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APPLICATION AND INSTALLATION GUIDE

DIESEL ENGINE COMMISSIONING


- 3500
Contents

Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500........................................ 1


Design Review ................................................................... 2
Explanation of Design ..................................................... 2
Installation Audit Form................................................ 2
Construction Review .......................................................... 3
Evaluation Guidelines.......................................................... 4
Air Intake System Evaluation ........................................... 4
Combustion Air .......................................................... 4
Remote Mounted Air Cleaners ..................................... 5
Air Inlet Ducting......................................................... 5
Filtered Engine Room Air ............................................. 6
Air Cleaner Provided by Others .................................... 6
Cooling System Evaluation .............................................. 6
Engine Cooling Circuits ............................................... 6
System Coolers.......................................................... 7
Cooling System External Pressure Drop ........................ 7
Expansion Tank.......................................................... 7
Cooling System Protection .......................................... 8
External System Piping ............................................... 8
Corrosion Protection ................................................... 9
Cooling System Performance ....................................... 9
Starting System Evaluation ............................................. 9
Air Compressor .......................................................... 9
Air Receiver Tanks ..................................................... 9
Air Supply Piping...................................................... 10
Engine Starters and Accessories ................................ 10
Electric Starters ....................................................... 10
Exhaust System Evaluation ........................................... 10
Exhaust System Warnings......................................... 10
Exhaust System Piping ............................................. 11
Distillate Fuel System Evaluation.................................... 11
Fuel Tanks............................................................... 12
Fuel Lines ................................................................ 12
Fuel Filters............................................................... 12
Fuel Coolers ............................................................ 12
Governors and/or Actuators .......................................... 13
Lubrication System Evaluation ....................................... 13
Engine Oil................................................................ 13
Engine Sump ........................................................... 14
Engine Prelube ......................................................... 14
Oil Pressure and Temperature .................................... 14
Mounting and Alignment Evaluation ............................... 14
Driven Equipment Evaluation ......................................... 14
Safety System Evaluation ............................................. 15
Engine Contactors .................................................... 15
Generator Safety Relays ........................................... 15
External Engine Support Systems............................... 15
Emergency Stops ..................................................... 15
Monitoring System Evaluation ....................................... 16
Engine Operating Parameters ..................................... 16
Generator Operating Parameters ................................ 16
External Engine Support Systems............................... 16
Daily Log Sheet........................................................ 16
Ventilation System Evaluation ....................................... 16
Engine Room Ventilation ........................................... 16
Switchgear Room Ventilation..................................... 17
Serviceability Evaluation ............................................... 17
Engine Component Removal ...................................... 17
Engine Maintenance ................................................. 17
Reserved Work Area ................................................. 18
Spare Parts Storage.................................................. 18
Equipment Safety Evaluation ......................................... 18
Engine Room ........................................................... 18
Control Room .......................................................... 18
Generator Control Evaluation ......................................... 19
Generator Voltage Control......................................... 19
Generator Monitoring................................................ 19
Switchgear Evaluation .................................................. 19
Switchgear Cabinets................................................. 20
Current and Potential Transformers ............................ 20
Circuit Breakers........................................................ 20
Electrical Cables....................................................... 20
Generator Protective Relays ...................................... 20
Control Voltage........................................................ 20
Paralleling Operations ............................................... 20
Operation and Maintenance Evaluation ........................... 21
Engine Operation and Maintenance ............................ 21
Engine Support Equipment ........................................ 21
Mechanical Training.................................................. 21
Maintenance Contracts ............................................. 21
Crankcase Ventilation System Evaluation........................ 21
Crankcase Breathers ................................................. 21
Crankcase Ventilation Piping ..................................... 22
Startup & Shutdown Procedure ......................................... 23
Before Starting the Engine............................................. 23
Starting the Engine....................................................... 23
After Starting the Engine .............................................. 23
Stopping the Engine ..................................................... 23
Engine Performance Data .................................................. 30
Engine Instrument Panel & Generator Control Panel Instrument
Readings .......................................................................... 31
Foreword
This section of the Application and Installation Guide generally describes
the commissioning of the Cat 3500 engine. Additional engine systems,
components and dynamics are addressed in other sections of this Application
and Installation Guide.
Engine-specific information and data is available from a variety of sources.
Refer to the Introduction section of this guide for additional references.
Systems and components described in this guide may not be available or
applicable for every engine.

Information contained in this publication may be considered confidential.


Discretion is recommended when distributing. Materials and specifications
are subject to change without notice.

CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, "Caterpillar Yellow," the "Power


Edge" trade dress as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are
trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission.

2010 Caterpillar
All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500

Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500


A well-planned engine installation will aid reliability, performance, and
serviceability. To be successful, the installation designer must be aware of
the application and installation requirements for Cat 3500 engines. As a first
step, the designer should be aware of all pertinent Caterpillar reference
publications, including the additional sections of this Application and
Installation Guide as well as other information available from the Cat 3500
family of engines.

SECTION CONTENTS

Design Review .................... 2 Serviceability Evaluation


Explanation of Design Equipment Safety Evaluation
Construction Review............ 3 Generator Control Evaluation
Evaluation Guidelines ........... 4
Air Intake System Evaluation Switchgear Evaluation

Cooling System Evaluation Operation & Maintenance


Evaluation
Starting System Evaluation
Crankcase Ventilation
Exhaust System Evaluation System Evaluation
Distillate Fuel System Startup & Shutdown
Evaluation Procedure ......................... 23
Governor and/or Actuators Before Starting the Engine
Lubrication System Starting the Engine
Evaluation After Starting the Engine
Mounting System Evaluation Stopping the Engine
Driven Equipment Evaluation Installation Audit Form........ 24
Safety System Evaluation Engine Performance Data .... 30
Monitoring System Engine Instrument Panel &
Evaluation Generator Control Panel
Instrument Readings........... 31
Ventilation System
Evaluation

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Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500 Application and Installation Guide

Design Review
The engine installation should be during the final commissioning audit
designed to give efficient and and is also useful in earlier stages of
reliable operation. A poorly designed the project.
installation can hinder serviceability,
and make routine maintenance and Explanation of Design
repairs difficult. The neglect of Installation Audit Form
specific design requirements for The Installation Audit form can be
mounting, alignment and support used during the design review as a
systems can lead to poor checklist to determine if sufficient
performance and increased cost of information has been provided to the
operation. installation designer for completion
When the installation designer has of initial layouts in compliance with
completed a review of the Caterpillar requirements in this and additional
application and installation sections of the Application and
requirements, a discussion should Installation Guide.
take place with Cat dealer personnel The form should be completed
to cover concerns he may have with general information about the
about specific areas of the design. owner, application, and
This will establish ground rules for builder/installer. Using design criteria
further working relationships in the of the installation, record specific
design phase. After the initial data concerning physical features of
installation drawings have been the site as well as the engine, driven
completed, follow-up discussions equipment, and support systems.
should take place with the designer
After completion of the design
to make sure the drawings meet
review, and after reaching
application and installation guide
agreement on required corrective
requirements. As an aid in the
action, it is recommended that all
review of the design, use the 3500
concerned parties sign the form at
Engine Installation Audit Form
the designated location.
provided on Pages 24 through 29 of
this guide. This form will be used

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Application and Installation Guide Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500

Construction Review
After the Design Review is
satisfactorily completed, the next
step is the construction of the
installation site. During this phase,
visit the construction site at least
twice to perform a review of
systems installation progress.
The first visit should follow
installation of the engine(s).
Additional visits may be necessary,
depending on the difficulty of the
installation, and the stage of
completion. Make the final visit
before the commissioning process
begins.
The objective of these visits is to
determine if the previously approved
design is being followed. These
visits not only continue to produce a
better understanding of Caterpillar
requirements, but also provide a
more reliable installation.
Experienced construction builders
will make necessary changes as
soon as possible to avoid costly
delays and eventual customer
downtime.
As with the Design Review, the
Construction Review can use the
Installation Audit form provided on
Pages 24 through 29 of this guide
as a checklist. The form can help
determine if the previously agreed on
design is being successfully
implemented during the construction
process.

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Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500 Application and Installation Guide

Evaluation Guidelines
This document gives guidance to The items included in the system
personnel commissioning Cat 3500 guides are intended to assist in the
Engines. The included information documentation of facts to be
should be used to prepare the final included in the final commissioning
commissioning report and report. Pictures and other
documentation of performance of schematics or visual aids as
each engine as it goes into full attachments to the commissioning
service. Any deletion of information report are valuable to help others
can cause confusion during future understand the descriptions given in
maintenance or warranty activity. the report.
Each of the items included in each The responsibility of system
discussion should be documented in evaluations and full commissioning is
the final report that establishes the that of the described party
initial condition of engine operation. designated by the project manager
Commissioning has many activities for any project.
associated with its definition. The
field engineer responsible for Air Intake System Evaluation
commissioning must be prepared to To evaluate the engine air intake
give guidance to all areas of the system for the 3500 Engines, the
project as well as being the final total system must be evaluated from
evaluator of operating systems and the air source for the engine to the
engine performance. inlet to the turbocharger. This may
include engine room air or the air
Note: This guide is intended to assist
cleaner may be mounted outside the
in this activity and to complement
engine room. Whichever the case,
the other sections of the Application
consider the following items when
and Installation Guide.
evaluating the air intake system.
It is important to understand the
standards established for each Combustion Air
system and the specifications Air inlet temperature to engine
accompanying those standards to should not exceed 49C (120F).
give the Cat 3500 engine the Is the quantity of air available for
highest reliability and customer combustion sufficient? This requires
satisfaction possible. Any deviation approximately 0.1 m/min/bkW (2.5
from the standards or specifications ft of air/min/bhp) for engines using
can be detrimental to the life of the distillate fuel.
product. Normal operation of The engine room or enclosure
systems can cause deterioration in should not experience negative
their performance over their pressure if combustion air and
expected life. Starting with deviated ventilation air are from the same
standards and specifications will source.
only shorten the expected life.

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Application and Installation Guide Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500

For extremely cold climates, an available for the engine to receive


alternate warm filtered air source filtered inlet air during all periods of
should be available for starting the engine operation.
engine.
Air Inlet Ducting
Remote Mounted Air Cleaners Note: No rivets or mechanical
Air cleaner elements must be fasteners can be used in the
accessible for periodic maintenance. construction of the ducts.
The air cleaner elements must be The intake air ducting must be
mounted in the housing to assure clean and free of any weld slag,
the engine does not ingest foreign debris, rust or corrosion prior to
material due to incorrect positioning. operating the engine. This must be
The air cleaner housing air outlet inspected prior to initial startup.
must have flexible transition The interior surface of the intake
attaching the air inlet ducting. ducting must be protected from
Double band clamping at each end future rust and corrosion due to
of the flex is required to assure non- intake air quality.
filtered air does not enter the The intake air piping must have
ducting. long gentle radius bends (2 x Dia =
The air cleaner housing must have Radius) and generous straight
surface protection when subjected lengths if a single straight length
to a harsh environment such as salty from the air cleaner housing is not
atmosphere. possible.
Air inlet restriction is The diameter of the intake ducting
recommended not to exceed 381 must be the same or larger than the
mm H2O (15 in H2O). New, clean air cleaner housing outlet and the air
systems should be near 127 mm inlet adapter for the turbocharger.
H2O (5 in H2O) restriction to allow Any abrupt changes must be
appropriate service intervals for the avoided, refer to the Air Intake
filter elements. System section of the Application &
The air cleaner housing must be Installation Guide for more
mounted in a position that will not information on air inlet ducting.
allow recirculating exhaust gases, The air inlet restriction created by
crankcase fumes, rain or sea spray the ducting must be minimal to
to mix with the combustion air. allow normal service intervals for the
The air cleaners should draw air cleaner elements.
outside air through the elements and Air inlet ducting must not be rigidly
use air ducting to the turbo inlet. mounted to the air cleaner housing
In cold climates, the air cleaner can or to the turbocharger inlet. Flexible
be subjected to filter icing when non-metallic connections must be
mounted outside of the engine room. used between the ducting of both
Consider the year-round conditions the air cleaner housing and the
at the site, and insure provisions are turbocharger. The turbocharger must

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Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500 Application and Installation Guide

not support the weight of the systems and careless maintenance


ducting. Also, there must be double are a direct cause of many engine
band clamping to insure non-filtered failures. Consider the following
air does not enter the engine. when evaluating the engine cooling
Observe the proximity of the system.
exhaust piping and the air intake If several engines are to be
ducting. Ensure there is no heat installed in the same application, it is
transfer between the two sets of highly recommended that a thorough
piping. If evident, insist either or cooling system audit be performed
both are insulated to protect both air on the first unit. This way design
inlet temperature and the non- changes can be made before a large
metallic connections. number of engines have been
Air inlet ducting must be inspected installed with cooling system
for leaks during engine operation. problems.
The cooling system should be
Filtered Engine Room Air
tested using the procedure in EDS
An air intake silencer can be used
50.5, Cooling System Field Test,
at the turbocharger inlet if
form LEKQ7235 (not required for
combustion air supplied to the
Caterpillar designed installations or
engine room is properly filtered.
package generator sets).
If an intake silencer is remote
If only a few engines are to be
mounted, the same requirements
installed and EDS 50.5 is not
apply for ducting to the turbocharger
performed, at a minimum consider
inlet as in the case of a remote
the following when evaluating the
mounted air cleaner housing.
engine cooling system.
Air Cleaner Provided by Others
Air cleaners not provided by Engine Cooling Circuits
Most newer 3500 series engines
Caterpillar for the engine must meet
have separate circuits for jacket
airflow and contamination
water and aftercooler water. This
containment requirements to protect
design provides cooler water to the
the engine from shortened
aftercooler and helps to achieve
component life. This requires prior
reduced emissions.
factory approval.
Water flow from the right-hand
Cooling System Evaluation pump (viewed from the rear) is split
A cooling system evaluation for between the jacket water and oil
3500 engines must include engine cooler. The left-hand pump (viewed
operating parameters, external from the rear) supplies water to the
system piping, water quality and aftercooler circuit.
external cooling components. A During performance testing of the
properly controlled cooling system is engine, ensure the appropriate inlet
essential for satisfactory engine life water temperature is being supplied
and performance. Defective cooling to both circuits and the temperature

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Application and Installation Guide Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500

rise of the water is within specified releases it to atmosphere during


limits. operation.
System Coolers Cooling System External Pressure
3500 engines have the coolant Drop
water cooled by various means. The Regardless of the type of cooler
most common is radiators. Others used, the external system resistance
include heat exchangers and cooling in the piping and through the cooler
towers. must be within specification based
It is the user/installers on the rated speed of the engine and
responsibility to provide proper full flow to the external system.
venting and isolation of the cooler Circuits with thermostats must be
for required maintenance or repair. replaced with blocked open stats
(for adjustment only) to allow full
If an open cooling tower system is
flow.
used, ensure the water from the
cooling tower does not enter the The inlet and outlet pressure of the
engine. Debris collected by the coolant must be measured as close
water from the atmosphere can be to the engine as possible to obtain a
detrimental to water pumps and be correct external system resistance.
deposited in the engine. Consider Customer piping must have
the cooling tower water as raw monitoring ports added for this
water and make the engine circuits measurement.
closed-loop using a heat exchanger. Expansion Tank
It is the user/installers responsibility The water level in the expansion
to ensure sufficient make up water tank should be at the highest point
to the cooling tower. in the cooling system to allow proper
Note: Raw water should be good venting during initial filling of the
quality and treated with chemicals to system. This will also provide a
prevent heat exchanger fouling. single fill point for the cooling
system.
When not practical to route vent
lines long distances to a common If the expansion tank is not the
venting point, a APCO air release highest point in the system, it is the
valve, Model 200AB.3, or equivalent user/installers responsibility to
is recommended. It has a cast iron provide an auxiliary expansion tank
body and stainless steel trim. The at the highest point in the system.
cover includes a 1/2 inch NPT plug The auxiliary tank must be inter-
that should be removed for connected with the expansion tank
installation of a nipple and ball to provide complete venting of the
allowing rapid venting during initial system.
fill of the system. The air release Any other cooling system
valves internal diaphragm collects component should have vent lines
entrained air and automatically run to the auxiliary tank or must be
vented independently.

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Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500 Application and Installation Guide

Initial filling of the system must be done complying with requirements


done at a rate so that complete listed in EDS 50.5, Cooling System
venting of the cooling system can Field Test, Form No. LEKQ7235.
occur. Always be ready to add a
Cooling System Protection
supplemental volume of water to Protecting the engine from cooling
system at initial start-up in case air system problems is imperative.
has been trapped in the system. The Ensure the engine is equipped with
Cat expansion tank is provided with the following, and the projection
a 48.3 kPa (7 psi) pressure cap. system functions according to
During testing and adjusting the specification.
external system resistance, the
pressure cap must be removed. Re- High jacket water temperature
install the pressure cap prior to the alarm and shutdown
engine performance testing under High oil temperature alarm
load. and shutdown
When altitude becomes a Low water level alarm
consideration for the boiling point of It is the user/installers
water, ensure that the standard responsibility to provide additional
pressure cap is adequate to prevent pressure and temperature gauges
coolant boiling below the alarm and alarms in the external system
and/or shutdown protection settings. for the operators to monitor daily.
For example, a jacket water Detection of a developing cooling
temperature shutdown would require system problem can prevent an
a 51.7 kPa (7.5 psi) cap at sea level unscheduled shutdown of the engine
to maintain 104 C (219F) setting. or an operation alarm condition.
At 3048 m (10,000 ft), the pressure
cap would only provide the External System Piping
equivalent of 27.6 kPa (4 psi) and The external system piping must
the boiling point of water is reduced be clean and free of weld slag and
to approximately 93 C (200F). other debris that can be detrimental
The shutdown setting would not to engine components.
protect the engine. A 96.5 kPa (14 Inspect cooling system piping prior
psi) cap would be required. to the initial filling of the system. If
If an expansion tank pressure cap debris is found, insure the piping is
is not used, adjust water cleaned before filling the system.
temperature alarm and shutdown Install temporary strainers at the
contactors according to atmospheric engine in the coolant inlet line(s)
conditions to ensure adequate prior to initial engine operation.
engine protection. Operate the engine at no-load and
If an expansion tank not supplied rated speed for at least 15 minutes.
by Caterpillar or a shunt style Remove the strainers and check for
cooling system is provided for the debris. If debris is found, install the
engine, a complete test must be strainers and repeat the operation.

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Application and Installation Guide Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500

Continue this procedure until no SEBD0970, Coolant and Your


debris is found in the screen. Do not Engine
adjust external system resistance
Cooling System Performance
with the strainer installed. The
The complexity of the external
temporary strainers are available
cooling system is best understood
from Caterpillar for 4 in. (4C9045),
by reviewing the installed system
5 in. (4C9046) and 6 in. (4P9047)
and producing a schematic of that
pipe.
system. The schematic should
If a permanent strainer in the indicate all the system flow paths,
coolant inlet lines is provided by the test and monitoring points, and
user/installer, ensure pressure drop external system components.
across the strainer can be
Include the system schematic as
monitored. Excessive pressure drop
an attachment to the commissioning
can cause improper coolant flow to
report.
the engine. The same procedure
should be followed for permanent Assign 900 series description
strainers as described for temporary numbers to each of the test and
strainers during initial engine monitoring points and record on the
operation. At maximum flow commissioning report test sheet.
condition, any clean strainer should
Starting System Evaluation
have maximum capacity to create no
3500 engines typically use air or
more than 10 to 14 kPa (1.5 to 2.0
electric starters. Consider the
psi) pressure drop when clean.
following when evaluating a starting
External piping must be isolated system.
from the generator set. The
recommended flexible couplings are; Air Compressor
(4P5906) for 4 in. pipe, (4P5905) The air compressor must be sized
for 5 in. pipe and (4P5907) for 6 in. to match the air receiver tank(s)
pipe. The couplings should be make-up rate due to starting. Also
installed between the point of piping consider the sites altitude and air
support on the engine and the density.
closest external piping support to An air dryer on the compressor
the engine. outlet is suggested to prevent water
vapor in the air from freezing if
Corrosion Protection
expanded below 0C (32F).
Ensure Caterpillar guidelines
established for water quality are Air Receiver Tanks
followed precisely. These guidelines Ensure the air receiver tanks are
are published by Caterpillar and sized to provide the required
available in the standard publication consecutive engine starts without
system. Two sources for information depletion of air pressure below the
are: minimum starting pressure.
LEBV0915, Engine Installation Receiver tanks must have manual
and Service Handbook or automatic drains to allow oil and

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Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500 Application and Installation Guide

water condensate to be drained daily deposits or debris out of the pipe to


to prevent damage to the starters. prevent ingestion into starters.
Operators must be informed of this Engine Starters and Accessories
requirement. The starter lubricator should be
Receiver tanks should have manual adjusted during the initial starting of
or automatic drains to allow oil and the engine to limit slobber of starter
water deposits to be drained daily to lubricant at the starter air outlet.
prevent damage to the starters. Care should be taken when
Operators must be informed of this starting the engine so the starter
requirement. silencer discharge does not endanger
Receiver tanks must meet specific personnel safety. If the discharge is
characteristics, such as the directed toward any potential
specifications of the American occupied area, provide shielding
Society of Mechanical Engineers between the starter and the area in
(ASME). Insure each receiver tank question.
has been tested at 1-1/2 times the
Electric Starters
normal working pressure unless local
Electric starters must have enough
codes require some greater value.
battery potential to complete the
Set the tank relief valve pressure at
consecutive starts required without
a level below the test pressure.
overheating the cables or starters.
Receiver tanks must be equipped
with a maximum pressure relief Exhaust System Evaluation
valve and a pressure gauge. These The exhaust system for 3500
should be monitored periodically to engines must be evaluated from the
assure proper operation. exit of exhaust gases from the
Air Supply Piping turbocharger to the atmospheric
Piping should be sized to provide a conditions existing at the muffler
minimal pressure drop of supply air outlet. Fuel consumption and
from the receiver tank to the engine component life of the engine are
starters. Piping should not be smaller affected by a non-designated or
than the connection at the engine. incorrectly installed exhaust system.
Consider the following items when
Piping should be routed so that evaluating the exhaust system.
water vapor and oil deposits collect
at a trap in the lowest point in the Exhaust System Warnings
piping. The trap should be drained The engine installer must protect
daily. Operators must be informed of engine room equipment and
this requirement. personnel from the heat of exhaust
system piping.
Prior to initial start-up of the
engine, disconnect the air piping The engine installer must provide
from the engine and allow controlled appropriate drains and/or rain caps
air to blow any water vapor, oil to protect the engine from rainwater
entering the engine through the

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Application and Installation Guide Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500

exhaust piping. The last few feet of There must be expansion joints
the exhaust outlet should be and vertical supports in the
installed to prohibit rainwater entry appropriate positions to assure free
without inducing excessive exhaust movement of the exhaust piping
backpressure. during thermal expansion.
Note: The use of a common exhaust The exhaust piping should be
system between engines is to be rigidly supported, (with off-engine
strictly avoided. supports) near the engine to
The turbocharger must be minimize compression and offset of
protected from debris entering the the engine exhaust bellows. Exhaust
exhaust outlet during construction of pipe expansion must be in the
the exhaust piping. A properly direction away from the engine.
tagged blanking plate is Rollers are strongly recommended
recommended. The tagged plate when vertical supports are required
must be removed prior to initial between expansion joints and rigid
engine operation. The debris supports.
collected on the plate must not go The exhaust piping routing must
into the turbocharger. not interfere with the service of the
engine. Pay particular attention to
Exhaust System Piping
the use of an overhead bridge crane.
The exhaust system piping must
be made of a material to withstand A point for measuring exhaust
the effects of exhaust gas system backpressure should be in a
temperature, pressure, velocity and straight length of the exhaust pipe at
thermal expansion. Ensure that any least 3 to 5 pipe diameters away
insulation added to exhaust piping from the last size transition change
does not deteriorate the piping since from the turbocharger outlet.
the pipe temperature will be higher System backpressure measurement
than if uninsulated. is part of the engine performance
testing.
The backpressure of the total
piping system must be minimal to Distillate Fuel System
allow for muffler restriction, outlet
Evaluation
piping from the muffler and piping
Clean fuel meeting Caterpillar fuel
degradation during the life of the
recommendations provides
engine. Fuel consumption and
outstanding engine service life and
component life will be affected if the
performance; the use of lesser fuels
backpressure is beyond the
is the users responsibility. To assure
recommend value of 254 mm H2O
the engine is receiving good, clean
(10 in H2O).
fuel, the entire system must be
Do not allow gas flow to turn at a evaluated from the fuel storage tank
right angle during a transition. to the engine. In addition to the fuel
Exhaust piping should not be being consumed, the system is
supported from the engine package. considered to include the controls

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Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500 Application and Installation Guide

for fuel to the engine. The governor Fuel line size and length must
control system should be described conform to the fuel transfer pump
along with pertinent information inlet restriction limit and the
concerning the governor interaction maximum fuel return restriction. The
with the engine operation. Consider inlet restriction must not exceed 39
the following when evaluating the kPa (5.7 psi) and the fuel return line
fuel system. restriction must not exceed 350 kPa
(51 psi). These values should be
Fuel Tanks
measured and recorded. Note that
The fuel level in the tanks should
these requirements are independent
be maintained as full as possible at
of each other and should not be
all times. The rise and fall of fuel
combined in any evaluation.
level can pull moist air into the tank
through the vent, leading to water Fuel lines must be treated (pickled)
condensation with temperature and coated inside with lube oil prior
changes. to final assembly.
Fuel tanks vented to atmosphere Fuel lines must never be smaller
must have some form of flame than the engine connections.
arrester in the vent opening to Fuel Filters
prevent possible flames from Initial fuel filter differential should
entering or exiting the tank. The be monitored to eliminate premature
outlet opening in the tank vents plugging of engine filters.
should have a fine mesh screen to
The user and/or installer are
act as a flame arrester as a minimum
responsible for providing primary
precaution. Other forms of flame
filtering of fuel supplied to the
arresters may be used, but ensure
engine. Water separation is of prime
that the vent opening is never left
concern. Water separators or
totally open to the atmosphere.
coalescing filters should be installed.
The fuel supply piping should draw If fuel does not meet the required
fuel from at least 50 mm (2 in.) recommendations, a fuel
above the bottom of the tank. centrifuge/purifier should be used.
The fuel return to the day tank An initial stock of engine fuel
should enter at the top and opposite filters should be on-site prior to
the supply end of the tank. initial starting of the engine.
The tank drain must be able to Fuel Coolers
drain the complete contents of the A fuel cooler may be required
tank as well as being used as a when the return fuel is not returned
sediment drain. to the main tank and the day tank is
Fuel Lines not large enough to handle the heat
Galvanized fittings or piping must transfer from the injection pumps.
not be used in any portion of the The fuel cooler should be sized to
lines. cool fuel returning to the day tank

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below 40C (100F), with distillate Lubrication System Evaluation


fuel. The lubrication system supplies a
Note: Refer to the Diesel Fuels & constant oil flow to engine
Diesel Fuels Systems section of the components. Oil is filtered, cooled
Application & Installation Guide for and pressure regulated throughout
additional information on fuel the engine operating range. Bearing
temperature requirements. failure, piston ring sticking and
excessive oil consumption are
Governors and/or Actuators classic symptoms of oil related
The type of governor being used, engine failures. Maintaining the
and its operating characteristics, lubrication system, scheduled oil
must be described on the sampling and quality oil can mean
commissioning report. the difference between repeated oil
If a hydra-mechanical governor is related failures and satisfactory
used, ensure that compensation is engine life. Consider the following
adjusted to provide engine stability when evaluating the Cat 3500
for synchronizing and load changes. engine lubrication system.
If an electronic governor and Engine Oil
hydra-mechanical ball head backup The oil to be used in the engine
actuator is being used, ensure proper must meet Cat 3500 engine oil
engine operation with both requirements prior to filling the oil
governing systems. Refer to the sump. Record the oil brand and type.
Starting System Evaluation for the Note: Refer to the Lubrication
appropriate starting and stopping section of the Application &
procedure for the engine. Installation Guide for additional
The high idle of the engine, (for information.
each governor system used) must A system must be in place to
agree with the droop setting if the properly handle the waste oil from
engine is to operate in droop mode. engine oil changes.
Caution: With an electronic governor Oil samples should be scheduled
and a backup ball head actuator, the every 250 engine hours with
ball head governor speed must be appropriate transportation to provide
set above the electronic governor adequate turn around time for
speed by a minimum of 15 rpm, results. Submit a sample of new oil
(plus any droop). Excessive speed on for testing prior to the first interval
the ball head can cause engine sample. If transportation is a serious
overload if a paralleled unit goes off- problem, ensure the minimum oil
line during parallel and ball head change period is communicated.
operation. Only after several sampling periods
Ensure stability for synchronizing during this mode of operation, can
and load changes when using total the engine be allowed to go beyond
electric governor systems. the minimum change period. Ensure

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the appropriate oil information is Is the time for prelubing within the
provided to the operating personnel required time for starting the engine?
and other appropriate personnel to Electric prelube systems must have
enforce this. Instruct the personnel motor starters sized for current draw
on trending the results of the oil to maintain pump operation until
analysis. Refer to the appropriate prelubing is complete.
Operation and Maintenance manual
Continuous prelube systems must
for further description.
have the Cat spill-tube system to
Engine Sump prevent oil collecting in cylinders
The oil sump must be filled through resulting in hydraulic lock and
the filler tube. Do not remove the damage to cylinder components
engine crankcase cover to fill the upon start-up.
sump.
Oil Pressure and Temperature
The user must connect oil sump Safety shutdowns and alarms
drain valves to external piping for should be provided for oil pressure.
draining oil during an oil change. Oil temperature monitoring is
Additionally, a flexible connector optional for 3500 series engines.
should be provided between the
external piping and the drain valve. Mounting and Alignment
A dedicated pump should be used Evaluation
if oil is to be pumped into and out of The 3500 generator set package
the oil sump. This helps eliminate using the Cat rigid base is a self-
the chance of foreign material or supporting structure. The package
debris entering the oil sump. will maintain alignment if the floor is
Ensure cold engine oil level is true (flat).
correct and check the oil level
Driven Equipment Evaluation
several times during initial engine
Record the serial number and other
operation. Allow engine oil
appropriate data of the driven
temperature to reach normal
equipment.
operating temperature 82 to 85C
(180 to 185F). The dipstick must Ensure generator space heaters
be marked for proper operating level have been operational for at least 24
at rated speed and load. hours prior to the anticipated start-
up date. To be effective in many
Engine Prelube situations, covering the air inlet and
If equipped, ensure the air prelube outlet screens on the generator may
motor is properly lubricated prior to be necessary.
operation.
Ensure generator space heaters are
Check the air receiver tanks sizing controlled to be off during generator
for the required starting set operation and on during
requirements. Consider air prelubing shutdown periods. There are
requirements if so equipped. contacts available in the engine

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electrical system to control this or An emergency stop button must be


an alternate can be considered. available at the engine.
Ensure that the generator windings Generator Safety Relays
have been meggered prior to initial Ensure Resistive Temperature
excitation. In addition, the cables Devices (RTD)s for generator
between the generator and first winding and bearing(s) temperatures
circuit breaker should be meggered. are connected to instrumentation to
(Refer to LEBQ4823) monitor and alarm temperature faults
Ensure generator mounting, found in the bearings or the
alignment and connections are windings of the generator.
correct per the contents of the other Confirm a relay coordination study
sections of the Application and has been completed for proper
Installation Guide. setting of protective relays in the
switchgear.
Safety System Evaluation
The safety system on the engine External Engine Support Systems
gives early alert to operators of a The user must provide alarms
pending problem or shutdown to the and/or shutdowns on external
engine to protect the engine and/or system components that can
generator from imminent danger or adversely affect engine operation in
limit contingent damage due to a fault condition. These components
failure. Proper maintenance of the may include fuel day tanks, primary
system is imperative for constant fuel filters and/or centrifuges,
protection. Consider the following radiator fans and similar devices.
when evaluating the generator set The user must provide both audible
safety system. and visual annunciation of faults in
Engine Contactors both the engine room and the
Ensure minimum shutdown and control room. This should include
alarms are supplied for the engine. horns, rotating beacons or any other
For the requirements of generator form of audible or visual alert.
set engines refer to the Diesel Emergency Stops
Engine Control Systems section of The user must provide remote,
the Application & Installation Guide. emergency stop buttons allowing an
The contactors at the engine must operator to safely shutdown the
demonstrate trip settings according system without endangering
to specifications for alarm and personnel.
shutdown requirements. The stop buttons must be guarded
The alarm or shutdown fault signal from accidental personnel contact,
must be wired to remote but accessible by trained personnel
annunciation points to alert in case of an emergency in the
operators. engine room and the control room.

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Monitoring System Evaluation Fuel day tank site glass


Monitoring the generator set Oil storage tank site glass.
requires periodic readings of gauges
Water temperature to and
and readouts during a 24-hour period
from external cooler. This may
to ensure all the systems are
include radiators, heat
operating normally. Consider the
exchangers or cooling towers.
following when evaluating a system
for monitoring generator set When strainers are
operation. permanently installed before
the pump inlets, monitor
Engine Operating Parameters pump inlet pressure for
Gauges and instrumentation, condition of strainers.
whether on the engine gauge panel
or mounted by user/installer on the Daily Log Sheet
external systems, should give The user is responsible to provide a
accurate readings of operational log sheet to record all gauge and
parameters for the oil, water, fuel, instrumentation readings periodically
air and exhaust systems for the by operators and/or automatic
engine. monitoring system.
Periodic maintenance of oil, fuel The user is responsible for
and air filters is based on differential maintaining trained personnel
pressure as well as hours. Ensure capable of recognizing operational
differential pressure gauges or changes in a monitored parameter,
restriction indicators are provided to and be aware of the effect the
monitor filter condition. An hour change may have on engine
meter is required to monitor operation.
operating time.
Ventilation System Evaluation
Generator Operating Parameters The heat radiated from engines and
The user is responsible to ensure driven equipment can cause the site
that the generator output can be temperature to rise. This can
properly monitored to allow adversely affect personnel as well as
correlation with other data and to equipment performance. Ideally,
monitor electrical production. clean, cool air should be supplied to
The user is responsible for engine rooms and flow across and
monitoring generator winding and around the equipment to carry the
bearing conditions. radiant heat to the outside.
External Engine Support Systems Consider the following when
The user is responsible for evaluating the ventilation system.
providing gauges and/or Engine Room Ventilation
instrumentation to monitor operation Ventilating air should enter near
of the external engine support the floor of the engine room and
systems. These should include but then flow upward around the engine
are not exclusive to the following: before exiting above the engine.

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Building ventilation should be cleaning, and building equipment


designed to bring the coolest air to arrangement along with the required
the generators or driven equipment. tools.
If the building has a pitched roof, Consider the following for the
ventilating air should flow out at the evaluation of serviceability.
peak or near the top of the gable Engine Component Removal
ends. The source of the air must be Overhead and side clearance must
low in the room and rise across the be provided around the engine for
engine or generator set and other major component removal and use
equipment. of necessary tools. Unfortunately, at
For personnel comfort, maintain air the time of commissioning, it may
velocity at 1.5 m/sec (5 ft/sec) in be too late to change the
areas of heat sources or areas configuration in some cases.
exceed 38C (100F). Overhead lifting equipment must
Potential dead air spaces should be be provided. Some major engine
checked for temperature rise during components are heavier than one
engine operation. Check all electrical person can safely lift. Review the
and mechanical equipment in the overhead features for multi-direction
dead air space for any detrimental motion. Most engine component
effect from the temperature rise. removal involves at least two-
Require corrections if necessary. direction motion for removal.
Engine room pressure should not Multiple engine installations should
become excessively negative. This be arranged to use the same
would indicate a shortage of overhead lifting equipment without
ventilating air or excessive major disassembly of piping or
ventilating fans if equipped. ducting.
Switchgear Room Ventilation Equipment should be available for
Cool, dry ventilating air should engine component movement to and
flow across the switchgear cabinets from the engine room.
to remove the radiated heat created
Engine Maintenance
during generator set operation. The engine installer is responsible
Switchgear room pressure should for providing an engine service
not be negative. This would indicate platform to perform all periodic
a shortage of ventilating air. maintenance functions. This should
consider all daily inspections and
Serviceability Evaluation activities including an engine
Well-designed engine rooms overhaul.
include features contributing to the
serviceability of the engine(s) and Overhead and/or side clearance
support equipment. These features and a platform must be provided for
can include overhead lifting, push servicing all periodic maintenance
carts, component storage and components. For example, changing

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air, fuel or oil filters and setting Chains and hooks on overhead
valve lash. lifting equipment must not endanger
personnel.
Reserved Work Area
A work area should be provided in Floors must be cleaned of any
the engine room for disassembly and debris or liquid spills.
cleaning of engine components and Engine heat shields must be in
other engine support equipment. The place prior to operating the engine.
area must have overhead lifting Remote emergency system stops
capacity sized for the largest must be guarded, but must operate
component to be placed in this area. during a safety simulation.
Spare Parts Storage Test fire suppression systems prior
Reserve an area for storage of to allowing normal operation. If this
spare parts and tools for all has already been completed, verify a
equipment in the engine room. The certificate of system operation
parts and tools should be inventoried exists.
to insure ready access during a
Independently test all emergency
repair. Ensure the area can be locked
stops for the engine while operating
to prevent the loss of parts or tools
at no load.
that would impair scheduled
maintenance or repair. Check engine room noise levels in
normal operating areas and compare
Equipment Safety Evaluation to general rules or local
The commissioning engineer must specifications. Include this data in
be able to recognize a safe operating the commissioning report.
environment. The entire system
Control Room
operation must be reviewed to
Ensure that the control system
provide operator safety during any
meets local fire protection codes.
normal or abnormal situation.
Ensure that control room
Consider the following when
emergency stops are guarded to
evaluating the safety of operating
prevent accidental contact.
systems.
Ensure that all high voltage
Engine Room equipment and cabinets are
Hot engine water pipes should be inaccessible via locks and/or cages
shielded or guarded to prevent with locks.
operator contact.
Ensure Kirk-Key interlocks (or
All generator drive components equivalent) are available for the
and damper guards must be in place appropriate switchgear cabinets.
prior to operating the engine.
Check control room noise levels
All floor openings in the engine and compare to general rules or local
room must be covered with plating specifications. Include this data in
or grating. the commissioning report.

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Generator Control Evaluation the regulator output to the generator


Control of generator output is provides the correct system voltage
imperative to maintain the residential and voltage response to load
and/or commercial customers during changes.
prime power operations. The If a constant voltage regulator is
generator sets in severe climates are used, ensure that the excitation
extremely important to provide life circuit can be turned off before the
support power. Standby generator engine is started and ramped up to
sets can also be applied in both of speed, or is stopped and ramped
the above situations. It is not down in speed. Operating at other
typically the responsibility of the than synchronous speed can be very
commissioning engineer to make detrimental to the voltage regulator.
these systems operate according to
Generator Monitoring
required specifications, but to ensure
Generators are supplied with either
the systems are compatible with the
10 Ohm or 100n Ohm RTDs
design requirements.
mounted in the windings and the
Consider each of the following bearing housing(s). Ensure the
items during the evaluation and the temperatures can be monitored
specific application requirements daily. Several types of alarms and or
during the evaluation. shutdowns are optional. If included,
Generator Voltage Control ensure they function properly.
The voltage regulator must have Ensure generator voltage,
the voltage droop adjusted to be amperage, power factor and kW load
compatible with the system and/or are gauges in the control panel and
with other generator sets being are monitored on a daily basis. Initial
paralleled to provide electrical power readings should be compared to
onto a distribution buss. engine operating parameters to
Ensure automatic voltage control ensure proper wiring.
systems have manual control that
can be operated if problems develop
Switchgear Evaluation
with the automatic control. Switchgear is a necessary part of
distributing generated electrical
Although not required, monitoring power, as well as providing input to
exciter DC voltage is a common monitoring and control systems. This
gauge to detect any diode or surge equipments interaction and possible
suppressor problem in the exciter. detrimental effect on engine and
Ensure the gauge is operating generator operation makes it
properly, if provided. necessary to ensure that the system
Several different voltage regulators functions according to
are supplied for specific applications. specifications.
Volts-per-Hertz, constant voltage Consider the following when
and the combination of both evaluating switchgear systems.
functions are available. Ensure that

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Switchgear Cabinets Ensure terminations have shielding


Ensure that switchgear cabinets removed from ends prior to
are properly vented and ventilation connecting.
air is available.
Generator Protective Relays
Switches and controls not involved Ensure the generator protective
in daily operations should be relay setting for both the
mounted inside the cabinets. instantaneous and time-delay agree
Ensure that any high voltage with the results of the relay
cabinet has Kirk-Key interlocks (or coordination study of the system.
equivalent) to lock the cabinet and Control Voltage
prevent accidental personnel A mixture of control voltages may
contact. require multiple banks of batteries.
Current and Potential Transformers Ensure the appropriate charging
Inspect the mounting and wiring of method for the batteries is
all current and potential transformers maintained.
to ensure they are installed properly Ensure the batteries are placed
before energizing the voltage control between the charger and the
circuit. This is imperative for proper controls to prevent the controls from
monitoring of engine operation. receiving voltage spikes or stray
Circuit Breakers currents from the battery charger.
Ensure the circuit breaker has been Paralleling Operations
manually tested before installing in Protect manual paralleling
the test position. operation against out-of-phase
Ensure the circuit breaker is in the engagement of the circuit breaker. A
test position during any testing of synch check relay and SPM
the generator controls and/or engine synchronizer are typical components
safety system. to provide this protection.
Initial energizing of the electrical Auto paralleling is typically
system with the circuit breaker controlled by an SPM synchronizer;
should be coordinated with all on- both engine speed and generator
site personnel. voltage, or just engine speed, can be
controlled. If voltage control is not
Note: Important appropriate
included, the system voltage must
arrangements must not be
not vary more than the voltage
overlooked by all site disciplines.
regulator compensation capability
Electrical Cables with a closed circuit breaker.
Electrical cables between the
Parallel generators must have the
generator and the switchgear
same pitch to prevent harmonics
cabinets must be high-pot tested
creating current flow on the neutral
prior to terminating. Review data
side of the system. Use a neutral
from tests and include in the
ground resistor if neutral currents
commissioning report.
exist.

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Application and Installation Guide Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500

Operation and Maintenance Mechanical Training


Evaluation Operators and maintenance
Operation and maintenance personnel should be trained to make
training for operators designated to minor repairs if needed; or provide
be involved in the operation and/or assistance to the dealer mechanic
maintenance of 3500 generator while making a repair.
sets, and the associated support Maintenance Contracts
equipment, is an important factor in Review any maintenance contract
achieving dependable generator set to ensure all maintenance and repair
operation. The commissioning responsibilities are defined for each
engineer should be prepared to give activity. Also, understand and record
this training on the generator set. the duration of the contract. Ensure
Consider the following when responsible personnel are properly
evaluating how well operation and trained to perform their respective
maintenance will be completed. functions. If a training deficiency is
found, take corrective action.
Engine Operation and Maintenance
Ensure each operator is introduced Crankcase Ventilation System
to the maintenance guide for the Evaluation
engine and each of the topics Normal combustion pressures of an
explained. This may require the internal combustion engine cause a
presentation to be given several certain amount of blow-by past the
times to match the shift work of the piston rings into the crankcase.
operators. Coordinate the effort with These crankcase fumes must be
the appropriate operating supervisor. piped away from the engine to
Ensure instruction is given for atmosphere or ingested back into
starting and stopping the engine. the engine through a Closed
Include a demonstration at the Crankcase Ventilation (CCV) system.
engine and allow each operator to An improperly installed or designed
observe and follow the directions CCV system can damage
given. Follow the procedure outlined turbochargers, foul aftercoolers, and
in the starting system evaluation cause other engine problems.
section. Review the latest technical
The servicing dealer is responsible recommendations from Caterpillar
for providing appropriate forms and and the CCV system supplier to
records keeping information. ensure that it meets the latest
Engine Support Equipment specifications.
Review the list of equipment Consider the following when
suppliers that will be on-site during evaluating crankcase ventilation
commissioning. If the representative systems.
is going to be on-site, ensure they Crankcase Breathers
are prepared to train operators. Crankcase breathers can be
arranged in several positions to

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Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500 Application and Installation Guide

match the best piping routing away a worn engine when initially sizing
from the engine. Ensure that the pipe.
breather connections can be easily A separate ventilation piping
disconnected for scheduled system must be installed for each
maintenance. engine.
Crankcase Ventilation Piping Piping should slope away from the
Generally, piping of the same size engine at a minimum of 41.7 mm/m
as the breather outlet is suitable (0.5 in. per ft).
unless the length and or bends The outlet should be configured to
cause excessive restriction and a collect oil droplets prior to fumes
false crankcase pressure exiting the piping.
measurement.
If piping rises from the engine, a
Note: See the Engine Room trap must be installed to collect any
Ventilation section of the Application condensation or oil droplets before
& Installation Guide for additional they re-enter the breathers.
information on pipe sizing
requirements. Consideration must be Crankcase fumes must never be
given to the blow-by requirements of discharged in the engine room.

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Startup & Shutdown Procedure


The following procedure is 3. The engine should stabilize speed
intended to serve as a guide for: at low idle. Assure gauge panel
3500 engine startup oil and fuel pressure reach normal
procedures levels.
Design consideration of the 4. Inspect engine for any leaks
engine control systems and/or abnormal noises.
5. After assured of proper engine
Before Starting the Engine operation, adjust engine and
1. Check coolant level (typically in other control systems to increase
site glass). engine speed/load to achieve
2. Check crankcase oil level using normal operation.
the engine dipstick. Be sure to
use the side marked Engine After Starting the Engine
Stopped With Oil Cold. 1. Monitor engine operating
parameters as needed and record
3. Assure all protective guards are on an appropriate log sheet.
in place and barring device is
removed. 2. Compare operating parameters
recorded to specifications for
4. If engine is equipped with air normal engine operation on a
starter, ensure that system daily basis. Monitor operating
includes drain valve and filter parameter trends and take action
setup. Check air starter
when discrepancies are found.
lubricator oil level. Check prelube
motor lubricator oil level (if air Stopping the Engine
prelube equipped). 1. If engine control panel is
5. If engine is equipped with electric equipped with a cool-down timer,
starter, make note of type of turn selector switch to cool-down
battery charging system. position.
6. Ensure that all switches on Perform a visual inspection of the
engine control panel are in the engine for leaks, loose hardware,
appropriate position and ready for etc.
startup.
7. Assure that prelube system is set
and operational before starting.

Starting the Engine


1. Turn on the fuel supply to the
engine.
2. Move engine START/RUN/STOP
switch to the start position while
viewing the engine tachometer.

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Diesel Engine Commissioning - 3500 Application and Installation Guide

Engine Performance Data


Record the following data using field test equipment while the engine is
being load tested under site conditions.

__________% Load
900
Actual
Series Description
Measured
Points

Comments: ____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

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Engine Instrument Panel & Generator Control Panel Instrument Readings


Engine S/N: ____________________ Generator Set
Description 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 110%
Actual Load ekW
Voltage kV
Amperes A
Power Factor LAG 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.
Gen Bearing Temp C
Gen Stator Temp C
Engine Coolant Temp C
SCAC Water Temp C
Air Inlet Man. Temp C
Air Inlet Restr. LH kPa
Air Inlet Restr. RH kPa
Oil Pressure kPa
Oil Temperature C
Oil Filter Press Diff kPa
Fuel Filter Press Diff kPa
Crankcase Pressure kPa
Air Inlet Man. Press kPa
Fuel Pressure kPa
Engine Hours
Exhaust Temp RH C
Exhaust Temp LH C
Cyl Exh Temp 1 C
Cyl Exh Temp 2 C
Cyl Exh Temp 3 C
Cyl Exh Temp 4 C
Cyl Exh Temp 5 C
Cyl Exh Temp 6 C
Cyl Exh Temp 7 C
Cyl Exh Temp 8 C
Cyl Exh Temp 9 C
Cyl Exh Temp 10 C
Cyl Exh Temp 11 C
Cyl Exh Temp 12 C
Cyl Exh Temp 13 C
Cyl Exh Temp 14 C
Cyl Exh Temp 15 C
Cyl Exh Temp 16 C
Exhaust Stack Temp C

Comments: ____________________________________________________________

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LEBW4986-00 2010 Caterpillar Printed in U.S.A.
All rights reserved.