.9)=39.6, 12% below 45
Q4-13
Answer: PRR = number of pulse per second N/s,
Length generated by pulse per second = PRR x D
For effective inspection Vp PRR x D

Q4-14
Answer: Effective inspection Length generated by the PRR x Width = 600in/s
For a defect to be detected 3 time consecutively, the travel speed Vp= 600/3
= 200in/s
Q4-15
Answer: Offset = T.tan70 x Number of skip.
Offset = 3x 1.5 tan70
Comment: 1 skip= 2 legs

Q4-16
Answer: ?
Q4-16
Q4-17
Answer: Total length of axial= 8x12x0.0254m
L=2.438m, Sweep distance for a complete
return loop =2 x L= 4.876m
For PRR = 2000
Distance travel by each pulse Lp= 5920/2000 m
Lp=2.96m

Since Lp is less than the 4.876, the next pulse


was found to be generated before the previous
echo has returned to the receiver, thus reduce
the PRR is required.
Set PRR=1000, yield Lp=5.92m > L=4.876m
Will resolve the problem.
Q4-17 Illustrations

Complete loop=4.876m

Length of axial 8 or 2.438m

The previous pulse


Incoming & return position
2nd pulse returning wave
when 2nd (next)
generating meet
pulse start to send

0.958m 0.958m
0.522m


Q4-18
Answer:
8. When testing a 30 mm diameter, 500 mm long shaft from the flat end of the
shaft using longitudinal waves from a 20 mm diameter 2 MHz probe,
numerous signals are seen on the screen after 500 mm. These are:

a) ghost images
b) side wall echoes
c) internal thread indications
d) none of the above
Break!

mms://a588.l3944020587.c39440.g.lm.akamaistream.
net/D/588/39440/v0001/reflector:20587?BBC-
UID=e5203c9d59fef1a79c12d8c601e839f58db16f7d5
d6448f55674c540f1856834&amp;SSO2-UID=
Q5-20
Answer: None of above
Q5-22
Answer: Class C
Q5-22 Table B-1
5. At a solid to free boundary, an obliquely incident longitudinal wave from the
solid can result in, at most:
a) a reflected longitudinal wave only
b) a reflected longitudinal and reflected shear wave
c) a refracted longitudinal long wave
d) a reflected longitudinal and reflected shear and refracted longitudinal wave
6. Geometric-optic treatment (?) of ultrasonic waves fails to account for:
a) reflection
b) refraction
c) diffraction
d) normal incidence
34.The most useful range of incident longitudinal wave angles for ultrasonic
testing is:
(a) Normal incidence to the first critical angle
(b) First critical angle to the second critical angle (?)
(c) Second critical angle to the third critical angle
(d) Above the third critical angle
38. The angle of a refracted shear wave generated as a sound wave passes
at an angle through an acoustic interface is dependant on:

a) The acoustic impedances of the materials of each side of the


interface
b) The frequency of the incident sound wave
c) The wavelength of the incident sound wave
d) The hardness of the materials on each side of the interface

22. The three most common modes of sound vibration are:


(a) Longitudinal, compressional, and transverse waves
(b) Longitudinal, transverse and rayleigh waves
(c) Transverse, longitudinal and shear waves
(d) Transverse, shear waves and rayleigh waves
13. An oscilloscope display in which the screen base line is adjusted to
represent the one way distance in a test piece is called a:
(a) A scan display
(b) B scan display
(c) C scan display
(d) D scan display

12. Which of the following test frequencies would generally provide the best
penetration in a 12 inch thick specimen of coarse-grained steel?
(a) 1.0 MHz
(b) 2.25 MHz
(c) 5.0 MHz
(d) 10 MHz (Incorrect silly mistake)
48. A more highly damped transducer crystal results in:
(a) Better resolution
(b) Better sensitivity (mistake)
(c) Lower sensitivity
(d) Poorer resolution

6. The portion of a test piece which is represented by the CRT screen area
from zero to the rightmost edge of the initial pulse is called:
(a) The dead zone (mistake)
(b) The near field
(c) The near zone
(d) The far zone
17. Transducer focal lengths are normally specified as:
(a) Distance in steel
(b) Distance in aluminium
(c) Distance in air
(d) Distance in water (mistake)

21. An advantage of using a ceramic transducer in search units is that:


(a) It is one of the most efficient generators of ultrasonic energy
(b) It is one of the most efficient receivers of ultrasonic energy
(c) It has a very low mechanical impedance
(d) It can withstand temperatures as high as 700oC
47. When a vertical indication has reached the maximum signal height which
can be displayed or viewed on the CRT of an ultrasonic instrument, the
indication is said to have reached its:
(a) Distance-amplitude height (mistake)
(b) Absorption level
(c) Vertical level
(d) Limit of resolution
53. An ultrasonic instrument control which is used to adjust the sharpness of
the CRT screen display is called:
(a) Astigmatism or focus
(b) Pulse repetition rate
(c) Pulse energy
(d) Gain
63. The purpose of the couplant is to:
(a) Match impedances between the transducer and test piece
(b) Absorb stray reflectors
(c) Clean the test piece so a more efficient test may be continued
(d) Lock the ultrasonic scanner into place prior to testing
Note: by exclude the air between the 2 interfaces.
72. When conducting an immersion test, the water path distance must be
controlled so that:

a) Spurious signals are not created by surface waves on the test piece
b) The (water path distance)/(diameter) ratio does not result in asymmetric
standing waves
c) The test piece discontinuity indications appear between the first front
and first back surface echoes
d) The second front surface echo does not appear on the CRT screen
between the first front and first back surface echoes (?)
Immersion Testing Method
Standards Answer: C
Standards Answer: B
Standards Answer: A
Standards Answer: A (or C?)
Standards Answer: A
Standards Answer: C
Standards Answer: B
Standards Answer: C
Standards Answer: C
Standards Answer: A?
Arrows shown standard correct answers:
Level I Q&A
Arrows shown standard correct answers:
Level I Q&A
Study Blueeeeeeee
28th July 2014 17:34
Arrows shown standard correct answers:
mms://a588.l3944020587.c39440.g.lm.akamaistre
am.net/D/588/39440/v0001/reflector:20587?BBC-
UID=e5203c9d59fef1a79c12d8c601e839f58db16f7
d5d6448f55674c540f1856834&amp;SSO2-UID=
Arrows shown standard correct answers:
Level II Q&A

http://www.mtv123.com/mp3/45297/326534.shtml
Arrows shown standard correct answers:
Arrows shown standard correct answers:

R F
Arrows shown standard correct answers:
Arrows shown standard correct answers:
Arrows shown standard correct answers:

3-Screen Height Linearity


The ultrasonic testing instrument shall provide linear vertical presentation
within 5% (According to ASME Sec.V, Article 5 T-532) of the full screen
height for 20% to 80% of the calibrated screen height.
The procedure for evaluating screen height linearity is provided in appendix 1
of article 5, ASME code Sec.V and shall be performed at the beginning of
each period of extended use (or every 3 months, which ever is less).
http://www.inspection-for-industry.com/ultrasonic-testing.html
Take a break

mms://a588.l3944020587.c39440.g.lm.akamaistream.net/D/588/394
40/v0001/reflector:20587?BBC-
UID=e5203c9d59fef1a79c12d8c601e839f58db16f7d5d6448f55674c5
40f1856834&amp;SSO2-UID=
Calculation: Incident angle= 7
Refracted longitudinal wave = 29.11
Refracted shear wave = 15.49
Arrows shown standard correct answers:
Arrows shown standard correct answers:
Q2. During ultrasonic inspection of a weld, having a thickness of 28 mm angle
beam search units are to be used. The recommended angle of search unit
Is:
a. 70
b. 60
c. 45
d. any one
Practices Make Perfect
Practices Make Perfect
Click to Q&A

http://www.ndtcalc.com/index.php?page=quiz&method=ut&qs=50
More Reading
Questions &on Q&A
Answers

http://www.ndtcalc.com/index.php?page=quiz&method=ut&qs=50
Ultrasonic Formula
Inverse Law and Inverse Square Law
For a small reflector where the size of reflector is smaller than the beam width,
the echoes intensity from the same reflector varies inversely to the square of
the distance.

5cm
7.5cm

75% FSH 33% FSH


Inverse Square Law

http://www.cyberphysics.co.uk/general_pages/inverse_square/inverse_square.htm
Inverse Law:
For large reflector, reflector greater than the beam width, e.g. backwall
echoes from the same reflector at different depth; the reflected signal
amplitude varies inversely with the distance.

10cm 7.5cm
Echo Amplitude- Reflector Size D & Depth d Relations:
(small reflector- Inverse square law)
Amplitude D2
Amplitude 1/d2
Amplitude = kD2/d2 , k =constant
Amplitude1/ Amplitude2 = D12 d22 / d12 D22

Amplitude
D
Echo Amplitude- Reflector Size D & Depth d Relations:
(large reflector- inverse law)
Amplitude 1/d
Amplitude = k/d , k =constant,
Amplitude1/ Amplitude2 = d2 / d1

Amplitude
D
Scanning Speed:
Scanner speed = (PRR / Number of hits) Effective diameter of probe
Speed of test part = (PRR / Number of hits) Effective diameter of probe

Where:
Effective dia. of probe = Dia. of probe 2 [ (Dia. of probe) (Percent of
overlap between scan / 100) ]

PRR = Pulse Repetition Rate


Linear speed of disc or pipe in mm/ s = (2r x RPM / 60)
where r = radius of disc or pipe in mm
RPM = Number of Rotation of pipe Per Minute = Revolution Per Minute
Addendum-04A
Questions & Answers
on Calculations
My ASNT Level III UT Study Notes
2014-June.
Expert at Works
Content:

Exercise 1
Exercise 2

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Questions & Answers
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2.0: Ultrasound Formula

http://www.ndt-ed.org/GeneralResources/Calculator/calculator.htm
Ultrasonic Formula
Ultrasonic Formula
Inverse Law and Inverse Square Law
For a small reflector where the size of reflector is smaller than the beam width,
the echoes intensity from the same reflector varies inversely to the square of
the distance.

5cm
7.5cm

75% FSH 33% FSH


Inverse Square Law

http://www.cyberphysics.co.uk/general_pages/inverse_square/inverse_square.htm
Inverse Law:
For large reflector, reflector greater than the beam width, e.g. backwall
echoes from the same reflector at different depth; the reflected signal
amplitude varies inversely with the distance.

10cm 7.5cm
Echo Amplitude- Reflector Size D & Depth d Relations:
(small reflector- Inverse square law)
Amplitude D2
Amplitude 1/d2
Amplitude = kD2/d2 , k =constant
Amplitude1/ Amplitude2 = D12 d22 / d12 D22

Amplitude
D
Echo Amplitude- Reflector Size D & Depth d Relations:
(large reflector- inverse law)
Amplitude 1/d
Amplitude = k/d , k =constant,
Amplitude1/ Amplitude2 = d2 / d1

Amplitude
D
Scanning Speed:
Scanner speed = (PRR / Number of hits) Effective diameter of probe
Speed of test part = (PRR / Number of hits) Effective diameter of probe

Where:
Effective dia. of probe = Dia. of probe 2 [ (Dia. of probe) (Percent of
overlap between scan / 100) ]

PRR = Pulse Repetition Rate


Linear speed of disc or pipe in mm/ s = (2r x RPM / 60)
where r = radius of disc or pipe in mm
RPM = Number of Rotation of pipe Per Minute = Revolution Per Minute
Addendum-04B
Questions & Answers- I II III
My ASNT Level III UT Study Notes
2014-June.
Offshore Lifts
Production Platform
http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/ut-asnt-level-ii/deck/6278710
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Content:
1. Exercise 01 - Studyblue
2. Exercise 02 - Studyblue
Exercises
Studyblue-01
1. The wave mode that has multiple or varying wave velocities is:
A. Longitudinal waves
B. Shear waves
C. Transverse waves
D. Lamb waves

2. Which of the following would be considered application (s) of ultrasonic


techniques?
A. Determination of a materials elastic modulus
B. Study of a materials metallurgical structure
C. Measurement of a materials thickness
D. All of the above

http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/ut-asnt-level-ii/deck/6278710
3. The only significant sound wave mode that travels through a liquid is:
A. Shear wave
B. Longitudinal wave
C. Surface wave
D. Rayleigh wave

4. The acoustic impedance of a material is used to determine the:


A. Angle of refraction at an interface
B. Attenuation within the material
C. Relative amounts of sound energy coupled through and reflected
at the interface
D. Beam spread within the material
5. When angle beam contact testing a test piece, increasing the incident
angle until the second critical angle is reached results in:
A. Total reflection of a surface wave
B. 45 degree refraction of the shear wave
C. Production of a surface wave
D. None of the above

6. Acoustic energy propagates in different modes. Which of the following


represents a mode?
A. A longitudinal wave
B. A shear wave
C. A surface wave
D. All of the above
7. The simple experiment where a stick in a glass of water appears disjointed
at the water surface illustrates the phenomenon of:
A. Reflection
B. Magnification
C. Refraction
D. Diffraction

8. The crystal thickness and transducer frequency are related. The thinner
the crystal:
A. The lower the frequency
B. The higher the frequency
C. There is no appreciable affect
D. None of the above
9. The random distribution of crystallographic direction in alloys with large
crystalline structures is a factor in determining:
A. Acoustic noise levels
B. Selection of test frequency
C. Scattering of sound
D. All of the above

10. The length of the zone adjacent to a transducer in which functions in


sound pressure occur is mostly affected by:
A. The frequency of the transducer
B. The diameter of the transducer
C. The length of transducer cable
D. Both A and B
11. The differences in signals received from identical reflectors at different
material distances from a transducer may be caused by:
A. Material attenuation
B. Beam divergence
C. Near field effects
D. All of the above

12. It is possible for a discontinuity smaller than the transducer to produce


indications of fluctuating amplitude as the transducer is moved laterally if
testing is being performed in the:
A. Fraunhofer zone
B. Near field
C. Snell field
D. Shadow zone
13. In immersion testing, the near field effects of a transducer may be
eliminated by:
A. Increasing transducer frequency
B. Using a larger diameter transducer
C. Using an appropriate water path
D. Using a focused transducer

14. In the far field of a uniform ultrasonic beam, sound intensity is


___________ the beam centerline.

A. Minimum at
B. Maximum at
C. Maximum throughout twice the angle (sin Y=C/Df) Where is acoustic
velocity, D is crystal diameter, and f is frequency at
D. Not related to orientation of
15. Which of the following may result in a long narrow rod if the beam
divergence results in a reflection from a side of the test piece before the
sound wave reaches the back surface?
A. Multiple indications before the first back reflection
B. Indications from multiple surface reflections
C. Conversion from the longitudinal mode to shear mode
D. Loss of front surface indications

16. Where does beam divergence occur?


A. Near field
B. Far field
C. At the crystal
D. None of the above
17. As frequency increases in ultrasonic testing, the angle of beam
divergence of a given diameter crystal:
A. Decreases
B. Remains unchanged
C. Increases
D. Varies uniformly though each wavelength

18. As the radius of curvature of a curved lens is increased, the focal length of
the lens:
A. Increases
B. Decreases
C. Remains the same
D. Cannot be determined unless the frequency is known
19. When examining materials for planar flaws oriented parallel to the part
surface, what testing method is most often used?
A. Angle beam
B. Though-transmission
C. Straight beam
D. Dual crystal

20. If a contact angle beam transducer produces a 45 degrees shear wave in


steel, the angle produced by the same transducer in an aluminum
specimen would be:
A. Less than 45 degrees (correct answer)
B. Greater then 45 degrees
C. 45 degrees
D. Unknown: more information is required

Hint: Vs Steel = 3250, Vs Al=3130, however VL Steel = 5920, VL Al=6320 m/s


Popey

http://192.81.248.91:8095/
21. Rayleigh waves are influenced most by defects located:
A. Close to or on the surface
B. 1 wavelength below the surface
C. 3 wavelengths below the surface
D. 6 wavelengths below the surface
Hint: One wave length deep and not one wave length below!

22. The ultrasonic testing technique in which finger damping is most effective
in locating a discontinuity is the:
A. Shear wave technique
B. Longitudinal wave technique
C. Surface wave technique
D. Compressional wave technique
23. Lamb waves can be used to detect:
A. Laminar-type defects near the surface of the thin material
B. Lack of fusion in the center of a thick weldment
C. Internal voids in diffusion bonds
D. Thickness changes in heavy plate material

24. The ratio of the velocity of sound in water compared to that of aluminum
or steel is approximately:
A. 1:8
B. 1:4
C. 1:3
D. 1:2
25. Which of the following scanning methods could be classified as an
immersion type test?
A. Tank in which the transducer and test piece are immersed
B. Squirter bubbler method in which the sound is transmitted in a column of
flowing water
C. Scanning with a wheel-type transducer with the transducer inside a liquid
filled tire
D. All of the above

26. In an immersion test of a piece of steel or aluminum, the water distance


appears on the display as a fairly wide space between the initial pulse and
the front surface reflection because of:
A. Reduced velocity of sound in water as compared to test specimen
B. Increased velocity of sound in water as compared to test specimen
C. Temperature of the water
D. All of the above
27. Using the immersion method, a distance amplitude curve (DAC) for a 19
mm (0.75 in) diameter, 5 MHz transducer shows the high point of the DAC at
the B/51 mm (2 in) block. One day later, the high point of the DAC for the
same transducer is at the J/102 mm (4 in) block. Assuming that calibration
has not changed, this would indicate that the transducer:
A. Is improving in resolution
B. Is becoming defective
C. Has the beam of a smaller transducer
D. Both B and C (?)

28. What law can be used to calculate the angle of refraction within a metal
for both longitudinal and shear waves?
A. Poissons ratio law
B. Snells law
C. Fresnels field law
D. Charles law
29. At an interface between two different materials, an impedance difference
results in:
A. Reflection of the entire incident energy at the interface
B. Absorption of sound
C. Division of sound energy into transmitted and reflected modes
D. None of the above

30. When using focused transducers, non-symmetry in a propagated sound


beam may be caused by:
A. Backing material variations
B. Lens centering or misalignment
C. Porosity in lenses
D. All of the above
31. Ultrasonic wheel units may be used for which of the following types of
examination?
A. Straight or longitudinal examination
B. Angle beam or shear wave examination
C. Surface wave or Rayleigh wave examination
D. All of the above

32. During straight beam testing, test specimens with non-parallel front and
back surfaces can cause:
A. Partial or total loss of back reflection
B. No loss in back reflection
C. A widened (broad) back reflection indication
D. A focused (narrow) back reflection indication
33. In the immersion technique, the distance between the face of the
transducer and the test surface (water path) is usually adjusted so that the
time required to send the sound beam through the water:
A. Is equal to the time required for the sound to travel through the test piece
B. Is greater than the time required for the sound to travel through the
test piece
C. Is less than the time required for the sound to travel through the test piece
D. None of the above

34. In a B-scan display, the length of a screen indication from a discontinuity


is related to:
A. A discontinuitys thickness as measured parallel to the ultrasonic beam
B. The discontinuitys length in the direction of the transducer level
C. Both A and B
D. None of the above
35. Which circuit triggers the pulser and sweep circuits in an A-scan display?
A. Receiver-amplifier
B. Power supply
C. Clock
D. Damping

36. On an A-scan display, the dead zone refers to:


A. The distance contained within the near field
B. The area outside the beam spread
C. The distance covered by the front surface pulse with and recovery
time
D. The area between the near field and the far field
37. On an A-scan display, what represents the intensity of a reflected beam?
A. Echo pulse width
B. Horizontal screen location
C. Signal brightness
D. Signal amplitude

38. Of the following scan types, which one can be used to produce a
recording of flaw areas superimposed over a plan view of the test piece?
A. A-scan
B. B-scan
C. C-scan
D. D-scan
39. In immersion testing in a small tank, a manually operated manipulator is
use to:
A. Set the proper water path
B. Set the proper transducer angle
C. Set the proper index function
D. Complete both A and B

40. In straight (normal) beam contact testing, a reduction in the back surface
reflection amplitude could indicate:
A. Inadequate coupling
B. A flaw which is not normal to the beam
C. A near surface defect that cannot be resolved from the main bang (initial
pulse)
D. All of the above
41. A 152 mm (6 in) diameter rod is being inspected for centerline cracks. The
A-scan presentation for one complete path through the rod is as shown in
Figure 2. The alarm gate should:

A. Be sued between points A and E


B. Be used at point D only
C. Be used between points B and D
D. Not be used for this application
42. In an automatic scanning immersion unit, the bridge or carriage serves to:
A. Support the manipulator and scanner tube and to move it about
transversely and longitudinally
B. Control the angular and transverse positioning of the scanner tube
C. Control the vertical and angular positioning of the scanner tube
D. Raise and lower the transducer
Immersion Testing

Bridge Manipulator

Tube
43. When adjusting the flaw locating rule for a shear wave weld inspection,
the zero point on the rule must coincide with the:
A. Sound beam exit point of the wedge
B. Point directly over the flaw
C. Wheel transducer
D. Circular scanner

44. A special scanning device with the transducer mounted in a tire-like


container filled with couplant is commonly called:
A. A rotating scanner
B. An axial scanner
C. A wheel transducer
D. A circular scanner
45. Which best describes a typical display of a crack whose major surface is
perpendicular to the ultrasonic beam?
A. A broad indication
B. A sharp indication
C. The indication will not show due to improper orientation
D. A broad indication with high amplitude

46. A primary purpose of a reference standard is:


A. To provide a guide for adjusting instrument controls to reveal
discontinuities that are considered harmful to the end use of the product.
B. To give the technician a tool for determining exact discontinuity size
C. To provide assurance that all discontinuities smaller than a certain
specified reference reflector are capable of being directed by the test.
D. To provide a standard reflector which exactly simulates natural
discontinuities of a critical size.
47. Compensation for the variation in echo height related to variations in
discontinuity depth in the material is known as:
A. Transfer
B. Attenuation
C. Distance amplitude correction
D. Interpretation

48. Which of the following is a reference reflector that is not dependent on


beam angle?
A. A flat bottom hole
B. A vee notch
C. A side drilled hole which is parallel to the plate surface and
perpendicular to the sound path
D. A disc-shaped laminar reflector
49. During a straight beam ultrasonic test, a discontinuity indication is
detected that is small in amplitude compared to the loss in amplitude of back
reflection. The orientation of this discontinuity is probably:
A. Parallel to the test surface
B. Perpendicular to the sound beam
C. Parallel to the sound beam
D. At an angle to the test surface

50. A discontinuity is located having an orientation such that its long axis is
parallel to the sound beam. The indication from such a discontinuity will be:
A. Large in proportion to the length of the discontinuity
B. Small in proportion to the length of the discontinuity
C. Representative of the length of the discontinuity
D. Such that complete loss of back reflection will result
51. Gas discontinuities are reduced to flat discs or other shapes parallel to the
surface by:
A. Rolling
B. Machining
C. Casting
D. Welding

52. In which zone does the amplitude of an indication from a given


discontinuity diminish exponentially as the distance increases?
A. The far field zone
B. The near field zone
C. The dead zone
D. The Fresnel zone
53. A smooth flat discontinuity whose major plane is not perpendicular to the
direction of sound propagation may be indicated by:
A. An echo amplitude comparable in magnitude to the back surface reflection
B. A complete loss of back surface reflection
C. An echo amplitude larger in magnitude than the back surface reflection
D. All of the above

54. Using a pulse echo technique, if the major plane of a flat discontinuity is
oriented at some angle other than perpendicular to the direction of sound
propagation the result may be:
A. Loss of signal linearity
B. Loss or lack of a received discontinuity echo
C. Focusing of the sound beam
D. Loss of interference phenomena
55. As transducer diameter decreases, the beam spread:
A. Decreases
B. Remains the same
C. Increases
D. Becomes conical in shape

56. A set of standard reference blocks with the same geometrical


configuration and dimensions other than the size of the calibration reflectors,
e.g., flat bottom holes, is called a set of:
A. Distance amplitude standards
B. Area amplitude standards
C. Variable frequency blocks
D. Beam spread measuring blocks
57. The angle at which 90 degrees refraction of a longitudinal sound wave is
reached is called:
A. The angle of incidence
B. The first critical angle
C. The angle of maximum reflection
D. The second critical angle

58. The control of voltage supplied to the vertical deflection plates of the
instrument display in an A-scan UT setup is performed by the:
A. Sweep generator
B. Pulser
C. Amplifier circuit
D. Clock timer
59. Attenuation is a difficult quantity to measure accurately, particularly in
solid materials, at the test frequencies normally used. The overall result
usually observed includes other loss mechanisms which can include:
A. Beam spread
B. Couplant mismatch
C. Test piece geometry
D. All of the above

60. The vertical linear range of a test instrument may be determined by


obtaining ultrasonic responses from:
A. A set of distance amplitude reference blocks
B. Steel balls located at several different water path distances
C. A set of area amplitude reference blocks
D. All of the above
61. Large gains in a metallic test specimen usually result in:
A. A decrease or loss of back surface reflection
B. Large hash or noise indications
C. A decrease in penetration
D. All of the above

62. The total energy losses occurring in all materials is called:


A. Attenuation
B. Scatter
C. Beam spread
D. Interface
63. Delay-tip (stand-off) type contact transducer are primarily used for:
A. Defect detection
B. Sound wave characterization
C. Thickness measurement or flaw detection in thin materials
D. Attenuation measurements

64. Acoustical lenses are commonly used for contour correction. When
scanning the inside of a pipe section by the immersion method, use a:
A. Focused cup lens
B. Convex lens
C. Concave lens
D. Variable pitch lens
65. In Figure 3, transducer A is being used to establish:
A. Verification of wedge angle
B. Sensitivity calibration
C. Resolution
D. An index point
66. In Figure 3, transducer C is being used to check:
A. Distance calibration
B. Resolution
C. Sensitivity calibration
D. Verification of wedge angle
67. In Figure 3, transducer D is being used to check:

A. Sensitivity calibration
B. Distance calibration
C. Resolution
D. Verification of wedge angle
68. When the incident angle is chosen to be between the first and second
critical angles, the ultrasonic wave generated within the part will be:
A. Longitudinal
B. Shear
C. Surface
D. Lamb
69. In Figure 4, transducer B is being used to check:

A. The verification of wedge angle


B. Resolution
C. Sensitivity calibration
D. Distance calibration
70. The angle at which 90 degrees refraction of the shear wave mode occurs
is called the:
A. First critical angle
B. Second critical angle
C. Third critical angle
D. Angle of reflection

71. In a water immersion test, ultrasonic energy is transmitted into steel at an


incident angle of 14 degrees. What is the angle of the refracted shear wave
within the material?
A. 45 degrees
B. 23 degrees
C. 31 degrees
D. 13 degrees
72. If you were requested to design a plastic shoe to generate a Rayleigh
wave in aluminum, what would be the incident angle of the ultrasonic
energy?
A. 37 degrees
B. 57 degrees
C. 75 degrees
D. 48 degrees

73. Compute the wavelength of ultrasonic energy in lead at 1 MHz


A. 0.21 cm
B. 21 cm
C. 0.48 cm
D. 4.8x10-3 cm
74. For aluminum and steel, the longitudinal velocity is approximately
_________ the shear velocity.
A. Equal to
B. Twice
C. Half of
D. Four times

75. Water travel distance for immersion inspections should be:


A. Such that the second front reflection does not appear between the
first front and back reflections
B. Exactly 76 mm (3 in)
C. Less than 76 mm (3 in)
D. Always equal to the thickness of the material being inspected
76. The electronic circuitry that allows selection and processing of only those
signals relating to discontinuities that occur in specific zones of a part is
called:
A. An electronic gate
B. An electronic attenuator
C. A distance amplitude correction circuit
D. A fixed marker

77. When conducting a contact ultrasonic test, the hash or irregular signals
that appear in the CRT display of the area being inspected could be caused
by:
A. Fine grains in the structure
B. Dirt in the water couplant
C. Coarse grains in the structure
D. A thick but tapered back surface
78. In inspecting a 102 mm (4 in) diameter threaded steel cylinder for radial
cracks extending from the root of the threads, it would be preferable to
transmit:
A. Shear waves at an angle to the threads
B. Longitudinal waves from the end of the cylinder and perpendicular to
the direction of the thread roots
C. Surface waves perpendicular to the thread roots
D. Shear waves around the circumference of the cylinder

79. In an immersion inspection of raw material, the water travel distance


should be:
A. Exactly 76 mm (3 in)
B. Equal to 76 mm (3 in) 13 mm ( 0.5 in)
C. Equal to the water travel distance used in setting up on the reference
standards
D. Equal to the thickness of the material
80. The angle formed by an ultrasonic wave as it enters a medium of different
velocity than the one from which it came and a line drawn perpendicular to
the interface between the two media is called the angle of:

A. Incidence
B. Refraction
C. Rarefaction
D. Reflection
81. The process of adjusting an instrument or device to a reference standard
is referred to as:
A. Angulation
B. Scanning
C. Correcting for distance amplitude variation
D. Calibration

82. An electron tube in which a beam of electrons from the cathode is used to
reproduce an image on a display at the end of the tube is referred to as:
A. An amplifier tube
B. A pulser tube
C. A cathode ray tube
D. A sweep tube
83. A grouping of a number of crystals in one transducer, with all contact
surfaces in the same plane, and vibrating in phase with each other to act as a
single transducer is called a:
A. Focusing crystal
B. Crystal mosaic
C. Scrubber
D. Single plane manipulator

84. The angle of reflection is:


A. Equal to the angle of incidence
B. Dependent on the couplant used
C. Dependent on the frequency used
D. Equal to the angle of refraction
WPS/PQR
85. The angular position of the reflecting surface of a planar discontinuity with
respect to the entry surface is referred to as:

A. The angle of incidence


B. The angle of refraction
C. The orientation of the discontinuity
D. None of the above

86. A short burst of alternating electrical energy is called:


A. A continuous wave
B. A peaked DC voltage
C. An ultrasonic wave
D. A pulse
87. In ultrasonic testing, the time duration of the transmitted pulse is referred
to as:
A. The pulse length or pulse width
B. The pulse amplitude
C. The pulse shape
D. None of the above

88. The phenomenon by which a wave strikes a boundary and changes


direction of its propagation within the same medium is referred to as:
A. Divergence
B. Impedance
C. Angulation
D. Reflection
89. The change in direction of an ultrasonic beam when it passes from one
medium to another whose velocity differs from that of the first medium I called:
A. Refraction
B. Rarefaction
C. Angulation
D. Reflection

90. The coated inside surface of the large end of a cathode ray tube which
becomes luminous when struck by an electron beam is called:
A. An electron gun
B. An electron amplifier
C. An ultrasonic instrument display
D. An electron counter
91. Which of the following modes of vibration exhibits the shortest wavelength
at a given frequency and in a given material?
A. A longitudinal wave
B. A compression wave
C. A shear wave
D. A surface wave

92. In general, shear waves are more sensitive to small discontinuities than
longitudinal wave for a given frequency and in a given material because:
A. The wavelength of a shear wave is shorter than the wavelength of
longitudinal waves
B. Shear waves are not as easily dispersed in the material
C. The direction of particle vibration for shear waves is more sensitive to
discontinuities
D. The wavelength of shear waves is longer than the wavelength of
longitudinal waves
93. In general, shear waves are more sensitive to small discontinuities than
longitudinal wave for a given frequency and in a given material because:
A. The wavelength of a shear wave is shorter than the wavelength of
longitudinal waves
B. Shear waves are not as easily dispersed in the material
C. The direction of particle vibration for shear waves is more sensitive to
discontinuities
D. The wavelength of shear waves is longer than the wavelength of
longitudinal waves

94. In general, which of the following modes of vibration would have the
greatest penetrating power in a coarse-grained material if the frequency of the
waves is the same?
A. Longitudinal waves
B. Shear waves
C. Transverse waves
D. All of the above modes would have the same penetrating power
95. A testing technique in which the crystal or transducer is parallel to the test
surface and ultrasonic waves enter the material being testing in a direction
perpendicular to the test surface is:
A. Straight beam testing
B. Angle beam testing
C. Surface wave testing
D. None of the above

96. The distance from a given point on an ultrasonic wave to the next
corresponding point is referred to as:
A. Frequency
B. Wavelength
C. Velocity
D. Pulse length
97. The speed with which ultrasonic waves travel through a material is known
as its:
A. Velocity
B. Pulse repetition rate
C. Pulse recovery rate
D. Ultrasonic response

98. The ultrasonic transducers most commonly used for discontinuity testing
utilize:
A. Magnetostriction principles
B. Piezoelectric principles
C. Mode conversion principles
D. None of the above
99. Mechanical and electrical stability, insolubility in liquids, and resistance to
aging are three advantages of transducers made of:
A. Lithium sulfate
B. Barium titanate
C. Quartz
D. Rochelle salts

100. The formula on below is referred to as:


A. The acoustical impedance ratio formula
B. The phase conversion formula
C. The Fresnel zone formula
D. Snells law
Barbecue Lamb
101. The formula on the right is used to determine:
A. Angular relationships
B. Phase velocities
C. Amount of reflected sound energy
D. Acoustic impedance

102. The amount of energy reflected from a discontinuity is dependent on:

A. The size of the discontinuity


B. The orientation of the discontinuity
C. The type of discontinuity
D. All of the above
103. If ultrasonic wave is transmitted through an interface of two materials in
which the first material has a higher acoustic impedance value but the same
velocity value as the second material, the angle of refraction will be:
A. Greater than the angle of incidence
B. Less than the angle of incidence
C. The same as the angle of incidence
D. Beyond the critical angle

104. Which of the following frequencies would probably result in the greatest
ultrasonic attenuation losses?
A. 1 MHz
B. 20 MHz
C. 10 MHz
D. 25 MHz
105. The product of the sound velocity and the density of a material is known
as the:
A. Refraction value of the material
B. Acoustic impedance of the material
C. Elastic constant of the material
D. Poissons ratio of the material

106. The amplifier range over which the unsaturated signal response
increases in amplitude in proportion to the discontinuity surface area is the:
A. Sensitivity range
B. Vertical linearity range
C. Selectivity range
D. Horizontal linearity range
107. When inspecting a rolled or forged surface with a thin scale that I
generally tightly adhering to the part, before testing the part:
A. Clean the surface of loose scale
B. Have all scale removed
C. Rough machine the surface
D. Caustic etch the surface

108. The angle of reflection of an ultrasonic beam at an aluminum-water


interface is:
A. 0.256 times the angle of incidence
B. Approximately the angle of incidence
C. Equal to the angle of incidence
D. Approximately 4 times the angle of incidence
109. What kind of waves travel at a velocity slightly less than shear waves
and their mode of propagation is both longitudinal and transverse with respect
to the surface?
A. Rayleigh waves
B. Transverse waves
C. L-waves
D. Longitudinal waves

110. Which ultrasonic test frequency would probably provide the best
penetration in a 30 cm (12 in) thick specimen of coarse-grained steel?
A. 1 MHz
B. 2.25 MHz
C. 5 MHz
D. 10 MHz
111. During immersion testing of an ASTM Ultrasonic Standard Reference
Block, a B-scan presentation system will show a:
A. plan view of the block, showing the area and position of the hole bottom
as seen from the entry surface
B. Basic test pattern showing the height of indication from the hole bottom
and its location in depth from the entry surface
C. Cross section of the reference block, showing the top and bottom
surfaces of the block and the location of the hole bottom in the block
D. None of the above
112. Properties of shear or transverse waves used for ultrasonic testing
include:
A. Particle motion normal to propagation direction, and a propagation
velocity that is about the longitudinal wave velocity in the same
material
B. Exceptionally high sensitivity due to low attenuation resulting from longer
wavelengths when propagating through water
C. High Coupling efficiency because shear waves are less sensitive to
surface variables when traveling from a coupling liquid to the part.
D. None of the above statements apply to shear waves
115. One of the most common applications of ultrasonic tests employing
shear waves is for the:
A. Detection of discontinuities in welds, tube, and pipe
B. Determination of elastic properties of metallic products
C. Detection of laminar discontinuities in heavy plate
D. Measurement of thickness of thin plate

116. Significant errors in ultrasonic thickness measurement can occur if:


A. The test frequency is varying at a constant rate
B. The velocity of propagation deviates substantially from an assumed
constant value for a given material
C. Water is employed as a couplant between the transducer and the part
being measured
D. None of the above should cause errors
117. Generally, the best ultrasonic testing method for detecting discontinuities
oriented along the fusion zone in a welded plate is:
A. An angle beam contact method using surface waves
B. A contact test using a straight longitudinal wave
C. An immersion test using surface waves
D. An angle beam method using shear waves

118. An ultrasonic testing instrument that displays pulses representing the


magnitude of reflected ultrasound as a function of time or depth of metal is
said to contain:

A. A continuous wave display


B. An A-scan presentation
C. A B-scan presentation
D. A C-scan presentation
119. At a water-steel interface the angle of incidence in water is 7 degrees.
The principal mode of vibration that exists in the steel is:
A. Longitudinal
B. Shear
C. Both A and B
D. Surface

Hint: Keyword-Principle

120. In a liquid medium, the only mode of vibration that can exist is:
A. Longitudinal
B. Shear
C. Both A and B
D. Surface
121. In an ultrasonic instrument, the number of pulses produced by an
instrument in a given period of time is known as the:
A. Pulse length of the instrument
B. Pulse recovery time
C. Frequency
D. Pulse repetition rate

122. In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that


coordinates the action and timing of other components is called a:
A. Display unit
B. Receiver
C. Marker circuit or range marker circuit
D. Synchronizer, clock, or timer
123. In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that
produces the voltage that activates the transducer is called:

A. An amplifier
B. A receiver
C. A pulser
D. A synchronizer

124. In basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that produces
the time base line is called a:

A. Sweep circuit
B. Receiver
C. Pulser
D. Synchronizer
125. In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that
produces visible signals on the CRT which are used to measure distance is
called a:
A. Sweep circuit
B. Marker circuit
C. Receiver circuit
D. Synchronizer

126. Most basic pulse echo ultrasonic instruments use:


A. Automatic read-out equipment
B. An A-scan presentation
C. A B-scan presentation
D. A C-scan presentation
127. The instrument displays a plan view of the part outline and defects when
using:
A. Automatic read-out equipment
B. An A-scan presentation
C. A B-scan presentation
D. A C-scan presentation

128. The incident angles at which 90 degrees refraction of longitudinal and


shear waves occurs are called:
A. The normal angles of incidence
B. The critical angles
C. The angles of maximum reflection
D. None of the above
129. Compression waves whose particle displacement is parallel to the
direction of propagation are called:
A. Longitudinal waves
B. Shear waves
C. Lamb waves
D. Rayleigh waves

130. The mode of vibration that is quickly damped out when testing by the
immersion method is:
A. Longitudinal waves
B. Shear waves
C. Transverse waves
D. Surface waves
131. The motion of particles in a shear wave is:
A. Parallel to the direction of propagation of the ultrasonic beam
B. Transverse to the direction of the beam propagation
C. Limited to the material surface and elliptical in motion
D. Polarized in a plane at 45 degrees to the direction of beam propagation

132. An ultrasonic longitudinal wave travels in aluminum with a velocity of


635,000 cm/s and has a frequency of 1 MHz. The wavelength of this
ultrasonic wave is:
A. 6..35 mm (0.25 in)
B. 78 mm (3.1 in)
C. 1.9 m (6.35 ft)
D. 30,000 A
133. The refraction angle of longitudinal ultrasonic waves passing from water
into a metallic material at angles other than normal to the interface is
primarily a function of:
A. The impedance ratio (r = Zw ZM) of water to metal
B. The relative velocities of sound in water and metal
C. The frequency of the ultrasonic beam
D. The density ratio of water to metal

134. In contact testing, shear waves can be induced in the test material by:
A. Placing an X-cut crystal directly on the surface of the materials, and
coupling through a film of oil
B. Using two transducers on opposite sides of the test specimen
C. Placing a spherical acoustic lens on the face of the transducer
D. Using a transducer mounted on a plastic wedge so that sound enters
the part at an angle
135. As frequency increases in ultrasonic testing, the angle of beam
divergence of a given diameter crystal:
A. Decreases
B. Remains unchanged
C. Increases
D. Varies uniformly through each wavelength

136. Which of the following is not an advantage of contact ultrasonic


transducers (probes) adapted with Lucite shoes?
A. Most of the crystal wear is eliminated
B. Adaption to curved surfaces is permitted
C. Sensitivity is increased
D. Ultrasound is allowed to enter a parts surface at oblique angles
137. The velocity of sound is the lowest in:
A. Air
B. Water
C. Aluminum
D. Plastic

138. A longitudinal ultrasonic wave is transmitted from water into steel at an


angle of 5 degrees from the normal. In such a case, the refracted angle of the
transverse wave is:
A. Less than the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave
B. Equal to the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave
C. Greater than the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave
D. Not present at all
139. The velocity of longitudinal waves is the highest in:
A. Water
B. Air
C. Aluminum
D. Plastic

140. In steel, the velocity of sound is greatest in:


A. Longitudinal waves
B. Shear waves
C. Surface waves
D. None of the above sound velocity is identical in all modes, in a give
material
141. The acoustic impedance is:
A. Used to calculate the angle of reflection
B. The product of the density of the material and the velocity of sound
in the material
C. Found by Snells law
D. Used to determine resonance values

142. Thin sheet may be inspected with the ultrasonic wave directed normal to
the surface by observing:

A. The amplitude of the front surface reflection


B. The multiple reflection pattern
C. All front surface reflections
D. None of the above
143. A diagram in which the entire circuit stage or sections are shown by
geometric figures and the path of the signal or energy by lines and/or arrows
is called a:
A. Schematic diagram
B. Blueprint
C. Block diagram
D. None of the above

144. A hole produced during the solidification of metal due to escaping gases
is called:
A. A burst
B. A cold shut
C. Flaking
D. A blow hole
145. A discontinuity that occurs during the casting of molten metal which may
be caused by the splashing, surging, interrupted pouring, or the meeting of
two streams of metal coming from different directions is called:

A. A burst
B. A cold shut
C. Flaking
D. A blow hole

146. The ratio between the wave speed in one material and the wave speed
in a second material is called:

A. The acoustic impedance of the interface


B. Youngs modulus
C. Poissons ratio
D. The index of refraction
147. The expansion and contraction of a magnetic material under the
influence of a changing magnetic field is referred to as:
A. Piezoelectricity
B. Refraction
C. Magnetostriction
D. Rarefaction

148. The ratio of stress to strain in a material with the elastic limit is called
A. Youngs modulus
B. The modulus of elasticity
C. Both A and B
D. The index of refraction
149. A point, line, or surface of a vibrating body marked by absolute or
relative freedom from vibratory motion is referred to as:
A. A node
B. An antinode
C. Rarefaction
D. Compression

150. The factor that determines the amount of reflection at the interface of two
dissimilar materials is:
A. The index of rarefaction
B. The frequency of the ultrasonic wave
C. Youngs modulus
D. The acoustic impedance
151. A quartz crystal cut so that its major faces are parallel to the Z and Y
axes and perpendicular to the X axis is called:
A. A Y-cut crystal
B. An X-cut crystal (correct answer)
C. A Z-cut crystal
D. A ZY-cut crystal

Keyword: Perpendicular to the axis

Perpendicular to the X axis


152. The equation describing wavelength in terms of velocity and frequency is:
A. Wavelength = velocity X frequency
B. Wavelength = Z (frequency X velocity)
C. Wavelength = velocity frequency
D. Wavelength = frequency velocity
153. When an ultrasonic beam reaches the interface of two dissimilar
materials it is:
A. Reflected
B. Refracted
C. Mode converted
D. All of the above

154. When inspecting aluminum by the immersion method using water for a
couplant, the following information is known: The angle of refraction for
longitudinal wave is approximately
Velocity of sound in water = 1.49 X 105 cm/s
Velocity of longitudinal waves in aluminum = 6.32 X 105 cm/s, and angle of
incidence = 5 degrees
A. 22 degrees
B. 18 degrees
C. 26 degrees
D. 16 degrees
155. Of the piezoelectric materials listed below, the most efficient sound
transmitter is:
A. Lithium sulfate
B. Quartz
C. Barium titanate
D. Silver oxide

156. Of the piezoelectric materials listed below, the most efficient sound
receiver is:
A. Lithium sulfate
B. Quartz
C. Barium titanate
D. Silver oxide
157. The most common used method of producing shear waves in a test part
when inspecting by the immersion method is:
A. By transmitting longitudinal wave into a part in a direction perpendicular to
its front surface
B. By using two crystals vibrating at different frequencies
C. By using a Y-cut quartz crystal
D. By angulating the search tube to the proper angle

158. Beam divergence is a function of the dimensions of the crystal and the
wavelength of the beam transmitted through a medium, and it:
A. Increases if the frequency or crystal diameter decreases
B. Decreases if the frequency or crystal diameter decreases
C. Increases if the frequency increases and crystal diameter decreases
D. Decreases if the frequency is increases and crystal diameter decreases
159. The wavelength of an ultrasonic wave is:
A. Directly proportional to velocity and frequency
B. Directly proportional to velocity and inversely proportional to
frequency
C. Inversely proportional to velocity and directly proportional to frequency
D. Equal to the product of velocity and frequency

160. The fundamental frequency of a piezoelectric crystal is primarily a


function of:
A. The length of the applied voltage pulse
B. The amplifying characteristics of the pulse amplifier in the instrument
C. The thickness of the crystal
D. None of the above
161. Acoustic velocities of materials are primarily due to the materials:
A. Density
B. Elasticity
C. Both A and B
D. Acoustic impedance

Inspection of castings is often impractical because of:


A. Extremely small grain structure
B. Coarse grain structure
C. Uniform flow lines
D. Uniform velocity of sound
163. Lamb waves may be used to inspect:
A. Forgings
B. Bar stock
C. Ingots
D. Thin sheet

164. The formula used to determine the angle of beam divergence of a quartz
crystal is:
A. Sin = diameter X wavelength
B. Sin diameter = frequency X wavelength
C. Sin = frequency X wavelength
D. Sin /2 = 1.22 X wavelength/diameter
165. The resolving power of a transducer is directly proportional to its:
A. Diameter
B. Bandwidth (standard answer but how?)
C. Pulse repetition
D. None of the above

166. Acoustic lens elements with which of the following permit focusing the
sound energy to enter cylindrical surfaces normally or along a line focus?
A. Cylindrical curvatures
B. Spherical lens curvatures
C. Convex shapes
D. Concave shapes
167. The primary requirement of a paintbrush transducer is that:
A. All crystals be mounted equidistant from each other
B. The intensity of the beam pattern not vary greatly over the entire
length of the transducer
C. The fundamental frequency of the crystals not very more than 0.01%
D. The overall length not exceed 76 mm (3 in)

168. Heat conduction, viscous friction, elastic hysteresis, and scattering are
four different mechanisms which lead to:
A. Attenuation
B. Refraction
C. Beam spreading
D. Saturation
169. Because the velocity of sound in aluminum is approximately 245,000 in/s
for sound to travel through 25 mm (1 in) of aluminum, it takes:
A. 1/8 s
B. 4 s
C. 4 ms
D. X 104 s

170. When testing a part with a rough surface, it is generally advisable to sue:
A. A lower frequency transducer and more viscous couplant than is
used on parts with a smooth surface
B. A high frequency transducer and more viscous couplant than is used on
parts with a smooth surface
C. A high frequency transducer and a less viscous couplant than is sued on
parts with a smooth surface
D. A lower frequency transducer and a less viscous couplant than is used of
parts with a smooth surface
171. Reflection indications from a weld area being inspected by the angle
beam technique may represent:
A. Porosity
B. Cracks
C. Weld bead
D. All of the above

172. During a test using A-scan equipment, strong indications that move at
varying rates across the screen in the horizontal direction appear. It is
impossible to repeat a particular screen pattern by scanning the same area. A
possible cause of these indications is:
A. Porosity in the test part
B. An irregularly shaped crack
C. A blow hole
D. Electrical interference
173. In an A-scan presentation, the horizontal line formed by the uniform and
repeated movement of an electron beam across the fluorescent screen of a
cathode ray tube is called:
A. A square wave pattern
B. A sweep line
C. A marker pattern
D. None of the above

174.The greatest amount of attenuation losses take place at:


A. 1 MHz
B. 2.25 MHz
C. 5 MHz
D. 10 MHz
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2014/August/7
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175. Waves that travel around gradual curves with little or no reflection from
the curve are called:
A. Transverse waves
B. Surface waves
C. Shear waves
D. Longitudinal waves

176. To evaluate and accurately locate discontinuities after scanning a part


with a paintbrush transducer, it is generally necessary to use a:
A. Transducer with a smaller crystal
B. Scrubber
C. Grid map
D. Crystal collimator

Hint: Paint brush is supposes to be a long elongated probe with a larger


dimension, on detecting indication which requires further investigation, a
smaller probe is a natural choice.
Choices
177. An ultrasonic instrument has been calibrated to obtain a 51 mm (2 in)
indication from a 2 mm (0.08 in) diameter flat bottom hole located 76 mm (3 in)
from the front surface of an aluminum reference block. When testing an
aluminum forging, a 51 mm (2 in) indication is obtained from a discontinuity
located 76 mm (3 in) from the entry surface. The cross sectional area of this
discontinuity is probably:
A. The same as the area of the 2mm flat bottom hole
B. Greater than the area of the 2mm flat bottom hole
C. Slightly less than the are of the 2mm flat bottom hole
D. about 1/2 the area of the 2mm flat bottom hole

178. As the impedance ratio of two dissimilar materials increases, the


percentage of sound coupled through an interface of such materials:
A. Decreases
B. Increases
C. Is not changed
D. May increase or decrease
179. Low frequency sound waves are not generally used to test thin materials
because of:
A. The rapid attenuation of low frequency sound
B. Incompatible wavelengths
C. Poor near-surface resolution
D. None of the above will actually limit such a test

Hint:
Zf = D2/4 = D2x f /4V , Lower the frequency shorter the Near Field.
However the resolution is impaired with longer wavelength.
During the above assessment, is the Near Field effect omitted due to probe
set-up e.g. Delay Line etc.? Or the Near Field may not necessary
undetectable except the Dead Zone.
Frequency = 2.25 MHZ, Wavelength = 2.6mm, Near Zone Zf = 16.25mm

http://static1.olympus-ims.com/data/Flash/HTML5/beamSpread/BeamSpread.html?rev=6C43
Frequency = 5 MHZ, Wavelength = 0.585mm, Near Zone Zf = 36.11mm

http://static1.olympus-ims.com/data/Flash/HTML5/beamSpread/BeamSpread.html?rev=6C43
180. When using tow separate transducers (one a transmitter, the other a
receiver), the most efficient combinations would be a:
A. Quartz transmitter and a barium titanate receiver
B. Barium titanate transmitter and a lithium sulfate receiver
C. Lithium sulfate transmitter and a barium titanate receiver
D. Barium titanate transmitter and a quartz receiver
181. In immersion testing, the accessory equipment to which the search cable
and the transducer are attached is called a:
A. Crystal collimator
B. Scrubber
C. Jet-stream unit
D. Search tube or scanning tube

182. In general, discontinuities in wrought products tend to b oriented:


A. Randomly
B. In the direction of grain flow
C. At right angles to the entry surface
D. At right angles to the grain flow
Steel Making

http://www.tatasteelindia.com//products-and-processes/processes/STEEL-MAKING-PROCESS.swf
183. In immersion testing, irrelevant or false indications caused by contoured
surfaces are likely to result in a:
A. Broad-based indication
B. Peaked indication
C. hashy signal
D. Narrow-based indication

184. In contact testing, defects near the entry surface cannot always be
detected because of:
A. The far-field effect
B. Attenuation
C. The dead zone
D. Refraction
185. In cases where the diameter of tubing being inspected is smaller than
the diameter of the transducer, what can be used to confine the sound beam
to the proper range of angles?

A. A scrubber
B. A collimator
C. An angle plane angulator
D. A jet-stream unit

186. The maximum scanning speed possible is primarily determined by:

A. The frequency of the transducer


B. Viscous drag problems
C. The pulse repetition rate of the test instrument
D. The persistency of the ultrasonic instrument display
187. The property of certain materials to transform electrical energy to
mechanical energy and vice versa is called:
A. Mode conversion
B. Piezoelectric effect
C. Refraction
D. Impedance matching

188. Surface waves are reduced to an energy level of approximately 1/25 of


the original power at a depth of:
A. 25 mm (1 in)
B. 102 mm (4 in)
C. 1 wavelength
D. Impedance matching
189. To prevent the appearance of he second front surface indication before
the first back reflection when inspecting aluminum by the immersion method
(water is used as a couplant), it is necessary to have a minimum of at least 25
mm (1 in) of water for every:

A. 51 mm (2 in) of aluminum
B. 102 mm (4 in) of aluminum
C. 152 mm (6 in) of aluminum
D. 203 mm (8 in) of aluminum

190. Increasing the length of the pulse and used to activate the transducer will:
A. Increase the strength of the ultrasound but decrease the resolving
power of the instrument
B. Increase the resolving power of the instrument
C. Have no effect on the test
D. Decrease the penetration of the sound wave
191. The lack of parallelism between the entry surface and the back surface:
A. May result in a screen pattern that does not contain back reflection
indications
B. Makes it difficult to locate discontinuities that lie parallel to the entry
surface
C. Usually indicates that a porous condition exists in the metal
D. Decreases the penetrating power of the test

192. A discontinuity with a concave surface will:


A. Diffuse the sound energy throughout the part
B. Cause the reflected beam to focus at a point determined by the
curvature of the discontinuity
C. Cause mode reinforcement of the ultrasonic wave
D. Cause none of the above
193. Rayleigh waves:
A. Are generated at the first critical angle
B. Are generated at the second critical angle
C. Are generated at either critical angle
D. Travel only in liquid
E. Are another name for Lamb waves

194. Angle beam testing of plate will often miss:


A. Cracks that are perpendicular to the sound wave
B. Inclusions that are randomly oriented
C. Laminations that are parallel to the front surface
D. A series of small discontinuities
195. Reducing the extent of the dead zone of a transducer by using a delay
tip results in:
A. Improved distance amplitude correction in the near field
B. Reduced frequency of the primary ultrasonic beam
C. Reduced ability to detect flaws in the near field
D. Improved accuracy in thickness measurement of thin plate and sheet
E. None of the above

196. In plate, skip distance can be calculated from which of the following
formulas where (t = plate thickness, = angle of sound beam refraction,
and V = sound velocity)
A. S = (2 X t)/ tan
B. S = 2 X t X sin
C. S = 2 X t X tan
D. S = 2 X V X sin
E. None of the above
197. The technique of examining an ultrasonic reflector from different
directions might be used to enable the technician to:
A. Distinguish between different types of flaws
B. Predict the useful service life of the test specimen
C. Distinguish between flaw indications and spurious or flat indications
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
Discussion: Could C be a correct answer too?

198. The principal application of ultrasonic techniques consists of:


A. Flaw detection
B. Thickness measurements
C. Determination of elastic moduli
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
199. Attenuation is the loss of the ultrasonic wave energy during the course of
propagation in the material due to:
A. Reflection and refraction
B. Dispersion and diffraction
C. Absorption and scattering
D. Composition and shape
E. All of the above
Hint: The attenuation in the material.

200. When setting up an ultrasonic inspection, the repetition frequency of the


ultrasonic instrument should be set:
A. So that its period is at least as long as the operating time
B. The same as the transducer resonance frequency
C. As low as possible to avoid over pulsing and distortion
D. According to the instruction manual of the instrument
E. None of the above
201. In immersion shear wave testing, waves are normally generated by
angulating the transducer beyond the first critical angle. What is the direction
of the materials particle motion?
A. The same as the wave propagation
B. Normal to the material surface
C. Parallel to the direction of wave propagation
D. Perpendicular to the direction f wave propagation
E. Only surface waves existed beyond the first critical angle

202. Which of the following modes of vibration are quickly dampened out
when testing by the immersion method?
A. Longitudinal waves
B. Shear waves
C. Transverse waves
D. Surface waves
203. The most commonly used method of producing shear waves in a test
part when inspecting by the immersion method is:

A. By transmitting longitudinal waves into a part in a direction perpendicular


to its front surface
B. By using two crystals vibrating at different frequencies
C. By suing Y-cut quartz crystal
D. By angulating the search tube or manipulator to the proper angle
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Exercises
Studyblue-02

http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/ut-asnt-level-ii/deck/2895592
1. The wave mode that has multiple or varying wave velocities is:
A. Longitudinal waves
B. Shear waves
C. Transverse waves
D. Lamb waves

2. Which of the following would be considered application (s) of ultrasonic


techniques?
A. Determination of a materials elastic modulus
B. Study of a materials metallurgical structure
C. Measurement of a materials thickness
D. All of the above
3. The only significant sound wave mode that travels through a liquid is:
A. Shear wave
B. Longitudinal wave
C. Surface wave
D. Rayleigh wave

4. The acoustic impedance of a material is used to determine the:


A. Angle of refraction at an interface
B. Attenuation within the material
C. Relative amounts of sound energy coupled through and reflected at
the interface
D. Beam spread within the material
Addendum-04C
Questions & Answers- I II III
My ASNT Level III UT Study Notes
2014-June.
Reading:
http://www.freezingblue.com/iphone/flashcards/printPreview.cgi?cardsetID=1
04091
Production Island
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At works
Some body make this up, He had never said that.
Assorted Exercises
Practice 1:
Source: http://www.scribd.com/doc/9086290/Ultrasonic-Solution
Q23. Propagation of ultrasonic wave through the material medium can be
treated as:
a) Isothermal
b) Adiabatic
c) Both (i) & (ii)
d) None of these

Q26. In case of a wave propagating through an absorbing medium, the


amplitude with distance;
a) Increases linearly
b) Decreases linearly
c) Falls exponentially
d) None of these
Q27. If E is the bulk modulus of a loss free gas and p is its density, the
characteristic impedance offered by the gas to the sound wave traveling in it
is given by;
a) Z=pE
b) Z = p2E
c) Z = (p E)0.5
d) none of these

Q29. The condition for which all the incident energy with the incident wave is
transmitted with no reflection is that impedance of the coupling medium is
a) Harmonic mean
b) Arithmetic mean
c) Product
d) Sum of the two impedances to be matched
Q30. The sum of reflection & transmission coefficient at junction between two
media is;
a) Zero
b) One
c) Between zero and one
d) None of these

Q31. All the energy arriving at the boundary with the incident wave leaves the
boundary with the
a) Reflected wave
b) Transmitted
c) Both (i) & (ii)
d) None of these
Q35. in case of ultrasonography, jelly used between probe and body surface
for the purpose of
a) pain relief
b) removal of etching
c) coupling
d) None of these
Practice 2:
Source: Lavender International: General Assessments: Module 5-2
Q1. Which of the following is a reference reflector that is not dependent on
beam angle?
a) A flat bottomed hole
b) A vee notch
c) A side drilled hole which is parallel to the plate surface and
perpendicular to the sound path
d) A disc shaped laminar reflector

Q2. Where does beam divergence occur?


a) Near field
b) Far field
c) At the crystal
d) None of the above
Q3. On a scan display the dead zone refers to?
a) The distance contained within the near field
b) The area outside the beam spread
c) The distance covered by the front surface pulse width and recovery
time
d) The area between the near field and far field

Q4. Which of the following modes of vibration exhibits the shortest


wavelength at a given frequency and
a) in a given material?
b) Longitudinal wave
c) Compression wave
d) Shear wave
e) Surface wave
Q5. Look at diagram one at the foot of the page which illustrates four waves.
Wave A strikes the surface of the specimen and produces waves B, C and
D. The incident angle is?
a) Angle A
b) Angle B
c) Angle C
d) Angle D

Q6. Diagram two at the foot of the page illustrates four waves. Wave A strikes
the surface of the specimen and produces waves B, C and D. The
refraction angle is?
a) Angle A
b) Angle B
c) Angle C
d) Angle D
Q7. In which zone does the amplitude of an indication from a given
discontinuity diminsh exponentially as the distance increases?
a) Far field zone
b) Near field zone
c) Dead zone
d) Fresnel zone

Q8. Rayleigh waves are influenced most by defects located?


a) One wavelength below the surface
b) Six wavelengths below the surface
c) Close to or on the surface
d) Three wavelengths below the surface
Q9. Of the following sound waves modes one has multiple or varying wave
velocities?
a) Longitudinal waves
b) Shear waves
c) Transverse waves
d) Lamb waves

Q10. Transducers used in ultrasonic testing exhibit which of the following


effects?
a) Ferromagnetic
b) Piezoelectric
c) Electromechanical
d) Hyperacoustic
Q11. Of an A-scan display what represents the intensity of the refelected
beam?
a) Echo pulse width
b) Horizontal screen location
c) Signal brightness
d) Signal amplitude

Q12. A short burst of alternating energy is called?


a) A continuous wave
b) A peaked dc voltage
c) An ultrasonic wave
d) A pulse
Q13. Attenuation is a difficult quantity to measure accurately particularly in
solid materials at the test frequencies normally used. The overall result
observed includes other loss mechanisms which can include?
a) Beam spread
b) Couplant mismatch
c) Test piece geometry
d) All of the above

Q14. The simple experiment where a stick in a glass of water appears


disjointed at the water ?
a) Reflection
b) Magnification
c) Refraction
d) Diffraction
Q15. The ratio of the velocity of sound in water compared to that for
aluminum or steel is approximately?
a) 1:4
b) 1:2
c) 1:8
d) 1:3

Q16. Which of the following cannot be considered as a coupling agent?


a) Grease
b) Water
c) Air
d) Glycerin
Q17. The speed with which ultrasonic waves travel through a material is
known as its?
a) Velocity of sound energy
b) Pulse repetition rate of sound energy
c) Pulse recovery rate of sound energy
d) Ultrasonic response of sound energy

Q18. A testing technique in which the crystal or transducer is parallel to the


surface and ultrasonic waves enter the material being tested in a direction
perpendicular to the test surface is?
a) Straight beam testing
b) Angle beam testing
c) Surface wave testing
d) None of the above
19. The total energy losses occurring in all materials is called?
a) Attenuation
b) Scatter
c) Surface wave testing
d) None of the above

20. Acoustic energy propagates in different modes. Which of the following


represents a mode?
a) Longitudinal mode
b) Shear wave
c) Surface wave
d) All of the above
Here are answers:

1. A side drilled hole which is 11. Signal amplitude


parallel to the plate surface 12. A pulse
and perpendicular to the 13. All of the above
sound path 14. Refraction
2. Far field 15. 1:4
3. The distance covered by the 16. Air
front surface pulse width 17. Velocity of sound energy
and recovery time 18. Straight beam testing
4. Surface wave 19. Attenuation
5. Angle D 20. All of the above
6. Angle A
7. Far field zone
8. Close to or on the surface
9. Lamb waves
10.Piezoelectric
Other Sources
Q35: Couplant used in contact testing is a good conductor for sound waves
and acts as a:

a) Noise suppressor
b) Source to reduce surface irregularities on the test object
c) Means to reduce signal strength
d) Source to reduce reflection from edges on the test object.
e) Source to reduce frictions and prevent excessive wearing to contact face.
Q47: A major (!) limitation of using a low test frequency is:
a) The limit of depth penetration
b) That a small search probe required
c) That small discontinuities are hard to detect due to a larger angle of
divergence. (standard answer)
d) The low amplitude signals from disbonds and othe flat andd thin
discontinuities

Question: The detectability drop with increase of wavelength. The smallest


discontinuities could be detected is approximately . Could the beam
divergence contribution term as Major?
API ICP
My Self Study Notes
-

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


API ICP

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


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Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


API ICP

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


API ICP

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


API ICP

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


API ICP

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


API ICP

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang


API ICP

Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang