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Iranian Studies

Author(s): H. W. Bailey
Source: Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, Vol. 6, No. 4
(1932), pp. 945-955
Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the School of Oriental and African
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Iranian Studies
I. Supfastan
N the Bahman Yalt, ii, 49, there is an interesting list of geographical
names. The readings of two MSS. of the Pahlavi Text as well as
the Pazand version (unhappily Pazand far inferior to that of the
Mjn6kj Xrat) are available, the Pahlavi in the facsimile of K 20
(fol. 135 recto, 1. 4 et seq.) published by the University of Copenhagen,
1931, and the edition of Dastflr Nosherwan Kaikobad Adarbad,
The Pahlvi Zand i V6huiman Yasht, 1899, a copy of a MS. dated 554 A.Y.,
and the Pazand in Antia, Pazend Texts, p. 339 seq. Translations of
ii, 49, have been attempted by West, SBE., v, p. 209, by Dastfir
Nosherwan in his edition, and also by Markwart in Caucasica, vi, 1, 54,
and in A Catalogue of the Provincial Capitals of Eranshahr, p. 69, an
edition of the Sahriha i Eran. But as finality in the translation of
Pahlavi texts is hard to attain, yet another attempt is here offered.
The text is as follows :

Pahlavi Pdzand

Xvatayih ut pitax8ihih a
bandakdn rasit Egan Xy
Turk *Hjftar ut Tubit Turk *azarat. afg*
6eggn andarak KSfdar ut
jenzk ut Kipulzk ut Czni *Kasuirs* u
SuP87k ut Hromaiyk ut Sdid u .
*Karmzr Xyan Spit Xyon Xarmera Hayiin u Spi8 Hayfin
pat Eran djhan i man . . . . . sahar
patax Sh[yh] bavindframan pxdaSaha rafpaframa bind.
ut kamak i avean pat
gjhan ra/p3k be bavit.
Cjnik and Kdpulik are written with final -yh for -7k, a m
doubtless due to scribes, who confuse -yk, -yh, and -y owing

changed pronunciation -S for all three. Andarak is here spel

Iplace of the
give first usual ).p.
a translation. The names
" Kingdom call forwill
and Sovereignty morepass consideration.
slaves who are not Iranians, such as the Khyan, Turk, Heftal, and
Tibetans, who are among the mountain-dwellers, and the Chinese and

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946 H. W. BAILEY-

Kabulis and Sogdians and Byzan

Khyan. They will become King
commandments and desires will p
1. xybn. This name is familia
It would appear to be a name of
Avestan times, transferred later
sound, as Tfir was adapted to T
OIONO on coins (Mem. Arch. Sur
the Romans they were known as Ch
due to a Persian source (cf. M
Komanen, p. 70). In the presen
people seem to be recognized,
Karmir Xyan, and the White Xy

2. Karm-r Xyon. The Pahlav

been read Kirmak-raXt " having red
350, and KarmT<r> -raXt by Mar
somewhat unusual position for a
Turks from the Altai and Oxus regio
and 'EpWjtXlovES (Tomaschek, P
this second form Markwart su
WZKM., xii, 197, and Erans'ahr
us in recognizing in the Pahlavi a simple confusion of '
and ~, which in fact occurs not infrequently. The Pdzand has
then the correct reading Karmira (k here written &) hayin " Red
Huns ". On the White Huns, cf. the passage of Procopius quoted by
Christensen, Le regne du roi Kawddh I et le communisme mazdakite, p. 8.
3. Hiftar. The name of the Hephthalites is known under various
forms, which are given by Markwart, Eraniahr, p. 58 et seq., and
Festschrift Sachau, p. 257, note: Gr. 'E O aA-TaL, 'Afl~hAaL; Syr.

?._1 and (in a Persian phrase) ?as, 0ID '4ol Heftarin xoddi;
Arm. Hep't'at,
(Yep-ta8). The readingT'Jtalk'; Arab.
here proposed, , pl.
Hiftar, is an.LAb;
interpret Pahl. j?jy. The Pazand here has azara-, which implies
a variant reading. The original Pahl. was perhaps * jpV (certainly
in other places oy is sometimes misspelt o y- ) to be read HJftar,

1 For in place of 4 ry of. GrBd., 23012, , ..Jd A yr5raO.

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in accord with the Persian phrase in

the assumption that the name of the He
in Pahlavi, and was no longer reco
DkM., 43812.. pat ham Sn1 5n oyon X

vittakih5 pat matiyin ham patvand raft ut *Heftar leyIV kustakin

In the Greater Bundahisn a new form is introduced with -5-.
Firdausi has JL. The short vowel in the second syllable is assured
for the Sasanian period by Greek, Syriac, and Arabic transcriptions,
hence influence from later Persian is probable in GrBd., 2157

A..uV~ew-.. Hiftil5n
4. Tubit. This word (inisGrBd.,
written ~e)jo not known 2159 . a .).
to me else-
where in Pahlavi. But in Arabic writers the Tubbat are associated

with Haital and Turk, as by Tabari, ii, N N o r, year 85 = 704 : se -

'0 fl J4 , ., and Ya'qfibi, Ta'rikh, ii,o VA in the

attack on Rafi' whose reinforcements were from the East.

Mas'tidi, Kitab al-TanbTh " I, 7 seq., speaks of settled and nomad

Tubbat, whom he calls Turkish :-

There is therefore nothing improbable in the appearance of Tubit

) gjejr here in the company of Turks.
5. CGg5n andarak kSfdir "who are among the mountain-dwellers "
[For Jeg5n and i Jeg5n with relatival function, see BSOS., vi, 72, and
GrBd., 2332-3, 2363, 2253-4.] K5fdar is found also as the title of the
lords of Armail, see Herzfeld, AMI., 4, 83. Here the K6histan beyond
Samarkand is probably intended.

1 ))4 8 0n < *Aavana- " way of acting ", Paz. sin, 43~ ))C k snk" customary ",
cf. Av. SyaoOna- " act " and Y., 293, yd savaitj adrang arsca7ah6 " how the lofty
behave towards the lowly ".

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948 H. W. BAILEY-

6. GCnik. The Chinese are said to have sent ambassadors to the

Court of Khusrau Anovarvan, Tabari, i, 899 :

Cinastan " China" is familiar in Pahlavi. In GrBd., 10614seq.

Avestan sdinu- is interpreted by this word: an i pat Sin dih hast i
Cinastdn. Arm. cenastdn, 6enk', enbakur "Emperor of China ",
cenik, HAG., 49. It is described in the Pazand and Parsi-Persian

Zamasp-Namak (ed. Modi, p. 76 Pazand; ed. West, Avestan.

Studies, p. 104, Parsi-Persian). From these two texts, both to some
extent corrupt, it is possible to restore the Pahlavi somewhat as
follows :

ut Cinastdn ahriha i vazurg vas zarr vas musk vas gahr vas an 6i"
andar bavund. ka *dil i ave<san> ne 6imrn bdrik vinisn estat
bavend but paristend. ka mirend druvand hand.
" And China has large cities, much gold, much musk, many jewels,
and many other things. Since their heart has not keen perception of
causes, they worship Buddha (or 'idols '). When they die they are
druvand " (that is, they suffer the fate of the wicked).
China is also introduced into other prophecies of the Bahman
Yact (5jnastdn, iii, 14, *Jzlik ynyh, iii, 17). Its situation is given in
the passage quoted below, GrBd., 19814. In the old Sogdian letters
occurs cynstn (Reichelt, Die soghd. Hands. des Brit. Mus., ii, letter ii,
18, 30).
Concerning Sanskrit Chna, Maha-Cina, Arab. Sin, Mdsin; Pers.
Ma5in; compare the article of Pelliot in T'oung Pao, vol. 13 (1912),
p. 727 ff.

7. Kdpulik.
often mentionedKdpul ?Y5 books.
in Pahlavi or Kdvul ??,5Kabulistan.
NPers. and Kdvulastan are
8. SuPs8k. This word is the most interesting in the list. It
happens that we are particularly well informed about the name of the
Sogdians from the sixth century B.c. onwards. It has therefore bee
often treated, although this form with -P8- has not been noticed
hitherto. The name appears in various dialect forms as follows:-
1. ugd, uyd : OPers. s u gu d
s u gU ud
s u g d (Hamaddn tablet).
Elam. Ad-cg-da, gi-uk-tag-be.

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Bab. su-ug-du
Greek Zoy8o0 (Herodotus).
Avestan Vid., 14, suy86.3aya
Yt., 1014, sux~am (var. 11.
Orkhon Turk. soyduq.
Pazand soyd IndBd. (= GrBd., 8714).
NPers. G suyd.
Sogd. (Buddh.) sywsy'n'k (Reichelt, loc. cit., ii,
p. 70), " Sogdian."
(In the old letters) swySyk, swy8yk'nw.

2. up. Pahl. uey)Ky.1

Arm. l]o4tg = Sordik'.
3. a58, d7d: Syr. s56 ?cm. Marquart, Eraniahr, p. 88, n. 7,
s53&qayj " Sogdians ".
Pahl. Ipy GrBd., 8714 Sf8.

y)"M GrBd., 8710.

Piz. sildi here in Bahman Yast, ii, 49, for Pahl.

sudda j)A IndBd. (= GB., 8710).

4. Wi: Pahl. siilhk GrBd., 20511.

GrBd., 8611 ,41 IndBd. w Ky.

Vid., 14 Pahl. Comm.
Chin. Su-li.2
Tib. Ju-lik.

Possibly also Kharosthi inscription suligja, Konow, Acta Orient.,

x, 74.

The establishing of the reading of Wvoey as supflk has an

important consequence. It becomes possible to understand a much

1 For the voiced spirants indicated by ei, cf. asladat = Av.

a8waddti- " exposure" (DkM., 76118, etc.); , DkM., 43415, beside
W , GrBd., 23611 = Paz., " Duy8av"; ) vaySan, DkM.,

2 For other Chinese transcriptions, see Shiratori, "A.Study on Su-t'4 or

Sogdiana," Mem. Res. Dep. Toyo Bunko, 1928, No. 2.

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950 H. W. BAILEY-

misunderstood passage of the B

)PftW ?f0, TD.2 ). Thi
with g) = and ei = 38. The
savkavasta indicates that the w
mechanically transcribed. But w
passage is clear: Zamik i Sup8astan
pat kustak i d~ir av apaXtar ran
from Turkestan to China in the
Turning to GrBd., 197', we have
amplification: AyreraO i Pasang
Gopat Uih Xvnaed " Ayrara6 so
and him they call Gapat the Ki

TD.2 has 1Igy .)5 and DH

reads in Avestan letters, as bef
Herzfeld's conjecture Andarkang
with. Following from this, it is
of Gapat. AyrjraO is the chief
cited. In the Avesta (Ya t, 13, 13

of Fraorasyan. In Pahlavi

GrBd., 23012= IndBd., 794 (i

GrBd., 1975 = IndBd. (in Aves
.u All are transcriptions of the Avestan name. He is here
brother of Frasyap and *Karsvasp, IndBd. (in Avestan letters)
Karsevaz, and is slain by Frdsyap, just as Ayra~raea is zfr.yjata-
" slain by violence " in the Avesta ( Yavt, 918). In GrBd., 1975, Ayrara 8
receives the title Gapat Sdh, evidently because he is rat of Sogdiana.

The word is variously spelt: Dd. pursi'n,' 89 "AWvr, GrBd., 23111

Ya ,, GrBd., 1975 aU gqe.j, Bahman Yavt, ii, 1 a I ) 9 ?,

Mjnakj Xrat, 62s31 4MI,?j, Rivdyat i Dirab Hormuzydr, ii, 70

ooL-yl\ and o*& y.. The spelling with 1) suggests a name

foreign to Pahlavi. If we remember that the abode of Ayrara0 is in

1 I am indebted to the courtesy of the University of Copenhagen for a photograph

of this folio of K. 35.

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Sogdiana, it is but natural to explain the

Gava ". This Gava is the " Heart of S
It is twice mentioned in the Avesta.

bitim asanham'a SiOeranam6a vahistam


gaum yim suy~ 8. ayandm.

The Pahl. Comm. reads: ditikar ha6 givklcn r5<ta>stikdn ham
pahlom fra5d brehen~t man kJ Ohormazd ham (Avestan letters) gava.
i STl7k-manis'n, e~ das't i Stlik-manisinih.
The corresponding commentary of the GrBd., 20510-12, has : ditTkar
pahlom dat da't i Silzk-mani"n ku-s siilik pati" maintnd. hast bayddt
i bayaSndt. (Here the assonance has caused confusion with Sfirik
= Syria, as elsewhere.)
The second passage is Ya't, 1014, most recently treated by Herzfeld,
AMI., 2, 3 seq. In the vulgata: mourum hdrdyum gaom6a sux am
Xvairizamca. Gava survived as qai (= yai) in the Arabic geographers
and as Ho in Chinese (Herzfeld, loc. cit., p. 5, note 1). When the word
was no longer clear S~ih could be added, as if " King of Gbpat ". In
Dd. 89 we find gapat bum " land of the Lord of G6 ". This tendency
to pleonasm is well-known. An extreme case is GrBd., 2316, gar i
Pata"Xvjrgar k6f. Kai Vistasp Sdh is regular. Other cases are the
ayo5Xust vitaxtak, Gr.Bd., 22510, and arigvang i vuh, GrBd., 1414.
Kais, Av. Kava Usa8a, receives the addition of Kai, in the Greater
Bundahivn: Kai KSiis. It is normal in the later Persian epic.
This has all the appearance of old tradition misinterpreted by
later times. It becomes of importance, therefore, to learn what is
said about Go'patcah. It would appear that GrBd., 1975, has the
oldest traits, as quoted above: AyrjraO i Pasangan pat zamik i
Suf3lastan api- Gapat~Sh Xvanlnd. Here gapatsih is simply a title
of Ayrera0. But in GrBd., 2311, Gdpatsah is son of Ayrara6:
ut had Ayrjra0 GCpat~ih zit ut ka Frisyap Manus'ihr apak fErinakdn
andar gar i PataySXvdrgar kSf <vi>tar kart sd' ut niyaz apar hiMt.
AyreraO ha6 Yazdin 5yaft Xvdst api-s ~n nivaklh vindat ku- an spih
ut gund had an saXtih b5Xt. Frasyip pat an 5hak AyreraO 5at.
AyreraO pat in pitddin frazand begon GCpatiah zat. "And from
Ayrera0 was born Gbpatsah. And when Frasyap drove Manus6ihr
with the Iranians into the mountains of PataXVavrgar, ruin and want
was left. Ayrara0 besought Yazddn for a boon. And he received

1 Cf. also the Pahl. transcription of Av. gava- in av6 .gava- as gvk.

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952 H. W. BAILEY-

this favour that he delivered the

Frasyap slew Ayrera0 for this
for this a son was born who w
Here then the title has been t
son, as happened also with BM
AMI., 4, 108.
To this stage of the legend b
which is given a list of the immor

G6pat bilm (written !J as o

pat bir i Ap i Diityi apar nikas
kc-s* patit bavet spurr spurrih
over the land of the Gapat wh
on the bank of the River Dait
through which is achieved the
Here Gbpatiah has overshado
thought of as a ~dh. In Pahl. R
fraYkart kartir (producers of Fr
But Gapatvah appears elsewhe
bull. This aspect of Gapatvah h
Bibliothek Warburg, 1922, Un
i, 143, 157, iv, 62, cf. Nyberg, G
A full description is given in M
Gopet~ih pat Erdnv- andar k
nem tan gdv ut ha" nim tan ha

ni~inet ut Tzi"n i Yazdn ham-i

the division of xeaniras. And f
body he is an ox, and from the
and he sits ever on the seasho
Can any conclusions be drawn f
AyraraO is in Sogdiana, as " Lo
in the land of Gapat, which ad
the legend GMpatBah dwells in
survived here, Sogdiana is re
other grounds, Marquart (in Er
(AMI., i, 104, note 2 ; ii, 4) hav
Chorasmia. If hamvimand i av
was probably also the view of
is expressed in GrBd., 19813-
" Eranv is in the region of A
exposed to transference. One of

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is given by the name of the mountain

AMI., i, 84, note 1, has pointed out is
matpa.ar.g.pa.ra.e.sa.an.na (as
version, see Weissbach, Die Keilinsch
corresponding to OPers. Gandir
meaning is lost, so that it was even c
k3f i Vas Skift .n i Pars ha" ham k
hamik ka6 Apdrsen kj-s aparik kdf5ha
In any case a reminiscence of the sit
east is not impossible.

2. azat and 5zn

The meaning of Pahlavi zt )ii yy "noble, free" can be fully
realized only by reference to the Iranian social system. It is the
designation of a member of a vis 0s) or " Great House ", which has
in many Pahlavi passages retained the full meaning of "Princely
House ", found in the OPers. inscriptions and the Avesta. Av.
vWs6.pu0ra, Pahl. vispuhr, vdspuhr (< *vjispuhr), MPT. vispuhr and
visduxt, NPers. visduxtbn (Vis u Rimin, 7712) all express the importance
of this relationship. The 5-zata- is one born into such a family with all
its social privileges. In the Avesta the word is already more general
in the passage, Yalt, 5, 127, hvdzdta aradv siira. But when Hutaosa

is called azatam Hutaostm in Ya't, 9, 26, it clearly describes her as

member of a vis. Similarly in Pahlavi, gahrddr k6fddr ut azit " Prince
and Mountain Chief and Noble ", DraXt Asbrik, 45; Zamasp Namak
(BSOS., vi, 56, ? 15) azdtbn ut vazurkdn. From "noble, EV'EVS "
to "free " is an easy transition already found in Pahlavi, as andahrik
. . azat be kart " he freed the slave ". NPers. azdd is " free, manu-
mitted ", but azddag9n "high-born men ", 5zdda "free, excellent,
noble ". In Avestan 5azta is one of the epithets applied to the Daand
in form of a maiden, Ha85Xt Nask, 2, 9. In Armenian azat is both
" free " and "noble ", HAG., 91, and in Georgian azati "free ",
azatoba "liberty ".
The meaning of 5-zan- is therefore quite certain in the technical
meaning "to be born a member of a princely house, to be born
noble, free ".1
It accordingly becomes possible to understand certain other Iranian

1 If Herzfeld has correctly interpreted the nom. pr. DTt~Bh, A MI., iii, 86, this
meaning may also belong to the uncompounded zita-.
VOL. VI. PART 4. 62

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954 H. W. BAILEY-

words. In the Ddtastdn i Den

" noble warriors " on the side
Here we have the word whic
ot rpi-roL, Mark vi, 21, seri um
mist'a da aznaurt'a Galileast'a 8E
KaLt TioS XtAtpX$ O Kal Trot
Brosset, in his edition of VaXu
the fifth class "de race noble
does not occur in Ciakciak's Arme

version of Mark vi, 21, 0roZs irpo

5zndvar is *dzn + abar. But azn
of "nation, people, generatio
from Iranian (for the suffix cf. A
gives *a-zn7-va(n)-, in Armenia
again d-zan- in the sense of " b
It can hardly be doubted in view
that Avestan 5sna- as epithet of
" mind " has this same meanin
Yast, 10, 3: Asaon?m valauh- sii
frazaintim " The Good Powerfu
noble progeny ".
The Armenian azniu is further u
of MPT. b'myv, Salemann, M
mvrv'n b'myv'n 'vy n'zynd g'd
murvdn bamivan 5y ndzend
" Brilliant birds are there sp
The word bamTv can be expla
" shining ", cf. Av. bimaniva
brilliant . . .garments ". The lo
Sanskrit forms (Rgveda) 4rust~va
have Av. ainiva, Yalt, 15, 46, wh
am named diniva ". This can be
Old Persian baji- "tribute ") wi
cf. Greek alvE/Los "wind ",
Iran. dam- means both "breathe " and "blow ", NPers. damidan
" breathe ", Saka padama " winds ".

1 Hertel's translation in the Glossary to Die awest. Herrschafts- und Siegesfeuer,

1931, has not reached beyond an etymology.

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The Pahlavi commentators tran

an i g~ y a m ?ni/n i ahrafa3n (V

and 5snamfrazaint~m by ) py)t fr

61, 13). This is asnstak (asniitak), a
which appears in the nomen agentis 5
5snitar i driyunan " nourisher and
i Denik, 1610, pit' i peraman ast kE
vaxgiSnik *bavit " the flesh around t
of the vivifying soul is freshly-gro
"sustained, brought up, nourish
altered accordingly.
1 Cf. Oss. (Dig.) fid " flesh ", (Iron) fid :
Tre4 fla aapKa Kat OaEa OVK fXft. Pahl. Te
in ? 14.

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