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2

6 -1

8 -2

8 -1-2

8 -1-1-2

9 -2-1-2

9 -3-1-2

9 -4-1-2

11 -5-1-2 ()

11 -6-1-2

11 -2-2

32 -3

32 -1-3

33 -2-3

33 -3-3

34 -4-3

34 -5-3

35 -6-3

3
35 -7-3

37 -8-3 .

38 -4

38 -5

38 -1-5

39 -2-5

39 -3-5

41 -4-5

41 -5-5

41 -6-5

42 -6 .

44 -7 .

45 -9 .

45 -1-9

45 -2-9

45 -3-9

45 -4-9

46 -5-9

47 -6-9

4
47 -11

51 -11 .

51 -1-11

52 -2-11

53 -3-11

58 -4-11

59 -5-11

61 -6-11

61 -7-11

62 -12

114 -13 .

115 -14 .

117 -15

5
-1 :Introduction



( - )


( 251)
.


( )3511


.




.
(
) ( )2111
( )11.


: -
- - .

7
-2 :Plant description and classification

Anacardiaceae
:
.Rhuscariara .L

Shinus.L

Pistacia .

-1-2 :
-1-1-2 : P.atlantica
( 7-4)
,
( )11-7


,


( 1211-811)



- - - --
- - - .
:
.

8
-2-1-2 : P. terebinthus
( 9-5)
( )9-6
.
( )
( 4-3)



( 611-311) .

:
.

-3-1-2 :P. palstinia


(12-5)
( )6-4 , (-
) , ( 5 -4)

. ( 2511-2111) .
: .

-4-1-2 :P.lentiscus
( 3)
( )5-2
.
( 3)

, , ( 1611) .
9
: ,
.

-5-1-2 ( ) :P. kinguk


( )15-6
( )5-3
.

.
:
.
-6-1-2 :P.vera


,
,
,
.

01

.
-2-2 :
( )25
: -
( -).
1991


() ( ) - ().

:

00





5 : 18.5 14.5


111 : :
198 1.5 2.5 %95


111 111
%32 63 121




1/11 11/31
8/21 4/11 4/6 4/2


% % pH % %

4.35 41.59 55.46 1.38 6.25 73.21 26.79

02
03





5 : 16.4 15


111 :
%91
211 1.5 2.4


111 111
%32 71 151




1/3 11/31 8/28
4/11 4/6 4/4


% % pH % %
4.17 35.42 51.78 1.33 6.38 68.40 31.59

04
05







14.6
5 15.2


111
281 1.7 2.6 %81


111 111
%36 81 151




1/6 12/5 8/25
4/11 4/5 4/3



% % pH % %

4.36 37.11 53.26 1.21 6.41 69.86 31.32

06
6

07







16.9 15.2
5


111
241 1.4 2.5 %81


111 111
% 41
77 151





1/5 11/12 8/25
4/12 4/6 4/3


% % pH % %
4.87 41.39 58.19 1.21 6.61 71.66 29.34

08
8

09





5
16.6 15


111
241 1.5 2.6 %51


111 111
%31.2 111 191




1/5 12/11 8/25
4/12 4/7 4/4


% % pH % %
3.83 39.59 58.38 1.37 6.52 67.82 32.18

21
20






14.8
16
5


111
181 1.4 2 %81


111 111
%31 61 121




1/5 12/5 8/21
4/12 4/5 4/3


% % pH % %
4.76 39.52 58.15 1.33 6.46 68.19 31.91

22
23





5 16.2 14.8


111
161 1.4 1.8 %91


111 111
%33.3 65 121




1/11 12/5 8/21
4/11 4/7 4/4


% % pH % %
5.86 41.54 57.84 1.33 6.24 73.68 26.32

24
25






5 16.6 14


111

181 1.4 2.5
%71


111
111
81
%41 151




1/11 12/8 8/25
4/12 4/6 4/3


% % pH % %
4.88 41.25 57.54 1.31 6.34 70.71 28.31

26
27








15.4
5 13.6



111
2.3
171 1.4 %81


111 111
%31.7 81 151




1/11 12/5 8/21
4/12 4/7 4/4


% % pH % %
4.78 43.73 59.42 1.39 6.45 73.59 26.41

28
29








5 16 14.2


111
251 1.4 2.5 %84


111 111
%38 81 151




1/11 12/11 8/21
4/12 4/6 4/3


% % pH % %
4.71 43 58.33 1.34 6.81 72.2 27.8

31
30
-3 :Morphological description
-1-3 (:)Roots

,
,
.


.


,
:
1-1-3 :

,
( )15 ,
(171 - 151) .
( 15 -13)
() ( 5 - 3)
.
-2-1-3 :
,
( )6-3 .
,
( 81-71)
.

32
-2-3 :Stems and brunches

,
, ( 5)
.




.
,
.
( 11) , ( )7 -5
, ( )15-11 .
,
.
-3-3 :leaves

( ) 5-3

( )7-3 ,




,

,
,
.

33
-4-3 :floral and vegetative buds

,

.


,
, ( ) ,
( ).

-5-3 :male flowers



( )7-5 ,
,
,
,

24

34
,
:

( )5 )1( + )5( + ( .)1998 ,

-6-3 :female flowers


( )5-3
,

( )111-51
, ()

,



.
:
( )5-3 )1( + )3( +
-7-3 :fruits









,

:

35
-1 ( ) :

.
-2 :
.
-3 :


.

36
-8-3 :


( )



( )7-3





( )



( )5-3



-

37
-4 :Significance of Pistachio tree
:

( ) ( )%53 ( )%18-15
( ,)%4 .
: :


.
.
.
.
.
.
.
:



P.lentiscus
.
-5 : Climatic and ecological requirments
-1-5 : temperature

( 51-41)
,
,
(15-) ,(31-) .

38

P.vera

,

,


,
( 7-1).
( 711 )
-2-5 :winds
,



.
-3-5:rains


(
) , ( 411-311)
, ( 311)
39







,


.
.


-4-5 :lightning

.
-5-5 :soil




.

( )%25-21






41

.


.


.
-6-5 :Height above level of sea
( 1711)


( 1311-611)
( 411-351) .


(711- 611)
(7)
.

( 311-251)



.

( )1511- 411 .

( )% 31-15

.

40
-6 :The status of Pistachio cultivation

( )446647 ( )213111
( ) 28111 , ( )55611 .2111

, 2111
( )61956 ( )11161.4 ( )7182.4
( )55611.

80000

70000

60000

50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

0
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

/ / / /

42

%45

%49 .



%1 %5


%45 %36


%13

( )
() ( ).


%31

%49


%20

43
-7 :

1
2
3
4
1
2

3
4
1
2

3
4
1
2

3
4
1
2

3
4
1
2

3
4
1
2

3
4
1
2

3
4
1

2

3

1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4

44
-8 :Establishment of pistachio orchard

-1-8 :Site selection



( + )
.
-2-8 :Land proportion
( 111-81)

,
( 3-2)
.

( 1118181)
.
-3-8 : Manuer and chemical fertilization
( 4-3 )3

( 25) %46( 21) % 51
,
( 21 - 11) ( 1.5)
( 1.5( + )%46) ( )% 51
11 .
-4-8 :Bed preparation
:
- : :
- ( 211-151) ( 15-12).
- ( 311-211) ( 12-11).

45
- ( 411-311) ( 11-8).
( 8).
- :

P.vera

.

-5-8 :Planting hedges




,
(: , , ).

( 3-2)
( 5)
.

46
-6-8 :Planting of saplings



( )11-8/1

.
* * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * *
*

-9 :Propagation methods
-1-9 : Seeds


.
-2-9 :Grafting
()
,
( ) ,


.

47


( Jiffy 7 )
( )4-3
( 25)
( 15) .

()

.
()
( )1.5 -1 .

.
:
(
11) .
:Grafting methods
-1 : :
-1-1 :
() (1)
( )15-11 .
.

( ) .
.

48
-2-1 :

( 4)
.

.
-3-1 :

.
.
( )

(
) ( )

3 .
-4-1 :

( 3)
,
.

(2) , ( 3)

( )

( )T
.

49
-5-1 :
() ( )
( )11-7
,
. , ( )11-7
,
75
( )41-21.
-2 :
.
-3 :

. ( )
( )41 21
.
-4 :

( )%11
( )4 2
. :
-1 :
.
-2 :
.
-3 : .

51
-5 :

, ()%41-31 :
-1 .
-2 ( 51) .
-3 ( )51-41
( )81-61 , ,
.
-4


.
-5 25
1.2 1.5

.

.
-6 .
-7 %11 .
.
-11 :Agricultural practices
-1-11 :Plonghing
:

,

50
,
.
:
,
, .
-2-11 : Pruning

:

-1-2-11 :
:
-1 .
-2 .
-3 .
-4 .
:
-1 : ( )
( ) .
-2 :
.

52
-3 :
.
-4 :
.
-5 :
.
-2-2-11 :

.

-3-11 : Fertilization

, (
)...........
:
1 .
2 .

53
3 .
:
:
( )3 2 ,

,
.
: ,
,
, ,
,
. ,
( )3 2 3 ( )3-2 , .

, .

,
,
.
,

(211) .

:
,
, ,
.

54


( )
,
,
( )22.7/ ( )11.35/ .

.
.

55
:


- .
- .
- .
- .
- .
- .

- .
- .
- .
- .
- .
- .
- .

- .
- .
- .
- .
- .
- .

56

.
:



. -
. -
. -
. -

- .
.
- .
- .
- .
- .
- .

57
- .
- .
- .
- .

:
.
-4-11 :Irrigation


( )

58


( --)
( )5-3.


( )6-2 .

( )151-51 ( )81-51 .
-5-11 :Fruit picking


:
-1 .
-2 .
-3 .
( )
:
-1-5-11 :
:
- .
- .
-2-5-11 :


.

59
-6-11 :Fruit preparation
:
-1-6-11 : .
-2-6-11 : :
-1-2-6-11 .
-2-2-6-11 ()
.
-3-2-6-11
.
- 7-11 :Markating
:
-1-7-11 :





().

61
-2-7-11 :



(3-2)

.Aspergillusflavus
-3-7-11 ():

60

() ( )

.

-11 :

-1-11:

, :

-1-1-11 :

-1-1-1-11 :Septoria leaf spot


( )Pistaciavera L. ,
( ) ,
( ) , ,
,
. Mulder
.1958
:Symptoms

,
, ( )2-1 ,
. ,
( 1 .)2 ,
( )21-1 ,
,
.

62
, ,
, ,
. ,
, .

()
()


:
() ()
().

63
:Causal organisms
) MycosphaerellapistaciarumChitzanidis (1956 (
,)Caracciolo (1934)Septoriapistaciarum
( ) .
, ,
, ( )5-2 , 9 , ( 44 3.9 3
)85.5 , .
( Septoria pistacina Allescher Mycosphaerella pistacina
)Chitzanidis , , ( 211 161
)161 96 ,
, .
, ,
( .)3 ()47 31.8 4.8 3.6
, . M. pistacina
Pseudothecia ( )116 81 112 91 , 21
, ()4.8 3.2 41 26.2
, . S. pistacina
, ( 4 ,)5 .

.
,Ascomycota Mycosphaerella pistacina
,Mycosphaerellaceae ,Capnodiales ,Dothideomycetes
.Mycosphaerella ) Septoriapistaciae Desm., (1842
,Cylindrosporiumpistaciae )(Desm. Vassiljevsky, )(1950 : ,
).Phloeosporapistaciae (Desm.) Petr., (1922

64

.3 Septoriapistacina :
Spermagonia () ()

().


.4 : ()

().

.5 Septoria pistacina 21
(.)PDA

65
:Disease cycle and its epidemiology

S. pistaciarum S. pistacina
.
, .
,
.
S.pistaciarum 11 ,
( 11) .
, .
S. pistaciarum.
, .
.

, .

.

:Disease management

.
:
( )211-111/ , ,%1
( , .)... (
)%11 ( )71
( Benzimidazole) , ( Chlorothalonil) ,
, ,
(1) .

66
-2-1-1-11 :Alternaria late blight of pistachio


. 2111
, .
,1974 .2118

:Symptoms

, ,
( )7-3 . ,
,
. ,
, . ,
, 1 ,
( .)6 ,
,
.

:Causal organisms

,:
,A. tennuisima (Kunze:Fr.) ,Alternariaalternata (Fr.:Fr.) Keissl.A.arborescens
,E. ,Pleosporaceae ,Pleosporales Simmons
,Dothidiomycetes .

:Condition for disease incidence and its development


,
, .

67
,
.


.
.
( .)7

.6 ( )
() ().

68
.7

:Disease management

.
, ,


: 211-111 21/ ,
,%1 ( , ,)... ,)Bravo( Chlorothalonil
Abound( Azoxystrobin )Ortiva
,)Nativo( Trifloxystrobin ,(Cabrio( Pyraclostrobin
(,)Remiltine S Ppitee
. 1
.

:Botrytis blossom and shoot blight -3-1-1-11

,
( ) , .
, ,
.

69
:Symptoms


,
1131 .
, ( .)8
,
,V
. ,
, .
,
.
, ,
.

8 Botrytis cinerea. ()
() ().

:Causal organism

Botrytis cinereaPers.:Fr.
( )Botryotiniafuckeliana(deBary)Whetzel

71
,Sclerotiniaceae ,Helotiales ,Leotiomycetes
,Ascomycota .Fungi
( ,)PDA
.

( , , ( 9.3
)11.7
, .
,
( ,)Apothecia
.

:Disease management

( )71
. ,
Fenhexamid ( Procymidon )Sumisclex Diethofencarb
( )Powmyl ( IminocatadineTris .)Belkute
.
, .

-4-1-1-11 :Sclerotiniablight

,
.
.

:Symptoms

,
, .

70
:Causal organism

( Sclerotiniasclerotiorum(Lib.) de Bary ,Sclerotiniaceae


,Helotiales ,Leotiomycetes ,Ascomycota )Fungi
.

. ,
, Apothecia ( 11 ) , ,
( .)9 .

.9 S. sclerotiorum

:Disease cycle and its epidemiology

,
.
( 14) . ( 21 15)
.
.
.
( )11-7.

72
:Disease management

,
( Procymidon : )Sumisclex (Diethofencarb)Powmyl
.

-5-1-1-11 :Aspergillus fruit rot

.
%2
, .

:Symptoms


,
.
,
.A. alternate

.
,

( .)11

73

. 11 () ()

:Causal organisms

( Aspergillusnigervan ,Trichocomaceae Tiegh


,Eurotiales ,Eurotiomycetes ,Ascomycota )Fungi
,A. flavus:.A. parasiticus
,
,
,
.
.
( 25)35.

:Disease cycle and its epidemiology



. ( )%31
.

.

74
, ,
, ,
.

%99 .
( )21-11 . ,
.
:Disease management
,

. ,
,
.
P. atlantica ()
.

-2-1-11 :

-1-2-1-11 :hytophthora root and crown rot

,
.
. ,

.
.

:Symptoms

( )
, ,

75
.
, ,
( ) .

( .)11
,
,
( .)Dieback , , .
, .
.
.
.
, ,
.


, ,
,
.

.11 () ()

76
:Causal organisms

,Phytophthora ,Pythiaceae
,Peronosporales ,Oornycetes .Heterokontophyta
,PhytophthoracryptogeaPethybr. &Laff., (1919):
P. ,P. allii ,P. terrestris =(Breda de Haan, (1896)Phytophthoranicotianae
,)P. lycopersici ,P. parasitica ,tabaci)PhytophthoracapsiciLeonian, (1922
(=) .)Phytophthoraparasitica var. capsici (Leonian) Sarej., (1936
,P. citrophthora , P. drechsleri :P. megasperma
.
Pythium Rhizoctonia
,Phytophthora ,
,
, .


() . 111
Sporangium ,

.
.
,
.
.

:Disease management


.
.
.
.

77
,
.
.
.

, %1 %1
.
, ( Metalaxyl-M )Ridomil Gold
.
,
.
, .%1
.

-2-2-1-11 :Verticillium wilt

.

. ,
Pistaciaatlantica .

:Symptoms

.

.
.
.
, .

78
. ,
( .)12

.12 ()
()

:Causal organism

,Verticillium dahlia Kleb.


,Incertaesedis ,Hypocreales ,Sordariomycetes ,Ascomycota
.Fungi
, , , .
.
,
.

. ( 15 )
,
.

79
,
.

.
.
,
.

:Disease management


, .
,
.%1
, PGII , hybrids PGI : UCB1
.

-3-2-1-11 :White root rot


.
.

:Symptoms

.

( .)13 ,
,
.

81
.13

:Causal organism

Rosellinianectrix (R Hart) Berl ,


,Xylariaceae ,Xylariales ,Sordariomycetes ,Ascomycota
( Fungi .)14

() () () ()

.14 Rosellinianectrix () ()
Stromata ()

:Disease management

,
%11 ,%5

80
.
, .
.

-4-1-11 :Noninfectious disorders

-1-4-1-11 :Yellowing


,

,
,
.

,
.
,
, .

: .

-2-4-1-11 :Stunting

: ,
.

82
-3-4-1-11 :Gummosis


.
, .
, ,:
;( Eutypa lata (Pers.: Fr.) Tul. & C. Tul. Libertella blepharis
)Smith ,Eutypa dieback Cytospora terebinthi
Bres Gum canker
, .

: ,
, ,
.

-4-4-1-11 :Drought


, , ,
, .

:

.


,
.


83
:An excess of water -5-4-1-11

: , ,
.

-6-4-1-11 :Frost


.
( )32 31
.
, ,
,
.


.

-7-4-1-11 :Snow and wind


,
, .

-8-4-1-11 :High temperature

,
.

84
-9-4-1-11 :Sun blight

:
, : ,
.

-11-4-1-11 :Blank nut


Parthenocarpis
, .
:

() , ()25-21
,
.

-2-11 :

:
-1-2-11 :

-1-1-2-11 :Capnodiscariosa
,
,


.

85
Capnodis cariosa

-2-1-2-11 :Hylesinus (chaetoptelius)vestitus

%81
, ,


:
.

86
Hylesinu svestitus

-3-1-2-11 :Kermania pistaciella

12
, ,
.

.

87

-4-1-2-11 :Pistaciaspis pistaciae

5


.

88

-5-1-2-11 : Anapulvinaria pistaciae

3

.

89
-6-1-2-11 :melanaspis inopunata
, coccidae
.

-7-1-2-11 :ceroplastes rusci


, coccidae

.

91
-8-1-2-11 Carphoboneperrizi
( )

90
-2-2-11 :
-1-2-2-11 :Agonoscenapistaciae


.

-2-2-2-11 () :Idiocerusstali

, 3
.

92
-3-2-2-11 :Forda riccobonii
( 2.5)
, ,
.


-4-2-2-11 :Lasiocampidae orus
( )6-5
8-7 .
-5-2-2-11 :Thaumetopoea solitaria
35 15


28-25
( )7-4
12
.

93

-6-2-2-11 :Pachy pasaotus


6-5 11

7
.

94
-3-2-11 :

-1-3-2-11 :Recurvaia pistaciicolla



%31
11
1

.
-2-3-2-11 :
:

Eurytoma plotnikovi :

Megastigmus pistaciae :

5
6 .

95
:

96
-3-3-2-11 :Plodia interpunctella

()31-12 ()8-4
( )31-8 .

97
-3-11 :
:

:
- )/ Tylenchorhynchus (stunt nematode Belonolaimidae


.

- ) / Pratylenchus )lesion nematode Pratylenchidae




.

98
/Hoplolaimus Hoplolaimidae - )(lance nematode

.
.

- ) /Rotylenchus (spiral nematode Hoplolaimidae

- ) Heliocotylenchus (spiral nematode Hoplolaimidae


C . Rotylenchus

99
Heliocotylenchus


.
)/ Heterodera (Cyst Nematode Heteroderidae -


.
.
.

- ) /Meloidogyne (Root Knot Nematode Heteroderidae






.

011
- ) /Criconemella (Ring Nematode Criconematidae
Criconemoides Criconema
.

- ) /Paratylenchus (pin nematode Paratylenchidae

- ) /Longidorus (needle nematode Longidoridae





.

010
- ) / Xiphinema (dagger nematode Longidoridae
.

.

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1- GEORGIAN N. AGRIOS., 2005-Fifth edition Plant Pathology.
Department Of Plant Pathology University Of Florida, United State Of
America. P: 826-863. Agrios_Plant Pathology 5th ed.pdf .

017