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Group A: En. Azmi bin Ibrahim

Nur Aina binti Zainuddin D20152072026
Norazlin Nafisah binti Suhaimi D20152072040
Norbayu binti Ghazali D20152072046
Introduction Data Logger

The components of Sciences curriculum in Malaysia includes theories and hands-on

activities. Students learn about the theories of Science in the classroom and do hands-on
activities in the laboratory. According to Siti Shamsiah Sani (2014), the hands-on activities
refer to the activities in which students are involved in observing, measuring, analysing,
recording and interpreting information systematically. Nowadays, Information and
Communication Technologies (ICT) applications have become an important part of teaching
and learning. ICT applications can make the teaching and learning process become more
effective and interesting. It does not only used in the classroom, but also can be used in the
laboratory for the experiment. The example of ICT application that can be used when carried
out experiment is data logging.

According to Badhiye, Chatur and Wakode (2011), data logger is an electronic device
that can records, scans and retrieves the data automatically with high speed and greater
efficiency during the experiment, especially experiment that involve measurement. It can
provide accurate measurement and analysis. In addition, data logging is the use of electric
sensors and interfaces to measure and record the changes in variables during the experiment
(Hedberg, Koh, Seah & Tan, 2005). Hands-on activity that can use data logging are activity
that measure the temperature, pH, voltage or speed. By using data logging, physical
phenomena and stimuli can be converted into electronic signals (Badhiye et al., 2011). This is
because data logger use a sensor. After that, the electronic signals are converted into the
binary data. The binary data then was analysed by the software.

According to Badhiye et al. (2011), the important components in data logging are
experiment, sensor, user interface and software. Figure 1 below shows the process of the data

Figure 1

Experiment is a parameter in which the values that want to record from a certain environment
conditions is acts as input to the sensors. Besides, the sensors are a device that can detect
the inputs and sent it to the data logger. The inputs were converted into the electrical signals.
User interface is the interface for interaction with the software and sensors (Badhiye et al.,
2011). Furthermore, the function of the software is to display the information that obtain from
the sensors and to store the data of experiments for a long-time duration. Data loggers is
based on the digital processor. The experiment below use data logging.

1.0 Engage and Empower (Experiment that use Data Logger)

Title: Foods can conduct electricity according to their pH.


To observe the effects of pH value of food solutions toward the brightness of LED bulb.

Problem statements:

1. Which type of food can produce electricity?

2. At which pH the electricity can produce?

Hypothesis: The more acidic or basic the food, the more brighter the LED.


Electricity can be generated by using the pH value of the solution. The definition of pH is a
measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution or measurement of the
acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The range of pH scale started by 1 until 14. pH 7 is indicate
as neutral. Acids are the solution with pH less than 7, while bases are those with pH greater
than 7. The definition of acid and base according to the Arrheniuss definition, acid is
substances that can dissolved in water and form hydrogen ions or protons. Besides, base is
a substance that form hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissociates with water. There are two types
of acid and base which is strong acid or base and weak acid or base. Strong acid and base
can dissociate completely in water while weak acid and base can partially dissociate with
water. Acid and base can conduct electricity. The conductivity of electric depends on the pH
value of solutions. The more acidic or basic the solution, the electricity that can be conducted
will be increased. The general term for the substances that can conduct electricity when
dissolved in water is known as electrolyte. Acid and base is an electrolyte due to the production
of hydrogen and hydroxide ions respectively. But, electrolytes also can be categorized into
two types which is strong and weak electrolyte. Both electrolytes can conduct electricity, but

the conductivity is different. Meanwhile, neutral solution which the pH value is 7 cannot
conduct the electricity.

In this experiment, the foods such as lemon, apple, pure water, milk, cucumber and
broccoli are used to conduct the electricity. The solid substances are converted into liquid
state in order to measure the pH by using the pH meter. By the pH value, the concentration of
H+ and OH- can be calculated by using the formula below:

For H+, pH = -log[H+]

[H+] = antilog(-pH)

For OH-, pOH = 14-pH

pOH = -log[OH-]

[OH-] = antilog(-pOH)

The higher the concentration of H+ or OH-, the more electricity can be conducted. In this
experiment, zinc nail and piece of copper are used as electrodes. To observe the conductivity
of electric, the light emitting diode (LED) is used. The brightness of LED indicates the
conductivity of electricity.

Variables: Manipulated variable: pH for each types of food.

Responding variable: the brightness of LED


1. Lemon
2. Broccoli
3. Milk
4. Pure water
5. Green apple
6. Cucumber


1. pH meter
2. LED bulb
3. Beaker
4. Zinc nails
5. Piece of copper
6. Blender
7. Crocodile clip


A) To measure the pH of the food.

1. The lemon juice was squeezed into a beaker. For apple, cucumber and broccoli, it
was blended to get a solution.
2. The pH meter was on.
3. The probe was rinsed by using distilled water.
4. The probe was placed in the beaker.
5. The reading was recorded.
6. Repeat step 2 until 5 for milk, apple juice, pure water, broccoli juice and cucumber

Figure 2: Measurement of pH using pH meter

B) To observed the brightness of LED.

1. The circuit was set up.
2. The zinc nail and piece of copper was put into lemon juice and then connected to
3. The brightness of the LED bulb was observed and recorded.
4. Step 1 to 3 was repeated for milk, green apple juice, pure water, broccoli juice and
cucumber juice.

Figure 3: Observation of LED brightness

Figure 4: Test for pure water

Result and Data Analysis:

Food pH value Condition Brightness LED bulb

Lemon 2.33 More acidic More bright
Green Apple 6.20 Less acidic Dim
Broccoli 10.44 More alkali Bright
Cucumber 8.43 Less alkali Dim
Milk 7.02 Neutral No light
Pure water 7.00 Neutral No light
Table 1 shows the result of pH value toward the brightness of LED

Graph of LED's brightness againt pH reading

Brigtness of LED's scale

2.33 5.63 7.01 7.02 8.34 12.44
pH reading


Electrolyte is a substance that can conduct electricity when it dissolved in water. Typical
electrolytes are strong acids and salt (base). Non-electrolyte is a substance that cannot
conduct electricity when it dissolves in water solutions. There are two types of electrolytes.
Strong electrolyte is a substance which are good in conduct the electricity in water solutions.
While weak electrolyte is a substance which are poor conductors of electricity in water

When acid dissolve in water, it will form hydrogen ions (H+). Meanwhile, alkaline
solution contains hydroxide ions (OH-). In neutral pH solutions, such as water, the
concentration of H+ and OH- was same. Acidic solution contains more H+ ions than pure water.
Alkaline solutions contain more OH- ions than pure water. In this experiment, the pH of foods

was measured by using the pH meter. Based on the measurement, the pH of lemon and green
apple juice are classified as acidic while cucumber and broccoli juice are base. For pure water
and milk, the pH value is around 7 and was indicated as neutral.

The aim of the experiment is to indicate which pH can conduct electricity. There are
five conditions of pH which is more acidic; 2.33, less acidic; 6.20, neutral; 7.00 and 7.02, less
alkaline; 8.43 and more alkaline; 10.44. The zinc nail and piece of copper was immersed in
the solution of food and the circuit was connected to LED bulb. The observation of this
experiment show that the brightness of LED bulb increased when zinc nail and piece of copper
was immersed in more acidic and alkaline solution. Meanwhile, the LED bulbs brightness
become dimmer when the electrodes was immersed in less acidic and alkaline solution. For
neutral solution, there is no light produced by the LED bulb. This is because the conductivity
of electricity depends on the concentration of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in the solution.
The table below show the calculation of concentration of H+ and OH- in the solution:

Acid solution Alkaline solution

(Calculation of concentration of hydrogen (Calculation of concentration of hydroxide
ions) ions)
Lemon juice Broccoli juice
pH = 2.33 pH = 10.44
[H+] = 10(-2.33) = 4.68x10-3 M pOH = 14 - pH = 14 10.44 = 3.56
[OH-] = 10(-3.56) = 2.75x10-4 M
Green apple juice Cucumber juice
pH = 6.20 pH = 8.43
[H+] = 10(-6.20) = 6.31x10-7 M pOH = 14 pH = 14 8.43 = 5.57
[OH-] = 10(-5.57) = 2.69x10-6 M

Based on the calculation above, it shows that the higher concentration of hydrogen ions and
hydroxide ions, the more electricity it can conduct. In the other hand, the lower the
concentration of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in the solution, the dimmer the LED bulb.

In this experiment, the circuit was completed when the lemon juice and broccoli juice
tested the light bulb glow brightly indicating a strong ability to conduct electricity. Meaning that
the broccoli and lemon juice are strong electrolyte that containing a large number hydroxide
ions and hydrogen ions respectively. When the cucumber juice and green apple juice were
tested at the circuit the bulb become dim. It shows that solution contain few ions and the
solution conduct electricity very weakly. For the pure water and milk, they cannot conduct the
electricity because they are neutral; neither acid nor base. This is because the hydrogen ions

and hydroxide ions is same. As a result, neutral solution cannot conduct the electricity and
LED bulb do not produce any light.

Electrolysis is the process of decomposition or breaking down of a liquid by passing

an electric current through it. Hydrogen gas was given off at the negative electrode during the
electrolysis of acid solution. This is because acids contain hydrogen ions. Hydrogen ions were
attracted to the negative electrode, where they gain electrons and discharged as hydrogen

2H+ (aq) + 2e- H 2 (g)

Electrical conductivity for two types of food that in acidic state were different. Electrical
conductivity of a substances is a measure of how easily it lets an electric current flow. The
higher its conductivity, the more easily an electric current flow through it. The conductivity of
green apple juice is less than the conductivity of lemon juice. This is because there are fewer
hydrogen ions available in the green apple solution in order to carry the charges. Same to the
alkaline solution, cucumber juice is a poor conductor. This is because it contains less ions
than broccoli juice. The flow of current is low.


As a conclusion, lemon, green apple, broccoli and cucumber were all can conduct electricity,
but lemon and broccoli have higher conductivity compared to the apple and cucumber. This is
because they contain ions that can conduct electricity. For pure water and milk, they cannot
conduct electricity because the hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions is same. The range of pH
that can conduct electricity is was at 1.00 to 6.40 for acidic and for the base at 8.00 to 13.99.
Acid and base food can produce electricity, but neutral pH food cannot. The more acidic or
alkaline the pH food, the brighter the LED bulb. As a result, hypothesis was accepted.

1.1 Enhance

Acid and base have their own characteristics. The characteristics of acid is having a
pH between 0 and 6. The taste of acid is sour. Furthermore, the strength of acid depends on
the concentration of hydrogen ions. Strong acids are the solution that has pH around 0 to 2
and it is corrosive. Meanwhile, base is an any substances with a pH between 8 and 14. Base
have a bitter taste. In addition, it is sticky and slippery.

Acid and base is very useful in our life. It can be applied at home, industry and in
medicine production. The examples of acid that can be found at home such as vinegar, leafy
vegetables which is absorbent acid, soft drinks such as coke, citrus fruits and others. In the

other hand, types of base that can be found at home is toothpaste, milk, shower gel,
detergents, soaps and others. Acid such as citric acid is used as preservative, flavouring agent
and cleaning agent. It can be found in the citrus fruits like lemons and grapefruits. Furthermore,
sodium hypochlorite or known as bleach is used at home as white clothes cleaner. Other
example of base that can be used in our daily life is sodium bicarbonate. It is also known as
baking soda. It has a multiple purpose which can be used in baking. The reaction between
acid and baking soda will produce carbon dioxide. This will cause dough to rise. Baking soda
can act as odours absorber especially in a refrigerator or cabinet. In addition, it also can be
used to fight the fire when burning. This is because at high temperatures, baking soda turns
into carbon dioxide gas and increase the level of that gas. As a result, it can smother the fire
because the oxygen level become decrease. Acid and base also can help to unclog pipes.

Other than home, acid and base are used in the industry. For example, nitric acid help
in the making of tri-nitro toluene (TNT). TNT is an explosive material. Besides, TNT is used to
generate charge transfer salts in chemistry. Other than nitric acid, sodium bicarbonate was
used in industry as a buffer to increase the pH of water or to protect the pH water in the
environmental field. Furthermore, carboxylic acid applied in industry for making soaps,
detergents and shampoos. Other application of acid in our real life is acid such as sulphuric
acid is used in car batteries. The function of sulphuric acid is to convert electrical energy into
chemical energy and vice versa. On the other hand, sulphuric acid is a main component in the
production of fertilizers. In addition, base also can be used in water purification and in the
production of certain glass. The type of base that used is aluminium hydroxide. Thus, there
are many application of acid and base in our daily life.

1.2 Extension

Acid rain was a weak acid because it combined with natural oxide in the atmosphere.
Unpolluted rain has a pH value between 5 to 6 while the polluted rain has a pH value more
increase to 4 when the air reacts with nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. A strong acid will
burn our skin if we touch them and also can destroy the metal. So, the acid rain is much
weaker than this and never burn our skin but can destroy our environment.

The effect of acid rain is the forest become extinct. Acid rain can cause the tree to grow
more slowly or die. Meanwhile, the tree can be more easily attacked by diseases and insects
or injured by bad weather. Its not just a tree but other plants may also suffer. Furthermore,
the acid rain will affect the lake or rivers. The pH water of lake or rivers will be increased and
at the same time, the fish or aquatic life will be died too. Additions, sculptures, buildings,
vehicles, pipes and cables will be affected if exposed to acid rain. They will be eroded by the

effects of acid rain. Especially objects made from limestone or sandstone because this type
of stone will be easily exposed to air pollution and gas and acid rain.

Advantages and disadvantages of data logging

The advantage of using data logger in experiment is can help students more
understanding about the concept of science. The measurement that obtained from the data
logger devices is always accurate. In addition, the measurement reading is taken at the right
time, not too late or too earlier. In this experiment, pH meter is used to measure the pH of the
solution. pH meter give the actual pH reading of solution. The aim of the experiment is to
observe the brightness of LED bulb according to the pH of foods solution. Theory in science
indicate that the higher the ions present in the solution, the more electricity it can conduct. pH
meter help the students to indicate the value of pH solution. By the pH value, students can
calculate the hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions that present in the acidic solution and basic
solution respectively. When the students know the concentration of ions in the solution, they
can relate the information with their observation. For example, the less acidic solution, the
brightness of LED bulb become dim. Students will know that brightness of LED indicate the
electricity that was conducted is lower. This is because, there is less hydrogen ions present in
the acidic solution. If students use the litmus paper, they just only know the condition of
solution whether it is acidic, neutral or basic. If the brightness of LED increases or decreases,
they will never know at what specific pH the LED bulb become bright or dim. They just know
that acidic or basic can light the bulb. Litmus paper cannot indicate the actual value of pH
solution. Thus, data logger can increase the understanding of students in concept of science.

Furthermore, data logger provides better graphing skills. The sensors sent the input
from the experiment to the software. The input was converted into electrical signals and then
to the binary data. Once the data was in the computer, the software will provide graphing and
visualization tools for analysis. The graph or other visualizations will appear at the computer
screen. Students can print the information and compare the analysis with another student.
Based on this, students can discuss about their analysis confidently. If without data logger,
the graph or other visualizations maybe not valid due to the errors when taking the reading of
measurement or making the data analysis. For example, students need to sketch a graph that
related about their data. They can make the mistakes during sketching the graph or when
taking a reading. So, data logger can provide better graphing skills.

The disadvantage of data logger is cause to loss of conventional methods of data

collections. This is because, by using data logger, students just run the system and wait for
the result. Data logger do everything. From taking the measurement until the data analysis.

Students did not learn how to taking the measurement. For examples, students will not know
how to read the thermometer reading and which position is the best when taking the
measurement. In addition, when taking the reading of volume, students will avoid the meniscus
level. This cause the measurement become error. As a result, the data logger will make
students become weak in the method of data collection. In addition, this ICT application can
reduce the practice of graphing skills. Students will not know how to sketch a graph, which
variable is y-axis and x-axis. Students will get in trouble when they need to sketch a graph in
the examination. So, despite the advantages, there were also disadvantage.


The conclusion is data logger is a device that can records, scans and retrieves data
automatically with high speed and efficient during the experiment. The important components
in data logger is experiment, sensor, user interface and software. For the experiment, pH
meter was used to measure the pH of food solution in order to indicate which solution can
conduct more electricity. Besides, the advantages of data logging are can help students to
understand the concept of science and provide better graphing skills. On the other hand, the
disadvantage of this ICT application is loss of conventional methods of data collections. Data
logger has pro and contra.


Badhiye, S. S., Chatur, P. N. & Wakode, B.V. (2011). Data logger system: a survey. Retrieved
on 15 March 2017 from http://www.ijctee.org/files/NCETCSIT-

Siti Shamsiah Sani. (2014). Exploring teachers approaches to science practical work in lower
secondary schools in Malaysia. Retrieved on 17 March 2017 from