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MAIIV novrn 3

111nr1 tl11111 i111 ordi1111ry virtue, 1111d i111pr11tA f{reut phyijicul power. 'tiiithor rne,
() Rp'ir1111111, Jll'l"l'III 111<; for drink, prni11c.; rnc.; for titn.:ngth I' the yai:rata 11rgc11
Zoro1111t1.;r. Jn llw J\veHtu Hnun'iil i!l invoked fo( 'strength nn<l vietory',li and
-t, t lor 'power for the whole, budy'.o Jlc is besought to give victory over all
101:11;7 un<l in later Zoroastrianism it is enjoined that a yasna should be
HAOMA, PRIES'l' OF THE SJ\CJHF1CE -. ,, 1mle11111izctl in hi!! honour to repel an enemy.B
The plant haoma is chief of medicinal herbs ; 9 and the yazata is there
by MAltY UOYCE
lorc i11vuked as 'giver of healing'.10 According to the Dinkard, Zoroaster
Haoma is not one of the thirty yazatas of Zoroastrian_ism who protect hi111Helf gave consecrated lzaoma to be drunk by the bull of a righteous man,
the months and days. There is no festival in his honour, and no shrines are wlinehy the animal was cured of sickness. 11 Prayers properly uttered to
built to him. Yet he holds a unique place in the religion not only in its ritual I l110111a bring health; 12 and if pestilence threatens, a yasna should be
acts of high worship, but also in its mythology and in the daily lives of men;1 1mle111nized in his honour, with a special intention for the soul of Faredon
and he has varied aspects, not all of which have yet been fully considered in ('l'lirnl;taona}, so that yazata and hero-physician may_join in helping the ,1
western studies of this divinity. uppliants.13
All aspects of Haoma derive, demonstrably, from the sacred plant Through the sacred plant, Haoma has a link with plants in general, and
from which he is named. The plant itself, now everywhere identified as an tto gives good harvests. A yasna should therefore again be celebrated in his
ephedra, grows freely on the mountains of Central Asia and of Persia;2 and honour to avert famine.14 Moreover, since plants need moisture to nourish
it is held to be strengthening and healing for man and beast even in its I lirm, lfi consecrated lzaoma is used in libation to the waters; and the yazata
natural state.3 When pressed and consecrated in the yasna service, it gains
, '111t1l,11frd from previous page
1 Although Haoma has no day dedicated to him, he is nevertheless duly honoured tlw pl1111ts which nurture cattle. The same difficulty exists with the most recent
in invocations regulated by the calendar. Together with Burz and Dahm Yazad, he is 1,lt-111 ific11tion of soma with the hallucinogenic fungus amanita muscaria, see R. G. Was
invoked with Sahrevar, Xwar, Mihr, Asman and Anagran on their respective days; """ ,",'11111a: divine mushroom of immortality, New York, 1969.
and he is honoured in all ceremonies connected with the Sir6ze. < l11c f1rgument put forward by Stein in support of the identification with rhubarb
2 See G. Watt, Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, III, 246-7: 'In India (11/1. rit., 504) is that the bitter taste of the green ephedra accords ill with the praise of
11111111 IIH 'sweetness' self' (RV VIII.48.1); but if H. W. Bailey (BSOAS, XX, 1957,
one species only can be said to occur throughout the Himalaya, viz. E. vulgaris, Rich.
( = E. Gerardiana, Wall.); but this is also distributed to Central and Western Asia and ., ti) iH right in interpreting the standing epithet of haoma, namely diiraofa, as 'pun-
to Europe. The other two Indian species have a more easterly distribution, the one 111111 in lusfll' (parallel to the Rigvedic epithets tivra and tigma 'sharp' for soma), then
extending from Garhwal to Afghanistan and Persia (E. Pachyclada, Boiss.) and the 1hi 11rg111ncnt loses its cogency. As Watt pointed out (op. cit.; II, 24,), it is perfectly
other being met with in the Punjab, Rajputana, Sind, and distributed to Afghanistan 1111t11oil,ll' t.hut cphedra 'afforded a bitter principle which might have been employed
and Syria (E. peduncularis, Boiss.).' It is E. Pachyclada, Boiss., which in the Hari-Rud 111111'11 11f'ter the same manner as hops are used in Europe ... e.g. as a bitter adjunct in
valley bears the names hum, huma, yehma (see ibid., 247); and a dried specimen of the 1111 pr1p11rotion of an alcoholic beverage similar to beer.' But against this see Wasson,
ham-plant of Yazd, gathered by the writer in 1964 near the mountain-shrine of Pir-i ,,,,... ,,.. p. 15.
d \I. IX. 2, as translated by W. B.'Henning, who interpreted the hapax staomaine
sabz, was identified by the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, as either E. intermedia,
Schrenk and C. A. Meyer, var. persica Stapf, cir as E. Pachyclada, Boiss. itself. 11 d11tiv1 g. of a subst. staoman 'strength', comparing Pahl. Ps. stwmnyhy 'strength'
3 In Yazd an infusion of Mm-twigs is considered good for heart trouble and health in (r, A11dn'11s-Barr, 143), Man. Pth. 'stwmnyft (unpub.) 'defiance', both of which, he
general; and herdsmen there regard the plant as wholesome browsing for their flocks, I liu11h1, huvc probably redundant abstract endings.
just as soma is said to have been eaten by goats. This fact may weigh against one alterna v. rx. ,7.
II lfiirf.
tive identification suggested for the ancient haoma, namely wild rhubarb (see Aurel
Stein, BSOS, VI, 1931, 501-14; G. Morgenstierne, Sariipa-Bharati, Dr. Lakshman 11. IX.. , R.
Sarup Mem. Vol., Hoshiarpur, 1954, 30-3). For, as it is sought to establish in the "R,, M. H. Unvala, Darab Hormazyar's Rivayat, Bombay, 1922, I, 284.15
following pages, the god Haoma is venerated as lord of grazing animals; and the leaves I it,d l11'1'111f'tcr as MU); transl. by B. N. Dhabhar, The Persian Rivayats of Hor
of at least the cultivated rhubarb are toxic, and never fed to stock. However, in Poisonous ,,,,,._,rr, H,a111aror and vlhers, Bombay, 1932, 278 (cited as Dhabhar, Riv.).
11 (:rMI /J1mtlnhifo (Ed. T. D. Anklesaria, transl. B. T. Anklesaria), XVII.20:
Plants of India, by R. N. Chopra, R. L. Badhwas and S. Gosh, 2nd edn., II, 1.965, 735
(a reference I owe to the kindness of Dr. Desmond Meikle of Kew), the authors state that /,n1111 /117,/ */,i:;:i{l11fn urwariin rad.
I\! \'. X, 11 (/11liJ.fozaoa).
leaves of wild rhubarb are regularly cooked and eaten by humans in parts of N. India,
11 /JI,. V 11. -2') f. (Sanjana, Vol. XIV).
so that possibly the leaves of the wild plant contain less oxalic acid. The only use given,
1 \', X. , ti. (nd11.,oa vdcu ddsmanif); cf. Saddar Bundahifn (Ed. Dhabhar), 44.29.
however, for wild rhubarb leaves in Watt's Dictionary, VI, 487, is that in certain places
those of Rheum nobile and one other smaller rhubarb are dried and used as a substitute '" Ml! I, 2R4,, 11111rginnl addition; Dhabhar, Riv., 278.
1,1 M ll I, 8,1. 1,1,; Dhubhar, Riv. 278.
for tobacco. It remains difficult to suppose that rhubarb was ever venerated as lord of
Continuetl 011 next page 1h I), \', X. 3, 1111(1 further Yt. VIII. 33.
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