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Lecture 1 Introduction

Popular Science Mythology

o Historical Myths
Science began in the 17th century with the likes of Galileo and Newton
Galileo was a martyr of science who fought against the dogmatism of
The scientific revolution liberated science from religion
It is accepted in the contemporary science that God does not exist
Contemporary science is independent from any metaphysics
o Philosophical Myths
Science proves its theories by experiments and observations
The method of science is universal and unchangeable
Science is a rational enterprise because of its universal method
Each succeeding scientific theory contains more and more true claims
There is a strict demarcation line between science and pseudoscience
Class focus: History of science -> The history of scientific theories. Changes in the
mosaic of accepted theories
Theory = A set of propositions that attempt to describe something
o Scientific Mosaic = A set of all accepted theories and employed methods
Scientific Change = Any change in the scientific mosaic
Ex. apple falling from tree
o Now: General Relativity, state of inertial motion in a curved space
o 1765: Newtonian Physics, two objects of mass attract eachother, gravity ->
accepted until circa 1920
o 1515: Aristotelian Physics: heavy elements naturally fall towards the center
of the earth (and lighter elements tend to rise) (earth, water, air, fire,
quintessance) -> accepted until late 17th century
o What were the major scientific mosaics?
o What were the major transitions in the mosaic?
o Q1: Is there absolute knowledge?
o Q2: How do we evaluate competing theories?
o Q3: What is the mechanism of scientific change?
o Q4: Is there scientific progress?
o Q5: What makes a theory scientific?
Lecture 2 Absolute Knowledge
Is there absolute knowledge?
o Ex. 1+2 = 3
This is based on definition
o We start with by definition, then we come to a solution logically

Ex. Swans

o we generalize the results of our observations and conclude all swans are
Ex. Gravity

o using induction and arrive at theory

o Analytic: All propositions of formal sciences (e.g. mathematics, logic,
systems theory, game theory, information theory)
Ex. 1+2 = 3
Propositions are demonstratively proven
o Synthetic: Most propositions of empirical sciences (e.g. physics, biology,
economics), because the opposite is conceivable
Ex. Swans + Ex. Gravity
Propositions are confirmed by experience
Is there absolute knowledge?
o Can analytic propositions be absolutely certain? YES
o Can synthetic propositions be absolutely certain? NO
Synthetic Propositions
o Fallibilism = No synthetic proposition can be infallible. Empirical knowledge
cannot be absolutely explained.
Problem of Sensations = there is no guarantee that senses convey
the exact picture of things as they really are
Machinery would still have senses, because we make the
definition and therefore it is flawed
Problem of Induction = no matter how many confirming instances
are observed, inductive generalizations remain fallible
Even if our senses were perfect we cannot observe everything or
the future
Problem of Theory-Ladenness = results of experiments and
observations are shaped by our accepted theories
Looking through a telescope and see mountains, we have to trust
optics theories
o Infalliblism = Synthetic propositions can be infallible. Empirical knowledge
cannot be absolutely explained.
o Until early 20th century, the accepted position was infalliblism

Lecture 3 Scientific Method
How do we decide which theories should be accepted?
Acceptance = a theory is said to be accepted if it is taken as the best available
description of its object
Use = a theory is said to be accepted if it is taken as the best available description
of its object
Pursuit = a theory is said to be pursued if it is considered worthy of further
It is possible to accept one theory, use a different theory in practise and pursue
some other theory
In the 1600s the Copernicus theory was being used and pursued
It is hard to tell which initial idea is worthy of further elaboration and which one is
From the practical perspective, there is an accumulation of useful calculating tools.
Old tools dont necessarily get replaced by new ones
Method = a set of requirements (criteria, rules, standards, etc.) for employment in
theory assessment (evaluation, appraisal, comparison, etc.)
o These are the actual (implicit) expectations of the scientific community
o What scientists actually do
o Methods should not be confused with methodology
o Examples
Ex. accept more simple theories
Ex. accept theories that solve more problems
Ex. accept theories with confirmed novel predictions
Ex. accept more precise and accurate theories
Methodology = a set of explicitly formulated rules of theory assessment
o These are the rules openly prescribed by the community as the correct way
of doing science
o What scientists say they should be doing
Methods of theory assessment are not to be confused with techniques used by
scientists to construct theories
Research Technique = A set of procedures for theory construction (generation,
Is there an unchangeable (fixed, transhistorical) method of science?
Some theories are accepted because they are more precise and accurate than
their predecessors
Accepted ontology = accepted views on the types of entities and interactions
that populate the world
o Our attitude seems to depend on whether the theory attempts to modify the
accepted ontology
Ex. Newtons law didnt become accepted because it was more precise and
accurate but because of one of the novel predictions in Newtons theories

Ex. superstring theory = precision and accuracy is there but it is trying to modify
the ontology, therefore it is not accepted but it is pursued
Hypothetico-Deductive Method = a hypothesis is allowed to introduce
unobservable entities (e.g. particles, forces, superstrings, etc.) provided that it
predicts something novel, hitherto unobserved, and some of these novel
predictions are confirmed
Aristotelian-Medieval Method = A proposition is acceptable if:
o it grasps the nature of a thing through intuition or
o it is deduced from the general intuitive propositions (grasped intuitively by
an experienced person)

Ex. Copernican theory (heliocentric theory)
o had a novel prediction (something about phases of Venus).
o The accepted theory was that of Ptolemy (earth in center and planets are in
retrograde sometimes)
o it wasnt accepted even though Ptolemy theory didnt explain the phases
o Descartess theory did not confirm any novel predictions, but because it fit
the AR method

o late 1900s people still thought the Static Method was true. It was generally
assumed that only scientific theories change while the method was immune
to change
Lecture 4 Laws of Scientific Change
Is scientific change a rational (law-governed) process? YES
Can there be a general theory of scientific change?
Generalism = there can be a general theory of scientific change
Particularism = there can be no general theory of scientific change
o This is the view prevalent among historians of science nowadays
Our methods evolve as we learn new things
Ex. Drug Testing

Ex. Method Employment: Repeatability

Complexity = the world as it appears in observations is a product of some more
fundamental inner mechanism
o we wouldnt tolerate unobservables, if we thought that the world is
composed only of what is immediately observable
Post hoc explanations = any phenomenon can be given many different post hoc
explanations which are equally precise
o Novel predictions wouldnt be necessary if there were no risk of cooked up
post hoc explanations

In formal science we are inconsistency-intolerant

In empirical science we are inconsistency-tolerant

As a rule, a new theory is often incompatible with some parts of the mosaic
o How can this new theory become part of the mosaic?
The 2nd Law: The new theory must meet the implicit expectations of the
community in order to become accepted. Accepted by the method then
the theory becomes accepted into the mosaic
Theory Rejection: Then the old theories that are incompatible
with the new theory become rejected
o 0th Law: compatibility is maintained

o Ex.

Contextual Appraisal
o creationist can become accepted only if it manages to satisfy the current
requirements. Otherwise it cannot challenge the accepted evolutionary
biology; pointing out the incompleteness of the fossil record is of no use.
o The popular myth on Galileo completely ignores the fact that the criteria of
the then-employed Aristotelian- medieval method that nothing to do with
confirmed novel predictions
o The popular myth is anachronistic, for it evaluates the Galileo episode by the
criteria of our currently employed HD method

Lecture 5 Scientific Progress

Do our best scientific theories correctly describe the nature of the
external (mind-independent) world? Wrong Q
Does science actually progress towards the truth? YES

the history of science shows that our knowledge of relations is changeable ex.
newtons theory vs. general relativity
our knowledge of entities can be flawed, the list of entities that populate the world
has changed through time
the problem with a selective approach is that we now think that everything is

No-Miracles Argument
o The results of experiments and observations are at least partially affected by
things as they really are
o Therefore, the explanations provided by our theories make progress in the
direction of the truth


o We do not think that our current ontology is absolutely correct, merely that it
is a better approximation than the ontologies of the past
o Thus, we cant that past ontologies were absolutely false; they were merely
not as correct as our current ontology
o Therefore this argument is flawed
Lecture 6 Science and Non-Science
What is the difference between science and non-science?
o What are the characteristics of a scientific theory?
o What are the characteristics of the process of scientific change?
Some scientific theories are part of our contemporary scientific mosaic while other
scientific theories are currently unaccepted
An empirical theory is scientific if:
o It is based on experience
This is vague and it allows for cherry-picking only favourable evidence

o it explains all the known facts of its domain

if we followed this criterion of demarcation, then many scientific
theories would turn out to be unscientific
o it explains, by and large, the known facts of its domain
even unscientific theories manage to explain the known facts

o it explains, by and large, the known facts of its domain and it is testable
(falsifiable) at least in principle
a theory should exclude certain options
dont need the technology available right now, but it can be tested in

Since the employed method can change then demarcation criteria can change
There are no universal and fixed criteria for demarcating scientific theories from
non-scientific theories
Demarcation: Laws of Scientific Change
o Any actual or potential violation of the laws of scientific change is usually
qualified as unscientific
Case 1: The lost manuscript
o What would happen if the manuscript were stolen or destroyed?
At least some parts of the mosaic would be lost forever
This violates the first law, cause theories remain in the mosaic
unless replaced by other theories
Case 2: Lysenkoism
o Violates the second law

Case 3: Homeopathy

Case 4: Astrology


Q1 depends on the method employed at the time. Not transhistroical
Q2 A modification of the mosaic is scientific it if is in accord with the laws of
scientific change. Is transhistorical
Lecture 7 Aristotelian-Medieval Worldview
Q: Why would anyone study theories rejected more than 300 years ago?
o Among other things, they teach us that there can be genuine science with a
different scientific method
o By ignoring the Aristotelian-Medieval method we would have a very
simplistic notion of science (only HD method existed)
The key elements were accepted until the end of the 17th century
o Natural philosophy (physics), Humorist Physiology, Astrology, Cosmology,
Theology (creationism), Metaphysics, Mathematics, Natural History (biology),
Optics, Aristotelian-Medieval method
Aristotelian Physics
o Heavy: Water, Earth
o Light: Fire, Air

o Transformability: Elements can transform to one another
o Firewood (earth and water) in combustion water turns to air (vapour) and
earth turns to fire
o Possibility of Alchemy it is reasonable to search for elixirs and philosophers
Humorist Physiology & Medicine
o 4 Humors: Blood, Yellow bile, Black bile, Phlegm
o Every humor has a predominant element (consists of all elements though)
Blood air
Yellow bile fire
Black bile earth
Phlegm water

o Every individual has a balance of humors
o Temperament = A specific balance of the four humors peculiar to the
Blood Sanguine (life-loving, lustful)
Phlegm Phlegmatic (unemotional, cool)
Black Bile Melancholic (gloomy)
Yellow Bile Choleric (easily aggravated, angry)
o What does an individuals temperament depend on? Natal horoscope
o Terrestrial Region = the earth is the center of the universe
o Celestial Region = Planets and stars revolve around the earth
o All celestial bodies are made of element ether
o Natural Motion: Aether = tends to move in circles around the center of the
o Immutability of Aether = Aether cannot transform to any other element
o There is no generation of corruption in the celestial region
o The celestial region influences the terrestrial region
Eg. Sun is the source of heat and light
Eg. The moon is the cause of ebb and flow on the earth
Eg. The sun is the cause of seasons on the earth
o The motion of the sphere of stars is due to the Prime Mover. The motion is
thus transferred to each subsequent sphere. Eventually it causes all sorts of
change in the terrestrial region.
o Possibility of Astrology it is reasonable to study the casual connections
between the celestial and the terrestrial regions (study the combinations of
celestial movement with what is down here)
o As seen from the earth, the sun moves against the background stars. The
apparent path of the sun throughout the course of a year is called ecliptic.
The apparent paths of all planets are within the belt of the zodiac. The belt of
zodiac consists of twelve 30 degree divisions, called signs. Aries, Taurus,
Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius,
o An individuals sign is determined by the position of the sun at the time of
the individuals birth. Each sign is associated with one of the four element,
i.e. it increases the quantity of that element in all those born under the sign.
o Heavens Determine Temper = An individuals temper is determined by the
specific placement of the planets at the moment of the individuals birth
o This is why physicians were suppose to study astrology
Humorist Physiology & Medicine
o Health = Balance Health is a state of perfect balance between the humors
(what you are born with)
o Disease = Imbalance Disease is a state of imbalance between the humors
o Curing = Balancing to cure a disease one has to direct the therapy towards
the restoration of the balance of humors
Build blood eat green vegetables and moderate exercising
Decrease blood bloodletting
Normalize phlegm eat fresh fruit and drink water
Yellow bile decrease fresh fruit and green vegetables
Black bile build moderate consumption of wine

Aristotelian-Medieval Method

o You cannot grasp the nature of a bird if you lock it in a cage. To grasp its
nature, you must observe it in its natural environment

o Qualitative change ex. A caterpillar turns into a chrysalis and then into a
o Quantitative change ex. A young man loses weight and gains in height

Diagnosis: The elements of the Aristotelian mosaic were strongly interconnected
Reached a level of interconnectedness that hasnt been like that since
Lecture 8 Cartesian Worldview
In the 16-17th centuries many different theories were pursued. Yet, the theories of
the Aristotelian-medieval mosaic were taught at the leading universities up until
the late 17th century. Why? The 2nd Law: The theories of the Aristotelian-medieval
mosaic remained accepted because no other theory managed to satisfy the
requirements of the method of the time.
Cartesian natural philosophy and the theories that came with it became accepted
only towards the end of the 17th century
The chief author of that system, Descartes, realized that it is the requirements of
the Aristotelian-medieval method that his theories have to satisfy in order to
become accepted.
Cartesian mosaic was accepted primarily on the continent
o Natural philosophy (Physics), Optics, Mechanistic Geology, Theology,
Metaphysics, Mechanistic biology
Cartesian Metaphysics
o Descartes: In order to make sure that I only accept what is true, I have to
start by doubting everything: my experience, my theories, the existence of
the external world, and even my own existence. But even when I doubt
everything, one thing is absolutely certain: I doubt, therefore I think,
therefore I exist. So is the existence of the supremely perfect being,
God. Why? To prove the existence of God is to prove the existence of the
material world. Thus, everything that I perceive clearly and distinctly, must
be true. But I perceive clearly and distinctly that my sensations are caused
by external objects. The source of my sensations cannot be my own mind,
since I have no control over them. Thus, these cannot be merely products of
my imagination for otherwise God would be deceiving me, which is
impossible because God is not a deceiver. Therefore, the material world
exists independently of my mind.

o What are the indispensable properties of mind and matter? I.e. what are the
properties, without which these substances are inconceivable?
I cant conceive of a mind that isnt capable of thinking or of a material
object that doesnt occupy space

The mechanical view has to replace Aristotelian hylomorphism

Aristotle: The human body is a compound, composed of 4 bodily fluids
and a soul which is what makes a living thing alive. This is the matter
of the body. Replicating the right combination of bodily fluids (matter)
is not sufficient to produce a human being. Each bodily fluid is also
composed of matter and form. Each element is also composed of
matter and form.
This talk of forms is extremely occult. It gives the impression of
explanation, without actually explaining anything. In fact, once
we realize that the only attribute of matter is extension, we
clearly see that these Aristotelian forms are utterly fictitious.
(bits of matter interacting with eachother)
Cartesian Mechanicism
Each organ is nothing by a system of valves, pulleys, pipes and
pumps. Eventually, every effect in the body is produced by the
collisions of moving particles that compose the body.
o Aristotelian Teleology
Teleology= all things tend towards certain intrinsic or extrinsic goals
Ex. Apple tree growing: because growing and bearing apples is its
intrinsic goal, dictated by the substantial form of the apple tree.
Ex. Why does the statue exist: extrinsic goal for beauty
Ex. Why do humans exist: The goal of human beings is to exercise their
capacity of reason to its best and fullest. (capacity of thinking based)
Descartes: All this talk of goals, aims and purposes doesnt make any
sense, if we recall that matter has only one principal attribute
extension. Change can only be brought by actual contact.
o Cartesian Action by Contact
Such bits can only interact by colliding with eachother, since matter
doesnt have any other capacities (such as goals).
Action by Contact: Changes in material objects can result only from
actual contact.
o Cartesian Physiology: Changes in organisms are caused by collisions of
material particles.
Ex. Light rays from an external object impress subtle particles into the
Ex. The human heart is just a hydraulic pump that pushes the blood
into the arteries
Ex. All reflexes in the body are produced by the motion of material

All sciences can be geometrical/mathematical

Aristotle: A thing is characterized by its substantial form
Ex. A mountain is characterized by its quality of mountainness
Ex. Apple tree is its capacity to grow and bear apples
Ex. Lion cub is its quality to grow into a mature lion
Ex. A human being is characterized by his capacity of reason
No matter how you rearrange the matter of the mountain, it will
never be capable of bearing fruits
Descartes: The Aristotelians multiplied substances without any reason.
Only 2 substances (Dualism)
o Cartesian Dualism
All material things are nothing but systems of moving particles. All
material things are essentially different arrangements of the same
extended substance matter.
The mind, however, is a different substance. It has nothing to do with
the movement of material particles.
Human beings are the only creatures who are citizens of two different
worlds the material world and the ideal world.
While our bodies are merely systems of moving material particles our
immaterial minds are systems of interconnected propositions
Descartes: There are entities which only have minds, but not material
Descartes: In contrast, some things are purely material (including

Cartesian Physics and Cosmology

o Plenism = Horror Vacui
Lecture 9 Newtonain Worldview

o 1) Myth (below theology)
o 2) Myth (below astrology)
o 3) Myth (below Cartesian cosmology)
o 4) Myth (below Cartesian cosmology)
o 5) Myth (No descartes did)
The Newtonian mosaic was accepted from 1700 to 1920 in britian. On the
continent it was accepted from 1740 to 1920.
Mosaic: Newtonian Physics, Phlogiston Chemistry, Theory of Preformation,
Linnaean Biology, Physiology, Associationist Psychology, History, Mathematics, HD
Method, Keplerian astronomy, Theology
o By the time, Newtons theory became replaced by general relativity in 1920s,
the mosaic had changed considerably. The share the same fundamentals but
the specific theories were different
preformationism = organisms develop from miniature versions of themselves.
o In the mid 18th century, theology was considered a key branch of science
along with Metaphysics, Natural Science, and Humanities
o Natural and revealed theology remained in the mosaic. Black magic and
divination remained unaccepted.

o In the Aristotelian-Medieval science, only natural astrology was accepted.
Judicial astrology was no accepted, but was considered heretical. In the 18th
century, judicial astrology remained rejected and even became a subject of
ridicule, while natural astrology remained in the mosaic having been
absorbed by physical science.
Aristotelian Cosmology
o Sublunar region, things are made of the four terrestrial elements, which tend
towards the centre of the universe or towards the periphery of the region.
The celestial region is made of element aether, which tends to move in
circles around the center of the universe. The two regions obey completely
different laws.
o Heterogeneity: different regions of the universe obey different laws.
o Finite Universe: The universe has physical boundaries; it is finite in space
Newtonian Physics
o Absolute Space: Space is independent of material objects. It is an empty
receptacle in which physical processes take place
o Space as Independent Void: Space is independent of material objects. It is an
empty receptacle in which physical processes take place.
o Infinite Universe: The universe has no physical boundaries; it is infinite in
o Is the universe homogenous or heterogeneous?

o The first law: F=0, a=0. Inertia
o The second law: F=ma
o The law of gravity: F=G(m1m2)/r2
o Parabolic Path: The trajectory of a projectile is a parabola.
o The same laws that govern the trajectory of a projectile on the earth also
govern the motion of planets and stars.
o Elliptical paths: The orbital trajectory of a planet is an ellipse
o Homogeneity: all regions of the universe obey the same laws

o Descartes was the one that who opened up the universe and made it
homogenous long before Newton.
Cartesian Cosmology (Descartes)
o Any spatial boundary assumes that there is space beyond it; but space is the
attribute of matter. Therefore, there is always matter beyond any boundary.
infinite universe
o Since all material objects are mere systems of material parts, they always
obey the same laws. homogeneity

Cartesian Physics
o Aristotelian Law of Violent Motion


Torricellian Vacuum
o In the middle of the century (1650), Torricelli, Pascal, and others argued that
vacuum can exit

o mercury experiment
o Newton believed the vaccum existed
Newtonian Physics
o Space is the stage for material processes
o Material objects exist in space
o Newton: If matter disappeared from the universe, empty space would remain

Cartesian Physics


o Cartesian mechanical, Newtonian dynamical

o chemical affinity = substances combine due to inherent chemical affinities
o magnetic force = magnetic phenomena are due to inherent magnetic force
o vital force = the living matter is organized by an inherent vital force
Newtonian Dualism
o Matter and mind. Pretty much same as Cartesian, except they werent sure
whether animals and plants had a soul or humans being were purely material
HD Method
o 3rd law led to HD Method

Lecture 10 Contemporary Worldview

the contemporary worldview is constantly changing
Contemporary Scientific Mosaic
o Natural Science: Quantum Physics, General Relativity, Cosmology &
Astronomy, Chemistry, Genetics, Biology, Neurophysiology
o Social Science: Psychology, Sociology, Economics, History
o Formal Science: Mathematics
quantum physics, general relativity, cosmology, chemistry, genetics, biology,
neuroscience, psychology, sociology, economics, history, mathematics, HD Method
o psychological processes are produced by the processes in the brain

o materialism = ontological physicalism

o pluralism artistotelian
Classical Mechanics and wave theory of light
o Slit experiment golf ball and light
o Destructive interference = when the crests and troughs of the two waves are
out of phase, the waves cancel eachother out; the regions are dark
o Contstructive interference = when the crests and troughs of the two waves
are in-phase, the waves reinforce eachotherl those regions are bright

quantum mechanics
o slit experiment electrons
Newton - same initial conditions -> same effects

indeterminism miracles can happen

o radioactive decay example


o replaced by agnosticism
o why? Its an open question

o Should quantum entanglement and nonlocality be interpreted as action at a

o In general relativity, is space an attribute of matter or is it a separate
o Is boundless the same as infinite, or can our space be boundless but
Lecture 11 Worldviews: Metaphysical Components
A worldview is characterized by its metaphysical components
Metaphysics= a set of views about the world taken as a whole (no accepted
definition of metaphysics)
Aristotelian-Medieval worldview
o Hylomorphism = everything is matter and form
o Pluralism = there are many different substances
o Teleology = everything in the universe has a goal
o Plenism = the universe is full and there is no empty space
o Heterogeneity = two different regions in the universe and they obey different
o Finite Universe = the universe has physical boundaries
o Monotheism = the idea of one god
Cartesian Worldview
o Mechanism = material objects are composed of bits of interactive matter
o Dualism = there are two substances, matter and mind
o Action by contact = there is no such thing as action at a distance. Need
some immediate contact
o Dualistic determinism = while in the material world all events are strictly
deterministic, our mind is free to act spontaneously
o Plenism
o Homogeneity = one set of laws that work for the whole universe
o Infinite Universe= no physical boundaries
o Monotheism
Newtonian Worldview
o Dynamism = matter is essentially extended substance that interacts through
forces not only by actual contact its contact plus forces - turned into
particle wave
o Dualism
o Action at a distance
o Dualistic determinism
o Vacuism = empty space is possible and space is a separate substance
o Homogeneity
o Infinite Universe
o Monotheism
Contemporary Worldview
o Wave-particle Duality
o Materialism = one substance (matter)
o Probabilistic determinism = all events have certain causes but the same
initial conditions may produce different effects
o Agnosticism =
o Contact or action at a distance?
o Vacusim or plenism? We accept space-time of general relativity but What
about the nature of space-time? Can space-time exist without material
objects or is it a property of material objects?
o Infinite or finite? We dont believe in physical boundaries. Can we have a
finite and boundless universe? Like its curved so you end up where you

not explicitly stated
Changes in worldviews
o we try to come up with explanations for anomalies but if there are no
alternative thoeries these discoveries are not really threatening tolerance
towards contradictions
o current HD method an individual discovery cant alter anything unless its a
confirmation of some novel prediction of a new theory
Myths Historical

o 1) There is a risk. So any time when theres a major change in the scientific
method, than all the science before that shift becomes non-scientific
o 2) This interpretation is exteremely anachronistic for it ignores the fact that
theory assessment is always contextual. The clergy had their views
represented the scientific worldview at the time and Galileos theory didnt
satisfy the scientific method at the time
o 3) Theology remained in the mosaic all the way until the 20th century
o 4) We accept agnosticism not atheism
o 5) Many metaphysical assumptions are implicit in our contemporary mosaic
Myth Philosophy
o 1) there is no proof in empirical science, only confirmation. We have not
always used experiments and observations
o 2) there is no universal and unchangeable scientific method
o 3) science is rational because the process of scientific change obeys certain
o 4) we cannot tell if claims are true but we can believe that science
progresses towards the truth
o 5) the criteria of demarcation between scientific and non-scientific theories
are changeable