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{irgitiirll**;*- lr:n*rfi**lrt

Contents

UNIT1 My Homeis my Castle p.4


UNIT2 Whilethere'slife,there'shope p.10
UNIT3 TravelBroad.ens
the Mind p.16
UNIT4 Earthis Dearer
thanGold p.22
UNIT5 Early
to Bed... p. 28
UNIT6 BetterSafethan Sorry p. 34
UNIT7 PennyWise,PoundFoolish p.40
UNIT
8 YouAreWhatyou Eat p.46
UNIT9 EveryManto hisTaste p. 52
U N I T1 O Spread
the News p. 58

Grommor

UNIT1 Present
Simple,
Present
Continuous,
Present
Perfect,
Present
Perfect
Continuous,
StativeVerbs,Prepositions
of Place p.64
UNIT2 PastSimple,
PastContinuous, Pastperfect
PastPerfect, Continuous,
Usedto p.72
UNIT3 Future
simple,
Begoingto, Future
continuous, perfect,
Future perfect
Future
Continuous,
TimeClauses,
Type0/1Conditionals p. 80
UNIT4 -ingForm,Comparisons,
Infinitive, - euite- Rather
Fairly - pretty,Too- Enough p. 88
UNIT
5 ModalVerbs, Tags.............
Question p. 98
UNIT6 ThePassive,
Relative
Clauses p.106
UNIT7 Causative
Form,Reported Say- Tell- Ask ...........
Speech, p.114
UNIT8 Reported
Commands,
Requests,
Suggestions,
Quantifiers p.122
UNIT9 Type2 and3 Conditionals,
Wishes,
HadBetterAffould
Rather p.130
U N I T1 O FuturePerfect,
FuturePerfect
Continuous, -
LinkingWords,Both/Neither
- Either
All/None p.138
MyHomeis Matchthe character
adjectives
to theirmeanings.
Usethemto makeup sentencesaboutpeopleyou
know asin the example.

myCastle [TT*-ldynamic
l2Tl calm
lSTl adventurous
16Tl creative
l3Tl anxlous FTI aggressive
lZTl talkative lETl cheerful
Vocabulary a i sw i l l i n gt o t a k er i s k sa n dt r y n e wt h i n g s
a. ldentifythe roomsandthenput the objectsin b getsangryveryeasily
the rightrooms.Someobjectscanbe used c worriesabouteverythrng
morethanonce.Finally eachroom.
describe d rarelygetsstressed or angty
e likesto chata lot
. sink . sofa. armchair
. bathtub. wardrobe
f i sa l w a y sh a p p ya n d i n a g o o dm o o d
. cooker. basin. refrigerator
. coffeetable g i s f u l lo f e n e r g y
o droc(inn t:hlo o rr rnhn:rd r hnnlzr:cp
h alwaysthinksof new ideas,artistic
o toilet dishwasher . desk
. television
"
. chair. lamp. prcture. rug. kettle My auntisverydynamic.Sheisalwaysfullof energy.
r cabinet. fireplace
. four-posterbed
Completethe sentences
by filling in the correct
word from the list.

ffu*er* . h a r s h. m o a t . a p p e a l. d r a u g h t. e x t e n s i o n
.-,r'-""'.' . -t
,t5f{?4- o airy . sculpture. barn . converted. convince
:. r, :; ;, :!'..: ", ". " t:1::

1 The artist made a beautiful of an


Egyptian queen
2 Living in the countrysidedoesn't really
to me.
We needed more space, so we built an
to ournouse
4 Thewintersin Russia arevery
5 Thisold factoryis being into a
blockof flats
Thereis a terrible comingfrom
u n d e rt h e d o o r
Most ancientcastleshad a
h e l pk e e po u t e n e m i e s
O u r f l a t h a s l a r g ew i n d o w s ,s o i t i s l i g h t a n d

T h ec h i l d r e d
n e c i d e tdo s l e e pi n t h e
whenthey stayedat theirgrandparents' farm
1 0 W e t r i e dt o h e rt h a t s h es h o u l d
moveto a smallerflat

4 Match the itemswith the placewhere they are


stored,then makesentences, as in the example.

sheetsand towels fridge


*.
d i r t yc l o t h e s l i n e nc u p b o a r d
,f
biscuits/sugar ,t' sideboard
milk --- ,-/ warqrope
cleanclothes laundrybasket
crockery tar0er
your
b . Usewordsfromthe listto describe
Milkisstoredin thefridge.
bedroom,
livingroomandkitchen.
4
Replace
the adjectives
in boldwith theiropposites. 8 Replace the phrases
in boldwith the correctform
of the phrasal
verbsfromthe list.
T h eh o u s et h a t i a n e l i v e si n h a s
got a veryspaciouslivingroom . break
down . bringup bringback
2 Thisflat is verycheap . breakin . bringsthout
3 I d o n ' tt h i n kt h a t t h i sh o u s er s
impractical
4 Thatsofais rathercomfortable
i Deor Susie,
5 We livein a veryquiet area
6 T h a tb u i l d i n gl o o k sa n c i e n t . i ''1
Thonks so much for your letter. Heoring from you
olwoys I) mokes me remember hoppy memoriesof the
3 sun'lmerswe usedto spendtogether.
Well,now thot l'm 2) raising two childrenof my own,
6 Crossout the odd word. What aspectof housing b summers will never be the some again! The boys'school
does eachset of words refer to? j 3) finished for the summer holidoys/osr week.I hod the
great ideo of taking them to see their fovourite bond in
1 reasonable - expensive - economical - secure
concert/ost weekendbut it endedin disoster.
2 terraced- isolated- semi-detached - three-storey
We were halfwoyto the concertwhen my cor suddenly
3 spacious - tiny - cosy- huge
4) stopped working. I called for help, but the mechanic
4 s m a l-l a u y- s e c u r -e c o m f o r t a b l e couldn't fix the problem,so he had to tow my cor to the
5 village - c i t y- o v e r p r i c e- d s u b u r b s gorage.Well,wemissedthe concertond when we gothome
we found thot sorneonehod 5) entered by force ond
stolenmyjewellery!
Lookat the pictures. In pairs, thinkof three The boyswere upsetthot they didnt see their heroes,
positiveandthreenegative thingswhichyoucould but I told them thot I would buy them their new CD when
sayabouteachhouse.Thinkabout:cost, 11 they 5) Put it on the morket. I'm reolly upset aboutmy
convenience,location,speci I jewellery, but I don't supposel'll everseeir ogoin.
aI features.Useyour ideas
to makesentences, i Well, I hope you're hoving a better week thon I om!
asin the example. j,
:w {r!
Write ogoin soon.
Love.
Aaire
!
:'

'l
4
2 5
3

9 Matchthe wordsin columnA to the wordsin


columnB,thenusesomeof the phrases to
complete
the sentences.

from lte
mow heating
0are money
white kitchen
Positive:fs#fffryside, B Positive:JcFi.f#ef
Sdfs,
B{iv#te, 1 AF+^.
the burglary,we fitted o u r h o u s ew i t h a

Negative:is*l*ted, Negative: 2 T o n yb u i l th i sh o u s e ., all


byhimself.
3 H e i sv e r ys t r o n g H ec a nt e a ra p h o n eb o o ki n h a l f
with his
House
Aislocated
in thecountrvside.
5
I am a little . . this week. preposition,
12 Tickthecorrect thenmakesentences
s o I c a n ' tg o s h o p p i n g usingthephrases,
asintheexample.
It'< froozinn in horo Tho

isn'tworking
6 I can't believe this radio is broken It is
to for from of tn
suitable
Complete the sentences with two to fivewords, appeal
10
including
the wordsin bold.Donot changethe suffer
meaning of the originalsentence. fear
convtnce
sb
1 James
hasdecided
to starthisownbusiness absent
up Jameshasdecided
accu5e5D
business approve
Sallyhasa problemwith hayfevereverysummer
believe
from Sally
oeg
. everysummer
A firestartedin the localmuseumlatelastnight Thisdress
isn'tsuitablefor party.
a dinner
out A fire
l o c aml u s e u ml a t el a s tn i g h t
T h a t s o n galwaysremindsme of my first holiday
Speaking
abroad
13 a. Lookat picture
A andcomplete
thedialogue,
back Thatsong
. .. my firstholidayabroad
I thinkthis houseis reallyattractiveand interesting
appeals T h i sh o u s er e a l l y
me
My gasand electricity don't costverymuch
fuel My
. verylow

1 1 Circlethe correctresponses.
1 A: Excuseme. ls thisseatfree?
B: a Yes,can I helpyou? A Wheredo you think pictureA wastaken?
b Yes,it is B 1 ) . .. ..
c l'm sorryto hearthat A Canyou describethe pictureto me?
2 A How muchisthe rent? B Yes I can see2)
B : a No morethan f450
b Justtwo.
c lt'sf450 a month
A : D o y o u l i k ew o r k i n gi n t h e g a r d e n ?
3 A H e l l oM
, r sJ e n k i n sT.h i si sT o n yM a l l e t
B: 3)
B : a H e l l oM . h a tc a nI d o f o r y o u ?
, r M a l l e tW
A: Haveyou got a big garden?
b M r sJ e n k i nssp e a k i n g
c T h i si s M r sJ e n k i n s B: 4)
A: Do you llkelivingin a house/flat?
4 A GoodafternoonCanI helpyou?
B: 5)
B : a I hopeso.
b That'sfine b. Lookat pictureB and in pairsact out a similar
c N o ta t a l l dialogue.
5 A Whencanwe viewthe house?
B : a How abouttomorrowat 1 o'clock?
b l'll seeyou tomorrow,then
c l'll sendsomeoneto lookat it rightaway

6 A : H o w m u c ha r ey o uw i l l i n gt o s p e n d ?
B : a N o ta t a l l .
b Justtwo
c No morethan f600
6
Atlantis dining room, especiallydesignedto be the perfect
14 place for you to enjoy your fish and chips. Every detail in
every room of the hotel, even the bathrooms, has been
carefully chosento give it a fun and unique atmosphere.

1
In fact so much work has gone into making each of the
sixteenrooms special,it is difficult to believe that just one
year before it opened the hotel was a run-down building
with a huge hole in the roof. After replacing the roof and
planning a whole new interior, the owner, aptly named
Mrs Sparkle, began to totally transform the place. She
says, "It was really hard work redecorating each room,
making the curtains, painting the walls and restoring old
furniture; but it was fun as well." Now that the work is
finished and each room has its own make believe theme,
she has no doubts that it was definitelv worth the effort.

Mrs Sparklealwaysdreamt about living in a doll's house


and she is very happy that she has been able to turn this
fantasy into a reality. "Now I just want to be able to
provide a place where other people's dreams can come
true too," she says.
3

There are certainly some amazing rooms to pick from.


Guests can choose to stay in the Teddy Bear's Picnic
room, the Barbie room, the Ruined Castle room, the
Dinosaur den, the Chocolate room or even the African
den, which is designedto make you feel like you're deep
in the jungle complete with toy monkeys and animal
A prints. All the rooms are stockedwith toys and books so
B your children won't get bored, even if the English
weather lets you down.

i. D 4
E
In addition to the fantastic guest rooms, Sparkles has
E
much more to offer its young visitors. Every time you
book a room you can be sure that entertainment,most of
which is organisedby Mrs Sparkleherself,is included in
the package. To give busy parents a break in the
morning, there is the gameshour in the Sparkle'sden, a
large play area, and in the evening, puppet shows and
story-tellingmean that there is never a dull moment.

5
Sparkleshotel offers a fantasyworld for the whole family
to enjoy.So if you want to give your children a holiday to
remember or even to relive your own childhood dreams,
Sparklesis the place for you.

ffi*q*&s=
Whtrntr*r*#ryt% ''...:..|:'....?..:.|.|.:..\.,.:q.:'..:|:.'|.ir,,,......r..a:q,.'|:e

c. In pairs,askandanswerquestions
basedon the
0 text.
r
The SparklesHotel in Blackpool, England is a family hotel A: WhereisiheSparkles
Hotel?
with a difference. What makes it stand out from all the B: InBlackpool
Whattypeof hotel ?
other hotels in town, is that each room has its own
individual theme. There is the Cinderella lounse. where

7
LOANAPPLI'CATI'OTI
Listening
PERSoNALPSAI::.
1 5 (p,) Youwill heara manapplying
for a loan.Listento the
interviewandfill in the
applicationform.Thenask
euer-oY|f$ion,
s)
)ccuP""- A\
andanswelasin the 5) " "
ErnploYer'-:-^i^vment:
'
- Ltr'Y'-
oT
example. Length
.eo9u"
5)
What'syour
name? SalarY:
JohnMichaels. LOANDflAlLS
l,i,^llli*.* ''
"r"r'; an:
b. In pairs,takerolesandact t; of nevr,,\o
out a similardialogue. lrr!tt".',T3,
of loan:
ioi
Amount

Communication:
Givinq
Directions

16 a. Complete with phrases


the dialogue fromthe list.
. go along/up/down . aVonthecorner. on the lefVrig6l. (ust)past . opposite/across
from
. turnrighVleft. takethefirsVsecond r o
etcrighVleft between at thetrafficlights/stop sign/junction/roundabout
. in themiddle
of theblock

A: Excuse me,couldyou tell me how to get to the Parkside restaurant?


B: Of course1) LongStreetand 2) . . . into MillsStreetat the 3)
A: Yes.l've qot that.
B: T h e n ,4 ) . . . . M i l l sS t r e e ta n d t u r n l e f t a t 5 ) Y o u w i l l s e e t h e P a r k s i dree s t a u r a n t
6) l t ' s7 ) . . . . . . . . G i n o ' sP i z z a
T h a n ky o u ,

b. In pairs,askfor andgivedirections
for the followingsituations.

Youareat the museumand you want to go to the ParkHotel


and you want to go to the hospital.
Youareat the chemist's
Youareat the cinemaand vou want to qo to the Fronti6re
cafe
Writing*n aCvertiserneni

Advertisements can be found in a newspaper/magazine


Whirlpool modelAWG320hardly
washer/dryer,
asclassified ads, on the Internetor on notice ooaros
useO, gooO 50
condition-t1
Advertisments normallystartwith information
rent,For sale,Wantedand end with a name and/or a
suchas:For
ci'iriinu,After6Pm227-3905
telephonenumberfor contact A classified ad contains
abbreviationsFull verb forms are not normallyused
Sometimesthey can includea picture An lnternetad
includesa detaileddescriptionlt is usuallycharacterised b . Readthe advertisements
againand answerthe
by full sentences and extensive useof adjectivesto attract followingquestions.
the reader'sattention lt can also includepicturesand
music Advertisements for noticeboardsare rathershort "l What is beingadvertised
in eachcase?
a n di n c l u d e
o n l yt h e m a i ni n f o r m a t i o n 2 Who is goingto readeachadvertisement?
3 lsthe styleusedformalor informal?
a. Readthethreeadvertisements 4 What informationdoesthe writer includein each
17 below.Lookat
thestyleanddecide advertisement?
whereyouwouldfindthem.
. OntheInternet a. Lookat the followingabbreviations
andfill in
18
r Ina newsoaoer the blanks.
o Ona noticeboard
p/f furnished

For rent o..-..-...-..-.. tr f/f fully


GCH Gas ......Heating
{500 pcm, Mitcham, I'{orthLondon. s/c self-contained
Lge ground lloor studio flat, plf, slc with bathroom, d/w d ish
spaciousliving area.Kitchenettehasfridge, mfw, wfm, mtcro
dlw and gas cooker. Secuity systemand GCH. Suit machine
proJ nls. Closeto bus routesand local shops.Available prof professional
immediately.
n/s SmoKer
Contact London PropertyManagementLtd at pcm p e rc a l e n d a r
020 8378 2439 tge

b. Rewriteadvertisement
A usingthe completed
tr acres of
expressions
above.
Situated on 1'5
real
,n" *ott valuable 19 Yourflatmatehasjustmovedout andyou needto
findsomeone to sharethe rent.Usethe
informationbelowandwritethreedifferent
advertisements for:the Internet,
the classified
sectionof yourlocalnewspaper andthe notice
boardin youruniversity cafeteria.

Location: Large- viewof the park- closeto


university
and busto the town centre
Type: 2 bedroomflat
Special
features: f u l l yf u r n i s h e dg,a sc e n t r ahl e a t i n g ,
cooker,washingmachine,dishwasher
Rent: f280 a month
Special
requirements:non-smoker
For more intormatr.u"rniir^
*" at 0207$8
5610 Availability: April l st
rro
Resort Contact: R o b e rJt o h n s o nt e. l :0 1 8 6 5 - 5516 8 8
Interndional
9
i i

While there's Usethe adjectives


themto describe
to complete
the tables,thenuse
yourneighbours.

life,there's . tall . broad-shouldered

r r i il vdud
rE
. square. thick. long
. snub. wide . double. spiky. bushy. muscular
e- m l o -q:yns ou d o
- e pud e- h r r t t n n r : l m n n d - c hJ t. a
u rrLrr h g t un
P rau . l

. blond. oval. in hisearly/late o rosy

hope
teens/twenties
. short. grey. Curlyr dark. freckle6o plump
. gingero medium. hrgh. hooked. fair . overureight

Vocabulary
Age:
Matchthe descriptionsto the people.Write Height/Build:
for the othertwo people.
descriptions
Hair:

Face:
Cheeks:
Eyebrows:

MrJones
isin hislatethirties.
Heistallandwell-built
with...

3 Matchthe phrasesto the peoplein the pictures,


then
usethe phrases
to talkabouttheirdailyroutines.

g e ru p e a n y
t u r no n t h e o v e n s
^"--+i-^,^,;+A *,,.,-l ^^-
P r o L L r ) E V V r L Ir I I t U ) L ' d t t )

startwork at 4 am
performon stage
havebreakfast at 1 pm
f i n i s hw o r k a t 1 p m
startwork at 9 pm
p r e p a r0 eo u g n
h a v el u n c ha t 8 a m
f i n i s hw o r k a t 3 a m
get up late
w r i t em u s i c aal r r a n g e m e n t s
b a k eb r e a d

[tTl ffris personis old with brown eyesand a wide


n o s e H e h a ss h o r t g, r e yh a i ra n da m o u s t a c h e
ETI fnis personis a young adult with hazeleyes,
thick eyebrowsand full lips He hasan ovalface
a n dv e r ys h o r td a r kh a i r
l g T l r f i s p e r s o ni s a y o u n ga d u l tw i t h l o n gs t r a i g h t
b l o n d eh a i r S h e h a s a l o n g f a c e w i t h a r c h e d
eyebrows, greeneyes,a smallnoseand a square
c hi n
ETI fnis personis a youngadultwith an ovalface,a
s q u a r ec h i n a n d a w i d e m o u t h H e h a s b r o w n
eyesand medium-length wavybrownhair
10
4 Fillin the correctwordfromthe listbelow. Underline
thecorrect
word.
7
. visibleo basement. resume. wasteo vibrations 1 She was so sad/nervous/angryabout her
' financially
. transmitted
. registered
. hearing interviewthat sheleft herpurseat home
. electrical
2 Mum was depressed/miserable/furious when she
1 Whenthe children
wentto nursery,
shewasable sawwhat a messwe had madein the kitchen
to nercareer 3 He was delightful/excited/interested when he
2 The interviewwas by satellite found out that his favouritebandwas cominqto
a r o u n dt h e w o r l d . town
3 Bellused. speechto teachdeaf 4 5he is sucha(n)expressive/easy-going/delighted
muteshow to communicate p e r s o nt h a t n o t h i n gs e e m st o a n n o yh e r
4 H e t h o u g h t t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n tw a s a 5 Everyone was annoyed/irritated/shocked by the
. of time soundof the explosion
5 The wirescarriedthe currentro
the socket
6 The young boy lost his as a
resultof an accident
8 Lookat the situations howyou
below.Explain
wouldfeelandwhy,usingthe adjectives
below.
7 He the birth of his son at
Somerset House
8 Sam livesin a flat near the
' Upset' angry. wOrried
centreof town
9 The of the train made the . excitedr irritated
windowsshake . depressed o satrsfied
10 She has been having problems coping
. sinceheraccident

5 Replacethe adjectivesin bold with their opposites. o yourpursewasstolen


. i n f l u e n t i a.l s t r o n g . h u g e . r e m a r k a b l e a yourfavourite
auntisill
. close . exciting. similar a yourparentsboughtyou a new car
1 After the accidentI noticed there was a tiny
a someoneyou know told everyone that you werea
scratchon the cardoor liar
2 Kathyand Henryhavedifferent tastesin music
a a colleague praisedyourwork
a you havebeenstuckin trafficfor an hour
. you didn't get the job you wanted
3 A l e x a n d eG
r r a h a mB e l lw a s a ( n ) o r d i n a r y
lf mypursewasstolen,l'd feel...because
...
4 Therewas a faint smell of perfumein the air

5 That was the most tiresomeplav l've everseen


9 Matchthe words/phrases,
thenusethemto
6 Hisfatherisa veryunimportantpersonin thistown. complete
the sentences
below.

7 | like to spendmy holidayswith distant friends authonty


from
intheclouds
6 Howarethesepeoplerelatedto you?
c h a l ka n dc h e e s e
o yoUfmother's
brother
andsister heart

1 You would neverknow they are twins Thevare


. yourfather'sbrother'ssonand daughter

He is Britain's
yourgrandmother's
brotherand sister
eatingdisorders
I heardthat Tomwas
y o u rh u s b a n d m
'sother
hisjob yesterday
4 Janeis a daydreamer
Shealways
e louf mother'smotherand father

When I was at school,we had to learnpassages


. yourbrother'ssonand daughter
from Shakespeare

11
Completethe sentences with two to five words, 4 A : l t ' sb a dn e w sl ' m a f r a i dJ, i md i d n ' tg e t t h e j o b
i n c l u d i n gt h e w o r d si n b o l d .D o n o t c h a n g et h e B : a W o w ! T h a t ' sa m a z i n!g
m e a n i n go f t h e o r i g i n asl e n t e n c e . b O h n o ! T h a t ' sa s h a m e !
c He mustbe veryexcited
1 Shakespeare is calledone of the greatestwritersof
a l lt i m e
known Shakespeare Speaking
of the greatestwritersof all time 13 a. Inpairs,
lookatthepicture
andcomplete
the
dialogue.
Then,readthedialogue
aloud.
2 H e h a dt o l o s ew e i g h tb e c a u soef h i sh e a l t h
sake He hadto loseweight
h i sh e a l t h
3 l t t o o k h i n a l o n gt i m et o g e t o v e rh i si l l n e s s
from lt took him a longtime to
h i si l l n e s s
4 Samdoesn'twant to playfootballany more
interest Samhas
, footballanymore
5 f nmnrtprq.an nAt \/ifUSeS
ffOm Ihe lnlernet
transmitted Manycomputer
vi'uses
tne Internet

A: Wheredo you think the picturewas taken?


B : l t w a s1 )
1 1 What did peopleuseto do/did not useto do a
hundredyearsago? Usethe promptsand make up
sentences,
as in the example. What doesit show?Can you describe
the picture
to me?
2)
o QroWtheirown vegetables / buy frozenvegetables
r lravelby steamboat/ travelby plane
A : H o wd o y o ut h i n kt h e y o u n gm a nf e e l s ?
. payin cash/ payby creditcard
B : 3)
. readbooks/ surfthe lnternet
. go to the theatre/ go to the cinema
Do you think a degreeis necessary
to a successful
yearsago,peopleusedto growtheirown
A hundred career?
vegetables.They
didn'tuseto buyfrozenvegetables. 4)

A : Are suchceremonies
heldin vourcountrv?
B : s)
12 Circle
thecorrect
response.

1 A l ' m a f r a i dI c a n ' t m a k e i t t o n i g h t ,I h a v et o
studyfor my test tomorrow b. Lookat the pictureandactout a similar
B a T h a t ' sa s h a m e l l t w o n ' t b e t h e s a m e dialogue.
w r t h o u ty o u
b Wow! That'sterrificl
r Yn r mrrct hp vorv ovrj{gl I

2 s h a t ! | j u s tp a s s e m
A G u e sw d y d r i v i n gt e s t !
B a W h a ta s h a m e l
b Y o um u s tb e t h r i l l e !d
c That'stoo bad!
l n H a v ey o u h e a r d ?S a l l yb r o k eh e rl e gs k l i n g
B a O h n o ,h o w a w f u l l
b That'sterrific!
c S h em u s tb e r e a l l yp l e a s e d l

12
ttt'..tt"'t",tt:t'

Reading Whichspeake(s):

14 a. Thepeoplein the pictures


havechanged
their
movedto a new area? irr
re-lA-l
lifestyle.
Whatdo youthinktheyweredoing
t u r n e da h o b b yi n t oa b u s i n e s s ? t2-fl ITF
r - t l
gaveup financialsecurityto work for FTl lf=--r----l rl I
before?Readandcheckif yourguesses
were
t h e i rd r e a m T
correct.
hadto studyin orderto changecareer?| 6Tl
b. Readthearticle againandfor questions
1-11,
choosefromthe speakers
nrofor
YrrrLr
ru r<rl n
v rvavrso tr nera al
lJoLs ut il il ftag) j FTI FI
A-E.Thespeakers isplanning to expand
theirbusiness?FT--l
maybe chosenmorethanonce.Theretsan hadto learna newlanguage? rel--l
example (0)at the beginning. isstartingto becomesuccessful? ftT_-l
l.:]-.-,':,]:.:''.:...:':..:..;.::i...'.;.;.';'."...,i.:]]l]]::1,i.

A
eu"*#f*#V*{ ffi#,eff}T
Bill: I was an accountantat a large accountingfirm in
,.,:.,:. .:
the city. I spent all my time glued to the
computer screen, even at home.
That meant I rarely spent any
t i m e w i t h m y f a m i l y .T h e n .o n e
day it hit me that I was missing
,,
out on the truly important
things in life. My kids were
growing up fast and I felt I
wasn't playing a large enough
,..!.i role in their lives. I knew that it D Sally: When I finished universigr I
was time to give up the rat race and decided to take a year off and work
get back to basics. So, we sold our town abroad. It was a decision which
house and moved to a cottage in the country, wherq changedmy life. I got a job teaching
we have a small market garden. Gardening had been Engtish in Spain, so I packed my
a hobby of mine when I was younger but when I was
clothes,_sloted everything else and
working, I just didn't havethe time. Now I have all the headedfor the Mediterranean.I didn't
time in the world. Financially, life is more difficult, speak a word of Spanish at first, so it
bu! I think it's safe to say that the whole family is took a while to settle in. The pace of life
much happier now that we've escapedfrom the hectic was different, toe:,much slower and more relaxed 'i i
pace of citv life.
than in England. Most of all, though, I noticed the
Jean: Ever sinceI can remember, differencein climate and the way that aflectedmy
I've enjoyed making my own personality.Being under clear blue skiesand a trlazing
clothes.My friends were always sun gave me more ener$/ than I'd ever had befofe.rI
commenting on my original I'elt positive and content. After a few months, I knew
designs, so I often made that I didn't want to leave,so I decided to settle there
clothes for them as well. It and sent for the rest of my belongings.I've been here
never occurred to me that I for three yearsnow; I'm fluent in Spanishand I have a
could make a lMne at it until a tan all year round!
friend of a friend askedme to make her Stewarh The most important lessonI've learnt in my
wedding dressand offered to pay me. Suddenlymore life is that you have to take risks. If there is something
,and more people started approachingme and asking you really want to do, you have to give it a try, evenif
me to rnake clothes for them. It soon reached the rt means giving up the security of receiving a
;poin!,where I was spending all my spare time at the monthly pay cheque.I had alwayswanted to
fwing m4chine and my designs were bringing in write, but with all my commitments, I
more money than my job! I handed in my notice at simply couldn't find the time. Finally, I
'work
and rented a small shopwith a flat abovewhich I decided to follow my dream and that
turned into my workshop. I'm happy to say that meant the job had to go. It's been really
businessis booming: I now employ ten people and I'm hard wo1k, but I'm managing to sell
about to open a secondbranch! enough storles and articles to pay the bills.
C Ann: I used to work as a sales manager in a large lrl-or;v;
ltherelq:a publisher interestgd in my',1i1s1
department store. It was quite a good job, novel:Lrfe just Could9ltbe bet!9il ' :, I ' l' I .:
but not very rewarding.I knew I wanted ''r.*r-,rr*n*,.**,;er,r;;'9',r?;;'"'3vs*:*ri'rYi*ir-';:tt**L*r'*-);i.i:;|

to changemy career:the troublewas,..,


I didn't know whar to do. Then my {
c. Readthearticleagainandsaywhyeachperson
sister suggestedthat I become a changed his/her
lifestyle.
Howdo youfeeltowards
theirdecisions?
13
lIt
Communication:
lntroductions Listening

1 5 a. Completethe dialogue usingthe phrases 1$, Qvou willhearfivepeopletalking


abouttheir
below.Then,in pairs,readthe dialogue
aloud. jobs.Choose
whichof thestatementsA-Frefersto
1-5.There
eachspeaker isoneextraletterthatyou
. Please do . Thankyou. o Please,
callmeTony. donotneedto use.
. l'd liketo introduce
TonvBarton.
A Thisspeakerhasa businesspartner.
A : GoodafternoonPlease, sit down
B Thisspeaker
earnsa highsalary
B: 1)
C Thisspeaker
workslong hours
A : Beforewe get down to business, let me makethe
D Thisspeakerwearscostumes to work
introductionsLisaEdwards, 2)
E Thisspeakerhelpspeopleto loseweight
. Tony'sthe CEOof BartonEnterprises
F Thisspeakeris not happywith theirjob
B : It'sgoodto meetyou at last,Mr Barton
C : 3)
SpeakerFT-] speakerF-fl
A : And TonyBarton,this is Lisa EO*arOs,senio,
speakert2l-1 Speakertsr-l
Consultant
at Unitech
SpeakerEl--l
It'sa pleasure to meetyou May I callyou Lisa?
4)
Wonderful5o, now that we all know eachother,
let's talk about why we are here today Lisa, a biogr aphy
p e r h a pyso uw o u l dl i k et o s t a r tt h e b a l lr o l l i n g
Yes,thankyou.

b. Nowusethe business
cardsbelowto actout
Whenwe write a shortbiography of a person,we divideit
similar
dialogues.
into four paragraphsIn the introduction,we write the
person'sname,date of birth (anddeath)and why he/she
fTC fnternational is famousor important ln the secondparagraph,we
write about his/herfamily background,childhoodand
Stewen philips educationIn the third paragraph,we write abouthis/her:
^-
rvranagjrrg
Djrecfo. careerand achievements ln the conclusionwe write our
c o m m e n tas n d f e e l i n gas b o u tt h e p e r s o na n d t h e i rw o r k .
fel: (O9)
477 B2a]i
rax: (O9r We usuallyuse pasttenseswhen we write a biography,
427 B2aO

IPAC ComPuters

Janet Shaw
Design Consultant
1 7 Whichof the pointsbelowshouldbe includedin a
POBox 1921' Ottawa'
Ontario' Cdada of a famousperson?
shortbiography
(613)723141u
Tei: (613)7281416 Fu:
. importantdates
. physical description
. peoplewho influenced his/herlife
. how other people felt abouthim/her
NUTRICOM ,,1 . f a m i l yb a c k g r o u n d
,.-,'','
., -'
Rachel Barker i . favouritefoods
Nutritionlst . achievements
' zga2
t"l' (oz)oo3 . schooltimetable
' Fax: (02)4632990

----.:vr*.f.?v.r.v,,,t'.t?a:a/at?":'r:it'tr'/:?:!t"'t':tt'i'r't*)t':

. Analysing
a ModelText
6dvec Markefing
Neil Mirchelt
MarketineManager 18 a. Readthe biographyof a famousmusician and
put the paragraphs
in the correctorder.
TeL (oil tSZZ4Z8
Fax; rcil BZ 2436
F a m i l by a c k g r o u n d ,
c h i l d h o o ad n de d u c a t i o n
'&
George Harrison died of Dateof birth/death, '.4
'''r''b"r"""'''":e:tv{'e"v'!'/.
tr
cancerat the age of 58. He will what he is famous for
alwaysbe remembered asa talented
""\
musician as well as a caring and generousman who was
,?r
;19 ,,
..1\q71y11411'y7.e7.14..,",r._..*."r,:{*:.:_,.,-.-.,.,
j
more interestedin making music than being a star.
"di, -1"if..:i
I t" the early 1960's,the band changed its name to "J f f e,L"r
The Beatles. Their first single, 'Love Me Do' was a
Careerand achievements
success and 'Beatlemania' was born. In 1970, The
Beatles disbandedbut Harrison's solo career was only
lust beginning. George went on to releasemany songs,
sometimes combining his talents with other famous
:&
':&
|9,n,rtya*u*.ta'nry:%a*.

f
I
D e a t hc, o m m e n tas n d
musicians.He also started his own record and movie
f e e l i n gasb o u th i m
companiesand was deeplyinvolved in charitywork.

I FI" was born in Liverpool, England where his father


worked as a bus driver. When he was 12 years old, he
met and became good friends with a boy called Paul 20 Read
therubric
below.
Whocouldyouwrite
McCartney who was a member of John Lennon's band, about?
Whatinformation
willyouinclude?
The Quarrymen.In 1958,George, a gifted guitar player,
joined the band too. # A popularliterarymagazineis going to publisha

GeorgeHarrison was born in 1943and died in 2001. $ specialedition of the magazine called Twentieth
I '{, CenturyWriters.
You have been asked to write a
He was the youngest member of a famous pop group
called The Beatles.He was also well known for his sons i biography
of a famouswriterfor the special
edition.
writing and guitar playing.
t : . Making
Com plex
Sentences
t : b . W h i c hp a r a g r a p hisn c l u d et h e f o l l o w i n g ?
: j 21 Jointhe sentences
below,usingthe words in bold.
C a r e ear n da c h i e v e m e n t s
- t
F a m i l by a c k g r o u nadn dc h i l d h o o d
i l 1 He was born in South Africa His family moved
Name,dateof birth/death, what he is famousfor
r ! b a c kt o E n g l a n idn 18 9 6 (but)
Comments/feelings aboutthe person
l 1 2 Tolkienwent to Oxford UniversityHe studied
. B r a i n s t o r mil d
negas E n g l i sLha n g u a gaen d L i t e r a t u r e (where)
3 He servedin the BritishArmy He worked on the
19 Readthe biographical
information
aboutTolkien
and OxfordEnglishDictionary (after)
thenusetheinformation
to complete
thespidergram. 4 He wrote manyshort stories He is most famous
f or TheLordof theRings (although)

John Ronald ReuelTolkien 22 a. Useyouranswersin Ex.19to answer


the
c 1892- 1973 questions
intheplan.
. famousbooks,Ihe Hobbit andTheLordof theRings
.t.'.
. bornin SouthAfrica :'rs)
i l -:;l i
. f a m i l ym o v e dt o E n g l a n idn 1 8 9 6
o !lew up in Birmingham lntroduction
. studiedEnglishLanguage (Paral) Whoareyou goingtowritr about?Whenwas
and Literature at Oxford
he/shebom?Whm did he/she die?Whatis
University
he/she
f amousJor?
. workedon the OxfordEnglish Dictionary
o becamea professor at OxfordUniversity
MainBody
. published firstbook TheHobbitin1937 (Para 2.) Wherewashelsheborn?'\Mhere did he/shtgrow
. publishedTheLordof theRings -
++a up? Whercdid ht/shego to school?
b e t w e e n19 5 4 a n d 19 5 5 (Para 3) '\Mhatwerehis/herearlyjobs? What was his
o son Christopher published m a i nj o b ? W h a td i d h e a c h i e y e ?
..* tr*'. *
Tolkien's otherworksafter
h i sf a t h e rd i e d Conclusion
o creatorof a magicalworld (Para4) \Mhendid he/she
die? How do yout'eelabout
the person?
in TheHobbitand TheLord
of theRings b. Writeyourbiography
usingthe information
above.(120-180
words)
15
il

TravelBroadens 2 a. Matchthe adjectives

snow-capped
to the nouns.

beaches
narrow shops

t h eM i n d unspoiled
expenSrve
r u rn s
souven Irs
ancLent mountarns
handmade SrreerS

b. Lookat the pictures


below.Matchthe items
Vocabulary fromEx.2ato the photographs,
thenmakeup
the
ldentifythe objectsbelow,thencomplete asin the example.
sentences,
sentences.

.I
i;sf't+fE5ifl3fls

It'sexciting
to walkalongRome's
narrowstreets.

3 Complete with the correctwords


the sentences
fromthe listbelow.
. restored
. self-contained
. conveniences
. award-winning. moors aspiring
"
. handmade . wander
1 lf you take some with you when
1 He is a celehritvhecausehe has written three
you go on holiday, you won't get bittenby insects
, novels
You shouldalwayskeepa in the
2 W e b o u g h ta . r u g a t t h e a r t sa n d
carin caseof an emergency
craftsfair
D o n ' te v e rg o s u n b a t h i nwg i t h o u t
3 K e e pa n e y e o n t h e c h i l d r e nD o n ' t l e t t h e m
a n da g o o dp a i ro f
off
When you travel abroad you must take your
4 Weliveina... fl:f:hnvo tha <hon
as identification
5 B e c a r e f u l !A l o t o f n a n n l o n a i l n ci nn iho
l f t h e y l o s ey o u r , t h e a i r l i n ew i l l
at night
payyou compensation
W e b o u g h ta n o l d r u n - d o w nV i c t o r i a n h o u s ea n d
When you go to a nature reserve,don't forget
. . . i t t o i t so r i g i n acl o n d i t i o n
your so you will be ableto seethe
H es p e n d as l l h i sf r e et i m e p r a c t i s i nt gh e p i a n o H e
a n i m a lm s o r ec l e a r l y
i sa ( n ) pianist
Unfortunately we forgot our , so
Our caravanhasall the : a cooker,
w e c o u l d n 'tta k ea n yh o l i d a sy n a p s
a fridge,and evena microwave oven.

16
itlliiltilLt'r
nrr uun,,.,.,o,,
4 Underline
the correctword(s),
thenmatchthe b. Usethe wordsfromEx.5ato talkaboutthe
sentences
to the meansof transportin the pictures weatherin yourcountry.
below.

Pleasemake sureyour seat belt is tied/fastened Circle


thecorrect
6 response.
d u r i n gt a k e - o faf n d l a n d i n g
b Don'tdrinkand drive/steer 1 A: Wouldyou liketo cometo the cinemawith us
Do not pull cord, exceptin caseof a(n) danger, tonight?
emergency B : a l ' m n o t s u r e i ' l l l e ty o u k n o wt o m o r r o w
D o n o t t a l k t o / l o o ka t t h e d r i v e w
r h i l ev e h i c l e
i si n b l ' d r a t h e rn o t , l ' m n o t k e e n o n C h i n e s e
motion food
e Thelifeboats/lifeguards areon the upperdeck c T h a n k sl ,' d l o v et o
f It is illegal/wrongnot to weara helmet
!#* 2 A Haveyou got time for a coffee?
:.1, - B a I'd loveto, but l'm just goingfor a coffee
*; b No thanks,I onlydrinkcoffee
=:.-
,.* c Yes,that'sa greatideaI

3 A : That new band is playingat The Palaisnext


+4a:
S a t u r d anyi g h t I w a sw o n d e r i n igf y o u ' dl i k et o
go
B : a T h a tw o u l db e g r e a t I l o v et h e b a l l e t l
b I d o n ' t r e a l l yf e e l u p t o i t l ' m a b i t t i r e d
today
c l ' d r a t h e rn o t l ' m n o t k e e no n p o p m u s t c

4 A: There'sa reallygood play on at the theatre


S h a lIl b u yt i c k e t s T
B : a S o r r yI ,c a n ' tb u yt h et i c k e t sl ' m w o r k i n ga l l
day
b T h a tw o u l db e g r e a t !
c l ' m n o t s u r ei f I c a nm a k ei t l ' v eg o t t o b u y
ticketsfor the theatre
5 a . Readthe sentencesbelow and replacethe
words in bold with their oppositesfrom the list.

. warmer . below . sheltered. wet 7 Completethe sentences with two to five words,
i n c l u d i n gt h e w o r d si n b o l d .D o n o t c h a n g et h e
. freezingcold . dull . heavy. clear
m e a n i n go f t h e o r i g i n asl e n t e n c e .

I n t h e m o r n i n g ,n o r t h e r na r e a sw i l l e x p e r i e n c e
1 | enjoy eating in expensiverestaurants, buying
c l o u d ys k i e sw i t h t e m p e r a t u r easr o u n d1 O ' C
expensiveclothesand travelling
firstclass
There may be some light showersin the early
finer I enjoy
evenrn9
r nl i f e
F u r t h esro u t h ,i t s h o u l db e m u c hc o o l e rw i t h s o m e
c l o u d sl a t e ri n t h e d a y 2 We stayedin a hotel that was very closeto the
Temperatures are goingto remainabove freezing 0eacn
a l ld a y throw We stayedin a hotelthat was
5 On Saturday we canexpectit to be boilinghot , from the beach
6 To summarise, it's goingto be a cool and dry day 3 Therewere a lot of peoplewe wantedto inviteto
for mostof the country o u rw e d d i n g
T h e r ew i l l b e s p e l l so f b r i g h ts u n s h i nteh r o u g h o u t extensive We had an
theday for our wedding
Temperatures in exposedareaswill be about2"C
4 | wantedto try all the localdishes
'l mtSs I d i d n ' tw a n t t o
5 a n yo f t h e l o c a dl i s h e s
2 6
3 5 T h i sc l a yp o t w a sm a d ei n t h e m i d d l ea q e s
4 dates Thisclaypot
8
t h e m i d d l ea g e s

17
W h e nI h e a rm y c h i l d r e nl a u g h i n ga, l l m y t r o u b l e s
areforgotten "'
'
\.-.'.
,,.^"..,,
.-,,.''"';
''n:t:-.,.,..
t- --.o,-.,.,,,:.:r.--
.,.:),

washed All my troubles " _.-_;


w h e nI h e a rm y c h i l d r e n laughing
7 T h eh o t e li s i n t h e c e n t r apl a r to f L o n d o n
heart Thehotelis
London
8 Be sure to make full use of the hotel facilities
d u r i n gy o u rs t a y
advantageBesurethat you
duringyourstay
the hotelfacilities

8 Readthe sentences. Who would saythe following


in a hotel:a maid (/14)?
a guest(G)?the hotel
0 r
manager (HM)?
Close your eyesand imagine the perfect beach. Soft white
W o u l dy o u l i k em e t o m a k eu p y o u r
sand,beautiful blue sea,and the temperature a constant30
room now?
degreesCelsius.But wait, there's more: no risk of sunburn,
C o u l dI b o o ka d o u b l er o o mf o r n e x t
no insects or bugs, no sharks or jel\.fish, and, at regular
Thursday? intervals, the best surfing waves imaginable. Too good to
l ' m a f r a i db r e a k f a si st n ' ti n c l u d e idn be true? Not anymore.Thanks to modern technology and
theprice the miraclesof science,this beach really doesexist and it is
a S h a lIl c h a n g ey o u rt o w e l s ? on the island of Kyushu in southernJapan.
o How do I dialroomservice?
1
o W h a tt i m ed o e st h e r e s t a u r a notp e n ?
. I w i l l c a l ls o m e o n teo h e l py o uw i t h In a resort complex called Seagaiayou will find the Ocean
y o u rl u g g a g e Dome. The Ocean Dome contains,among other things,
. I hopeyou will havea verypleasant the world's largestartificial seabesidethe biggestindoor
beach.It is roughly the size of six football fields and has
staywith us
an 85-metre shoreline. The soft white sand is actually
made of crushed marble chips, which won't stick to your
skin, and the water is salt free and chlorinated. The
9 Tickthe correctpreposition,then makesentences
temperature of the water is kept at 28'C and the air is
usingthe phrases,as in the example.
kent at 30"C.

from , of with about 2


The Dome has everythingyou would expectto find on a
big tropical island: caves,waterfalls, small islands,palm
trees and that's just the beginning.There is a man-made
volcano that erupts at regular intervals, waterslides,a
wave pool and even a virtual reality raft ride where
: ,,- -: ,,
passengersare tossed,shakenand splashedwith water.

Shehasbeenabsent
fromworkfor
fivedavs.
There is plenty to do for the whole family in Seagaiaand,
if you want a break from the beach, you can visit the
'Lost
Reading World' rainforest. This is a Jurassic Park style
jungle full of artificial creaturesand holographicpirates.
a. Thepictures showa newtypeof resort.What There is also a beach carnival held every afternoon with
10
do youthinkit is?Howdo the pictures relateto dancers and musicians dressedin colourful Caribbean
the title of the article?
Readthe articleand costumesand in the eveningthere is a spectacularshow
put on by aquaticdancers.
checkyouranswers.
4
b. Readthe articleagainandchoose the most
In Seagaiayou don't even have to carry any money with
suitableheading fromthe listA-l for each you. Visitors pay an admissionfee at the entrance and
paragraph 1-7.Thereisoneextraheading are given colour coded barcode tags, which they use
whichyou do not needto use.Thereis an instead of cash. This type of holiday is wonderful for
example (0)at the beginning. anyone who enjoys lying on the 'beach' or swimming in
the 'sea' without havins to check the weather forecast
1B .. ,.,:.t *?.b_,,,-.,,.,,,,.,,.....::ll:ll:l?7**..,-.,..,:::,:tzl?,,,t,t,t
tt%.rr,.a,o..,,,.,,,.a'ra \

L'llL'illlillLuutrruuuunmrrnxilrxrrnn!ilrnrxnil!ilnn!!n
Lrsientng

11 Youwill hearpeopletalkingin fivedifferent


situations.
Forquestions 1-5,choose the best
answer,A B,or C.

Listento JoantellingPamabout her holiday.Why


didn't sheand her husbandenjoythemselves?
A S o m e o nh e i t h e rh u s b a n d
B H e rh u s b a n w d a si l l
C Thefood wasterrible

You are at the airport when you hear this


conversationbetween a memberof staff and a
passenger. What is the woman'sproblem?
A S h ec a u g h t h e w r o n gp l a n e
B S h ec a n ' tf i n d h e rh a n d b a g
C S h eh a si o s th e rl u g g a g e

3 You overheara man talking to his friend. Why


d i d t h e m a n m i s sh i st r a i n ?
A T h ed e p a r t u rtei m e sh a db e e nc h a n g e d
B Hiswatchwaswrong
C Thestationwas verybusy

4 You are in a hotelwhen you hearthis conversation


between a man and the receptionist. What is the
problem?
A Hisroomls not readyyet
B The hotelis full
Naturally, no island holiday is complete without hxury
C Thehotelhasdouble-booked
hisroom
hotels, boutiques and a wide variety of restaurantswith
everythingfrom fine dining to fast food, and Seagaiahas 5 You hear a woman describingher holidayto a
them all. There are even several theatres,golf courses friend.What doesshe complainabout?
and tennis courts. The Ocean Dome feels so real that A Herhotelroom
visitors to the resort still use suntan lotion and wear B Thebadweather
sunhats even though the 'sunlight' is artificial and
C Thefood in the hotel
harmless.

The Dome itself actually has a roof that opens but it is C o m m u n i c a t iB


onu .y i nSgt a m p s
only used when the weather outside is at the same
temperature as the weather inside the dome. It is also 12 a. Matchcolumn A to columnB,thenin pairsact
quite ironic that the Ocean Dome was built only 300 out thedialogue.
metres away from the real ocean.Strangelyenough, the
real beach is usually quite empty even on hot and sunny A B
days becauseholidaymakersseem to prefer the safety, E] Excuse me Do a T h a t ' lbl e f o u rd o l l a r s .
comfort and predictabilityof the artificial beach. y o us e l ls t a m p s ? please
ffi
lzl I O h ,w e l ll w a n t t o You'rewelcome
s e n ds o m e Havea niceday
Nowadays,theme parks are springing up everywhereand ^^.+--"^l- +^
pu)Llot u) LU H o w m a n yd o y o u
it looks like virtual reality holidays are going to be the
England need?
way of the future. After all, they are cleaner, safer and ffi

far more convenientthan real holidays.However,can we l5l Letme see Ten,


I No probleml'vegot
really compare the experienceof sitting on an artificial Ithink plentyof change
beachwith man-madesandunder a fake sun to a day on m O h , l ' v eo n l yg o t a That'ssixteen dollarsfor
a real beach? Where is the challenge in surfing man- t w e n t y - d o l l ab ri l l youandten stamps
made waves when you know exactly how big they are IET_I Thankyou very Yes,we do Whereare
going to get and exactlywhen they are going to appear? much theyfor?
More importantly, where is the fun in coming back from
a seasideholiday without tan lines? llgYt:t..,..

'zt2lryt&71?t?wv::.:,t?,a/7r..?&.
' ,.""tt''tttt:7v"?t'{"'t'':'ttl:"|t::lttttr\:t":l
19
b. Nowusethe promptsto actout similar b. Lookat the pictures
andin pairsactout a
dialogues. similar
dialogue.

. America/ Five/ Two . A u s t r a l i/aE i g h/t T h r e e


p o u n d s / A t ep
no u n d pounds/Afiftypound
note note

5peaKrng
13 a. Lookat the picture thedialogue.
andcomplete

Writing

4?.iE:
'.tt u -

When we write an articledescribing a festival,eventor


celebration we attended, we usually writefour paragraphs
I nt h e i n t r o d u c t i o n
we include g e n e r ai ln f o r m a t i oanb o u t
t h e e v e n ts u c ha si t s n a m e w
, h e r ea n dw h e ni t i s h e l da n d
what the celebration is for In the secondparagraphwe
write about the preparations for the event ln the third
paragraphwe describethe aciual event itself In the
c o n c l u s i o nw, e w r i t e o u r i m p r e s s i o n rse, a c t i o n sa n d
A: What'sthe p r o b l e m ? recommendations We usuallyusepresenttensesto write
B: It seemsto m et h a t 1 ) aboutsomethingthat happens everyyearor continues for
A: Wherearet h e yg o i n g ? some time and past tenses to describeour actual
B: They2) experiences at the event We useadjectives to makeour
A: How arethey related? description moreinterestingWe can alsousethe passive
B: I t h i n kt h e y3 ) when
theu'out] -0":"::lf'l,tl.:'n"'.l
A: W h e r ed o y o ut h i n kt h e ya r e ?
l'':'"
B: Somewhere 4) . TopicSentences
A: What time of the yearis it?
B: It's5)
A: How do you know? 14a Readthe articleand fill in the blankswith the
correcttopic sentencefrom the list below.
B: 6)

A Thepreparations take months


A What do you t h i n kt h e ya r eg o i n gt o d o ?
B T h ef e s t i v awl a sf u n ,e n t e r t a i n i nagn de d u c a t i o n a l
B: Well,7) a T h eM i l w a u k e e N a t i v eA m e r i c a nI n d i a nF e s t i v ai sl
t r u l ya n a m a z i n gevent
A : W h a tw o u l dy o u d o i n a s i m i l asr i t u a t i o n ?
D The celebrations began at 4pm and there was
B:8)
plentyto seeand do

20
#
%,
wffiw ffi 17a Usethe adjectives
in the listto definethe
for three days in September every year,
nounsthat follow.Someadiectives canbe used
!
thousands gather in Milwaukee, USA, to morethanonce.
celebrateIndian culture. Last year, I was luclqi . spicy. colourful. spectacular o loud
enough to attend the festival and experience
' mouth-wateringr 6;3tt;.ul. local. traditional
it for myself.
. lively. handmade . culturalo delicious
. annual
! Dance teamsfrom all over the country
practise to compete in the tribal Pow Wow festival
dancecontest.Indian craftsmenwork to produce the many food
traditional items on display.Then, in the week before the . costumes
festival, the stalls are put up and the food is prepared, so MUSIC
that eveq4hingwill be ready for the big day.
b. Completethe paragraphs
with adjectives
from
I I uirlt"O a traditional Indian village, watched skilled
craftsmen carve totem poles, and even learned how to do Ex.17a.
tribal Indian dancing. It was also a great opportunity to
The ChindoFestival is a(n) 1)
sample some traditional native dishes,like corn bread and
festivalheldeveryyearin springThelocal
buffalo burgers.
peoplewear 2) costumesand
I It was a wonderful way to learn about Native
performfolk dancesand musicTheyeat
American culture and celebratethe end of summer.
3) Koreanfood and have a
greattime
b . Whatdid the writerthinkof the festival?
How
do you know?Underline the words/phrases The VeniceCarnjvalis a(n)4)
whichshowthe writer'sopinion. festival whichlastsfor ten daysin winter
everyyear Peoplewear 5)
Whattensesdoesthe writeruse?Whv? m a s k sa n d p a r a d et h r o u g ht h e s t r e e t s
Thereare lotsof 6) concerts
. Pa r a g r a p
Plha n n i n g a n db a l l st o a t t e n d

1 5 a. Belowisthe planfor a festivaldescription.


Matchthe paragraphs to the information. Thepeopleof Rotterdam, Holland,hold :'rl r
%=.'q&
a(n)7) summerfestivalThere ,rr:L --.
Paragraphs Information is lois of 8) musicand the :i#3
Para1 A Description of the actualevent people put on 9) . . costumes ..)
Para2 B l m p r e s s i o an ns d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s and dancein the streetsand squaresof
t
P a r a3 C Nameof festival, where/when/ the city. a.

Para4 why it takesplace


18 a . R e a dt h e r u b r i cb e l o wa n d t h e n a n s w e rt h e
D Preparatlons for festival
q u e s t i o n si n t h e p l a n .
b. Readthe articleagainandmakenotesfor each
S A travelmagazine is goingto publish
a special
feature
paragraph.
Then,talkaboutthe Milwaukee
NativeAmerican IndianFestival. f on festivals
andhasaskedits readers to sendin articles
f describing a festivalthey have attendedwhich is
I important in theircountry.
16 Rewritethe followingparagraph,
puttingthe verbs
in boldin the passive.
Whichparagraph
fromthe
planin Ex.15is it?
t;t :::

lntroduction
'What
(Paral) is theJestivalcalled?Where/When/Why
d o e si t t a k ep l a c e 2

Main Body
(Para2) 'What
preparations
take place?
(Para3) What actuallyhappensat thef estival?

Conclusion
(Para4) What areyour intpressions,
f edings,
recomm endations?

b. Writeyourarticlein 120-180words.Youcan
usethe articlein Ex.14aasa model.
21
-1'-
:i''
!i1
il,l
!alj

Earthis
..:...1.
.i

iri
j'":

:it

Dearer
than
Gold
i
Vocabulary
Matchthe wordsin A andB to formcompound
nouns,thenusethemto complete the sentences
below.
A -qqrbd'
% B q
k4t
acid sPec\es
g\oba\ f ue\s
fossr\ so\ar :rr'
sP\\\)
crists
endanqered po\!eI b. Whichof the problemsbelowdo the headlines
ener9Y raln
andoicturesreferto?
o\\ \aVer
ozone warming . airpollution
. deforestation
. drought
r waterpollution

a
I . r sc a u s r nag risein oceanlevels c. Whichof the followingshouldwe do to fight
2 Aerosol sprays are helping f ^ d a < f r n r r t h o airpollution?
Canyouaddideasof yourown?

We must find alternativesourcesof power to . usepublictransport moreoften


avoida(n) . finecompanies polluting
theair
d a m a g e so u r l a k e s r, i v e r sa n d . reusean0recycte
forestsaswell as our buildings . stopproducingandusingCFC's
Energyfrom the sun can be used to produce . develop
cleanenergy cars
. userenewable sourcesof energy
6 p o l l u t eo u r s e a sa n d b e a c h e s . conserve
energy at homeandat work
^^,1 t,;tl
dilu KilrmanySeacteatures
7 Unfortunately,
whaleshavebecomea(n)
3 Underline
the correctword.

8 W e a r e r u n n i n go u t o f , so Solarbatteriescan captureand renew/storethe


h:va tn st:rt rrsinn niher cnr rrroq nf nnrnior
s u n ' se n e r g y
Nuclearenergy/power stations are considered
d a n g e r o ubsy m a n yp e o p l e
2 (A-D)tothe pictures
Matchthe headlines (1-4).
5o manypeopleareswitchingto organicfood that
it isverydifficultfor the public/supply to meetthe
demand/need
We will soonrun out of fossilfuelsso we mustfind
newer/alternative formsof energy
Wind twirlings/turbinesdo not disturbcattle,so
wind farms provide good grazing/hunting
grounds
Hydroelectric power plants/farmsmust take care
not to flood the neighbourhood/surrounding
area
lf we don't start usingreusable/renewable forms
o f e n e r g ys o o n ,t h e p r i c eo f f u e l i s g o i n gt o g o
u p / s k yh i g h .

22
4 a. Whatcanwe do to becomemore 4 A: Do you think you could be more careful
environmentallyaware?Usethe listof Dosand T U I UT E1
Don'tsIomakeup sentences,thenmatchthem B: a Of courseSorryaboutthat
to the pictures. b l ' v eh a de n o u g h
c I s h o u l dt h r n ks o ,t o o

A : H o wa b o u ts t a r t i n ga c l e a n - ucpa m p a i g n ?
B : a l ' d l o v et o g o
b That'snot a bad idea.
c R i g ht h e n

A: Thankyou verymuch
B : a W h yn o t ?
b Alright
c N o ta t a l l

6 Matchthe wordsin ColumnA to thosein Column


B,thenusethe phrases
to completethe sentences
below.

A B
the lion's off to
havebutterflies i n h e rs t o m a c h
t a k et h e b u l l neart
t a k em y h a t share
lose bythe horns

1 J o h nd e c i d e tdo and
^ . t . A ; - t - ^ - - r ^ . - ^pay
dsK nrsDossror a - . , flse
I really Cathy She
efi"{ut h a sm a d et h e g a r d e nl o o kb e a u t i f u l
o separate and recycle " p u t a l lr u b b i s hi n t h e T h ee x p l o r e rdsi d n ' t
rubbish sameilrn evenwhen theirfood supplies ranout
o u s ea h a n d - h e lhdo s e o l e a v es p r i n k l e or sn a l ld a y 4 Sarahwasso nervousthat she
' t a k ep u b l i ct r a n s p o r t . useca[ everyday
beforeher interview.
u switchoff lightswhen ' l e a v et h e l i g h t so n a l lt h e 5 Ann workedveryhardon the projectso sheshould
leaving a room time get of the bonusmoney

putalltherubbish
Weshouldn't in thesame
bin.Weshould
separate it,(picture
andrecycle B)
7 Tickthe correctpreposition,then makesentences
usingthe phrases,as in the example.
b. In pairs,suggest
otherwaysto helpthe
environment.

5 Circlethe correctresponse.

1 A: Areyoubusytonight,Bob?
B: a lf youreally
wantto
b I don'tthinkso Why?
c Doyouthinkthat's a goodidea?
2 A C a nI t a l k t o y o uf o r a m o m e n tp, l e a s e ?
B a That'stoo bad
b N o ta t a l l
c Yes,I supposeso
3 A : What'sthe matter? Shewas gratefulto her teacherfor hisguidanceand
B : a l ' m f e du p pattence.
b l'd loveto
c That'stoo bad

23
Lookat the pictures
andusethe promptsto Reading
compare andcontrast them.
10 a. Lookat thepictures.
Which
of these you
should
findout aboutbeforeyouvisita foreign
countrv?Givereasons.

TravelDiary G u i d eB o o k s
. busy/quiet . stressful/relaxing
. healthy/unhealthy o nniqrr/noarofr rl

. clean/dirty o safe/dangerous Money

o . Youaregoingto readan articleabouttourism.


Forquestions
(1-7),choose
the correctanswer
A,B,CorD.

Picture
Ashows
a busytownwhereas
...

Speaking
Many of us look forward to our summer holidays all
9 a. Lookat the pictureandin pairs,complete
the year. We can't wait to get awayfrom our everydaylives,to
dialogue. visit new places,try new things,orjust to relax and lie in the
sun.But how many of us think about the effect our holidays
have on the placeswe visit?
Although tourism has many benefits, such as bringing
extra money into the local economy,there are alsonegative
effects. Tourism can do all sorts of damage to the
environment, the culture and the people of a country,
especially in places which aren't prepared for large
numbers of holidayrnakers.In recent years there has been
a large increase in the number of independent travellers
who want to get off the beaten track, and this has meant
A: W h a td o y o ut h i n kt h e p i c t u r es h o w s ? that many remote destinationsare having to adjust to new
B: 1) visitors.
A: Wheredo you 2) It certainly isn't all bad news though. The last few years
B: C e n t r aAl m e r i c a have also seen a huge increase in 'eco-tourism'. This is 17
A: How doesthe picturemakeyou feel? tourism where holidaymakerstry to have a positive effect
B: Well,3) on the people and places that they visit. If you are really
A: W h yd o y o ut h i n ki h i si s h a p p e n i n g ? committed to this idea, then you can spend your holidays
B: I t m i g h t4 ) helping out on an organic farm in Britain, or taking part in
conservationprojects in Africa or the Amazon rainforest.
A: W h a td o y o ut h i n kn e e d st o b e d o n e ?
Don't worry, though, if this doesn't sound like your idea of
B: I t h i n k5 )
a holiday. Wherever you go and whatever you want to do,
b . I n p a i r sa
, c t o u t s i m i l a rd i a l o g u e as b o u tt h e there are still ways to make sure that you have the best
picturesbelow. possibleimpact on your holiday destination.
If you are headingoff to a place for the first time, it is an
excellentidea to find out as much about it as you can. A
guidebookis a great placeto start.As well aslearning about
the local placesof interest,you can read about the wayyou
will be expectedto behave and dress.This can saveyou
from making embarrassingmistakes and means that you
are less likely to upset or offend your hosts.Don't stop at
the guideboo( though. If you can, listen to some music or

I l l L :I L r t r r - . - - "
"-"--"-,
1 Tourismdoesthe most damagein countries
A where there has been an increasein eco-
touilsm
B whicharen'treadyfor a lot of tourists
C w h e r et h e r ea r e a l o t o f p e o p l et r a v e l l i n og n
t h e i ro w n
D which havea stronglocaleconomy
Festiva
ls
2 W h a t i s m e a n tb y ' e c o - t o u r i s mi n' l i n e 1 7 ?
A Helping o u t o n o r g a n i cf a r m s
B Helpingto conserve the rainforests
C Havinga positiveeffecton the environment
History D Helpingplacesto get usedto new visitors

3 What shouldyou do beforeyou take your eco-


holidays?
A B u ya g u i d e b o o k
B Learnhow to dress
C Findout aboutthe localattractions
D L e a r na b o u ty o u rd e s t i n a t i o n

Music T r a d i t i o nD
a li s h e s 4 How can a tourist help the economy of a
country?
A Bargainfor everything they buy
:ead some literafure from your chosen destination. B Buy the goods and servicesprovidedby the
Knowing a little about the place that you are visiting before r o c apr e o p l e
r ou leave can make your holiday much more enjoyable C Paya fair pricefor everything
,,r.hen you arrive. D B u ye x p e n s i vi m
e p o r t e db r a n d s
It is also important to think about how you spend your
inoneywhen you are on holiday. Whenever you can, try to W h a t i s m e a n tb y ' c a n m a k ea b i g d i f f e r e n c e
to
:ut it into the local people's hands. You can do this by somepeople'in lines48 and 49?
;ating and drinking local products rather than imported A Youcanchangetheirlives
"rrands,
stayingin locally owned accommodationand using B Youcanhelpto preserve theirlocalenvironment
.ocal guides. In some parts of the world, you might be C Youcan helpthem to havea betterlife
:elatively well off compared to the local population. Even D Youcanbe fair
n placeswhere you are expectedto haggle or bargain,you
should alwayspay a fair price for things. Remember that What do eco-touristorganisationssay about
'n'hatmight be a very small tourism?
amount of money to you, can 48
inake a big difference to somepeople. A lf we show consideration for the placeand
Another important thing for the eco-touristis to have as people,we will havea moresatisfying holiday
iittle effect on the local environment as possible.This is B l f w e v i s i t u n u s u a lp l a c e sw
, e s h o u l dl e a v e
easyto do if you follow some common-senseadvice.Don't themjust aswe foundthem
teave litter lying around and use biodegradable products
C lf we havea holidayin a new place,we should
n rr'heneverpossible. If resourceslike water or fuel are in
makesurewe will be welcomethere
short supply, then use as little of these as you can, and of
D lf we visita foreigncountry,we shouldtry to
course you should never buy products made from rare
plants or endangeredanimals. If you are luclcyenough to supportthe localeconomy
risit a truly exotic destination such as a coral reef, remote The writer'sattitude to eco-tourismis
mountain or desert region, or a rainforest then you should
A hopeful
try to leave it exactlyas you found it, so that future visitors
B disappointing
can enjoy it just asyou did.
C interesting
Eco-tourism organisations say that respecting the
culture and environment of the places that you visit will D supportive
lead to much more rewarding and enjoyableholidays.If we
try to encouragethe local economy,leave the environment
undamaged and are aware of the different laws and What was the writer'spurpose?How muchdo
attitudes in the placeswe visit, then all of us can enjoy our you agreewith his/herpoints?
'eco-holidays'
much better now and in the future. With
more and more of us planning holidays in new locations
everyyear, we should all do our bit to make sure that we are
alwayswelcomewhereverwe go.

25
Listening Complaining
i, .7You aboutfiveevents.For
will hearinformation 13 a. Fillin the gapswith the sentencesbelow,then
11
questions 1-5,decidewhicheventA-F istaking in pairs,readthedialogue aloud.
placeon eachday.Useeacheventonlyonce.There r Sorry to havebeena nuisance
is oneeventwhichyoudo not needto use. . O h .l a ms o r r y
. Youare,asa matterof fact
A Youcan planttrees FI vonday
ffi- . lsanything thematter?
B Y o uc a nc l e a nu p a l o c a l a k e lz | | tuesoay
C Youcanhelpcollectrubbish l3Tl wednesday A : H e l l o.,J o h nC o u l dI h a v ea q u i c kw o r d w i t h y o u ,
D You can cycleeverywhere FTI thursday please?
E Youcanvisita recycling plant FTI rriday B : S u r e 1)
F You can learn how to be
A: Well,actually,l've beenmeaningto speakto you
energyefficient
aboutthe noisefrom yourhouse
B: NoiseA ? r ew e b e i n gt o o l o u d ?
Communication: A : W e l l ,y e s 2 )
We'vebeenhavingtroublesleeping
R e p o rti nagmi ssi nagn i ma l
3).... ldidn'trealise
y o u c o u l dh e a ra n y t h i n g
12 a. Matchthe exchanges, then in pairs,readthe It's the musicyou play late at night that's the
d i a l o g u ea l o u d . pro0rem.
B: 'Oh, OK We'lltry to keepit down 4)
A
[iTlcan I helpyou, madam?
Don'tworryaboutit Thanks,
John
ETl ofr dear What kindof dog is it?
l3TlI see Hassheevergonemissingbefore?
b. Nowusethe promptsto actout similar
FTI t\ow, let me makea noteof yourdetails.
dialogues.
ETI was shewearinga collar?
ETI can I haveyournameand telephoneplease?
FTI oon't get upsetMrsBrown l'm surewe'llfind her
B
a No l'm veryworried
b Yes she'soot a redonewith her nameand
address on it
c Y e s S h e i l aB r o w n A n d m y t e l e p h o n en u m b e ri s
2296188
q Erm yes l'm afraidmy dog hasgonemissing
e O h ,t h a n ky o u
T
S h e ' sa L a b r a d o rS h e ' sg o t g o l d e nf u r a n d b i g
Gary/ noise- motorbike/ S u s a /n n o i s e- k i d s / c a n ' t
brown eyes
wakesme up everymorning/ hearourselves think/
T h a n ky o u
a problemwith engine/ get s h o u t i n ga n ds c r e a m i n/ g
fixed t e l lb e q u i e t
b . Now usethe promptsto act out similar
dialogues.
Writinganinfcrmal
ietter"of
advice

"+' : -?:ffi:
. _ 1 .1 . , r
l i-:.i .
.'\\'l'''
a

, When we write an informalletterof advice,we usually t


write four paragraphsIn the introductionwe express
1 sympathyand say that we understand the problemor !
i that we thinkwe canhelp.Inthe mainbody(Paras 2 - 3), :
I

! we make suggestions and give our reasonsWe write !


tabby- brownand black- poodle- white- browneyes/ . each suggestion in a separateparagraph.In the
g r e e ne y e s/ b l u ec o l l a -r browncollar- address and i conclusion, we writeour closingremarks,
andsignoff. !
^ -n a m ea n d p h o n en u m b e r p n o n en u m o e r i.*
""_*. _.,.,.
- .___",--_.-,
z_o
a. Readthe letterof advice
belowandunderline
14 16 Matchthesuggestions
to thecorrect
reasons.
the correctverb.Thenanswerthe Then,makecomplete
sentences,asintheexample.
Suggestions
fjT-l Ouya toy bone for it
l2Tl tate it for a longwalkeverymorningandevening
[3Tl moveinto a housewith a garden
ETI take it to Dog Obedience School

Reasons
a l e a v ey o u rp u p p yo u t s i d ed u r i n gt h e d a y
b i t w o n ' t w a n t t o r u n a r o u n ds o m u c hd u r i n gt h e
day
c you won't haveto trainit yourself
I am so glad to hear that you 1) havi"t d it won't chewyourfurnitureor shoes
, deciding to move to London, It'Il be great to have a friend
' trom home living here. We'll be able to do thingstogether 1- d lf I wereyou,
I'dbuya toyboneforit.Thatwayitwont
; like we 2) would/usedto. In your letter you 3) asked/were chew yourfurniture
or shoes.
' askingme to giveyou someadviceaboutfinding a flat; here
aresomesuggestions.
' If I were you, I would start by 4) checks/checkingthe 1 7 a . Readthe rubricbelow and then answerthe
: classified advertisementsin the London papers. For q u e s t i o n si n t h e p l a n .
i example,the 'Daily Mail' and the 'EveningStandard'have
:1argesectionswith housesand flats for rent. That way,you , Your friend hasjust written you a letter askingfor
w
; rvill be ableto seewhat is availablefor rent at the moment. gt
advice.Readthe extractfrom the letter below,then
I Another good idea is to contact an estate agent. writea letterof advice
to vourfriend.
: GoldshmidtandHowland5) have/arehavingofficesall over
i London.That way you can get a list of all the placesin the
i areayou want at a priceyou can afford.
Howore you?I'msonyI hoven'twrittenfor so
. I hope this 6) helps/ishelping. Pleaselet me know how longbut sinceI stortedmy new job I'vebeen
i thingsturn out. Ifyou needanythingelse,pleasecall. very busyActuolly,I'mwritingbecouseI need
, Love, yourcdvice.We hovejustgot o puppyond I'm
r Mandv
t*.

+ l!:l 1 What isthe styleof the letter?Why?


2 What arethe suggestions (andreasons)
given?
3 What advicewouldvou oiveto Fiona?

b. Readthe letter againand fill in the reasons.


,t:a

Suggestion a Reason
checkclassified i
advertisements : lntroduction
contactan estate Dear+ your friend's first name
(Para1) What is the problem?Canyou help?
agent

MainBody
15 Usethe expressionsin the box to give advicein the
(Para2) What is your first suggestion?
What is the
followingsituations. reason?
(Para3) What is your secondsuggestion?'What is the
o Yourfrrendhaslosthis/herwalleVpurse
reason?
o Yourfriendwantsto go abroadfor the firsttime
r Yourfriendlosthis/heroassoort
Conclusion
'1 (Para4) How canJou encourage
your t'riend?
*i*: Love/Good luck, etc
.=r=F Haveyou everthoughtof .. / lf I wereyou
YourJirst name
A n o t h e rg o o di d e ai s / W h yd o n ' ty o u / T h e

b. Useyouranswers to writeyourletter.Youcan
usethe letterin Ex.14aasa model.

27
Earlyto Matchthe verbsin ColumnA to the words/
phrases
in Column B.Thenusethecompleted
to talkaboutyourdailyroutine.
phrases

Bed a a a A
go
B
my hair/myface
+-1.^
tdNc my teeth
wash tnebus
Vocabulary OTUSN to bed
aAt breakfasVlunch/dinner
Whatisthe problemwith
a. Lookat the pictures. cdL to work/school
eachperson? do my friends
watch TV/avideo
il tccL my homework

my...
wakeupat.... First,lwash
I usually

4 Fillin the correctword.

. optimrstic
. ambitious . sensitive
. sociable
. cheerful
. easy-going . impatient
. reliable

1 W e n d yi s a l w a y s m i l i n gs;h e ' s u c ha
person
2 S a l l yn e v e rc o m p l a i nasb o u ta n y t h i n g5. h e i s v e r y

3 Tom is a very person He goes out


with friendsalmosteveryday
Max
Laura Steve 4 Stevealwayslookson the bright side He is very
fron (an)earache.
LittleBillyissuffering
5 YoucantrustTonyto do anythingHe is extremely
b. Whatdo youthinkeachperson
shoulddo?
Choose
from the prompts.
6 CarolgetsupsetveryeasilyI think she is a bit too
o takento thedoctor. stayin bed
on . takeanaspirin
o putd plaster 7 G r e g w a n t s t o b e g e n e r a lm a n a g e ro f t h e
. liedownandrest o putdn ice-pack
on it compano y n ed a y H e ' sa v e r y. . man
8 J a n e tr s s o , 5 h e h a t e sw a i t i n g i n
gotanearache,
lf Billy's betakento thedoctor.
heshould qu e u e s

2 Whatarethe followingusedfor?Usethe prompts


asin the example.
to makeup sentences,
Comolete with the correctwords
the sentences
. taketemperature. listento chestr weigh fromthe list.
. giveinjections
. hurtsr pain r bruise. aches. suffers. injury

1 T h e d o c t o rs a i dt h a t J o h n ' s was not


senou5
z I h i t m y h a n do n t h e d e s k l t r e a l l y
5 I havegot a tn my chest I think I
- -^t ^-
)Ldtc) stethoscope
shouldseea doctor
4 Sandra from hayfevereverysummer
5 My head Haveyou got anytablets?
6 A n d r e wh a da b i g p u r p l e o n h i sk n e e
afterhe fell off hisbike
syrnge
Scales toweigh
areused ourselves.
28
6 Readthe sentences
andmatchthemwith the 5 A : I'vedecidedto stop drinkingcoffee
pictures.
Thenguessthe hobbies. B : a Haveyou?Why?
b O hn o l
f tTl t lovewatchingthingsgrow . . c D i dy o u ?T h a t ' sg r e a t
ETI t feelgreatwhenl'mouton thewater
6 A O h n o ! T h ep h o t o c o p i ei sr b r o k e na g a i n !
[:Tl t buyallthe latestbestsellers
B a I d o n ' tb e l i e v iet l
lZT--]cettingout intonatureisveryrelaxing
b l t ' ss o u n f a i r !
[5T_-]I rarely
catchanythingl
c W h a td i d I d o ?
ETI t lovetryingnewrecipes
7 A : We don't know what to get Ben for his
birthday
B : a O h ,f o r g e ti t !
b R e a l l y ?l s h e h a v i n ga p a r t y ?
c W h y d o n ' ty o u a s kh i sw i f e ?
8 A l ' v ej u s tb o u g h ta n e w c a r
B : a I don't believe it! | thoughtyouwerebrokel
b That'sa completewasteof timel
c R e a l l yW ? o u l dy o u l i k et h a t ?
o n. Thebosswantsto seeyou in hisoffice
B : a Thatsoundsinteresting
b lt'sa completewasteof time
c O h n o ! W h a td i d I d o ?

8 Completethe sentencesbelowwith two to five


words,includingthewordin bold.Donotchange
the meaningof theoriginal
sentence.

I ate my lunchtoo fastand now l'vegot a stomach


ache
indigestion l'm
because I ate my lunchtoo fast
A c c i d e n tj su s t s e e mt o h a p p e nt o h i m ,s o l ' m n o t
s u r p r i s ehde ' si n h o s p i t a l
prone He'sreally , so
l ' m n o t s u r p r i s ehde ' si n h o s p i t a l
W a t c h i n g d o c u m e n t a r i e sa b o u t e n d a n g e r e d
animalsalwaysmakesme feeisad
depressed I always
7 Circlethe correctresponse.
, watchdocumentaries about
A: Thisnew dietisamazing, l'velost5 kilosalready e n d a n g e r eadn i m a l s
B : a T h a t ' sg r e a t ! Slmonwas latefor work because therewasa train
b Are you? S I TK
IE

c That'snot fairl account S i m o nw a sl a t e


2 A I t h i n k l ' m c o m i n gd o w nw i t h t h e f l u a t r a i ns t r i k e
A n n l i k e sc h o c o l a tae l o t
B : a T h a ts o u n d si n t e r e s t i n g
fond Ann
b Really? Haveyou got a temperature?
c I d o n ' tk n o ww h a tt o d o l chocolate
He did not intendto leavebeforehe finishedthe
3 A : I would loveto livein Alaska
report
B : a R e a l l yW
? hy?
intention He
b I d o n ' tu n d e r s t a n! d
beforehe finishedthe report
c That'sgood
Y o us h o u l ds t o ps m o k i n g
4 A: You misseda greatpartylastnight give You
B : a W h a t m a k e sy o ut h i n kt h a t ? smoKrng
b W h a t h a p p e n ende x t ? S t a nd i d n ' td o w h a t h e h a dp r o m i s eido d o
c R e a l l yT?e l m
l e a l la b o u ti t went Stan
word

29
B:
9 Matchthe following,thencomplete
the sentences.
A : H a v ev o u e v e re x o e r i e n c eads i m i l asr i t u a t i o n ?
muscle SICKneSS B : 4)
nose parn A : W h a td i d y o u d o ?
travel h^-,1.-h^
I tcouoLt tc B : ),
heart porsonrng
splitting bleed b. In pairs,
actout similar for the
dialogues
sore ,.1;-^--^
picturesbelow.
high th roat
food temperalure

He was very worried about taking the ferry to


Francebecause he alwavssuffersfrom
o n b o a t sa n dp l a n e s
2 Thedoctorsaidmv dadwas at riskof
s o h e s h o u l de a t a
healthierdiet and get moreexercise
You havegot a very
Youshouldstayin bedtoday
After overdoingit at the gym,Stevewas suffering
from
i n h i sl o w e rb a c k
Zoehad a reallybad caseof
. aftereatingthat seafood
M a r t i nw a s h i t i n t h e f a c eb y a t e n n i sb a l l L u c k i l y
h e w a s n ' ts e r i o u s hl yu r t b u t h e h a da s l i g h t

7 | didn'tgo to work yesterday because I hada really


, . . and had lostmy voice
8 Fredwants us to turn the musicdown because
he'sgota .. ...

)peaKrng
'!0 a. Lookat the pictureandcomplete
the dialogue.

Reading

11 a. Lookat the picture.Wheredo youthinkthe


youngboyis?Whatiswrongwith him?Read
the articleto findout.

b. Readthe articleagain.Sevensentences have


A: W h e r e ' tsh e w o m a n ?
beenremoved fromthe article.Choosefrom
B: S h es e e m s1 )
the sentencesA-l the onewhichbestfitseach
A: What'swrongwith her?
gap 1-7.Thereisonesentence whichyoudo
B: I ' m n o t s u r e S h ec o u l d2 )
not needto use.Thereisan example(0)at the
A: What advicewouldyou giveher?
beginning.
30
tl

Becausehe was so young, the doctors


decidedthat Timothy should be given
the implant as soon as possible.

"I have to admit, I was very worried,"

Cut Loud saysSandra, "but only hours after he


came out of theatre, he was playing
with the other children on the ward
Timothy Stevenshas lived most of his and I knew he was going to be fine! I
,rJein a silent world. Until sir months couldn't wait to find out whether or
ago, he had never heard his mother's not the operation had been
-,oice, never successful."
listened to music and
never heard the sound of birds singing The moment of truth came on
rr the laughter of his pla5.nnates. Timothy's third birthday, when the
;--f;-
t t - H i s m o t h e r .S a n d r a , children and that they always think doctors switchedon the implant for the
| | knew
-hat something was wrong with her the worst," she smiles. "I knew I was very first time. Timothy played with
babyson,becausehe did not have the dght about Tim, but it took almost toys in the doctor's surgery while a
:ame reactions as other babies. "If I two years before the doctors would speech therapist played different
iidn't look into Tim's eyes,he didn't agreewith me." sounds and checked his reactions.
"{ :eem to know I was there," she says. However, even Sandra had not When Sandra said, "Hello Timothy,"
\l'hen he was eight months old, imagined that Timothy's condition and he Iooked into her eyes,she cried
Sandratook Timothy to the hospital could be as seriousas it was. tearsof happiness.
T;--r----r
:nd explained why she was worried. Ir | | D o c l o r st o l d S a n d r at h a t T i m o t h-y i-s n" o'w e n j o y i n ga l i t e f u l l o f
The doctors carried out hearing tests there was no chancethat his hearing s o u n d .l 6 | lHeisalsoarrending
?
.nd decided that Timothy must be a would ever improve. the local nursery school where he
_ ' . i l e D a c K \ ^ al rr d .| , Sandrawas shockedto learn that the likes nothing more than to make as
Sandra insisted that the hospital only hope for Timothy was to have a much noise as possible as he plays
ihould send Timothy to a specialist bionic implant. with his friends.
,rlr rtore tests.Unfortunately, it was a The electrodeswould send Timothy celebrated his fourth
F-[l
-rng time before a specialistwould electric signals to his brain, which birthday last week.
.ee him. Finally, when he was almost would allow him to hear them as E--T---t ,,--
' H e i sd r i v i n g
'ti |7 | | m e m a dw i r h
.,:,:. l.o years old, Timothy and his sounds.
a::: the noise he makes," Iaughs Sandra,
nother went to a children's hospital "and that's something I never
The implant would not allow Timothy
-'t: .r Manchester where the staff had imagined I would complain about!
to hear perfectly,but it would be the
:1enty of experiencein dealing with For me, though, the greatestgift of all
only way for him to ever have a
:;af children. is to hear my son talking and to know
F ---r--r
- |
chance of overcoming his deafness.
| A t l a s t "s o m e o n eb e l i e v e dh e r After checking that there was no that he can hear me when I soeak to
',-,hen him."
she told them that her son was serious risk involved, Sandra put
ieaf. "Doctors often think that Timothy's name on the waiting list for
nothers worry too much about their
''t""7t
'.',..,,r&--4., .tr...,.rb,- .....','.?!...:"t"t':"t9ttk7s...:,.,:u,,..,
"

He has alreadylearntseveralwords and phrases Threemonthsbeforehis thrrd birthday,he went


w h i c ha l l o wh i mt o c o m m u n i c a w t ei t h h i sm o t h e r i n t o h o s p i t atl o h a v et h e o p e r a t i o nt h a t w o u l d
H i s p r e s e n t si n c l u d e d a v a r i e t y o f m u s i c a l c h a n g eh i sl i f e
i n s t r u m e nw t sh i c hh e l o v e st o p l a yw i t h H Timothywas borndeaf
Sandrawas relievedto find peoplewho would I T h i sw o u l d m e a n h a v i n ga n o p e r a t i o nt o p u t a
l i s t e nt o h e r specralreceiver in Timothy'shead,with electrodes i
D A full examination s h o w e d t h a t T i m o t h yw a s connected to the nervesin hisears
completely deaf
However, Sandraknewthat the problemwas more Answerthe questions.
s e r i o utsh a nt h a t
T i m o t h yi so n l ya b l et o c o m m u n i c a tbey u s i n gs i g n 1 W h e r ec o u l dy o u r e a ds u c ha n a r t i c l e ?
language 2 What do you thinkthe writer'spurposewas? I
3 C a ny o us u g g e sat n a l t e r n a t i vt ei t l ef o r t h e a r t i c l e ?
31
lictoninn Writing
12 You are going to listento a radiointerview
about robot surgeons.Forquestions1-7,mark the
sentencesas f (true)or F(false). 4'1're
:\ :r u

1 T h e r ea r er o b o ts u r g e o nisn a l l h o s p i t a l s
2 Doctorsoperateby remotecontrol Whenwe write a note we usuallyusea veryinformalstyle
3 C o m p u t e rcsa r r yo u Lv e r yo ' e c i s e and write in very short or incompletesentencesWe do
movements not alwaysuse definiteor indefinrtearticlesWhen we
4 Therobotslook likecranes write an e-mailwe usethe form of a letter We usuallyuse
an informalstylein personal e-mailsand a formalstylefor
5 A camera t a k e sp h o t o g r a p hosf t h e
patient b u s i n e ses- m a i l sW e u s u a l luy s em e m o si n c o m p a n i easn d
6 R o b o t cs a r r yo u t a l l k i n d so f o p e r a t i o n s officesto passon informationto employeesWe use a
7 Doctorswill haveto learnmanynew formal,factualstyle
r nIn g s

C o m m u n i c a t i volna:k i nagn . Analysing


M odelTexts
a p p o rn l me n t
Lookat the piecesof writing1-3.Whichis
1 3 a. phrases,
Fillin the missing thenin pairs,
read 14
a) a memo?b) an e-mail?c) a note?
thedialogue aloud.
. What's yournameandadoress,please
. Please letusknowif youdecide
to cancel , .., , , "' i*gdrezibti?t ).,"Stiqnt*t - j$,rp*rr*:*
Sw*ttayt*si1
. Bookmein forWednesday
. l'd liketo makeanappointment e Ta; ##'.i# inr$.-.nie"t-.
';'
S err:
ntbit'i

Dear Sally,
Thanks for inviting us to your party
loS ueeke'o, we boll- tacl o g'ot r'm-.
I'm including the photos we took in an
attactment. There's a great one of you and
Jim in front of the pool.
. L - t^9
v v .- l. - | ov a p a L tLtr f a r t ; , ^ a V tc n
! i r | r h r rt u- d y

next month and we'd love it if you could


come. I'11 let you know the details later.

Take care,
Receptionist: Hello CentralClinic Can I he p you? Sharon
Patient:Yes,1) to see
D r E v a n sp,l e a s e
Receptionist:Wednesday at 10amisthe firstappointment
available Otherwise, thereisnextMondayat noon V)
Patient:fhesoonerthe better,please2)
i f t h i si sp o s s i b l e
Receptionist:3) $ill
Patient: MaggieSmith;42 KnowleAvenue llt, / ot c\ner\avrt\ dackre,backb5 11rtr
Receptionist: Right Seeyou on Wednesday, at 1Oam
4) the ,/ drnnef S \\ t\e ove\
,1,:1,,,
appointment
Patient: I will Thankyou verymuch
/dont forgetto feed cat

b. Now usethe promptsto act out similardialogues.

o Dr Barret/ Tuesday4pm - nextFriday


9am
. Dr Sandford 2pm- nextWednesday
/ Thursday 1l am

32
. Discuss
& Write
tr
17 a. Readtherubric
andanswer
thequestions
below.
ICB

To: All Employees


From: Arthur Jones, asst mgr
Date: 15 February, 2...
Subject: Use of mobile phones in the office

o Please be advised that all employees with


mobile phones are required to keep them
turned off during working hours.
o If you need to be contacted while at work,
you can be reached through the main
switchboardon 726742I.
o This number is to be used for emergencies
only.
We appreciateyour co-operation in this matter.

,t&

::::=ffiryir,!":ee+4t*iir:

. Style

1 5 a. Matchthestyleof writingto thepieces


of
writingin Ex.14. :!: Thecompanywhereyou work is havinga retirement
i partyfor the VicePresident of the company.Theparty
A incomplete sentences,
veryinformal
will be heldat the RoyalHotel.Youhavebeenput in
B informationgivenin an officeor business
setting; : chargeof organising the party.
formal
" Write a memo to all staffmembers informingthem
C informal,chatty
of the time, date and locationof the partyand
tellingthem that food and drinkswill be served.
b. Readthe note to the secretaryand rewrite it in
Also, informthem that they can make a small
the styleof an officememo.
contributionto the Vice President'sretirement
present andthattheyshouldgivethe moneyto you
Mise7hi7ys,
or yoursecretary.
t tellDeyt ugre about
budSr,tmeehng-on
Mondal1am o Writea noteto yoursecretary, tellinghim/herthat
o allmvcta.ltendandbe onfime you'rein a meetingand reminding him/herto call
. ooffee anddouglnvt9eewed the catering company andarrange a meetingwith
fhanks, themfor the nextdayat 11am.
Mr Jaoobg o Write an e-mailto your superviso;who is on
holiday, andlet him/herknowaboutthe party.
16 Rewrite
thefollowing
ina noteform.
1 Whoareyouwriting to?
D e a rP a t r i c i a , 2 Whatstylewillyouusefor eachpieceof writing?
l ' m g o i n gt o t h e c i n e m aw i t h S h e i l aI b o r r o w e d
your
Whv?
redscarf l'veleft the carkeysin the firstdrawerof your Whatinformationwillyouneedto include
in each
d e s ki n c a s ey o u n e e dt h e m J a m e sc a l l e dH e s a i dh e
piece
of writing?
m i g h t c o m e b y H e ' l lc a l l b a c kl a t e r l f y o u ' r eh u n g r y
$ there are chickensandwiches in the fridge I won't be Writethe memo,noteande-mailusingthe
late- around10 o'clockat the latest information
in Ex.17a,aswellasyourown
LCUIO
ideas.

33
Better
Safe A : I r e a l l yl i k et h a t s o n g l
B : 5 od o I l ' l l theradio

thanSorcy A: l'veneveruseda laptopcomputerbefore


B : O h , i t ' s e a s yJ u s t
way you do with your regularPC
the same

3 Crossout the oddword(s)in eachgroup.Then,use


the remainingwordsto makeup sentences
describingeachobject,asin the example.

Vocabulary 1 cooker: oven- rlngs- knobs- jd{


7 rnmnrrtar morqtr- Screen - femotecontfol-
Lookat the pictures.Whichof thesedo you have Key0oar0
in yourkitchen?Whatdo you useeachof the 3 iron: p l u g- c o r d- t e m p e r a t u rceo n t r o-l
objectsfor? door
4 camera: lens- cover- shutter- tray
5 kettle: l i d- h a n d l e- s p o u t- a e r i a l
6 refrioerator:door- shelves - screens - drawers
7 blender: - -
switch lid blades light -

A cookerhasgotan oven,ringson topandknobsthatare


usedto controltemperature.

4 Readthe sentences and identifythe type of crime


described,
as in the example.

1 S h e c o p i e ds o m e o n ee l s e ' ss i g n a t u r eo n t o t h e
cheque {{*rqeryJ
T h e a r m e dm e n s t o r m e di n t o t h e b a n ka n d t r i e d
to steala largeamountof money
The customsofficer calledthe police after he
f o u n d a b a g o f d i a m o n d si n t h e m a n ' sl u g g a g e

T h e yh e l dt h e p i l o ta t g u n p o i nat n do r d e r e dh i mt o
fly to the locationtheywanted
H e t h r e w a l i t m a t c ht h r o u g ht h e w i n d o w a n d
1- A A blenderis usedto blend/mixfood. then ran off
Themanwas caughttryingto stealtwo CD-ROMs
2 Usethe phrasalverbsto completethe exchanges,
asin the example. Whenwe got home,we were horrifiedto find the
r t u r no n . t u r nd o w n . t u r no f f . t u r n u p window brokenand all our valuables tolen
. p l u gi n . l o go n . l o g o f f
8 Theydemandedmoneyfor the safereturnof the
1 A: I can'tconcentrateTheTV istoo loud twochildren
B: All right,l'll fui'rit d*n'r

2 A : D i dy o u h e a ra b o u tt h e h i j a c k i n g ? Complete usingthe wordsbelow.


the sentences
B: No Let's the radio
o automatically. fingerprints r satellite
. preserve
3 A: Why isn'tthe toasterworking? . proof . fined . privacy
B : O h ,s i l l ym e ! | f o r g o tt o it
the policetake your
1 When you get arrested,
4 A : I t h i n k l ' l l s t a yu p a n d w a t c h t h e e n d o f t h i s . and keepthem on file
film 2 H ew a s f 2 O 0f o r p a r k i n gi l l e g a l l y
B: OK Don't forget to all the 3 I t i s a p o l i c e m a nj 'osb t o lawand
lightsbeforeyou go to bed order
5 A: Hurry up We're supposedto be there at 7 4 Someoeonlethinkthat hiddencameras
invade
o'clock! our
B : O K J u s tg i v em e a m t n u t et o 5 Whenyou usean ATM,your bankaccountis
the lnternet updated
34
6 Theyhadto let the suspectgo because
they could 4 Lastsummerwas so hot that we decidedto nave
find no that he had committed a i r c o n d i t i o n i npgu t i n
thecrime installed We had
7 We can now get up-to-the-minute
newsfrom lastsummerbecause it was so hot
aroundtheworldvia 5 The escapedprisonersjumped onto a bus and
madethe drivertakethem acrossthe border
hijacked The
6 Complete
the headlines
usingthe wordsbelow.
busto get across the border
. charged. robbed. accused
. sentenced 6 Car rentalcompaniescan use specialtechnology
o < tt q n o r t < . r h o : t a . l to find out wheretheircarsare
locate C a rr e n t acl o m p a n i ecsa n
t h e i rc a r s
Supermarket bandit
et4e,
*eett,e,
@4r: t4
&P.e.M&d.
b*& 't ?.?e?.?a i*&.:r%w
W
8 Circlethe correctresponse.
u4.8p1'@ W.{.,'tqp
.&.*da*,&:*WW.

A : W h e r ed i dt h e a c c i d e nht a p p e n ?
B: a lt'sdifficultto say
Pofiticlan's son b About fifteenminutesago
*I I I I I r | | f
I t: f rt: I
c A t E l ma n d D i x o n

W6qry;:r 7*71*,1:;t!f;1,::::,:y: A : C a ny o u t e l l m e h o w t o g e t t o t h e M c l a u g h l i n
Gallery?
B : a l ' m g o l n gn o w
ilpl0yee ....*r........*......Of afSOn. b Sorry?Canyou repeatthat?
c l ' m s o r r yt,h e l i n ei se n g a g e d
f {':::"r 3:i;::"
i:-::::: :Ti^i-,::',-"
* A: Didyou likethe outfit I wore yesterday?
,]
B : a T h a t ' sa n i n t e r e s t i nqgu e s t i o n
r:
$Ql$hbaur b Let me see
'-"-if
ltarn8ll rtrr.lttlrrrl ""*
stoaltnghef car'
e c To be honest,I can'treallyrememberit
'w*,*,*i)-*-).*:::,.Y3:*',#:;'iffi
;'"*.*" "*"*"*- *-'i-i^'
-7:K;kg"ry A : H e l l oc, a nI s p e a kt o J e n n yp l e a s e ?
B : a W o u l dy o u l i k et o l e a v ea m e s s a g e ?
b l'm sorry,you must havedialledthe wrong
l g u t h t ! . r " " ' r * number
c Thankyou for waiting

A: What'sSarah's sister's
name?
B: a lcan'trememberl
.,,,,,,....,,a..,..,".,
l|llruod
dryllghl. b I d o n ' tt h i n ks o
c W h a td o y o u m e a n ?

A : H o wc o u l dy o u l o s et h e t i c k e t s !
Completeeachof the sentences with two to five B : a W h a t ' st h e p r o b l e m ?
7
words, includingthe word in bold. Do not change b l t w a s n ' tm e ! | g a v et h e mt o S a m !
t h e m e a n i n go f t h e o r i g i n asl e n t e n c e . c l ' l lt h i n ko f i t i n a m i n u t e

A: What can I do for you?


1 L a s tn i g h ts o m e o n e h i t h e ro v e rt h e h e a da n ds t o l e B: a I want to reporta robbery
h e rh a n d b a g b Can I take a message?
mugged She l a s tn i g h t c Okay l'vedonethat
UT
2 P e t e cr o p i e dt h e P i c a s saon ds o l di t a sa n o r i g i n a l
forged Peter 8 A : D i da n y o n ew i t n e s st h e b u r g l a r y ?
v B: a No,that'snot what I mean
't0 a n ds o l di t a sa n o r i g i n a l
3 The policegot a descriptionof the thief from b l ' l lt h i n ko f i t i n a m i n u t e .
someonewho saw him escape c I d o n ' tt h i n ks o
ie
witness Thepolicegot a description of the thief
. hj;n o<r:no
IS

35
in the two columns.
Matchthe words/phrases A : W h e r ed o y o ut h i n kt h e p i c t u r ew a st a k e n ?
Then,usethemto complete below.
the sentences B : I t h i n k1 )
A : C a ny o u d e s c r i bteh e p i c t u r e ?
o n c er n a n ds o u n d B : I cansee2)
to make inmind
clean a o l u em o o n A W h a td o y o ut h i n kt h e w o m a nb o u g h t ?
koon a n dt i d y B : S h em i g h t3 )
safe mattersworse A H o wi ss h ep a y i n g ?
B : 4)
1 I d i d n ' th a v ee n o u g hm o n e yt o p a yf o r l u n c h a
, nd
A H o wo f t e nd o y o u g o s h o p p i n g ?
I had forgotten
B s)
my creditcard
A Where?
2 We hardlyevergo to the cinemaWe go
B b)

3 Themissingboywas found
A Howdo youpay?
. t o h i sP a r e n t s
a n dr e t u r n e d
B 7)
W h i l ey o ua r ed r i v i n g ,
that you are beingwatchedby CCTVcamerason
b . Lookat the pictures
andactout similar
the motorway
dialogues.
Carolisveryneat Herhomeis always

10 Tickthe correctpreposition,
thenmakesentences
usingthe phrases,asin the example.

-+
of about to for
aware
nervouS
married
raugn
notoIouS
pay
keeptrack
worry

in
awareof thefactthatshehada degree
Hewasn't
psychology.

Qo:r..,|
I \LUV
inn
I rY

Speaking 12a Whichare the three most importantfactorswe


shouldconsiderwhen buyinga car?Choose,
11 a. Lookat the picture thedialogue.
andcomplete then compareyour list to your partner's.

It should:
o b e e c o n o m i c taol r u n
I b e e n v i r o n m e n t aflrliye n d l y
o be fast
a be efficient
a b e c h e a pt o b u y
o havea powerfulengine
o havelotsof accessories
I r u no n p e t r o l

0 . Lookat the title of the article.What couldthe


articlebe about?Readand checkyour answers.

36
'13 Read
thearticle Forquestions
again. 1-7,choose
thecorrect
answer,
A, B,Cor D.

1 Car manufacturersare trying to invent a new

',a:#w#qr* vehiclebecause
A today'scarsproducetoo muchpoisonous
B it is difficultto drivein cities.
gas

ffimwffi
C today'scarsusetoo muchfuel
D t h e c a ri n d u s t r iys i n t r o u b l e

Vehicleswhich ran on electricmotors


Many of the world's cities lie under a permanent A movedveryfast
blanket of smog. People are conceffled about global B were madeof piecesof scrap
rvarming,and fuel pricesjust keep going up and up. It's no C were not verypopular
surprisetherefore, that in recent years,car manufacturers D h a dt o h a v et h e i re n g i n e rse p l a c e d .
have been put under pressure to invent a vehicle that is
The electricmotor in hybridcars
both cheaper to run and better for the environment.
Finally, after much trial and error, it seemsas though they A doesn'tneedto recharge its batteries
might be making progress, and the future of the car B hasits own petrolengine
industry is beginning to look a little 'greener'. C takesa longtime to be recharged.
One of the first ideas which car manufacturerstried, D needsreplacement energypacks
rvas to replace engines which run on fossil fuels with
The computerin a hybridcar
electric motors. Unfortunately, these vehicles had several
drawbacks and they didn't sell very well. The problems A p o w e r st h e e n g i n e
were that the batteries of these electric cars ran out very B h e l p st h e c a rt o g o u p h i l l s
quickly and took a long time to recharge. Also, the C keepsthe carrunningat a steadyspeed
replacementenergypackswere very expensive. D decideshow the carshouldbe poweredat any
However, the idea of electric cars has not been g r v e nt i m e
scrappedaltogether.Car manufacturershave improved the
concept so that environmentally friendly cars can now be Hybridcarsare better for the planetbecause
efficient and economical as well. This is where the hybrid A they usedifferentfuelto normalcars
car, which has both an electric motor and a traditional B they are madeof specialmaterials
petrol engine,comesin. The electric motor never needsto C t h e e l e c t r im
c o t o ri ss m a l l etrh a na n o r m a l
be recharged and it is much better for the planet than a engrne
traditionalcar. D they producelessharmfulgases
In a hybrid car, the engine is controlled by a computer
which determines whether the car runs on petrol, Hybridcarsare not the idealsolutionbecause
electricity; or both. When the car needs maximum power, A they producecarbonfibre
for example,if it is acceleratingor climbing a steep hill, it B they do not makethe roadscleaner.
uses all of its resources,whereas at steady speedsit runs C they alsousepetrol.
only on petro'I.When slowing down or braking, the electric D t h e ya r em a d ef r o ma l u m i n i u m
motor recharges its batteries.
Hybrid cars are better for the environment because 7 Carswhich run on hydrogenare not available
the electric motor can help out whenever it is needed and yet because
they have a much smaller engine than a traditional car. A it is hardto drivethem in the rightdirection.
Also, hybrid cars on the market are made using materials B it is difficultto storehydrogen
such as aluminium and carbon fibre, which makes them C they producetoo muchwatervapour
extremely light. Both of these factors mean that they use D thereis no futurefor them
far less petrol than normal cars, so they produce less
pollution.
Of course,hybrid cars aren't perfect; they still run on thequestions.
14 Answer
fossil fuel and so pollute the environment to some extent.
However, they may be the first step along the road to a What was the writer's nrrrnoseTWas he/she
cleaner, 'greener' cars. Car manufacturers are already successfu |?
working on vehicles which run on hydrogen. The only C a ny o u n a m ea n ye n v i r o n m e n t aflrliye n d l ym e a n s
emissionfrom these cars is harmlesswater vapour. These of transport? Whichdo you use?
are still some way in the future, though, as designersneed I n p a i r s ,t h i n k o f a n e w e n v i r o n m e n t afl rl yi e n d l y
to think of cheap and safeways of producing, transporting meansof transportDrawa pictureand preparean
and storing hydrogen,but at last, it looks like we might be advertisement for it, statingits good points
headingin the right direction.

37
I ictpninn A : A n d t h e r e ' sq u i t ea b i t o f 3 ) In
i t l ' m s u r et h e o w n e rw i l l b e l o o k i n gf o r i t
Listento the conversation
betweenAdamand B : S o , y o u ' v es e a r c h e tdh e c o n t e n t sh, a v ey o u ,
15
Lisa.Forquestions 1-7,choose
the bestanswer, s ir ?
A,BorC. A : E r ,w e l l ,I h a d a q u i c kl o o k ,b u t I d i d n ' tt o u c h
a n y t h i n!g
Why doesn'tAdam like usingcomputers?
B: Ah,here'a s n a m e- o n t h e 4 )
A H ec u t sh i m s e l f
A : G r e a t D o y o u n e e dm e t o s i g na n y t h i n g ?
B H ed o e s n ' ut n d e r s t a nt d
hem
B: Yes,you can signthis form And you'd better
C He alwaysdropsthem
leaveyour number,in casea rewardis offered
In the future, life will be easierbecause A : G o o di d e a !
A everything will be computerised
B p e o p l ew i l ls u r v i vw
e i t h o u tc o m p u t e ' s b . N o w u s et h e p r o m p t st o a c t o u t s i m i l a r
C p e o p l ew o n ' t n o t i c ec o m p u t e r s dialogues.

Adam thinks he won't get a job in the future


oecauSe
A he hasa negativeattitude
B i t w i l lt a k eh i my e a r st o u p g r a d eh i ss k i l l s
C h e w o n ' t b e a b l et o u s et h e n e wt e c h n o l o g y

Peoplewill be able to earn more money in the


future because b r i e f c a s-et h e s t a t i o n/ n o h a n d b a -g b u ss t o p/ n o
A theywill work fewerhours wallet/ palmtopcomputer/ identification / jewellery /
B t h e yw i l l b e a b l et o d o m o r et h a no n ej o b a t a n a m eo n a b u s i n e scsa r d n a m eo n a n e n v e l o n p
time
C c o m p u t e rws i l l d o t h e i rw o r k f o r t h e m
At thegarage
Televisions will be better in the future because
A t h e yw i l l b e m o r ef r i e n d l y 17 a. Putthe exchanges
in the correctordetthen,in
B theywill havebuttons pairs,
readthedialoguealoud.
C theywill be controlledby voice

How doesAdam feel when he readsabout the


futu re?
A extremely
worried
B veryhappy
(- trttarlv mi<arrhlo

Lisabelievesthat people
A w i l l c h a n g ei n t h e f u t u r e
B w i l l l e a r nn e ww a y so f d o i n gt h i n g s
C arescaredof the future

C o m m u n i c a t iHoann:d i n g A B
i n a mi ssi nigte m FTI c o o d m o r n i n gm a d a m a O h ,t h a t w o u l db e
W h a tc a nI d o f o r y o u ? great
1 6 a . F i llinth eg a p s ET--lot courseWhat'sthe O h ,l w i l l
with drive*
problem? Goodbye!
licence,creditcard,
ETI umr you're
Yes, WonderfulThanks
wollet,money
rightl'lljustpumpthem everso much
Then,in pairs,
up foryou I t h i n kt h e ym a y
readthe dialogue
FTI th"ru youare You're needa bit moreair
aloud.
readyto go i nt h e m
ETI oon'tmention it! Drive C o u l dy o u c h e c k
A: Good evening, officer I just found this
safely
! tho trrroc nlo:co7
1) o n t h e p a v e m e not u t s i d e
the cafe
Nowusetheprompts
to actouta similar
dialogue.
Ah Let'shavea l o o k i n s i d eO h d e a r T h e r e ' s
n o t h i n gw i t h t h e person'sname and address, a checktheoil/ mightneedchanging
/ change
it
not evena 2) foryou
38
t

\vAv/ rr ii tLi n| n
tg b. Rewritethe pointsin Ex.19ain a paragraph,
usingappropriatelinkingwords/phrases.
.a G..Sll
--.i -.".'.\:
:','.ri!

Wewrite instructions, we usethe imperative form 20 a. Lookat the instructions


for takinga picture
-"hen
i t h e v e r ba n d w e u s u a l l yl e a v eo u t a r t i c l e sT h e p o i n t s with a digitalcamera
andfill in the verbs.
rust alwaysbe written ln the correctorderone afterthe :
o Download. Hold . press
(X2) . Lineup
:ther We can use numbers or bullets before each r
. Look. Wait
lstruction We usuallyuse linkingwords/phrases (first,
:fter that, then, next,finallyetc)to organise the pointsor :
: - o w t h e o r d e ro f e v e n t s

'l
8 Lookat theinstructions
below.Insert
themissing
wordsthentryandguess whattheobjectis.
o allow o first r when r then

To chargebattery:
1 i n s e r ct h a r g epr l u gi n t o b a s ew i t h
arrowfacingup
2 p l u g c h a r g i n gu n i t j n t o a p o w e r 1
socket z
it to chargefor 6-8 hours(youcan 3 button halfwaywhen
u s ei t w h i l ei t i sc h a r g i n g )
f u l l yc h a r g e di ,t w i l l p r o v i d eu p t o s h u t t e ra l l t h e w a y w h e n t h e
1 0 0 h o u r ss t a n d b yo r 5 h o u r st a l k i n g
5 thecamera s t i l lu n t i li t b e e p s
19 a. Thefollowing
instructions
explain
howto 6 u n t i l t h e l i g h t changesback to
withdrawcashfromanATM(automaticteller
Putthepointsintothecorrect
machine). order. t h e i m a g ef r o mt h e c a m e r a

b. Lookat the instructionsfor downloadinga


pictureonto a computer.Make the sentences
shorte4then put the pointsinto the correct
or0er.

I Yo, haveto select'download'


f Sauethe picturein a file
I Vo, must clickthe cameraicon on the computer
screen
I Y o , m u s tt u r n o n t h e c o m p u t e r
I rh. screenwill ask you if you want a n o t h e r I Vo, mustconnectthe camerato the computer
transaction'yes/No,
I Wt.r"nthe 'menu,screenappears, choosethe option
'withdraw
cash, 21 a. Read
therubric thequestions.
andanswer
I fn" nextscreenwill askyou how muchyou wanr to
withdfaw Youhavebeentakingphotography lessons.
Nowyour
I P u ty o u rc a r di n t ot h e m a c h i n e teacherhasaskedyouto writeinstructions
on howto
I r f , u m a c h i n ew i l l g r v e y o u y o u r m o n e y a n d a takethe perfectpicture.
withdrawalslipshowinga recordof yourtransactron.
_
! Press the arrowkeyon the sideof the screennexrro 1 What adverbswill you useto put the instructions
t h e a m o u n ty o u n e e d inorder?
t U O "i n y o u rp e r s o n ai dl e n t i f i c a t i onnu m b e (r p l N ) 2 W h a tv e r bt e n s e w
s i l ly o u u s e ?
!
I C h o o r "' N o ' a n d t h e s c r e e n w i l l t e l ly o u t o t a k ey o u r
card
b. Write the instructionsin 40-80words.
"'"etitt8'11"a*.4ta.r. :'v"4t:::*,6.,,ttu?.,f*t*qr,t
,.*r76rr.,.%,.1i.,?:,.*.a..,,,.,, .*'
r.,,.r".r.pr<*_

39
Wise,
Penny b. Wherecan you buy eachof theseitems?What
canyou do with eachof theseitems?

Foolish 3
Pound Crossout the odd word. Which group of goodsdo
the restof the words belongto?

t hammer,screwdriver, n@d{t, Oritt hardware


2 table,book,chair,dresser
3 r i n g ,e a r r i n g sn,e c k l a c e
d ,r e s s
\/^--1,-.' 'l-r', 4 screwdriver, bread,meat,pasta
v u L d t _ . / ut o t y
5 washingpowder,bleach,flowers,
a. ldentifythe shopsin the pictures.
Wherewould furniture polish
youexpectto hearthe following? 6 towel,deodorant,shampoo,
toothpaste
o lstherea bracelet
to match?
7 pen,envelopes, paper,ribbons
. Twoloaves of rye,please
8 j u m p e ru, m b r e l l ac,o a t ,s h i r t
. Haveyougotthisin a large?
9 lipstick,CD player,cooker,fridge
. CanI tryontheotherone?
. Couldyoucutit intoportions,please?
. Doyoudeliver? 4 with the correctword
Completethe sentences
. from the list.
Aretheframes in theprice?
included
. delightedo conservative . dedicated. bear
. w o v e n . b u d g e t . i m p o r t e d. a m b i t i o u s
. s e n t i m e n t a. l g e n u i n e l y

1 Unfortunately, I can't afford it becausel'm on a


tiqht
2 Thisring might not be expensive, but it's of great
, , v a l u et o m e
3 He'sdeterminedto succeedbecausehe's a very
, man
4 Tonyis really to hiscareer
5 Please i n m i n dt h a t t h e s h o p sw i l l
b e c l o s e do n S u n d a y
6 S a l l yw a s w i t h t h e b o u q u e to f
flowersshereceived
7 Anita was surprisedwhen she
won firstprize
8 He boughta colourful rug at the
fleamarket
9 He'sa very personwho doesn't
l i k en e w i d e a sa t a l l
1 0 S h ec o u l d n ' tf i n d w h a t s h e w a n t e dh e r e ,s o s h e
b. Whatcanyoubuyin h a dt o h a v ei t s p e c i a l l y
eachshop?
5 Replacethe adjectivesin bold with their opposites.

. modern . expensive. boring . local . fresh


2 a. Fillin the missing
lettersto form
. cool . fantastic. tight
compound nouns,asin theexample.
6 I comPuter 1 Thatwas one of the most interestingfilmsI have
,w'ssti!ng everseen
m a c hr n e I 004r0
: h i. q-h -t . / 00rt|e0
2 We got a very warm welcomewhen we finally
milk arrived
llow- mineral
spray R norcnn:l 3 This restaurantis great,if you like international
rh c ur S r n e
gel : laptop
scarf 9 , pierced 4 | t h i n kh e rn e w d r e s sl o o k sd r e a d f u l
4 S e 5 Shealwaysbuyscheapclothes
tre : 9!lP-:9ll
5 lce 10 ' linen 6 T h i sd i s h t a k e sh a l f a n h o u r t o c o o k i f y o u u s e
,, 5 frozenvegetables
roiler leather
40
7 Myhusband p r e f e ras n t i q u ef u r n i t u r e 5 A : W h i c hb l o u s ed o y o u t h i n k I the
8 My trousersaretoo loose r e do r t h e p i n ko n e ?
B: a I thinkthe redone looksbetteron you
6 a. Matchthe description
of the clothes
to the b Anyhow,pinkdoesn'tsuityou
pictures
below.
6 A : F r a n k ' rse a l l yu p s e tw i t h m e , I s h o u l d n 'ht a v e
m short-sleeved, b e e ns o r u d et o h i m
yellowcotton B : a H o wa b o u ta s k i n gF r a n ka b o u ti t ?
dresswith b Y o us h o u l da p o l o g i steo h i m
w h i t ec o l l a r 7 A: Shall I make reservations at that new Thai
t b l a c ks u i t restau
rant?
t 5 t I checked shirt B : a Y o us h o u l dc a l lt h e r e s t a u r a nf itr s t
m t i g h tw h i t e b Troubleis,it'sa littleexpensive
T-shirt
TET-I stripedcotton 8 A: l'vedecidedto take Frenchlessons.
B : a l t h i n k t h a t ' sa g r e a ti d e a !
shorts
f;-f-- b Anyway,you aregood at languages
r v t I socks
l-T_l tra Iners
m ta2n< 9 Completethe sentences with two to five words,
i n c l u d i n gt h e w o r d si n b o l d .D o n o t c h a n g et h e
meaningof the originalsentence.

1 Janewill take careof the babywhilewe'reaway


after Jane
whilewe'reaway
Yournew trouserslook great,they are exactlythe
r i g h ts i z e
glove Yournew trousers ..;
. they lookgreat
Thepoliceareinvestigating the case
l o o k i n g T h ep o l i c e
b. Talkabouteachperson's
clothes.
. the case
A - George
iswearing
a blueTshirt,
striped
cottonshorts,
... I r e a l l ya p p r e c i a tael ly o u rh e l p
grateful l'm really
7 Writedownfiveitemsof clothingyouhavein a l ly o u rh e l p
yourwardrobeanddescribe them. I a s k e dC a r oal n ds h es a i dw e c o u l dw e a rj e a n sa n d
trainersto the party
8 Circlethe correctresponse. casual Carolsaidwe
. to the party
1 A: Do youthinkI should
get Marya CDfor her
J i mt o o k h i ss u i tt o t h e d r yc l e a n e r ' s
birthday?
had Jim
a H o wa b o u tt h a t o n e ?
. at the dry cleaner's
b Y e sb
, u t m a k es u r ei t i s n ' to n es h e ' sa l r e a d y
got S h ec a nt h i n ka b o u tn o t h i n ge l s eb u t h e rc a r e e r
obsessed She .
2 A . Let'shavethe partytomorrownight
.. n e rc a r e e r
B : a Troubleis, most people will have made
I r e t u r n e dt h e b l o u s eb e c a u s et h e r e w a s a b i g
o t h e rp l a n sb y n o w
m a r ko n t h e b a c k
b I t h i n ky o us h o u l d
stain I took the blouseback to the shop
3 A T h es a l e s m asna i dI c o u l d n 'et x c h a n gteh e s h i r t because it on the back
you boughtfor me
9 The managerrefusedto giveme my moneyback,
B a Y o u s h o u l d g o b a c k a n d s p e a kt o t h e
eventhouqhthe mirrorwascracked
manager
refund I couldn't
b How aboutwaitinguntiltomorrow?
for the crackedmirror
4 A'. I thought you wanted to go to the cinema 10 Mostwomenwear m?ke-upbecause theywant to
tonight look better
B: a Anyway,it doesn'tmatterto me e n h a n c e W o m e nu s u a l lw
y e a rm a k e - u p
b I d i d ,b u t t h e r ei s n ' ta n y t h i n g o o do n
appearance
41
Matchthe words/ohrases
in columnA to thosein 8 A f t e r t h e e a r t h q u a k ew, e h a d a n e n g i n e elro o k
columnB.Then,usethe phrasesto completethe t h e b u i l d i n gt o m a k es u r et h a t t h e r e
sentences. w a sn o s e r i o udsa m a g e

A B
be off u n d e ry o u rh a t Speaking
lose h i ss h o e s
13 a. Lookat the picture
andcomplete
the dialogue.
n e i t h e hr e r e duty
off h i ss h i r t
be In n o rt h e r e
keepit the record

l f h e k e e p si n v e s t i n g a l l h i s m o n e yi n t h e s t o c k
m a r k e th, e ' sg o i n gt o
H e a g r e e dt o t h e i n t e r v i e w o n l y i f e v e r y t h i n hg e
s a i dw a s
l ' m a f r a i dP o l i c C
e o n s t a b lHearrison
rgnt now
I t h i n kM a r c i ai sg o i n gt o b e p r o m o t e db, u t n o o n e
et5eKnows,50
I w o u i d n ' tw a n t t o A : W h a tcanyou seein the picture?
w h e n h i sf a t h e rf i n d so u t t h a t h e c r a s h etdh e c a r B: 1)
S h e h a s t o s n e n dm o r e [ i m e o n h e r h o m e w o r k A: W h a ta r et h e yd o i n g ?
Whethershewantsto or not, is B: 2)
A: W h a td o y o ut h i n kt h e yh a v eb e e nd o i n g ?
B: 3)
Tickthe correctpreposition,
thenmakesentences A : W h a tc o u l dt h e yh a v eb o u g h t ?
11
usingthe phrases, in
as theexample. B : 4)
A : How do they feel?Why?
B : s)
of to WIIN from tn A : What arethey goingio do next?
proud B : 6)
dedicated A : How often d o y o ug o s h o p p i n gW
? h ow i t h ?
object B : 7)
part
prorecr
t a k ep r i d e b. Lookat the pictures
andin pairsactout similar
OCCUT dialogues.
delighted
prease0

l'mproudofmydaughter.
She's
thebestinherclass.

thephrasal
12 Complete verbs.
1 | havepromised to look myneighbour's
c a tw h i l es h ei so n h o l i d a y
2 T h ep o l i c el e t h i m with a warning
3 They looked him becausehe wasn't
interested in poetry Reading
4 D o n ' tr e l yo n L a r r yh, e ' l lo n l yl e t y o u
5 Mary hireda privatedetectiveto look 14 a. Lookat thetitleof thearticle
on p. 43.What
h e rhu s b a n d 'dsi s a p p e a r a n c e do youexpectto readin it?
6 S h el e t , a l o u ds c r e a m w h e nt h e m o u s e
ran over her foot b. Lookat thestarsignsandin pairssuggest an
7 Mary had to let . h e rs k i r tb e c a u sseh e ' d gift for each.Readthe articleto see
appropriate
g a i n e dw e i g h t if yourguesses
werecorrect.
42
15 a. Readthe articleagain.Forquestions
1-14, want to be famous FI
choosefromthe starsignsA-F.Someof the do not appreciatefakejewellery Fl-l
starsignsmaybe chosenmorethanonce. do not likereceivinggiftsfor their
Whenmorethanoneansweris required, these nome toT_l
t - | |
maybe givenin anyorder. enjoykeepingin touchwith others FT|l
People
who werebornunderthisstarsign: liketo be secretive FIT-I
get boredveryquickly
areusuallyartistic ETI
fTIDI
wouldappreciatebeinggivena book
would liketo be giventickets F3T_-l
[4t_l
FI t2-fl
do notlikeoldthings FI b. Wherecouldyou readsuchan article?
Doyou
don'treally
mindwhatyougivethem FTI FTl agreewith the writer?
enjoyplayingwithnewmachines reTl
licteninn At the Bank

Youwill heara radiointerviewaboutcredit 18 a. Fillinthemissing phrases,


thenin pairs,
read
16
cards.Forquestions1-8, completethe noteswhich thedialogue aloud.
summarise whatthe speakerssay.Youwill needto oThat's fine.. That's
right.o Certainly,
sir
writea wordor a shortphrasein eachbox. . Thank you,sir
A: l'd liketo depositthis chequeinto my savings
Peonleoften oet a lot of offers for credit cardsas soon as
:rrnrrnf nlo:<o
theyaref B : 1 )
It isa goodideato geta creditcardfrom Do you haveyourbankbookwith you?
m A : O h ,n o I d i d n ' tt h i n kI w o u l dn e e di t
Somepeopleapplyfor creditcardsbecause
theyare B: Well,do you havesomethingwith youraccount

m n u m b e ro n i t ?
A: Erm Let me see Oh yes,l'vegot a bank
D e l a y i ntgh e p a y m e not f c r e d i ct a r db i l l sm e a n st h a t y o u p a y
statementhere
mininterest B: 2)
C r e d i ct o m p a n i em
s a k eF from Now,if you couldjust fill out this depositslip
p e o p l ew h o c a n ' ta f f o r dt o p a yt h e i rb i l s A : O K D o l s i g nh e r e ?
l h e ny o u d o n ' th a v ea n y
C r e d i ct a r d sa r eu s e f uw B: 3)
And haro'c r roraint
monyou
a r p d i t r : r d c h o l n v n r I t n n a v f n . e x n p r ^ s i v et h i . r n s o v e r a A : O h ,t h a n k s
B : 4 ) . . . . . ... .
moftime
Youshould
always
ffi item
of every b. Now usethe promptsbelow to act out a similar
you buywith yourcreditcard dialogue.
: :: r.:,.'r r.:r. !i'::a1.r:11.i!i,::ir

. withdrawtwenty pounds/ forgottenbankbook/


Communication:
Applying
fora formof photolD/ passport/ fill out withdrawalslip
credit
card
Writinga firstperson
narrative
17 a. Fillin the gapswith: passport,information,pay
Then,in pairs,readthe
slip,opplicotion,licence. n ' 4
/4f-trtlI
dialogue aloud.
*-;\\_\i"'#
- \\ "'
Customer: l'd liketo applyfor a creditcard,please WhenwEwritea firstperson
narrative,
we beginwith an
BankClerkRight.l'll needsomedetailsbeforeI can process introductionto set the scenewith informationabout
y o u r1 ) . . . who/where/whenand why The main body has two or
C u s t o m e r : O h , l s eWeh a t d o y o u n e e d t, h e n ? more paragraphs describingthe eventsin chronological
BankClerk l'll needto seetwo differentformsof photo lD order The conclusiontellswhat happenedat the end of
Customer: OK l've got my driving2) and the story and includesfeelingsand comments We
mv 3) normallywritethe storyusingthe pasttensesand a variety
BankClerkfhat's fine l'lljust makea copyof them of adjectives
and adverbs to makeit moreinteresting
Customer: Do you needanyother4) . . .. .. . .?
BankClerk:Yes I needyour most recent5) ' Analysing
A ModelText
Customer: Oh, l've got that here
19 a. Readthestoryon p. 45 andunderline
the
BankClerk Great Well,yourcardshouldbe with us in about
correcttense.
ten days.We'llcallyou as soonas it arrives
CustomerThank you ' B e g i n n i n/gEsn d i n g s
b. Now usethe promptsbelow to act out similar
dialogues. b. Readthe storyagainanddecidewhich
techniqueshavebeenusedby the writerto
. a p p l yf o r a l o a n/ a f o r mo f l D a n da b a n k starVfinish
the story.
statement/ threemostrecentpayslips/ loan
o USI'rg the senses ... . .
shouldbe grantedin abouttwo weeks
. usingdirectspeech
. applyfor a secondmortgage/ a form of lD and . askinga rhetorical question
tax statement/ documentshowingproofof . addressing the readerdirectly. . . ..
ownershipof house/ mortgageshouldbe . referringto one'sfeelingsor moods
approvedin aboutfifteendays . d e s c r i b i npge o p l e 'rse a c t i o n s / f e e l i n.g.s. ...
44
Mr Lewiswas very relievedthat I had fornO f,ii:ii

Ar:f,*nrfo*rr***ir:q
fxptrri*r?*e briefcaseHiscreditcardsand personal
wereinside
identification
oecause
5 | gave it to my daughter.She said it was wnat
Have you ever been really she'dalwayswanted ano
embarrassed? Well, I have. It was
last week. I was at an expensive . Discuss
& Write
restaurant and I l) finished/had
just finisheda deliciousmealwith a
neu clientW . h i l em y g u e s rw a si n 22 Readthe newspaper articlebelow,thenput the
t h e F o y e rm a k i n g a n i m p o r r a n t sentences
that followin the correctorder.
phone call, I decided to pay the
bil. ;f,;

t
I 2) reached/wasreaching into t
.t'-'
,aittF;

p#rl::Yli"n#H:fffilll,ljil
itwasn,r,r,... &S*W"
: :,,;+..'
Llt my purse but it wasn'tin there either. I emptie-dmv
;rocketsonto the table,but I couldn't find mv cr'edircard
..nylyhere.I 4) didn't know/hadn'tknown whar tu do.
#tt fiNffH
rtlfril$nemade
a mistake
thewrong
andgave
bag"shetolcl
__lvhgnmy gxest returned,I rn'as checkingmy purseto see
.'I had enoughmoneyto pay rhebill in cash.Unfortunately,
fltyflnfifff
rjfiL|lmanager
0urepofer.Davidcrey,the
of the jelvellery
- didn't evenhaveenoughfoi the taxi home.So,I wentto the LastSaturdayattemaon shop,was $o grateful
- )\,erto callmy boss.When he heardmy problem,he 5) had MrsSmithbaught a ilO whensherelumedtheril
oeenlaughing/laughedand told me to wair for a driver to silver bracelettot her fhat he gaveher a {5W
.flng me the companycreditcard. ilirce's birthday and gold bracelof.FIerniece,
A littie while later a driver 6) arrived/wasarriving at rhe walked away witha{5,WA JennyPotfer,
f saidit was
testaurantand gave me the card. "Thank you, sir. you've
.aled the day!"I saidgratefullyasI went ro pay rhebili. I,tl pair o{galrlandrlianand thebestpre$ent $hehad
il earilngs."The salcs gttl evethad!

. Adjectives
I fhe salesgirl madea mistake
Ll Themanagergavehera goldbraceletworth f 5OO
20 Fillin the missing
adjectives
fromthe listbelow.
LJ MrsSmith'sniecehada wonderfulbirthdaypresent
. deliciouso urgent. embarrassing I Vrr Smithleftthe storewith a f 5,000pairof earrings
. best o expensive E V r r S m i t hw e n t t o t h e j e w e l l e rsyh o p .
I HrtoSmithreturnedthe earrings
1 My mosi . experience
waswhenI f Virr Smithboughta braceletworth f 1O
forgotto wearmy shoesandwentto workwith
myslrppersonI 23 a. Readtherubric
andanswer
thequestions
inthe
2 | hadt: 'ti"ri:i:orthe rirm
tomake
an plan.
|"uu: 1fYourlocalnewspaper isholdinga shortstory
1i:!
That was the most mealI have q*
* competition
and you havedecidedto enter.yourstory
everhad.I wish I couldcookaswell asyou do
muststartwith thewords"Haveyoueverhada really
My husband b o u g h tm e a n pair wonderfulsurprise?"
of earringsfor my birthday
I t h i n k t h a t a o n e y e a rm e m b e r s h iapt t h a t n e w
g y m i st h e presentfor Angela

lntroduction
. Linkers (Para l) Who/Whatis the storyabout?Where/'Whn
d i d i t t a k ep l a c e ?

21 Jointhesentences
below
using
thewords
inbold. MainBody
(Paras2-3) What happened
Jirst/nextetc?What wasthe
My guestwas makinga phonecall I decidedto climax?
p a yt h e b i l l white Conclusion
H e h e a r dm y p r o b l e mH
. e l a u g h e da n dt o l d m e t o 'Whathappmed
lPara4) in the end?How did you
wait for him wnen Jeel?What dreyour commentsor reactions?
Luckily, the shopswere still open I took the bus
b. Writeyourstoryin 120-180words.
Usethe
into town and went backto the shop so storyin Ex.19asa model.
45
YouAreWhat 2 a. Fillin the tablebelowto showhow thesefoods
canbe cooked. Then,askandanswer,asin the

youEat example.

I
"'t---
Vocabulary

a. Whatcanyouseein the picture?


ldentifythe
foodsandcomplete
the table. A: Howdoyoulikeyourchicken cookedT
B: lpreferit grilled.
A: Doyou?I don't.I preferroasted
chicken.

b . Whatdo you liketo put on yourfood?Askand


answerasin the example.
. salt. pepper
o mustard
r ketchup
. oil . vinegar

A: I liketoputketchup
onmychips.
::' B: Metoo,butsometimes I Itkesaltandvineqar
instead.
tr

3 Replacethe wordsin boldwith wordsfrombelow,


asin the example.
Somewordscanbe usedmore
thanonce.
. slice. jar . piece. cUp. 162fo packet
o tube r bottle
1 Can I havesomebread?aslice/lsaf
a{
2 Wouldyou likesomecake? .
3 Do you haveany toothpaste?
4 Can I get you somecoffee?
5 Couldyouget somespaghettifromthe supermarket?

I thoughtwe hadsomecokein the fridge

7 D o w e n e e da n yj a m ?
8 W o u l dy o u l i k es o m ec h e e s ien y o u rs a n d w i c h ?

4 Completethe sentencesusingthe words below.

. a c c o m p a n i e.da l e r t . g u a r a n t e e. p e a k . f l e x i b l e
. boost . absorb. unprocessed o vital e stockup

1 lt is t o e a t a b a l a n c e dd i e t a n d
meat & poultry: exerciseregularlyif you want to stay fit and
dairyproducts: healthy
f i sh : 2 Benlikesto eat somethingsweetto
shellfish: hisenergylevelsin the lateafternoon
fruit: 3 A good review will that the

vegetables:cauliflower restaurant will be a success


o t h e r :. . . . . . . . . ... . . . 4 S h el i k e st o h a v ea c u p o f m i l k b ya
pieceof cakewhen shecomeshomefromschoor
b. Add threemorefoodsto eachcategory. 5 Make surethat you with enough
food for the trip betore you set sail
c. Howoften do you eatthesefoods? 6 lt's bestto exercise when yourenergylevelis at its

46
t
7 The body can certarnsugarsvery A: Goodafternoon.MayI takeyourorder?
quickly please.
B: Yes l'dlikethetortillachipsanddip,followed
by
. carbohydrates containedin fruit thespaghetti,
a n dg r a i n sa r ee s s e n t i taol a h e a l t h yd i e t A: Andwhatwouldyou likefordessert?
Some people drink coffee to help them sta, B: I thinkl'll try theicecreamsundae.

10 lf youwarmup beforeyouexercise,
yourmuscles b. Whichof thesefoods are:sweet?salty?sour?
willbemore bitter?spicy?creamy?juicy?

5 (1-9)to the Starters,


a. Matchthe pictures Main
6 Circlethe correctresponse.
Courses
andDesserts (A-l)in the menubelow.
Thenactout dialogues,
asin the example. 1 A : W e a r eg o i n gc a m p i n gi n t h e S o u t ho f F r a n c e
W o u l dy o u l i k et o j o i n u s ?
B : a T h a n k sf o r a s k i n gb, u t l ' m n o t v e r yk e e no n
camprng
b lt'sa greatway to get closerto nature
2 A. Hey, welcome back How was your trip to
Singapore?
B : a l t w a st e r r i b l yd i s a p p o i n t i n g
b I wouldn'twastemy time
3 A : M y s i s t e ri s c o m i n go v e r f o r d i n n e rt o n i g h t
W h y d o n ' ty o uj o i n u s ?
a I s u p p o sseo
b l ' d l o v et o , b u t l ' m a f r a i dI c a n ' t
4 A W h a t d i dy o ut h i n ko f t h e n e w B r a dP i t tf i l m ?
B : a You'vegot to seeitl
b l t ' sw e l lw o r t h a v i s i t l
5 A: We are all going out afterwork. Do you fancy
coming?
B : a N o ,I d o n ' tw a n t t o d o t h a t
b Why not?
6 A : We're thinkingof getting a microwaveoven
Do you think it'sworth it?
B : a You musttry it lt'sso easy
b lt'sgreatfor cookingmealsquickly.
7 A Are you goingto Tony'sNewYear'sEvepartyT
B : a I s u p p o sseo
b Sorry,I can'tremember
8 A: Why don't you comeoveron Sunday? you can
Starters h e l pm e c l e a no u t t h e a t t i c
B : a T h a n k sb, u t l ' d r a t h e rn o t
rortiliachipsand
H dip b l'd loveto, thank you verymuchfor inviting
peasoup
!+gi mel
I lClChef,ssaiad

7 Tickthe correctpreposition,then makesentences


MainCourse , usingthe phrases,as in the example.
I-Tp] Borosnese
f-fEl i::l:,1 steakwith andsarirc
bread , on to : from In for
riceandsreen rely
i-rFr >reak
:_1T:r
with bakedpotato
beans {
and broccoli recover
reply
rich
readv
refrain

Youcanrelyon mefor thehelpyou need.


47
1 He'sa professional chef, so preparingeverything
8 Completethe sentences with two to five words,
f o r t h e d i n n e rp a r t yw i l l b e for him
i n c l u d i n gt h e w o r d si n b o l d .D o n o t c h a n g et h e
m e a n i n go f t h e o r i g i n a sl e n t e n c e . Don't t e l l i n gy o u rp a r e n t tsh a t y o u
b r o k et h e w i n d o w ; t h e y a r e g o i n g t o f i n d o u t
sooneror later
'l
I fell asleephalfwaythrough the film becauseit I don't know why my grandparents keepgoingon
w a ss o b o r i n g a b o u t. . I t h i n kl i f ei s a l o t e a s i e r
nodded Thefilmwasso boringthat now than it was 60 yearsago
halfwaythrough 4 T h e p o l i c ea r r i v e da n d s o o n h a d t h e s i t u a t i o n
2 | t h o u g h tT i n aw a sm a r r j e d
under lwas , 5 T h ec h i l d r e nwere a f t e rt h e i r l o n g
t h a t T i n aw a s m a r r i e d sreep
It is very importantto make sure that you are 6 H i s d o n a t i o ni s c o m p a r e dt o t h e
g e t t i n gt h e n e c e s s avr yi t a m i n a
s n d m i n e r a lw s hen amountthat is neededto feedthe poor
y o u a r eo n a 0 r e r 7 Whenthe lawyersawthat herclientwas not to be
vital M a k i n gs u r e y o u a r e g e t t i n gt h e t r u s t e ds, h ed r o p p e dh i m l i k e
n e c e s s a rvyi t a m i n sa n d m i n e r a l s 8 ..... . , n e m a n a g e ot o f i n i s h h i s n e w
, on a diet novel
A h e a l t h yd i e t a n d r e g u l a e r x e r c i s e l h e l py o u
v ; i l
stayfit and loseweight
accompanieA d h e a l t h yd i e t
>peaKlng
. w i l l h e l py o u s t a y
f i t a n d l o s ew e i g h t a. Lookat the picture
andcomplete
thedialogue.
10
Watch out f o r p i c k p o c k e twsh e n y o u u s e p u b l i c
transport
alert Youshouldalwaysbe
whenyou use
publictransport
6 T h e p h o n erangjust as I was about to leavethe
house
point lwas
t h e h o u s ew h e nt h e p h o n er a n g
7 Y o u rn e i g h b o u rasr e s o n o i s y !| d o n ' t k n o w h o w
you canlivehere
A : W h e r ed o y o ut h i n kt h e p i c t u r ew a st a k e n ?
put I d o n ' t k n o wh o w y o u c a n
B: 1)
, n o i s yn e i g h b o u r s
A : C a ny o u d e s c r i biet ?
R Tn ho : nnnd drricr vnrr shnrld rnn.pnl',r'e On
B"2).
w h a t y o u a r ed o i n ga n d b e a b l et o r e a c tq u i c k l yi f
A : W h a td o y o ut h i n kt h e ya r ec e l e b r a t i n g ?
<nmaihinn , y r- n, a, -v .n.aYa i-E- - - r 0 n a p p e n S
B: 3)
reflexes You needfast
-^^-^^+"-+;^^ tO be a
A : W h a ta r et h e ye a t i n g ?
o) 9lcd L LUI lLEr rLro Lrur I
B: 4)
g o o dd r i v e r
A: How do you celebrate yourbirthday?
R. q\
9 . J ,

A: Whatfooddoyouusually
serve?
B: 6)
9 Matchthe words/phrasesin the two columns.
Then,usethe phrases
to complete the sentences.
b. Lookat the pictures
andin pairs,actout similar
the good vv rq LU
dialogues.
pur of cake
under a l lo d d s
o uruP beans
control
f u l lo f intheocean
a hot old days
ovqil r)L off

48
Reading A When Kathyleft schoollaterthat year,she
b e g a n a m o d e l l i n gc o u r s e U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,
1"1 a. Readthetitleof thearticle.
Whatdoyouexpectto readin this only made her problem worse
the article?
Whatillnesses
isanovenrueight
personlikelyto "Modelling w a s p o s s i b ltyh e w o r s t c a r e e rI
sufferfrom? c o u l d h a v e c h o s e n , "s h e a d m i t s " I w a s
b. Youaregoingto readanarticleabouta womannamed s u r r o u n d ebdy g i r l sw h o w e r ee v e nt h i n n e r
Kathy.Fiveparagraphs
havebeenremoved fromthe article. t h a n m e ,a n d i t m a d em e f e e lt e r r i b l e"
Choose fromthe paragraphs
A-G the onewhichbestfits Kathywasstilllivingat homewith herfamily,
eachgap1-5.Thereisoneparagraph whichyoudo not so she found it difficultto go without food
needto use.Thereisanexample (0)at the beginning. lnstead,shewouldeat andthen makeherself
sickstraightafteru,rards"l realised
that it was
wrong," she says I didn't know what
Kathyis on a specialdiet. ShewCighs45kgand
her targetweight is 50kg.Very few peopletry anorexiaor bulimiawere,but I knewthat I had
to put on weight,but Kathy has a very good a problemThetroublewasI couldn'tstop"
She feelsthat magazinesnot only fail to
as anore&a. inform their readersabout how celebrities
s t a ys o f a s h i o n a b sl yl i mb u t a l s oa b o u tt h e
Kathy took thosewords to heart and begana diet which would last for
risksof excessive dieting " I want childrento
the next twenty years of her life. She quickly lost a lot of weight and
u n d e r s t a n dt h a t t h e i r h e a l t h i s m o r e
beganto look too thin. Her mother was very worried and took her to
seethe doctor. "In those days,anorexiawasnot taken seriously,"says important than trying to conform to a
Kathy. "The doctor just told me to go home and eat plenty of big c e r t a i ni m a g e , "s a i dK a t h y
dinners!" " A l l I e v e ra t e w a ss a l a da n d a p p l e s ,K
" athy
admits "l drankwaterand blackcoffeeand I
usedto run up and down the stairstryingto
burnoff the few calories I gained" But even
and soon her friends beganto ask her if shewas i11."I thought they
t h o u g hh e r b o n e ss h o w e dt h r o u g hh e rs k i n
werejealous of me for being so thin," she smilessadly,',butactually
and she was dangerouslyunderweight,
I looked awful."
Kathystillbelieved that shewasfat
she was twenty-three, Kathy married an engineer Kathy'sproblemsbeganwhen shewassixteen
Steven. They had two children, David, who is now twelve, and yearsold Shehad alwaysbeenconscious of
Christine,who is ten. "I ate normally while I was pregnant,"Kathy her figure,but had neverthoughtof dieting
says,'but as soon as the babieswere born, I started starvingmyself until one summer's day at schoolAs shesat
on a lowwallin the playgroundenjoying
an ice
creamfrom the schoolcanteen,a teacher
jokinglytold herthat shewouldget fat if she
Iife. It was about a young woman who had died of cancer. "I
suddenlyrealisedthat I had everythingI could ask for and I was atetoo manysweets
throwing it all away. While other people were fighting for their Thanksto the good adviceher doctorgave
her, Kathy was able to recoverfrom her
illnessShebeganeatinghealthymealsand
stoppedweighingherselfSoonshe had put
her that many teenagersseem to believe that it is attractive to be
on ten kilosandwas beginning to looklikea
dangerouslythin. The fascination with celebrities and their weight
h e a l t h hy u m a nb e i n ga g a i n .
is one issuethat she feels very strongly about. "I believe that there is
a link between media images and eating disorders.It makes me At that verymoment,Kathymadeup hermind
angry that the media only showsthe positive side of thinness." to get overher illnessShegaveup exercising,
stoppedmakingherselfsickandstartedwriting
Kathy and her family are relieved a bookabouther experiences. Shealsogavea
and happy that she has managed talk on eatingdisorders
at herchildren's
school
to overcome her problem and It wassucha successthat shewasinvitedto visit
now her main ambition is to
otherschools aroundthe country
prevent others from going
through the same nightmare. "I
am very lucky," she says. "A lot c. Readthe articleagain.What role did
l advertisingand careerplay in Kathy's
'i
I
of people never recover from
'-J i obsessionwith her weight? What
g+ anorexia. Now, if I can savejust
one person from the horrors of advice would you give to those
-:.--
a: eating disorders, it will make my sufferingfrom anorexia?
experienceseem worthwhile. "
49
Listening b . Now usethe promptsto act out a similar
dialogue.
12 with a scientist
Youwill heara radiointerview
who istalkingaboutgeneticallyengineered food. a m i n c e/ h a l fa k i l o/ f 2 1 0 a k i l o
Forquestions1-6, markthe sentencesas f (true)
or o lambchops/ a kilo/ f3 50 a kilo
F(false). a steak/ two kilos/ f4 70 a kilo

1 D r S t e v e ntsh i n k st h a t g e n e t i c a l l y Booking
a cater ing
company
enoineered foodshaveseveral
advantages 14 a. Fillin the gapswith: snacks,services,
menlL
2 I n t h e U 5 ,5 0 %o f a l lc o r nc r o p sa r e bookings.Then in pairs,readthe dialogue
nonotir:llv anninoorofl aloud.
3 Corncan be alteredto producea poison
w h i c hk i l l sc a t e r p i l l a r s Caterer:Hello,Cathy'sCaterersHow canI helpyou?
s u l dp u t o t h e ra n i m a l s
4 K i l l i n gc a t e r p i l l acr o W o m a nO: h , h e l l o l ' d l i k et o b o o ky o u r 1 ) for
my daughter's party
in danger
5 T h eo n l ya d v a n t a goef g e n e t i ce n g i n e e r i n g Caterer:When will you be holdingthe party?
i st h a t i t m a k e sf a r m e r rsi c h e r W o m a n : O2n5 t hJ u n e
6 G e n e t ie c n g i n e e r i ncgo u l ds t o pp e o o l e Caterer:fhat's fine We don't haveanyother2)
f r o m i n gh u n g r y
g o f o r t h a t d a y N o w ,h o w m a n yg u e s t sw i l l b e a t t e n d i n g ?
Woman:Around 50, I think Most of them will be quite
y o u n g W e ' v eh i r e da m a g i c i atno k e e pt h e c h i l d r e anm u s e d
Caterer:Sounds liketheywon't want to sit down to eat
ui c a t i o S
C o m mn n :h o p p i n g Woman:It'sa smallparty;3) on traysis what I
h a di n m i n d

13 Thenin pairs,readthe
a. Matchthe exchanges. Caterer: OK, l'm sure we can come up with something
dialogue
aloud. s p e c i a lI ' l l s e n dy o u a 4 ) t o d a ya n d t h e n y o u
can pop in nextweekto discuss the details
Woman:Ihal's great Thanks

0 . Now usethe promptsto act out a similar


dialogue.

g o l d e na n n i v e r s apr ay r t y/ 3 O t hM a y/ a r o u n d1 0 0
g u e s t /s a l la g e s/ h i r e da b a n d/ l o t so f d a n c i n g
/
<t:nd-rrn hrrffpt mp:l

Writing

A Whenwe writea letterof complaint, we usea formalstyle


fnTl Goodafternoon Yes,haveyou got We begin the letterwith Dear Sir/Madam In the first
What canI get anygreenpeppers? paragraph,we stateour reasonfor writing In the second,
you? O h ,a n da k i l oo f third and fourth paragraphs, we stateour complaints and
Ef- i
I2 | | I W O K i l O SH e r e y O U ontonS givejustifications.
We starta new paragraph for eachpoint
are AnythingelseT l ' d l i k et w o k i l o so f we want to complainabout In the last paragraph, we
ETI Yes,thesewere ^^+-+^^-
PULdLUE),
^l^--^
PIEOJC suggest the actionwhichwe thinkshouldbe taken We end
broughtin fresh d Y e s ,I t h i n ks o the letterwith Yoursfaithfullv.andour full name
j u s tt h i sm o r n i n g e Hereyouare Thank
ETI of course youverymuch
FTI tstharall? Oh,lovelyCouldI
ETI That'llbe{3 40 heva fnr rr nle:<o? t

then, please 1:
*

50
' An a l V s ran lqVo d e l T e xt
^ l

1 5 a. Readthe letterandunderline
the correctlinking
words.Then,statethetopicof eachparagraph. 1 I feelI mustcomplainabout
2 | suggestthat you improveyourstandards
3 A l l i n a l l , t h e w h o l e e x p e r i e n cwe a s s o m e w n a t
: .:.. : :..' I i:.:::.?..
unsatisfactory
) e a r5 i r / M a d a m , -
in
I received
service 4 l'm afraidto saythat the service was not as good
about
complain the
I am writingto as might be expected
to findthepeti
uo,"uot'*uirt"1lttt"J;;rrwasunabre 5 lf thingsdo not improvein the future,l,m afraidI
1) Firstly/Furthermot'' tv ' maybe forcedto take my business elsewhere
-'ight5tdrr
one of your
food section,so I asked plut"' he simply:-
io tf'u
lnsteadof showrngn't . Analysing
theRubr ic
awaY
shruggedandwalked at the I
standingin a queue
2) Then/However'after the end only ' a . R e a dt h e r u b r i cb e l o wa n d u n d e r l i n et h e k e y
minutes't ieached 17
checkoutfor overlfteJn and I l wor0s.
that her shift was over
to be told by the cashier
queue Youhada mealin a restaurant.
would haveto lotn another Howeveq you did not
A s i f t h a t w a s n o t O t O " * ' n n ' w h e n l f i n a l l y mme
a n a'g e d ' enjoyyourmealdueto a numberof problems. Writea
the cashierovercharged : letterof complaint
to pay for my groceries' mistake'she
to the manager
of the restaurant.
*fttn I pointedout her
3) However/D"'plt"' b. Readthe table and matchthe complaintsto the
, O1O no, apologise but was rudeand unfriendly
I was extremely, upset by the justifications.
As you tun '*untt' be shopptngtn
: treatmentI recetved and I will certainlynot Complaints
wili improveyour
again I hopethat you
: yoursupermarket
your staffwill be more FT-] Satadwas not fresh Vegetables
had not been
': staff trainingmethods'and that
from now on wa5ne0
t O"fit. anOtretptut to customers
l2Tl npple piewasstateand dry
-,Youtt faithfullY' FTI Steakwastough and chewy
-.MavisEdwards
+a t .
t:,!.::.'....t:a
':-,
'
Justifications
-.1.n-

A WhenI complained, the waiterbroughtme another


b. Readthe letteragainandreplace
the highlighted steakwhichwasas badasthe firstone
phrases
with alternative
ones. B Waiterclaimedthat it had beenfreshlymadethat
mornrng
. Style C Foundpiecesof dirt on the lettuceleaves

16 a . S t u d yt h e c o m p l a i n t b
s e l o wa n d m a t c ht h e m i l d . Discuss
& Write
complaintsto the strongoneswith the same
meantng.
18 Usethe information
in Ex.17, aswellasthe plan
below,to writeyourletterof complaint
(120-1g0
Mildcomplaints
words).Youcanusethe letterin Ex.15aasa
F-fl t am writingin connection with model.
l2Tl I believeI maybe entited to a
ETI rne treatmentwe received was a little
disappointing *l r
IZT--It nopethat you will try ro )): 't
ETI tn additionto this,
Dear Sir/Madam
ETI t am afraidthat I probabty wiil not
lntroduction
( P a r al ) W h y a r ey o u w r i t i n g t h e l e t t e r ?
S t r o n gc o m p l a i n t s
a I was extremely upsetby the service we received MainBody
b To makemattersworse, (Paras2.-4) WhaLareyour contplaintsand justiJicotions?
c I am writingto express my strongdissaiisfaction
with
Conclusion
(Para5) 'What
actiondo yotr suggestshouldbt tahen?
d I c a na s s u r yeo ut h a t I w i l l n o t
e I d e m a n da Yoursfaith [ully
f I stronglyrecommend Y o u rJ u l l n a m e
that you

51
EveryMan S h eh a sn e v e b r e e na t s u c ha h i g h
b e f o r eI; t h i n ks h e ' sg o i n gt o f a i n t

to hisTaste
I feel a senseof wheneverI do
s o m e t h i nw g ell
8 His o f t h e p r o b l e mi s q u i t e
differentto mine
He h i m s e laf t t h e t o p o f t h e s k i
s l o p eb e f o r e p u s h i n gh i m s e lof f f
1 0 Extremekayakingis a sport
Vocabulary
a. Lookat the picturesandlabelthe sports/ 3 Labelthe pictures,
thenusethe promptsto make
up sentencesasin the example.
activities,
asin the example.
r how r Arro\^/
. racoreto shuttlecock
. clubs. ball
. skateboard. bat . bal,

)
Cqtieqry' c-::)

g
S

Youneeda bowand
arrowtodoarchery.

4 Circle
thecorrect
response.

b. Howdo youfeelaboutthe activities above? e e ,w a i t e r C o u l dy o u b r i n gu s t h e b i l l ,


1 A : E x c u sm
Usethe expressions: I
I omkeenon,I don'tfoncy, please?
hoteetc,asin the example.Youcanaddyour B : a C e r t a i n l sy i,r
own ideas. b Let me see

I don'tfancycollecting
stamps. 2 A: Wouldit be OK if Sharonstayedfor dinner?
B : a T h a tw o u l db e r i g h t
Complete usingthe wordsin the list.
the sentences b Of course

3 A : W o u l dy o u m i n di f I c a m ei n l a t et o m o r r o w ?|
. lunacy. nerve-racking. instincto elation
haveto go to the bank
. altitude. interpretation
. steadied . torrents
B : a l ' d r a t h e yr o uw e n t
. paddles . high-risk
b Actually,I needyou to comein early
1 He always his canoecarefully 4 A : W o u l dy o u m i n di f I o p e n e dt h e w i n d o w ?
alongthedangerous rrver B : a l ' d r a t h e yr o u d i d n ' t
2 Somepeoplethinkthat doingextreme sportsis b Actually,I did
sheer
5 A: Would it be OK if I borrowedyour new CD
3 Hissurvival keepshimsafeeven
player?
in themostdangerous situations
B : a S o r r yl ,' l lb e u s i n gi t
4 , . . . . of watergushed intothe river
b l ' m a f r a i dl ' m n o t
5 lt wasthe most experience l've
everhadl
52
5 a. ldentifythe sportsin the pictures.
Thenmatch 7 MatchcolumnA to columnB,thenusethe
themto the speech bubbles. completed
phrasesto complete
the sentences.

A B
run r a i no r s h i n e
come t h e w i n do u t o f o n e ' ss a i l s
second shave
close off one'sfeet
hit theroad
+-l-^
TqNE to none

We'd better soon if we want


to get thereon time
Therewere so many customersin the shop that
the salesassistants were
3 W h e nJ a n el o s th e rj o b , i t r e a l l y. .

4 EverySundaywe go to the beach,


frustrating,when
b u s ho r a p o n d Yourmum makesthe bestdesserts.
her lemontart
relaxingway to IS

I had a really on the way over


u,. here;a car nearlyran me overas I was crossingthe
T When thingsget difficultyou haveto focuson the road
s u m m i ta n d p i c t u r ey o u r s e lsf t a n d i n gt h e r e T h e n
a n y t h i n gi s p o s s i b l e
8 Complete the sentences
with two to fivewords.
including
thewordsin bold.Donot change the
It'sall aboutteamwork There's no pointin having
meaningof theoriginal
sentence.
the bestgoal-scorer in the leagueif the defence
isn'tplayingwell lf we'regoingto win a big match,
I find that I get more tired looking after the
theneveryplayerneedsto do theirbit .
childrenthan I do workingin an office
tzl-l I ' m t a l l a n d l ' m a g o o dj u m p e ra n d s h o o t e rb u t exhaustingI find lookingafter the childrena lot
that isn't enoughfor me I don't want to be a
good player,I want to be the best, the next in an office
M i c h a eJl o r d a nn, o t h i n ge l s ew i l l d o Youmustn'tgiveup, thingswill get bettersoon
towel Don't
thingswill get bettersoon
b. Usethe adjectives
belowto makeup sentences, L i n d ad i d n ' tt a k el o n gt o g e t u s e dt o h e rn e wj o b .
asin theexample. ropes l t d i d n ' tt a k eL i n d al o n g
o ambitious
o determined a t h e rn e wj o b .
. co-operative
. patient
Visitingthe EiffelTowerwasthe mostexcitingpart
Youneedto beco-operative
toplayfootball. of my trip to Paris
highlight The
to Pariswas visitingthe EiffelTower
6 Tickthe correctpreposition,
thenmakesentences
Most of my relativeswere in the entertainment
usingthe phrases,asin the example.
b u s i n e ssso, a c t i n gc a m en a t u r a l ltyo m e
-...'.-':."-..--.-. blood Actingwas
i
1
of I with ;
i l
in i at i necause
mostof myrelatives
wereinthe
i | | . entertainmentbusiness

-._": 6 Joealwayscheersme up wheneverI get depressed


l : t
r
1 ,,.
"".' "*"-"":'"" ': - - " ' ,,
!- : as
d ) ihe's got
lc 5 g u L ssuch a ppositive
ULr d attitude
o5rLtve d LULuue.
:-- : i o p t i m i s tJi o
ceisso
.' -." ". '. . : t " " " " " 1 " 'i ': uPtlllllsLlc JOel55o
1 : I managesto cheerme up wheneverI
: . I ,: Setdepressed

Hewassentenced in prison.
totwomonths
53
Speaking
!

. soundtrack. classico stars . performances 13 a. Lookat the picture


andcomplete
the dialogue.
. novel . screen. office . character

Next weekend, the Rex is giving you another


opportunlty to catch HighFidelity.This witty film is
based on the best-selling.l) by Nick
H o r n b ya n d2 ) J o h nC u s a c k
Cusack's3) , Rob,is a recordshopowner
who spendsmost of his time discussing lists of his
favouriterecords lt is impossiblenot to enjoy this
touching film. Excellent4) from the 'l)
A: )
whole cast and, as would be expected,a fantastic
R l - l a ' < n l n i n n : -h-r,r,n, n. -o o i
,UffiP
5) make High Fidelity a mooern
A: 2)
6)
B: l f I w e r eh i m ,l ' d f e e l3 )
lf you missedit first time around,or you just want ro
A: Haveyou 4)
e n j o yi t o n t h e b i g 7 ) a g a i n ,t h e n y o u B: N o ,n e v e r
can book tickets in advance by calling our box
B \ A / h , a st n o r l s d o v o r r l i k e ?
8) on 0168 350 467 There will be
A 5 )
s h o w i n g sa t 8 3 O p ma n d 11 O O p mo n b o t h S a t u r d a y
a n dS u n d a y -"'-'-'
------\,_.__* ''''1"
,...-. \"-4-

b. Lookat the pictures


andin pairsactout similar
dialogues.
10 Fillin the missing
verbsto complete
the sentences.

1 We all went to the airport so that we could


Joeoff
2 Thep o l i c e
c a u g h t h e b a n kr o b b e r s
away from the sceneof the crime
3 John . u p h i so w n b u s i n e swsh e n h e
was 30
Many birdsfly south beforewinter . .
In
Thpv'vp dcridad tn aside Some
moneyso that they can buya new car
We . . . ., i n t o G o r d o na t t h e s h o p p i n g
matl

Itl Fillin the correctword,thenmakesentences


using
the ohrases.
. sporting
. smash_hit
. natjonal
r phone. present
. ma0tc

1 message 4 t un e s
Reading
2 t o a 5 trick
14 a. Lookat the title of the articleandthe picture.
prize 6 event
WhatdoesTonydo?Whatkindof treasure do
3 ..... anthem
youthinkhe seeks? Readthe articleandcheck
yourguesses.
12 Fillin:win,goinoreorn.
b. Readthe articleagain.Sevensentences
have
1 .. aprize;2 e x p e r i e n c3e ; beenremoved fromthe article.Choose
from
a n e l e c t i o n4; w e i g h t ;5 awar, the sentences
A-H the onewhichbestfitseach
6 . c o n t r o l ;7 p r a i s e8; . . . . a gap1-6.Thereisonesentence whichyoudo
living not needto use.Thereisan example(0)at the
beginning.
54
T#ru&'
T$g
Kffig&$ffiffitr
ffitrffiKtrffi up, but I felt sure it must be valuable."
T:--'t------1
IJ I | "When I took it to the museum to have it valued,
Tony McKenzie has a rather unusual hobby. Every I got a huge surprise," he laughs. 'I would have been
Saturday and Sunday, he gets up at six o'clock in the overjoyed if the figure had been worth a hundred pounds
morning, packs some sandwichesand a flask of tea into a or so.I never imagined for a minute that it would be valued
backpackand headsout to the fields behind his housewith at over f60,000. That's hke a lottery win! It's unbelievable!"
his favourite toy - a metal detector. Nothing as old or aswell-preservedhasbeen
Fl-l
"We bought him the metal detector for his fortieth found in Britain before, becausemost statuesfrom around
birthday," sayshis wife Carol. "He had alwayswanted one, that time were destroyedback in the 16th century.
but we never realisedhe would use it as much ashe does!" Tony took the statue to the British Museum in London,
where historianswere amazedto seesuch a rare artefact in
such good condition. The British Museum decided to
Many of us find it difficult to understand how wandering
purchasethe statuefrom Tony and displayit to the public.
around in a muddy field for hours on end can possiblybe
enjoyable,but Tony saysthat there is nothing he would What does Tony plan to do with his new-found wealth?
rather do. He doesn't like football or fishing, but when he "Well, actually, I'm not as rich as you might think," he
is out and about with his metal detector,he feels asthough chuckles."When a piece of treasure is dug up on someone
nothing elsematters. else'sland, half of the value goesto the person who found
T:T- it, and the other half goesto the landowner. ll-J--l I'-
II I | "He usually finds silly little things, like tin cans planning to buy Carol a new car and take tne?hdon a
and pieces of machinery," Iaughs Carol. "Whatever he
wonderful holiday."
finds, he brings home, cleans,and keeps in a special box
which he has in the garage.The children think he is crazy." Will Tonybe taking the metal detector awaywith him? "No
way!" saysCarol. "We won't be teasinghim as much about
However, Tony's family may now have to admit that his
his hobby anymore,but I will insist that we have a holiday
pastime is not quite so silly after all. After years of
from it for a while and spend some time together as a
uncovering worthless items, Tony has finally achieved
family. Mind you, I think the children will be more keen to
everytreasureseeker'sdream and found somethingrather
keep Tony company on his weekend
special buried in the ground. His great discoverywas a
treasure hunts now that they've seen
little figure of a horse which may be worth thousandsof
that they can be fruitfull"
pounds.
Tony doesn't think that he will ever find
"I'll never forget the day I found my first piece of real
anything as amazing as the little horse
treasure,"smilesTony. "I was in a field I'd never been to
again, but this hasn't stopped him from
before. t-tl Then, just as I was about to give up and
enjoying Saturdays and Sundayswith
go home, I picked up a signal."
his metal detector. "It's not about
Tony immediately felt very excited and began digging in money for me," he says." 6l-l i
|
the damp earth. Suddenly, he saw a tiny metal shape, I'll never give up my hobby ,;i,
covered in mud. "When I scrapedoff the dirt, I could see because it gives me hours
that it was a tiny horse," says Tony. "It was beautifully of pleasure. You can't
made and looked very old. I didn't want to get my hopes put a price on that!"

A I e n d e du p w i t h a b o u tf 3 0 , 0 0 0w , h i c hi ss t i l la b i g G I j u s t l o v e f i n d i n gt h i n g s ,n o m a t t e rw h a t t h e i r
w i n d f a lflo r m e v a l u em i g h tb e
Even Tony's wildest dreams could not have The expertswho valuedTony'sfind, told him that
p r e p a r ehdi m f o r t h e t r u t h ,t h o u g h it was a very precious12th centurystatuewhich
So,what kind of 'treasure'doesTonyfind on his had greathistorical importance
e x p e d i t i o nt os t h e l o c a cl o u n t r y s i d e ?
He spendseveryweekendsearchingfor buried
Answerthe questions.
treasure, whateverthe weather
Tony'schildrenusedto wish that their dad would 'l
How doesTonyfeelabout hishobby?Why?
g i v eu p h i ss t r a n g eh o b b y
2 W h a t d o y o u t h i n k a b o u t h i s h o b b y ?H o w m u c h
l ' d b e e ns e a r c h i nagl l d a y ,b u t t h e o n l yt h i n g sl ' o
doesit matchyour personality?
managedto dig up werea few bitsof rubbish
N a m es o m eo t h e ru n u s u ahl o b b i e s .

55
Listening
15 Youwillhearfivepeople talkingaboutextreme
sports.
Forspeakers1-5,choose fromthelistA-F
whichstatement applies
to whichspeaker.
Thereis
oneextraletterwhichvoudonotneedto use.

Which speaker:
A prefersnot to be part of a S p e a k e rFTI
ffi

team? S p e a k e rt t | |
B h a sb e e ni n l u r e d ? Speaker t?a_-]
t - t l

C n o l o n g e rp a r t i c i p a t e s ? Speaker tr-rl
D h a sb e e nf i l m e dd o i n ga n Speaker Fl_-]
extremesport?
E l i k e st o e n t e rc o m n e t i t i o n s ?
F onlyasksclosefriendsto be on
t h e i rt e a m ?
Man: Nello We'reinterested in joiningthe golf club Can
you tell us what we haveto do, please?
Communication:
AttheDocto/s Receptionist: Well,you paya joiningfee and then thereis
a n a d d i t i o n aaln n u acl h a r g e
16 a. MatchcolumnA to columnB,thenin pairsact
Man:1)
out thedialogue.
Receptionist: Dailyaccess to the club,yourown locker, plus
A tt
t h e u s eo f t h e o t h e rf a c i l i t i essu c ha ss p a .s a u n aa n dc a f e
Man:2\
m Now,then What a I si t a b a db r e a k ?
Receptionist: lt'sall in this brochureWhy don't you have
seemsto be the b O K T h a n ky o u
a l o o ka n dt h i n ka b o u ti t ?
problem? doctor
t-;T--l Man:Thankyou,that'sa good idea 3)
tzt I Hmm let'shave My arm hurtsterribly
Neitherof
a lookat you Yes, I t h i n kl ' v eb r o k e ni t
us haveeverplayedgolf before
I thinkyou'reright O h ,a l r i g h tA n d w h a t
tiT_l Receptionist: We do have tutors, but there is an extra
W e c a n ' tb e s u r e will happenafter
charcrefor lessonsYou can read about that in the
untilwe get it X- that?
brochure, too
r a y e dl ' l la s kt h e
Man:Grea|Thankyou for your help
nurseto takeyou
down to the X-ray
room now
b . U s et h e p r o m p t st o a c t o u t a s i m i l a rd i a l o g u e .
E W e l l ,t h e ny o u ' l l
comebackhere
l o i ng y m/ p a yj o i n i n gf e e/ a d d i t i o n aml o n t h l yf e e/ a c c e s s
a n d l ' l lp u t y o u r
t o a l lt h e e q u i p m e n it n, c l u d i npgo o la n d) a c u z z/ i t r a i n e r s/ ?
arm in plasterfor
e x t r ac h a r g ef o r t r a i n i n gs e s s i o n s
you

\vAv t/ trLi tt ti nt Yn
b. Now usethe promptsto act out similar

.
r
dialogues.

a n k l e/ s p r a i n eidt
wrist/ fracturedit
q#a
Whenwe write a news report,we alwaysgiveit a short,
e y e - c a t c h i n gh e a d l i n e I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n ,w h i c h
J o i n i nagC l u b s u m m a r i s et sh e e v e n t ,w e g i v e i n f o r m a t i o na b o u t t h e
t i m e , p l a c ea n d p e o p l ei n v o l v e d I n t h e m a i n b o d y ,
17 a. Fillin the missing thenin pairs,
sentences, read consistingof two or more paragraphs, we describethe
the dialogue aloud. e v e n t i n m o r e d e t a i l ,i n c l u d i n gi n f o r m a t i o na b o u t t h e
. i n c i d e n tasn dp e o p l ei n v o l v e dI n t h e c o n c l u s i o nw,e w r i t e
Bytheway,do youhavea professional
available
people'scommentson the event and/oraction(s)to be
for lessons?
. taken The languagewe usein newsreportsis descriptive
Andhowmuchdoesmembership cost?
r n r i t h f r o n r r o n i r r < o n f t,h,,o- p a s s r vveo r c e
. Andwhatdoesthatinclude?
56
. A n a l y s i nag l V o d e l T e x t . Headlines

18 Readthenewsreportbelowandputthe 21 Readtheextracts
fromthenewsreportsandmatch
paragraphs
inthecorrect
order. themto theheadlines.
Thereisoneextraheadline
whichyoudo notneedto use.
-
A I lTony Morris. 34. was driving a blue Ford Escort 1 FactoryGoesUp In Flames
rvhen he turned the corner and crashed into a mini6iiii :,,, :. 2 M i s s i n Jge w e l F s ound
travellingintheoppositedirection.Apasser-bywho 3 LocalShopkeeper WinsLottery
witnessed the accident said that the minibus had been 4 CleverBurglars Arrestedat Last
gglg at almost twice the legal speedlimit. ,",":',":,,
] B I lA policeman at the scene commented that the ,:,
A|] Clive Warner, 57, was celebratinglast
street lighting in the area was not up to standard and that lt. nrght after
I winningover f6O,OOO in the NatiJnalLott.ry dru*
the council should expect more accidentsin future if they
i1.'j yr Warner,who runs Warner,sHardwarein
did not make improvements. Field
-=-i----. Road,Barton,was stunned
(- man was seriously rl when his numberscame
| lA injured in a collision at the lll . u p o n t n e s c r e e n. . .
corner of Main Street and Green Road in Riverton late !:. '"' '''t"
t'
"" ',';,,rr,..,, .- .
, ,,.:r,t,,,,':""':""',:::...-
yesterdayevening. lil
--=-t------ ght at a factorYin DraYford'
l) | lMr Morris was on his way to meet friends in a
il1, td Poundsworth of damage
restaurant when the accident happened. He is said to be $i.;l.l
to have started when an
making a quick recoveryat Riverton County Hospital. The t*:,
achinerY set light to a Pileof
driver of the minibus escapedunharmed, but has been p, ' \ .
chargedwith dangerousdriving. ,, r u b b i s h. .
$;,
:.,,;::.,Sll:.
.i'.,",'"':.\:".r..,,,,,....,,.,:..:.-..,_.,,,,..-.
l C| | A d i a m o n dn e c k l a c b e e l o n g i n gt o L a d y
1 WrexhamManorwas recovered yesterday
19 Now read the news report again and choose the I two y o u n q c h i l d r e nJ. a m i e H a r p e r , 6 ,
most suitableheadline. ,
,l Newton,7, were playingin a field near
:t
''\
A Dangerous 'tr.. ".whenthey uncovered
" ttn.-2.,-.,,.,,:*aq,_
the f 5,000pieceof
DriverInjured

B Accidentat Mainand Green


. Discuss
& Write
C PoorStreetLighting
22 a. Readthe rubricandanswer
the questions
in the
plan.
. Direct/Reported
Speech
ff Youarea reporter at yourlocalnewspaper.
Youhave
ff beenasked to write a news report
for the missing
20 a. Underline
thereported
speech
inthenews ? headline
inEx21.
report in Ex.18,then rewritethe sentences
as
. .'..:...:
directspeech. i'

b. Changethe directspeechbelow into reported


Ftr[ii
;t*."4;
a

speech. Headline

1 "Theboysare luckyto be alive Theybehavedvery Introduction


" saidthe policeman (Paral) Whathappened?
Whenand wheredid it
bravely, l
happen?
2 Thefirecouldhavebeenprevented. People should
be muchmorecareful,"saidthe firefighter MainBody
3 " l a m v e r yg r a t e f utlo t h e p o l i c ef o r a l l t h e i rh e l p (Paras2-3) 'WhatotherinJormationshouldyou tell the
T h e yh a v eb e e nw o n d e r f u"l ,s a i dM r sW i l l i s readeraboutthe incident/people
involted?
4 " l w o u l d l l k e t o g i v e t h e c h i l d r e na r e w a r d I
Conclusion
t h o u g h tI w o u l dn e v e sr e em y c a ta g a i n", s a i dM i s s (Para4) What commentsweremadeaboutthe
Carter incident?'What
Jutureactionwill be taken?
5 "Thatnecklaceis worth a fortune I am so glad it
w a sf o u n di n o n e p i e c e", s a i dL a d yH a m i l t o n
b. Writea newsreportfor the missing
headlinein
6 "Thesemen belongbehindbars Theyhavecaused
120-180wordsusingthe planandthe text in
a n u n b e l i e v a b laem o u n t o f d a m a g e , "s a i d t h e
Ex.18asa model.
policeman

57
I
Spread
the 3 a. Thepeoplebelowarereadingthe newspaper.
Whatsectionaretheyreading:entertainment?

News
business?
sports?localnews?horoscopes?
international
news?

f -
i;:? j,i

f h e W o r l dH e a l t h -,a,-;:.
''::
Vocabulary .t,i"Organisation will holda
::1, meetingto discuss the
a. Complete
the headlines
with the correctword . . .a t t a a. i < n f i n h r . . ^

20 peoPle feared rnissing


-
or dead after massive ''. I ne recent t o B r e n t w o osdh o p p i n g
in LA. Increase
- centre.
i n o i l p r i c e sh a sh a d
negaliveeffecton the ;
stockmarket *"
"'-t',.,.:,::,::.:.:,;::,:.ri:;:;Ll4tl'',.t,,
#urff'cgffg causs severe Gemini:Nota
'7
damage to coaslal areas ''.$,,,,', good day to makea
:.',......
.. ,,.,1'
in Hawaii. financialinvestmentYouwill ::,.
-i'
hearfrom an old friend,but .,:
United ::r :.'a.,.
:' Manchester
,,..won the FACup. 'ri do not mistakefriendship,.,t:,r'
'"'l:a,,;.
La:
. for romance.
"' t:t:.ll:: :.:: :..:,: :,:,.,.:l
:,:: :; ::a

b. Namethreemorenewspaper
sections.

4 Replace
the wordsin boldwith the wordsbelow.
.fff:#ffTniTfi:,; Localresidentsforced to
abandontheir homesas
. ending. scriptr plot r enjoyable
. cast

erupts on 1 The written versionof the film was excellent


Montserrat.
2 T h ef i l m h a da p o o rf i n i s h
%**r**r**"^-^*qw____ 3 The people who acted in the film gave great
performances
4 Thestorywas rathercomplicated
and hardto follow
b. In pairs,
usethe headlines
to askandanswer,
as
in theexample.
5 T h e f i l m w a s c e r t a i n l ys o m e t h i n gw e a l l l i k e d
A: Didyouhearaboutthehurricane
inHawaii?
B: No,whathappened? Tickthe correctpreposition,then makesentences
A: Thepapersaysit causedsevere 5
damageto coastal u s i n gt h e p h r a s e sa,s i n t h e e x a m p l e .
areas.

. 9 b 9 ' , ! .t o I "l
for
2 Crossout the oddword r VOte
rWOrrY
1 flood: bank- fire- river- rain -L O- ^P -OrU.TtE^

2 volcano:eruption- evacuation - water- not r r<erl

mountain r valid
t i
3 caraccident:collide - winds- pile-up
- motorway oYan2nfla

- -
4 arson:flamesfire waves smoke-
Willyouvoteformein themeeting?

58
6 Fillin the correctword 3 A : D i dy o u h e a rt h a t F r a n ki s m o v i n gt o C a n a d a ?
B: a Are you sure?
. vouch. after . download. ears. bring. 6u1
b That'sfine
. vote . showed. compromise . valid
4 A: Guesswhat! lt'sa holidaytomorrow so we don't
haveschool
1 | don't know who to for in the next
B: a That'sfine
electton
b No, really?
2 H e rc h i l d r e n o u t t h e b e s ti n h e r
3 He takes his father Theyare both 5 A : D o n ' tt e l la n y o n eI t o l dy o u ,b u t J i mi s g o i n gt o
t a l e n t e dm u s i c i a n s askLizto marryhim
4 Management was forcedto take a . B : a l w o n ' t t e lal s o u l .
r np a y b No problem
5 We waited for over an hour but Janet never 6 A : l ' m s o r r yl ' m s o l a t e
. ...up B : a T e lm l e
6 This ticket is . . . .. . . for six matinee b No problem
performances
7 A : W e ' l lm e e to u t s i d et h e c i n e m a
7 | need to these files onto my
B: a Okay.Seeyou there
laptop
b That'sfine Where?
8 The peacetalkswent on for three daysbeforea
couldbe reached 8 A : l ' m c a l l i n ga b o u tt h e p a r t yo n S a t u r d a y
9 | have known Bill for many years, so I can B: a GreatW ! h e r es h a lwl e go?
for hishonesty b l'm sorryI can'tmakeit
1 0 W h e nl t o l d h i m a b o u tm y i d e at o s t a r ta b u s i n e s s ,
h e w a sa l l
9 Matchthe words in columnA to the words in
columnB, then usethe expressions
to complete
the sentences.
7 Underlinethe correctword.

1 He was offered a job at the local fast food A B


restaurant, but he turnedhisnoseup/down at it special usedto
2 She had only beenworkingat the hotel for two latest than meetsthe eye
days,so shewasstillwet behindthe eyes/ears get the market
3 Sheinsisted on buyinga designer weddingdress,so there'smoreto it new5
herfatherhadto paythrough/inthe nosefor it on effects
4 Shewas walkingpast the jeweller's shopwhen a
1 T h en e w c o m p u t egr a m ew i l l b e . . . . . .
s t u n n l n gd i a m o n db r a c e l ect a u g h t / g l i m p s ehde r
I nJ u n e
2 The in StarWars
wereamazing
5 My passportis only valid/correctfor ten years,
3 l ' m a f r a i dy o u ' l jl u s t h a v et o . . .. . the
then I haveto get it renewed
new layout
6 | would likea job whichinvolves
travelbut, on the
4 | alwaysreadthe morningpaperto keepup with
other hand/side,I wouldn'twant to be awayfrom
the
m yc h i l d r e n
5 ThewholestoryisverystrangeI think
7 That was especially/undoubtedly the best film
we'veeverseen
8 Just becausehe graduatedfrom university,he
thinkshe can look/seedown his noseat the rest Complete the sentenceswith two to fivewords,
10
of us including
thewordin bold.Donot change the
meaningof the originalsentence.

8 Circlethe correctresponse.
1 Manyexpertssaythat electronic
bookswill be
1 A: l'vegot the mostamazingnews l'vejust been
usedmuchmorein thefuture
predicting Experts
accentedinto medicalschool!
B: a Are you sure? more and more people will use
b Really? electronic booksin the future
That'swonderfull
2 ln the future, the Internetwill providefor the
2 A: You'llneverbelieve who cameroundyesterday! needsof moreusersthan everbefore
B: a Telm l e cater ln the future,the Internetwill
b I won't tell a soul
. than everbefore
3 They will have to think of a way to solvethe b. Lookat the picture
andin pairsactout a similar
p r o 0 l e m5 o o n , dialogue.
come T h e yw i l l h a v e
a way to solvethe problemsoon
4 T h e n u m b e ro f p e o p l ew o r k i n ga t t h e c o m p a n y
h a sb e e nc u t i n h a l fs i n c eF e b r u a r y
halved T h e n u m b e ro f p e o p l ew o r k i n ga t
thecompany
s i n c eF e b r u a r y
5 To many people,this meansthat a new type of
rnmnrtpr n:me i < rrn- ', n r n g

arrival T om a n yp e o p l et,h i sm e a n s
a new type of
computer g a m e
E l e c t r o npi cu b l i s h i nigs a n i n d u s t r tyh a t i s g r o w i n g
veryfastat the moment
booming Electronicpublishing
a t t h e p r e s e nt ti m e
W o u l dy o u l i k et o r e p l a c yeo u r n e w s p a p ewr i t h a
computerscreen?
e x c h a n g e W o u l dy o u l i k et o
2 anmnrrtor qrroenT
Reading
12 a. ln pairs,
thinkof wordsrelated to the circus.
Compare yourlistto thatof anotherpair.

Speaking b. Lookat the subheadingsandthinkof two


questionsyouwouldliketo askabouteach
circus.
Readthe articleandseeif voucan
11 a. Lookat thepicture the dialoEue.
andcomplete answerthem.

13 again.Forquestions
a. Readthe article 1-13,
choosefromthe circuses
A-D. Eachcircusmay
be chosenmorethanonce.Whenmorethan
thesemaybe givenin
oneansweris required,
anyorder.

According
to the articlewhichcircus(es):

i n c l u d ecsu l t u r ael l e m e n tfsr o mi t s h o m e


countryin its shows? ffi
h a sb e e nr u n b y t h e s a m ef a m i l yf o r m a n y
years? tlTl
hasperformers
whichcanbe hiredfor
cnaai:l n..r<innc7
m
a r er u n f o r a g o o dc a u s e T FTI Ft-t
organisesmanydifferentcircusshows

A W h e r e1 )
at once? FTI
l-7-1-l
B: I t m i g h tb e i n 2 ) doesn'thaveprofessional
performers? l o l I
A W h a t3 ) include
c o m e d yi n t h e i rs h o w s ? tiT-tFTt
B: I canseetrees Onetree4) hastouredthreedifferent
continents? tgTl
A H o wd i d i t 5 ) ?
includes
trained
animals
in itsshows? [=Of]
B: 6)
A Haveyou everexperienced 7) ? othergroups
hasencouraged to copyits
B: 8) success? tl={__l
hasmusicspecially
writtenfor itsshows? R2T_-]
doesn't
charge
for entrance
to thecircus? Ff-l
60
Ringling Bros.and Barnumand Bailey
The RinglingBros. and Barnumand Bailey circus is
everything you would expecta circusto be, with all the What's
clowns,acrobats,and performinganimalsthat you could more,
imagine.This is hardlysurprisingsince the circus is a you can
familybusinessthat datesback more than130years.The evenhire
computerised lightand soundshow might be right up to performers
date but otheraspectsof the show havehardlychanged from the Big
at all for morethana century.Audiences todayarejust as Apple Circusto perform
impressedas ever by Sara and her trainedtigers,the at yourschool,business or party.The organisation
also
troop of eight performingelephants,and the gravity puts on a specialshow each year for deaf and blind
defyingtricks of the high wire artists.And if all this isn't childrencalled 'Circus of the Senses@.' However,the
enough,then there are the clownswho alwayshave the foundersPaul Binderand MichaelChristensen are mosl
audienceroaringwith laughterat theircomedyroutines. A proud of their 'Big Apple CircusClown Care Unit@.' In
visit to the RinglingBros.and Barnumand Baileycircus this programme, specially trained clowns entertain
certainlymakesfor a nightto remember. After all,it is, as criticallyill childrenin twenty-one hospitalsaroundthe
the organisers 'The
describeit, GreatestShowOn Earth@.' United States.As Christensensays, "A child's natural
need to laughcan get lost in the tangleof hospital
Cirquedu Soleil procedures."With their shows,which includereo nose
Cirquedu Soleilwas foundedby a groupof friendsin transplantsand chocolate milk transfusions,the Big
Canadain 1984,and sincethen it has gonefrom strength Appleclownstry to bringlaughterbackto thesechildren.
to strength.This is not a traditionalcircusas there are
no animalsinvolvedin the show,just a uniquemix of CircusEthiopia
breathtakingacrobatics,tumbling gymnastic displays, The first show that CircusEthiopiaput on in Addis
masterfuljugglingand impressivecontortionists. Cirque Ababa in 1991was a very simple affair. A few ropes
du Soleilstartedas a smallshow which touredeuebec were tied togetherto form the ring and a car stereo
in Canada,but due to its hugepopularity it has grown providedthe sound.However,the free show which was
tremendously.Todaythe companyorganisesup to eight put on by a group of school children,who performed
shows at any one time all around the world, and some acrobatics, jugglingand tight rope walking,was a
employs 2400 people. They have three permanent huge success.Now,the free Sundayshow has become
crrcusesin speciallydesignedbuildings,two in Las a traditionin Ethiopra's
capitaland can attractup to 5000
Vegasand one in DisneyWorld in Florida,and their spectators.Marc La Chance,a Canadianteachingin
other shows tour the US, Asra and Europe. The Addis Ababa,wantedto give the childrenthat he worked
organisationemploysthe best composersand costume with a brighterfuture. He came up with the idea of
designers,so that each of the shows has its own Circus Ethiopiaafter teachingsome childrenrn his
dramaticmusical score and fantasticcostumeswhich neighbourhood basic circusskills.Sincethen,the idea
bring peopleback to see the shows againand agarn. has spreadand spreadand now nine other cities in
Sincethat humblebeginningin 1984,almost30 million Ethiopiahave their own versionof the circus,which are
peoplehave enjoyedone of Cirquedu Soleil'soriginal supported by international
charities.
Thousands of school
and entertaining
shows. childrenare involvedwith the circus,where they are
providedwith food and tutors to make sure they don't
The Big Apple Circus missout on theireducation. Theyare alsoencouraged to
The Big Apple Circusis a non-profitorganisation
based teach at a crrcusschool,which allowsthem to earn an
in New Yorkand dedicatedto raisingmoneyand working income.The shows that they put on have developed
with sick children.The circus organisesa traditional over the years, and now many traditionalEthiopian
show undera big top in New york. They have also put dancesand songs are includedin their routineqivino
on showsin US citiessuchas Bostonand Washinqton. CircusEthiopiaits own uniquecircusstyle.

b. Arethereanycircuses
in yourcountry?
Choose
oneandtalkaboutit.

61
Lrsrenrn9 At the library

aboutan a. Fillin the gapswith:duefine,owe,overdue,


14 \,,llistento a manmakinga statement 16
accidenthe has just For
witnessed. questions
1-9 then,in pairs,readthedialoguealoud.
complete the notes.

NameofWitness:
W
- ess:
Aooressotvvltn
lll lVineStreet.
of Witness
Occupation
At the time of the accidenthe was
3
S a wt o u r b u sp u l l i n go u t o f
Sawredcarspeeding
A: Hello l'm returningthesebooks
Redcarcrashedinto B: R i g h tO h d e a rT h e y ' r e a bit 1)
Driverof redcar F at the A: I know I was on holidayand I forgot about them
b u sd r i v e r B: W e l l ,y o u ' l lh a v et o p a ya s m a l2l )
Witnessis prepared
to A: Alright How muchdo | 3) ?

to makea statement B: Letme see.Fourbooks...that'll be f2


A: OK Hereyou are And l'd liketo take this book
Policecancallwitness 9
out, please.
R i g h tT h i so n ei s4 ) . . . b a c ko n t h e 2 7 t h
of this month
Atthenewsaqent's
Communtcation: T h a n ky o u

o . Now usethe promptsbelow to act out o similar


dialogue.
15 a. Matchthe
exchanges, then, videos/ was ill- forgotaboutthem/ two videos-
in pairs,readthe f6 / takethisvideoout / due backin a week
dialogue aloud.
Writinga rcvicw
-"+F,Tf
+r.1 .,."t':,i

; 1-'

: Whenwe write a reviewof a book,film or play,we usually


write four paragraphs In the first paragraph, we
summarise b a c k g r o u n di n f o r m a t i o ns u c h a s t h e t i t l e ,
fl me. Do you haveanyTV magazines?
Excuse
name of the author/director, type, setting,etc In the
haveboughtone
lzT-l otr dearI knewI should
secondparagraph,we summarise the mainpointsof the
yesterday
p l o t i n c h r o n o l o g i coarl d e r I n t h e t h i r d p a r a g r a p hw ,e
lSTl On,really? then
l'lltakea newspaper,
u s u a l l yi n c l u d eg e n e r a l
c o m m e n t so n t h e p l o t , m a in
lZT-l or',theDailyMailwillbefine
characters, the acting/directing/writing, etc Finally, in the
last paragraph,we write our recommendation, positive
A C e r t a i n l sy i,r W h i c ho n ew o u l dy o u l i k e ?
B No, l'm sorryWe'vesoldout
c Hereyou are,then That's50 pence,please
D Well,there'sa W guidein mostof the newspapers,
if that'sanyuse
' Analysr ng
a ModelText
D . Now usethe promptsto act out o similar Readthe bookreviewandmatchthe paragraphs
to
17
dialogue. the topics.
puzzlebooks/ Crosswords
Crossword in someof
[Tl Recommendation
/ Takea Break/ 60 pence
the magazines
ETI gackground information
l:T_-]vain pointsof plot
lZTl ceneralcomments
62
19 a. Usethe adjectives
belowto complete
the table.
. brilliant
. fantasticr pleasant
. fine . dull
. nice. wonderful . superb. marvellous
' unexciting o uninteresting
@ tlarry Potter and the Cobtet
of Fire, by lK Rowling, is an
excellent story which takes
place in Britain.This thrilling
book is about Harry Potter,the teenagewizard, and is
the fourth book in the famousHarry potterseries.
@ fne magic begins as Harry is about to return to
Hogwarts school for his fourth year of educationas a b. Usethe adjectivesfrom Ex.19aand phrases
wizard.Thisyear,there is a new interestfor the students. from Ex.18ato write a positiveor negative
Headmaster,Albus Dumbledore,announcesthat the recommendation for the followingfilms.
excitingbut dangerousTriwizardTournament- a series
of tasksfor three chosenwizardsto complete- will take 1 D r D o l i t t l e( C o m e d y*)* *
placeat Hogwarts.Harry hasto take part, eventhough it
Dr Dolittleisa fantasticcomedy. Don't missit!
may meanriskinghis life.
2 G h o s tT r a i n( T h r i l l e*r*) *
tr The book is well-written,with realisticand
3 C h a i no f F o o l s( C o m e d y*)*
entertainingdialogue.Its rangeof characters, from the
4 S t a rW a r s( S c i e n cFei c t i o n*)* *
funny to the frightening,are so believablethat you will
5 TheStoryof Us(Romance) **
feel as thoughyou are at Harry'ssideas he experiences
greateradventuresthan ever before. 6 FearCity(Horror) *

E Don't miss the chance to read this fascinating


and imaginativestory. lts plot is guaranteedto keepyou . Discuss
& Write
turning the pages.Harry Potter and the Coblet of Fire
hasto be readto be believed! a. Readthe rubricbelowand answerthe questions
20
in theplan.

18 a. Lookat thelistbelow.
Whichphrases
referto
.., Yourteacherhasaskedyouto writea reviewabouta
books?films?both? .,i.filmyou haverecentlyseenfor yourschoolmagazrne.
Background iil write yourreview,givinga briefsummary
of the plot
. Thefilm/bookis set in i andsaying whyyouthinkothersmightenjoyit.
o Thefilm/booktellsthe storyof
o Thebook/novel waswrittenby ..v
o lt is a comedy/horror
film/lovestory , i!{;"
}J-r "--
o Thefilm is directedby
lntroduction
M a i n P o i n t so f t h e p l o t
(Paral) Backgroundinformati on
n Thestoryconcerns/is abouVbegins W h a ti s t h e t i t l e o f t h eJ i l n ?
n T h ep l o t i s( r a t h e rb) o r i n g / t h r r l l i n g Who plays tht heroof the story?
u Theplot hasan unexpected twist What type of filn is it?
Whereis it set?
G e n e r aC
l omments
o It is beautifully/poorly/ badlywritten M ainBody
c Thescriptis dull/exciting (Pam 2) Main points of the plot
. Thecastisexcellent How doesthe storybegin?
. Theheroof the storyis playedby Who are the leadingcharacters?
W h a to r et h em o s ti m p o r t d n p
t o i n t so Jt h e
. T h ef i l m i sf u l lo f b r e a t h t a k i nsgc e n e s ,
story?
(Para3) GeneralCommenrs
Recommendation
o D o n ' tm i s si t l t i sw e l lw o r t hs e e i n g Whot canlou sa)tabotttthe castlspeciol
efJects/scenes?
o I w o u l d n ' tr e c o m m e nidt b e c a u s e
. I highly/thorough r el yc o m m e nidt Conclusion
' It'sboundto be a box-officehit (Para4) Recommendatron
W h yd i d y o u l i h t t h ef i l m ?
" l t i sa h i g h l ye n t e r t a i n i nr ge a d
o lt'sa boreto read Wouldyou recommend it to otherpeople?

b. Readthe reviewin Ex,'17againand replacethe b. Writeyourreviewin 120-180 words.youcanuse


phrasesin bold with appropriatephrasesfrom the planandthe reviewin Ex.17asa model.
the list.
63
e
E= L=E-#=

Presen
Sti m p l e
We usethe presentsimple:
a for permanentstates Tomworksfora construction company.
a for dailyroutines,repeatedand habitualactionsHeplaystennistwiceaweek.
a for generaltruthsand lawsof nature,Thesunsetsin thewest.
a for ti metablesand programmes Thefirstflight to London Ieavesat 9 am.
a for sportingcommentaries, reviewsand narrationsGerrardinterceptsandpassesittoHeskey.

usedwith the presentsimple:


Timeexpressions
usually,
often,always,everyday/week/month/year
etc, in the morning/afternoon/evening,
at nighVtheweekend,
on Fridays
etc

Present
Continuous
We usethe presentcontinuous:
. foractionstakingplaceatoraroundthemomentofspe
Tai nkai ni sgd o i n g h e r h o m e w o r k a t t h e m o m e n t .
. for fixedarrangements
in the nearfuture l'mgoingtothedentisttomorrow.(l'vealreadybookedanappointment.)
. for currentlychangingand developing
situationsThenumberof
burglariesisincreasing.
. with adverbssuchas alwaysto expressangeror irritationat a repeatedaclton You'realwaysforgettingtoclose
thedoor.

Timeexpressions
usedwith the presentcontinuous:
now,at the moment,at present,thesedays,nowadays,
still,today,tonightetc

Note:
. Always+ presentsimple r " everytime"
beforeI go to work.
I alwayshovebreakfast
. Always+ presentcontinuous+ "all the time" - "too/veryoften"
You'realwayscomploining!
r W e c a n n o tu s en e v e r. . .a g a i nw i t h t h e p r e s e nst i m p l e .
I'm nevergoingcampingwithyouagain (NOT@in.)

Present
Perfect
We use the presentperfect:
. for an actionwhichstartedin the pastand continuesup to the present,especially
with stativeverbssuchas be,
have,like,know,etc I haveknownDaveforyears.
. for a recentlycompletedactionwhoseresultisvisiblein the present AnewFrenchrestauranthasjustopenedin
BridgeStreet.We'regoingtherefor dinnertomorrow.
. f o r a n a c t i o nt h a t h a p p e n eadt a n u n s t a t e tdi m e i n t h e p a s t T h ee m p h a s i s o n t h e a c t i o nT h et i m et h a t i t
occurredis unimportantor unknown I haveonlyvisited once.(When?Unstatedtime )
Portugal

Timeexpressions usedwith the presentperfect:


for,since,already, just,ever,never,so far,today,thisweek/monthetc, how long,lately,recently,
always,
still(in negations),
etc

64
#ffirmffi}ffiffitr
3= #=

Present
Perfect
Contin
uous
We usethe presentperfectcontinuous:
o t o p u t e m p h a s iosn t h e d u r a t i o no f a n a c t i o nw h i c h
s t a r t e di n t h e p a s ta n d c o n t i n u eusp t o t h e p r e s e n t ,
especiallywith wordsand expressions suchas for, since,all morning/day/yearetc Theboyshavebeenplaying
footballforhours.
' f o r a n a c t i o nw h i c hs t a r t e di n t h e p a s ta n dw h i c hl a s t e df o r
s o m et i m e T h ea c t i o nm a ys t i l lb e c o n t r n u i nogr
havefinishedalreadywith the resultvrsiblein the present Ken
isreallytired.He hasbeenworkinghardall week.
o to express anger,irritation,or annoyan ce Theyhovebeenlistening to thatloudmusic all night.
n for repeatedactionsin the pastcontinuingto the presentI have
been takingspanishlessons at niqhtschool.

Note:with the verbslive,work, teachand feel we can usethe presentperfect


or the presentperfect
continuous with no difference
in meaningHehastaught/hasbeenteachingattheschool formorethan
twenryyears

Timeexpressions
usedwith the presentperfectcontinuous:
for,since,how long,lately,recently

Note:
' alreadyis usedin statements
afterthe auxiliary
verband in questions
afterthe mainverb
I havealreadyfinished.
Haveyou finishedalready?
' yet is usedin negativesentences aftera negativecontracted auxiliary verbor at the end of the sentence
Shehasn'tyet finishedthereport.Shehasn,tfinishedthereportyet.
' s t i l li s u s e d i n s t a t e m e n t s a n d q u e s t i o n s a f t e r t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b o r b e f o r e t h e m a i n v e r b
I a m s t ip
l ta i n t i n g t h e
house'Hestilllivesin HongKong However,still comesbeforethe auxiliaryverb
rn negatrons shestil hasn,tfinished
herhomework.

Stative
Verbs
stativeverbsare verbswhich describea stateratherthan an action,and
so they do not havea contrnuous
tense
Theseverbsare:
' verbsof the senses(see,hear,taste, feel, look, sound erc);t canhear the
trainapproaching.
' verbsof perception (know believe.understand,realise,remember,forget etc);
lunderstand whatvouare
saytng.
' v e r b s w h i c h e x p r e s s l i k e s a n d d i s l i k e sl o( vl i ek ,eh, a t e , e n j o y , p r e f e r e t cT)h; e c h i l d r e n e n j o y r e a d i n g
' and someotherverbs(be,contain,include,belong,fit, need,matter,cost,
own, want, weigh,wish, have.
keep etc) ThatcarbelongstoJoe.

65
r|lffir
c* #=#

tenseswhen they describe


Someof theseverbsareusedin continuous actionsratherthan states

PresentSimple PresentContinuous

(= character
Sheis verypatient. - permanentstate) Heis beingverygood.(= he is behaving)
film.(= I believe)
I thinkit'sa wonderful l'm thinking ofbuyinga newhouse.(= l'm considerin
g)
pool.(= they possess)
Theyhave(got)a swimming They're
havinga wonderful (= they areenjoying
holrday.
themselves)
(= sheappearsto be)
Yourmotherlooksverytired islookingat thep/ans.(= hs ischecking/
Thearchitect
examining)
I canseeyourhousefromhere.(= I usemy eyes) Areyouseeingthedentisttomorrow? (= areyou meeting?)
I seewhatyoumean(= | understand) You're
seeingthings.Thereisno onethere.(= you are
imagining)
likesilk.(= it hasthe textureof)
Thisblousefeels Mum isfeelingTim'sforehead.(= she is Louch ing)
Thischickentastesdelicious.(= it hasa delicious
flavour) Thechefis tastingthesoupto seerfit isalright(= he is
testingthe flavour)
These
flowerssmellnice.(= they havea nicesmell) She's (= sheis sniffing)
smellingtheroses.
Sheappearsto beveryangry.(= sheseemsto be) (= vvg3t.
Weareappearingat CentralParknextweekend.
performing)
(= they arethe rightsize)
Theseshoesfitneperfectly. on all thedoors.(= he rsattaching)
Peterisfittingnewlocks

Note:
n Theverbenjoycan be usedin continuous tensesto express a specificpreference
lh enjoyingthisfilma lot. (specific
preference)
BUf I enjoygoingsailrng(general
preference)
o Theverbslook (whenwe referto sb'sappearance), feel (= experrence a particular emotion),hurt and achecan
w
b e u s e di n t h e c o n t i n u o uosr t h e s i m p l et e n s e s i t h n o i
difference n m e a n i n g
Youlookwonderfultoday.or Youarelookingwonderfultoday.
Shefeelssick.or Shersfeelinqsick.

P r e o o s i t i oonf P
s lace
r sn i c hd e s c br e w h e e s o m e [ h i nogr s o m e o n ies T h e s ep r e p o s i t i o rasr e :
P r e p o s i t i o nosf P l a c ea " ep r e p o s i t i o w
'#s* .*u':;-.

* - :-' "-"-*-:
in/inside outside below a00ve nextto/by/beside opposite

uncter through

in front of behind along between

66
Underlinethe correcttense.
4 Putthe verbsin brackets
intothe correctpresent
tense.
1 Vicky looks/is looking for a new flat at the
moment. . A: Phil1) (think)aboutmoving
2 Shewants/iswanting to decoratethe kitchentnts house.
WCCK B: | 2) (know) he 3)
3 How longhaveyou beenwaiting/youwaited for (not like) the place he's living in
him? moment,doeshe?
4 | am going/goto the gym thisafternoon.
. A: 5o, how 4) . (the story/
5 H e h a sb e e nl i v i n g / i sl i v i n gi n L o n d o na l l h i sl i f e .
6 Stevethinks/isthinkingabout buyinga new car end)?
7 Sarahhas worked/isworking there for a couple B : I n t h e e n d ,R o g e 5
r) .. ( o i n ) h i sf a m i l y
of yearsnow and they 6) (move)to Africa
8 Kellygoes/isgoing to Romeeveryyear . A: We 7) . (have) dinner at
9 Theplaystarts/hasstartedat nineo'clock. G i a n n i 'tso n i g h tw o u l dy o u l i k et o c o m e ?
10 The Webbershave bought/havebeen buying a B: Sorry,but | 8) . (visit)Sally
new housein the countrv
. A: | 9) . (not/understand)this
c o u r s ea t a l l . l t 1 0 ) (be)
2 Completethe dialoguesusingthe verbsbelow in reallydifficult I

either the presentsimpleor the presentcontinuous B: Why 11) (you/not/ask) for


tense. help?
. come . decorate. like . work . do . study
r P l 6 Yr r e a d . w a i t . t h i n k
Lookat the picture
. thenaskandanswer
A: We1) footballlater,would you
usingthe prompts,as
l i k et o c o m e ?
in theexample.
B: Sorry,I can't | 2) at the petrol
stationon Saturday afternoons . buy/new
home
. putdown/carpets
. A: What 3) . tomorrow?
o move/furniture
B: | 4) t h e l i v i n gr o o m , I
. unpack/crockery
5) i t w i l lt a k ea l ld a y
A : Hurryup! We 6) . . A: Havetheyboughta newhome?
for you
B : oK,oK| 7) B: Yes,
theyhave.Havethey...etc t::
l,i

A : What 8) ' ?
B : Macbeth | 9) . Macbethand we
10) . i t i n m y E n g l i schl a s s
6 Putthe verbsin brackets
intothe correcttense.

1 A : Wherehaveyou been?|
3 Matchthe columns andthen usefor/sincetowrite
(stand)herefor an hour
complete sentencesby puttingthe verbin brackets
intothe correcttense. B : l ' m s o r r yI ' m n o t u s u a l ltyh i sl a t e
2 A Why areyou in sucha hurry?
B : Because my train
lTTdl James (work)here a Paul'spartylast (leave)in ten minutes
l2T_l He (9o)Cornwall month You ..
every summer b shegot hernewjob (always/borrow)my clothesI
[:T_-] t (noVsee)you c a few minutes B : Yes,but I
lZT_l lt (rain) d thelastthreemonths (always/give)
them backt
ETI We(only/wait) e hewasa youngboy 4 A lsJane (still/look)for a job?
lGT__loiane(not/visit)us f hours B : Yes,unfortunately,
she
(not/find)oneyet
/-d Jameshas beenworkingherefor the lastthree 5 A : What'sthe matter?
months. B: . (lose)my keys

67
==
ci:: E=l=#j
Why'sTimwet)
6 A
B: He,, (wash)the car
I Lookat the weekendactivities
andmaketrue
sentencesaboutyoursellasin the example.
7 A W h a t ' st h a t t e r r i b l en o i s e ?
B: It'sJane,she (rehearse)
,l((iyr,1.:t..-*l
h e rs o n gf o r t h e s c h o opl l a ya l la f t e r n o oIn
8 A D i dy o us e eh o w m u c hJ i ma t ea t l u n c h ? never
I
B: I know,I rarely
(never/see)anyone eat a whole chicken sometimes
before! often
I x**** usuaily
9 A: W h a tt i m es h a l Il p i c ky o u u p ?
B: A r o u n d7 , b e c a u steh e p l a y always
''
a

(start)at 7:30
1 0 A : l s M r S a u n d e rsst i l lh e r e ?
B: Yes He (wait)to see
y o u f o r o v e ra n h o u r !

,-pbt ba;el;dl-'
7 Lookat the pictures.
In pairs,usethe adjectives
to i"., with friends
askandanswer questions,
asin theexample.
. hannv
,,-YY/ . hored. srrpssed
. tired . relaxed

':
g;lrioppng
,.'-Jiad;ii**" iili"" i^ -i,.il '
!. playing uitar

gotothebeach
I sometimes at theweekend.

9 Lookat the changes


in Paul's
diaryfor Monday.
ln
pairsaskandanswer,asin the example.

MondayNovember
4

09:0a breakfastmeetingwith A;d@renFaffiffifr


(personnel
manager)
10:00 i@(Tuesday
afternoon)
3 11:00 interview
applicants
forsalesposruon
4 12:00 lunchwithwifeandmotheiln-law
5 13:A0 (Wednesday
morning)
6 | 4:00 seedentist(GP)
@ reade-mail(10:00)
8 | 6:00 meettng withdesigndepartment
9 | 7:A0 flay squashwithJg{ryGatph)

1 A: ls Paulhavinga breakfast meetingwith the


department
managers at 9:00?
A: HowdoesSimonefeel? B: No,he isn't.He is havinga meetingwith the
B: She
feels
stressed. problems
I thinksheishaving at work. personnel
manager.

6B
+
:f= li===
1 0 Readthe postcardandput theverbsin brackets 12 Lookat thepictures,
thenin pairs
makeupas
intothe correcttense. manysentences aspossible
foreachoneusing
prepositions
of place,
asintheexample.

ot:.;=
,,
"t..
:i\
.. "*i.

A Thetableisin frontof thesofa.


Deor Ann, Thelampisonthewall,nextto theflowers.
How ore you?I l) . (write) to you
from lomoica. The hotel 2) (b.)
mognificent.
It's very hot here.We 3) (get) o
greattonlThe kids4) . (hove) a greot
time. They 5) (spend) most of the
doy by the seo. Right now they 5)
(build) o sondcostle.
John,7) (So) fishingwithTim.They
8) (go) ftshingolmosteverydoy. We
9) (notldo) much srghtseeingyeq
but tomorrowwe | 0) (go) on o trip
round the islond.We I I) . (look
forward to) it We 12) . (come)
bock on I 5th August.
Hope you are OK.
Seeyou soon.
Love,
Suson

a - l . I

U S eO T-F"nv n
" -l't s n
11 Fillin goneto,beentoor beenin.
. Error
Correction
Tony has the post office to 0 u y
s o m es t a m p sH e ' l lb e b a c ks o o n
13 Cross
outtheincorrect
wordineach
sentence.
2 Louisehasnever Spainbefore
5 I h a v e n ' st e e nM i k ea l l w e e k H e ' s 1 Jameshasbeenworkedherefor morethan a year
NewYorkon business 2 Thebookshopis overtherenearto the bakery
4 lt's the first time that l've 3 | believe what shedoessays
r e s t a u r a nbtu t l ' l ld e f i n i t e lbye c o m i n gb a c ka g a i n 4 S h eh a sb e e nt o l i v i n gi n L o n d o nf o r t h e l a s tt w o
5 | thought MissStephens was in her office Do you years
know whereshe's 5 We haven'tbeento that restaurant for sincea long
6 Haveyou t h e n e w c i n e m ay e t ? time
7 Sorry I couldn't call you back earlier 6 L a u r ai s b e e n v i s i t i n gh e r g r a n d p a r e n tast t h e
a meetingall afternoon weeKeno
8 We've J i m ' sf l a t t w i c e s i n c eh e 7 Sallyhasfounda beautifulnew flat yet
move0In 8 W h a ta r ey o u b e d o i n gt o m o r r o wn i g h t ?

69
|llilt
EffiU5*
' WordFormation . KeyWordTransformations

Studythe examples. In eachcasethe secondsentencehas


a similarmeaningto the firstsentence.
-al: (nation + national) )y: (day : i6ily1
-ic: (artist ) arti stic) -ful: (peace--+peaceful)
-ous: (fame--+famous) -less:(hope--+hopeless) i 1 Evehasn'tfounda new flat yet. ti
-y'.(thirst t thirsty) -ive: (effect + effective)
looking Eveis still lookingfor a new flat
Thesuffixes-ful, -lessand -ive can be addedto both 2 Paulstartedworkingheretwo yearsago
nounsand verbsto form adiectives been Paulhasbeenworking herefor two years
3 | havenevervisitedGermanybefore
first This is the first time I have ever visited
Formthe correctadjective
fromthe wordin bold. Germany
14
4 lt's morethan a monthsinceI saw her
seen I haven'tseenher for morethan a month
It'sa large city in the INDUSTRY
Whendid you redecorate
yourlivingroom?
northof the country
ago How long ago did you redecorate
yourliving
I d i d n ' tl i k et h e f o o d ,I t h o u g h ti t w a s
room?
a bit too SALT
I haven'tbeenshoppingfor threeweeks
Sam always buys the local
; last I lastwentshopping
threeweeksago :
. newspaper WEEK {., ;
"4'*trxxr:;iai;**:r:;*y?*ii&aattst*.r?ri.:8ae,teF.*x#.ti'i,*7#,t;lwtye**:*a*r,a4@
Jane is such an ENERGY
person,she'salwaysrunningaround
15 Completethe sentences with two to fivewords,
d o i n gs o m e t h i n g
including
the wordin bold.Do not changethe
Followinga diet and HEALTH meaning of the originalsentence.
gettingplentyof exercise
is the best
way to loseweight 1 Jason
isstillwritinothatreoort
He reallywantedto buythe carbut it finished Jason
was too EXPENSE writingthat reportyet.

Jumpinginto the riverto savethe Shernovedto NewYorkfour yearsago.


younggirlwas sucha HERO living She
t h i n gt o d o in New Yorkfor four years

White-water rafting may be I lastphonedJoea coupleof weeksago


L, .+
uut
i+
tt
;- ^l-^
t) dt)u
,,^-,,
vcty DANGER
exgiting a coupleof weeks

Shewasa . young BEAUTY Whendid you movehouse?


woman ago How
'10 you movehouse?
The dentistpromisedthat the whole $

procedure would be completely Cathystartedlearningltalianfiveyearsago.


PAIN been Cathy
fiveyears
1 ' l He's a . lawyer SUCCESS
Everyone
in town knowshim Tomalwaysgetsto work on time
late Tom
12 It's to argue with POINT
for work.
him He alwaysdoeswhat he wants
anyway I haven'ttalkedto him for a week
since lt'sa week
him.
Shehasn'ttidiedherroomsinceMonday
last She
Monday

70
+
:-==:ij:i:=
' O p e nC l o z e " \,4ultiple
Choice
Cloze

17 Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA,B,Cor D which


16 Readthe text belowandthinkof the
bestfitseachspace.Thereisan example (0)at the beginning.
wordwhichbestfrtseachsoace. Use
onlyonewordin eachspace. Thereisan
example(0)at thebeginning. Renovating
' :a":' ::'
i',,:.:.:
Yourhouse
| ...,,1..,,
,,:.,,11::,:l Houseprices,0) ririg taxes,very rarelygo down, so if you find
1) i n a p o s i t i o nw h e r ey o u n e e dm o r el i v i n gs p a c e2, )
ArchitectFrank Lloyd Wright 0) ft+: designed r e n o v a t i n gM a n yf a m i l i e sn o w a d a yas r e f i n d i n gt h a t t h e i r h o m e sa r e
s e v e r aul n u s u aal n d e y e - c a t c h i nbgu i l d i n g sb,u t too 3) Whether they 4) a secondbathroom,more
Fallingwater, in Pennsylvania, USA, is probably storagespaceor an extra bedroom,a lot of peopleare 5) to
oneof 1) m o s ta m a z i n gd e s i g n sW h e n r e n o v a tteh e i rh o m e si n s t e a d o f b u y i n gs o m e t h i n bg i g g e r
y o u t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i ot hna t t h i s b u i l d r n g The6) for thistrendare,for the mostpart,financialThecost
wasbuilt2) '1 o f b u y i n ga n e w h o m ea n d t h e p r o b l e mosf m o v i n gh o u s ea r ee n o u g h
936 when the architectwas
nearlyseventy yearsold, it isevenmoreamazing to makeanybodythink twice beforedecidingto relocate Renovating
At 3) glance,the structuremay look a a l l o w sy o u t o s t a yi n y o u r o w n n e i g h b o u r h o oadn d i n y o u r 7 )
little brt 4) a pile of concreLb elocks, h o m ew h i l em a k i n gi t m o r ep r a c t i c aaln dc o m f o r t a b lteo l i v ei n
which is about 5) fall into the stream A l t h o u g h i t i s t e m p t i n gt o 8 ) and do the renovations
below However,the house is a lot safer yoursef, it is alwaysa good ideato 9) a professionalTherewill
6) it looks The large stone slabsare b e t h i n g sy o u h a v e n ' t h o u g h ta b o u t o r l u s t m i g h t n o t b e a w a r eo f ,
s e c u r e l ya n c h o r e dt o t h e h r l l s i d ea, n d t h e s u c ha s s u p p o r t i n sgt r u c t u r e sg ,o v e r n m e nzto n i n gr e g u l a t i o nos r, h o w
h e a v i e s te c t i o ni s a c t u a l lby u i l to n s o l i dg r o u n d t h e s er e n o v a t i o nmsi g h ta f f e c ta n y1 0 ) c h a n g eyso u m i g h tw a n t
7) thoughthe front sectionof the house t o m a k e A p r o f e s s i o nwaill l a l s ob e a b l et o h e l py o u w o r k w i t h i ny o u r
hangs8) the water,it is in no dangerof b u d g e ta n da d v i s e you11) i n s u r a n cree q u i r e m e n t s
c o l l a p s i n ga,s e a c h f l o o r o f t h e b u i l d i n gh a s A n o t h e ra d v a n t a goef r e n o v a t i nigs t h a t w h i l et h e w o r k i s g o i n go n
9) own supportsystemThe front door of y o u c a n u p g r a d e y o u r p l u m b i n g a n d e l e c t r i c acl o n n e c t i o n sa s
t h e h o u s ei s s e t b a c k1 0 ) t h e o u t e rw a l l 12) a sa d d i n gi n s u l a t i o nl t ' sa l s oa g o o dt r m et o 1 3 ) alr
As 11) a s v i s i t o rw
s a l kt h r o u g ht h i sd o o r , c o n d i t i o n i n cge, n t r ahl e a t i n go r a h o m es e c u r i tsyy s t e m
theynoticea balconyin the far corner12) S o ,w h e t h e ry o u w a n t a ' h o m eo f f i c e ' a , ' g r a n n yf l a t ' o r j u s t m o r e
offersa magnificent view of the waterfallThe storage s p a c e1, 4 ) a g o o dl o o ka r o u n dy o u rh o u s et,h e s o l u t i o n
g r o u n df l o o r 1 3 ) c o n t a r nas d i n i n ga r e a m i g h tb e 1 5 ) y o ui n t h e f a c e
and fireplace, aswell ascomfortable placesto sit
14) admire the spectacularscenery
s u r r o u n d i nt g
h e h o u s eF a l l i n g w a t iesrt h e e n v y 0 A such f: like D s o
1 A oneself B themselves C yourselfD your
2 A consider B think C rememberD d o
? A cosy B spacrous C expensive
D cramped
4 A have B buy C use D need
5 A thinking B ehnn<inn C wanting D needing
6 A reasons B m e a nnr9 5 f
L
^,,"^^-^-
Pur PU)c) D findings
7 A real ts n e w C own D only
8 A make B try C frnd D attempt
9 A hire P rent C buy D borrow
1 0 A past B fut ure C old D added
11 A o n E to C over D for
t arrary*7t?/t?.W.tft1,'/4 ??s..,.:'. t z A long B much C soon D well
1 3 A input B install C build D fix
1 4 A make B rry L 0 0 D take
1 5 A seeing B staring C punching D falling

71
ffi?ffifr'
&T38^3%ffi

W e u s et h e p a s tc o n t i n u o u s :
' for an actionwhichwas in progress at a statedtime in the past We don't mentionwhen the actionstartedor
finishedAt 8 o'clockthis morninglwasgettinEreadyforwork.
. f o r a n a c t i o nw h i c hw a si n p r o g r e swsh e na n o t h e ar c t i o ni n t e r r u p t eidt W e u s et h e p a s tc o n t i n u o ufso r t h e
actionin progress (longeraction)and the pastsimplefor the actionwhich interruptedit (shorteraction)They
werewalkingto thestationwhentheysawtheaccident
. for two or moresimultaneous actionsin the past Thechildrenwereplayinginthegardenwhiletheirmotherwas
trimmingthehedges.
. t o d e s c r i b e t h e a t m o s p h e r e , s e t t i n g e t c a n d t o g i v e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t iW o nhteonalswt o rkye u p l f o u n d
thesunwasshiningand thetemperature wasrisingfast.Lizwasmakingbreakfast in thekitchenwhile.JohnandSarah
weredrinkingcoffeeon thebalcony.

PastPerfect
&ffir*gffiffiffir
&mffi%ffi
,l,i
l,;l l

We use usedto + infinitiveto refer to past habits or states.


s s e dt o c a nb e r e p l a c ebdy t h e p a s ts i m p l ew i t h n o c h a n g ei n m e a n i n g
I n s u c hc a s e u
WhenI wasyounger, I usedto go to Waleson holidayeveryyear.
WhenI wasyounger, I wentto Waleson holidayeveryyear.

Foreachperson, eachof the sentences


complete
Tony,Lyn,SteveandSally, given.Use
usingthe timeexpressions
eachexpression
onlyonce.

1 o at the time o sincehe was a youngboy


. b y t h e t i m e h e w a s3 0 . a b o u ts i xm o n t h sa g o

a I first met Tony a Stevecrashedhiscarinto a wall ..


b H ew a sw o r k i n gi n a n l t a l i a nr e s t a u r a n t b H ew a sd r i v i n gh o m e
c H eh a dd r e a m e o d f b e i n ga c h e f . . c The roadswereverydangerous becauseit had
d He plannedto openhisown restaurant b e e ns n o w t n g
d Hesaidhe didn't realise how slipperyit was
J_
= 1... . by the time shearrived. for ages
>l
-l . a coupleof daysago . until9 o'clock . when shewasyounger. for hours
. a coupleof timesa week . lastweek
Lynand I arrangedto go to the cinema
b We had beentalkingabout seeingthe latest a I saw Sallyat the gym
EthanHawkefilm b S h es a i ds h eh a db e e ng o i n g.
c Unfortunately, her busdidn'tarrive c Sheusedto be veryactive ..
d T h ef i l m h a da l r e a dsyt a r t e d. . , d lt wasgoodto seeherandwe talked

73
;:2
=

E*n*ffi
2 Fillin the correctpasttenseof the verbsin brackets. 5 Underline word.
thecorrect

1 A: What (you/do)yesterday? W e h a d j u s t / l a t e l yf i n i s h e de a rn g w i e n l h e y
B: | (play)squashwith Pete arrived
2 A. (you/speak) to Kate? Were you watching the French film on TV
B : N o ,s h e ( s l e e pw
) h e nI c a l l e d earlier/before?
He had beenworkingthere since/fortwo and a
3 A : 5 u el o o k e dr e a l l yt i r e dy e s t e r d adyi,d n ' ts h e ? h a l fy e a r s
B: Yes,she (study)all
She had already/yetwritten the letter when he
n i g h tf o r t h e e x a m c a l l e dh e r
4 A: When ( y o u / m e e tP) h i l ? The companywas previously/beforehand run by
B : A c o u p l eo f y e a r sa g o ,w e thegovernment
(not/ live)hereverylongat the time 6 T h et e a mh a d n ' tl o s ta g a m eu n t i l / y e tl a s tw e e k
Shelately/recently movedto London
5 A: (you/be)ill lastweek?
8 We had never/everbeentherebefore
B: Yes,| (have)a really
9 Hewasalways/stilllivingat homewith hisparents
b a dc o l da l lw e e k
t h i st i m e l a s ty e a r
6 A : l ' m r e a l l yh a p p yT o mg o t t h a tj o b 10 H e m a d e d i n n e ra f t e r / f o l l o w i n gh e g o t h o m e
B : I know,he ( l o o k )f o r a g e s fromwork
7 4 . Why wereyou late?
6 Usethe promptsbelowto askandanswer
B : O h ,J e n n y
questions, Youmayuseyour
asin the example.
(still/get)readyat 9 o'clock
own ideasaswell.
8 A : (you/still/watch)
'1
the film at 1 o'clock?
B : N o .i t (finish)by then

3 about yourself.
Completethe sentences

1 T w om o n t h sa g o ,w h i l eI
2 W h e nI w a sa y o u n gc h i l d I,
3 D u r i n gm y l a s th o l i d a yI ,
4 On my firstdayat school,I
5 LastSaturday, afterI

4 Thelntercity pierlastnight.
Ferrycroshedintothe
Lookat the pictureandput the verbsin the list
intothe pastcontinuousto describewhateach
personwasdoingat the time,asin the example.
r look r climb. readr holdo wofk . search
t h e r a i ns t a r t- d r i v et o M u n i c h- p u l lo v e r- w a i t
ro srop
A: Whatwereyou doingwhentherainstarted?
@ M r J o h n s o/na t t h e w a t e r B: lwasdrivingto Munich.
@ Mrs Smith/ the stalrs A: Whatdidyoudo?
S h e i l a/ a b o o k B: I pulledoverandwaitedforit to stop.
@ A m a n/ o n h i sl a P t o P the storm hlt - watch TV/livingroom - close/
comPuter shutters
a Mr Smith/ in hisbriefcase t h e a c c i d e nht a p p e n e-d d r i n ka c u po f c o f f e e / ian
a / a newspaper
.loyce c a f e- r rr n o r r f s i dteo h e l o
the President arrived - wait outside the
Presidential Palace - wave/myflag
WhenthelntercityFerry
the fire broke out - work/in my office- run to/
rrn<hpd infn fhp nipr Alr
emergency exit
Johnsonwaslooking
at the - r e a da b o o k - h i d e
t h e e a r t h q u a k he a p p e n e d
water.
u n d e rt h e t a b l e
7 Lookat the pictures'and
the prompts,thenmake 8 Puttheverbsin b'ackets
intothecorrect
past
up sentencesusingpasttenses,
asin theexample. tense.

1 W h i l eI ( p u t )r h e c h i l d r e n
t o b e d ,t h e p h o n e ( r ing )
2 S h ew a sn e r v o ubs e c a u sseh e
(wait) a weekto hearif she
(get)the tob
3 Yesterday, I ( b e )a t r i e c : s
s t o pw h e n a f r i e n d (drive)
by and (offer)me a lii
4 We (see)the film lastweekero
but I (not/enjoy)it at aril
Eve/deliver
newsoaoers/her
dad/leave/for
work 5 l (not/see)her since she
Evewasdelivering
newspapers
whenherdadleftforwork. (move)to her new flai
Whrle
Evewasdelivering
newspapers,
herdadleftforwork. 6 Where (you/be)lastnight?
AsEvewasdeliverrng
newspapers,
herdadleftforwork. (stand) outside the
theatrefor two hours!
| . (know)she
(cry)because hereyeswerered,
8 After he (work) as a waiter
i n a n l t a l i a nr e s t a u r a nf ot r t e n y e a r sh e q u i t h i sj o b
and (open)a coffeeshop

9 Compare the pictures.


Whatdid peopleuseto have
in the past?Whatdo we havenowadays? Usethe
Tony/wor[</h
is sister/cal
I him promptsandthe pictures to makesentences,
asin
theexamole.
o olortriritrr r rlnthp< r fr rrnit'rro . rnmnr rforc
r d e c o r a t i o n so t p l p n h o n e s

Thegirls/row/the
boys/play
rugby

Peopledidn'tusetohaveelectricity
inthepast.Theyusedtohaveoil
Steve/shop/Sa
ndralprepare/di
nner lamps.Nowadays, wehave
electricity.

10 Whatdidyouuseto do/didn'tuseto do during


yoursummer lastyear?Choose
holiday fromthe
Youcanuseyourown
listandmakeup sentences.
ideas.
o getup late. spendtimewithyourfriends
. go swimming . sunbathe
. readbooks
. eatout at restaurants
Emma/plant/a
tree/herdad/build/the
fence I usedtogetuplate.
75
w
&mm%ffi
11 Circle
thecorrect
tense, (0).
asintheexample 12 Matchthetwo halves
of thesentencesin columns
A andB.Then,makesentences byjoiningthem
usingthe wordswhen/while/so/asor
because/
since/for.

llT-] Janewasworkingon thecomputer


l2Tl I haven't
beenskiing
FTI Hehasbeenliving
in Cuba
ETI Shewastryingto bakea cake
ETI ttookmyumbrella
ETI we weretoo tiredto qo out

B a tho nvon r:lnht firo

b we stayedin and orderedpizza


c T i mw a sm a k i n gd i n n e r
d i t L o o k eldi k ei t w a sg o i n gt o r a i n
e 6 months
f I w a s 1 8 y e a r so l d

U s eo'f 'F" Jn" ' o l i s h


and therewasn'ta cloudin the sky Evenbetter,it was
. KeyWordTransformations
t h e f i r s td a yo f t h e s u m m e rh o l i d a yasn d I 2 )
forwardto it for weeks Everyyear,on the first day of
t h e h o l i d a y s| 3 )
Studythe examples.
In eachcasethe second sentence
to the beachwith my
f r i e n d sb, u t t h a t w a s l a t e ra n d t h e r ew a s n o r u s h F o r
hasa similar
meaning
to thefirstsentence.
t h e t i m e b e i n gI j u s t4 ) t h e c h a n c et o h a v e !1)t!ii!r!.rlHEfilrldsFsrN:.iiiElt

a i i ei n A f t e rl g o t u p a n da s| 5 ) c o f f e et,h e i:ij,iirlr!aiiilr.;i'qlttlfr+f,111i1ii.!1r-d:Erii;1ri!in,i+iiri,;Yi
1 J o h n. l o i n etdh e c o m p a n sy i xm o n t h sa g o .
t e i e p h o n rea n g l t w a sm y f r i e n dA m y ,s h e6 )
has J o h nh a sb e e nw o r k i n gf o r t h e c o m p a n y
thatthe weathew r a s g o i n gt o b e b a dt h a t a f t e r n o o n
for sixmonths
We 7) i i t h o u g hb e c a u s e i t w a s s u c ha
perfectday, so we arrarged to rneet an hour later 2 W h e nw e w e r ec h i l d r e nD, a dw o u l dt a k e u s t o t h e
However,JUstas I left the housea huge blackcloud p a r ko n S u n d a ay f t e r n o o n s
8) o n t h e h o r i z o na n d f i v em i n u t e sl a t e ri t used Dad used to take u s t o t h e p a r k o n
9) w i t h r a i n I c o u l d n 'bt elieve m y l u c k ,t h e Sunday afternoons, when we were
w e a t h e r1 0 ) f a n t a s t iac l l m o n t ha n d t h e n children,
o n t h a t d a yo f a l ld a y si,t r a i n e d 3 When I went to Francelastsummer,it was the first
time I hadeverbeenabroad
never I had neverbeen abroaduntil I went to
F r a n c lea s ts u m m e r
0 Awas being S)was C u s e dt o b e
4 H o w l o n gi s i t s i n c ew e w e n t t o t h e c i n e m a ?
1 A w a ss h i n i n g B s h o n e C h a ds h o n e
last W h e nd i d w e l a s tg o t o t h e c i n e m a ?
2 A looked B h a db e e nl o o k i n gC w a sl o o k i n g
3 A h a dg o n e B w a sg o i n g C went 5 | d r d n ' ct a l lh e ru n t i lI h a ds p o k e nt o S t e v e
4 A hadenjoyed B enjoyed C hadbeenenloying before I spoketo StevebeforeI calledher
5 A w a sm a k i n g B h a db e e nm a k i n gC h a dm a d e 6 I had neverbeento that restaurant before
6 A w a sh e a r i n g B h e a r d C h a dh e a r d first It was the first time I had beento that
7 A d i d n ' tb e l i e v eB w e r e n ' tb e l i e v i nC
g h a d n ' tb e l i e v e d restaurant
'ir., ,f
8 A w a sa p p e a r i nBg h a da p p e a r e d C a p p e a r e d '\,i
sr;,1!,rlul4r,rrr',,-':,f;iiirtrj:,rrl:irf\;!-f;fr411 rirrli+ii:!r't::Bir,llLf{lrF,i:F,R

9 A h a dp o u r e d B w a sp o u r i n g C u s e dt o p o u r
10 A h a db e e n B was C w a sb e i n g

76
&$rgrt}ffiur
Kmw%ffi
13 Completethesentences
withtwoto fivewords, 8 Johnwasworkingveryhardlatelyat that time.
including
thewordsin bold.Donotchangethe 9 I was left the buildingafter everybodyelse had
meaningof theoriginalsentence. gone
1 0 The kitchenwas being redecorated for yesterday
Davidstartedstudyingheretwo yearsago afternoon
been David
two years
' WordFormation
We didn't leavethe houseuntil everybodyWAS
ready
before We waited until evervonewas ready
the house.
WhenJasonwasyoungerhe workedin NewYork
antl-: agarnst,preventing(antibacterial)
used Jason
bi-: two (bilingua9
in NewYorkwhen he wasyounger
co-: with, together,mutual (co-educational)
We had neverbeento that cinemabefore inter-: between,among (intercontinental)
time lt mis-: wrongly,badly,not (misinformed)
h a db e e nt o t h a t c i n e m a mono-: one(monolingual)
Rosehasn'tpaidher rentyet. multi-: many(multicultural)
still Rose . . .. renr
Whendid you leaveschool?
since How long is it 1 5 Form
thecorrect
adjective
fromthewordin bold.
school?
1 After the earthquake,the
l'd neverseensucha closerace
governmentaskedfor helpfrom
ever lt wasthe
the .. .. community, NATIONAL
s e en .
2lt is a(n) . event, ANNUAL
It'sthreeyearssinceI went awayon holiday held in May and November
have I eachyear.
on holidayfor threeyears 3 T h e yb u i l ta n e w RAIL
It was the first time she had given a speechin throughthe centreof town
public 4 Natashawas wearinga bright
never She Jumper COLOURED
a speechin publicbefore 5 Makeyourselfclearso that you
canavoidany UNDERSTANDING
. LrrorLorrection Therunners sprintedaroundthe
track in a(n,) CLOCKWISE
14 Cross
outtheincorrect
wordineach
sentence. direction.
Hethankedeverybody andsaid
1 He hadalwaysbeenwantedto be a singer that they had all been very
2 Laurahad beenworkingtherefor a coupleof years OPERATIVE
ago. The governmenthas decided
3 We were trying to be quiet becauseSarahwas to start a(n) SMOKING
beingasleep c a m p a t g nt o m a k e p e o p l e
4 | haven'tneverboughtanynew CDsrecently aware of the danger of
5 | would usedto go therewhen I was younger smoking
6 We were hungryso we had decidedto phonefor a Most collegenewslettersare
ptzza. published WEEKLY
7 They movedto the countryside sincethree years 10 The Mayor has been accused
490 of of public USE
funds

77
*E
&

4--3%ffi,
&Y-a
M u l t i p lC
e h o i cC
e loze
- l
{ tr\an I tr\-76
vvLtr !tv4L

16 Readthetextbelowandthinkof the Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA,B,Cor D which


17
wordwhichbestfitseachspace. Use bestfitseachspace.
Thereisan example (0)at the beginning.
onlyoneword in eachspace.There
is an
example(0)at the beginning.

C..o en"nel
Vakingthe riqhl rrtove Gabrielle"Coco" Chanel 0) kvdr$ born in Saumur, Southern
M o v i n gh o u s e0 ) l S a nu p s e t t i n eg x p e r i e n c e F r a n c e a n d w a s 1 ) . . . . . . . . . .u. p i n a F r e n c h o r p h a n a g e .S h e
W h e n y o u m o v ey o u a r e 1 ) , . . . , . . . o n l y b e c a m e a n i n n o v a t i v ed r e s s d e s i g n e r2 l . . . . . . . . . .r.u l e d o v e r
l e a v i n gy o u r h o m e b u t y o u a r e a l s o l e a v i n g Parisianhigh fashion for almost six decades.At age 30 she
your neighbourhood, friends, familiar 3) .........a . . t i n y h a t s h o p a n d q u i c k l ya d d e d s w e a t e r ss, h i r t s
s u r r o u n d i n gasn d , 2 ) s o m ec a s e s , and accessories.Withinfive years her simple and comfortable
your family You 3) be well designs attractedthe 4) ...........of influentialwealthy women.
organized The best way to do this is H e r s t y l ew a s a r e f r e s h i n g c h a n g e5 ) . . . . . . . . .t.h. e c o n f i n i n ga n d
4) .. m a k i n gl i s t s :l i s t so f t h i n g sy o u tight-fittingcorsetsand long dresseswith petticoatsof the time.
w a n t t o k e e p s, e l lo r t h r o w 5 ) . . . , a n dl i s t s She 6) jersey dresses, bell-bottomtrousers, trench
of thingsyou haveto do, suchas6) coats, turtlenecksweatersand the classic "littleblack dress".
v n r r r r r t i l i i i a qr r r t n f f Costume jewelleryas well as bobbed hair are also credited
As difficult7) movingis for you, 7 ) . . . . . . . . . . .C h a n e l . T r a d i t i o n a lC h a n e l a c c e s s o r i e si n c l u d e
it is just as bad, 8) not worse,for m u l t i p l es t r a n d s 8 ) . . . . . . . . . .p. e a r l s a n d g o l d c h a i n s , q u i l t e d
y o u r c h i l d r e na n d p e t s l t i s a 9 ) handbagsand sling-backpumps in ivorywith blacktoes.At the
harderfor them to understand why they have 9 ) . . . . . . . . . o. .f h e r c a r e e r ,C h a n e l1 0 ) . . . . . . . . . 3
. ., 5 0 0p e o p l e ,T h e
t o m o v ea n d t h e y 1 0 ) not know e m p i r e 1 1 ) . . . . . . . . . .a. f a s h i o n h o u s e , a t e x t i l e b u s i n e s s ,a
w h a t t o e x p e c t1 1 ) i s a g o o di d e a costumejewelleryworkshop,and perfume laboratorieswhere
to take them to their new neighbourhood t h e f a m o u s p e r f u m eC h a n e l N o . 5 w a s 1 2 ) . . . . . . . . . . . C h a n e l
before you move and show 12) r e t i r e di n 1 9 3 8 b u t 1 3 ) . . . . . . . . . .i .n 1 9 5 4 t o i n t r o d u c ea n o t h e r
t h e i rn e w h o m e c l a s s i ct,h e c a r d i g a ns u i t .T o d a y ,C h a n e l1 4 ) . . . . . . . . .t.o. b e o n e
When you first moveinto your new home, o f t h e m o s t p r e s t i g i o u s1 5 ) . . . . . . . . . .i.n t h e w o r l d o f f a s h i o n ,
makean effortto 13) to know your fragrances,and cosmetics.
n e i g h b o u ras n d e n c o u r a g e y o u r c h i l d r e nt o
b r i n gt h e i r n e w c l a s s m a t ehso m e O n c ey o u
havestarted14) makefriends,you Offiwas B is C have D be
w t l lf e e lm o r e1 5 ) lAgrown Braised Clived Dbrought
h o m ea n d ,b e f o r e
y o u k n o w i i , y o u ' l lh a v ef o u n d a n o t h e rp l a c e 2Awhich Bwhom Cwho Dwhose
t h a t y o uw i l l b e s a dt o l e a v eb e h i n d l 3 A s t a r t e d B b e g a n C r e p l a c e d D o p e n e d
4 A attention B affectlon C aid D assistance
5Ainto Bfrom Cwith Dfor
6 A f o r m e d B s h a p e d C l n t r o d u c e d D a n n o u n c e d
T { f o r B b y C t o D o f
S A a b o u t B o f C f o r D a c r o s s
9 Atop B height C head D point
10 A employed B worked C used D bossed
11 Aincluded Bembraced Cgrouped Dsurrounded
12 A forged B imagined C created D revised
13 A returned B reviewed C restored D repLaced
14 A persists B continues C maintains D proceeds
15 A types B kinds C names D forms

l l r l l l l l L l l ] ]i i l i l l [ ] r i i r [ ] r L i i r L D I r i ' I L : i r r r 4 l ' , N r n r ! , , , ! , , .
@ffirmruffiffin'
emw%
(Units'l-2)
Revision 13 He'sthe mostboringpersonwe've . . met
A never C sometimes
B yet D ever
18 Circle
thecorrect
item.
'14
Shehad neverbeento poland ..
I what you mean but there must be an A yet C already
easierway to dealwith the situation B still D before
A amseeing C haveseen 1 5 S h ew a s h a v i n gd i n n e r h e rh u s b a n cda l r e o
B see D havebeenseeing
A since C when
2 Sandra for a new flat for ages,but shestill B while D after
h a s n ' ft o u n da n y t h i n g
1 6 H o wl o n g y o u b e e nw a i t i n gf o r t h e b u s ?
A looks C haslooked
A are C were
B i sl o o k i n g D h a sb e e nl o o k i n g
B have D will
3 At thistime lastyear,they in Liverpool
A h a ds t u d i e d C study
B werestudying D arestudying
4 In thosedayshe usually
19 Fillinthemissing
word.
to college,but on
that occasion he took the bus 1 T h i sm o r n i n gj,u s t a s I leaving the
A i sw a l k i n g C w a sw a l k i n g h o u s et,h e t e l e p h o n rea n g
B walks D walked 2 WhenPaulwasyounger,he to play
5 A s m a l ls t r e a mr u n s . t h e m i d d l eo f t h e rugbyfor the countyteam
village 3 How . haveyou beenworkingin the
A across through caf6?
B over D among 4 monththeytravelledto praguefor
the weekend
6 My houseis on West Road, . the football
5 S h eh a d j o g g i n gi n t h e p a r ks o s h e
groun0
wasexhausted
A opposite C over
6 I didn't see Sam at the gym, he must have left
B along D against
. we arrived
7 Where on holidaylastyear? 7 | haven'theardfrom her she left
A wereyou going C d i dy o u g o thecompany
B haveyou been D d i dy o u u s e dt o g o 8 S h ew a s n ' th u n g r yb e c a u sseh eh a d. ..
8 Recently,
we . to the gym everynight after eaten.
WOTK 9 Theywaited . . everyonehad arrived
A went C h a v eb e e ng o i n g b e f o r et h e ya n n o u n c etdh e i re n g a g e m e n t
B weregoing D h a dg o n e 10 l-'lewas drivingto work he ran out
of petrol
9 | was . ., . eatingbreakfastwhen the postman
11 . y o u c o m i n gw i t h u st o n i g h t ?
a parcel.
delivered
1 2 Haveyou ever to France?
A already C before 1 3 Theirproductionincreases day
B yet D still
1 4 Thejourneyhad beenverypleasant
'10
Charlieand Stan. . . eachothersincetheywere a womansittingbehindme startedto shout
children. 1 5 It'sa month sheleft for ltaly
A know C haveknown 1 6 What have you been doing
B were knowing D usedto know morning?
1 1 N o b o d yh a s . 1 7 I w a sb a k i n ga p i e T o mw a ss e t t i n g
t o l d m e t h e t r u t h a b o u tt h e
accident t h et a b l e
A never 18 He has travelledby boatonce
C ever
19 Theyhave . repaired the roof.
B still D yet
20 IsMary workingfor BTXMotors?
12 He hasbeenstudyingFrench i999
A from C in
B since D just

79
ffi!$r
emffi%ffi

:r..,.

We usethe future continuous:


. for acttonswhichwill be in progress at a statedfuturetime I'mgoingonholidaytoSpain.Thistimenextweekl'll be
Iyingin thesun.
. f o r a c t i o nw
s h i c hw i l l d e f i n i t e lhya p p e ni n t h e f u t u r ea st h e r e s u lot f a routine
rc or arrangementlwill beplaying
tenniswithAndytomorrowmornrng.
. when we askpolitelyaboutsomeone's plansfor the nearfuture Willyoubedrivingto thepartytonight? Would
you beableto givemea lift? l:',, . r:

Theywill havearrivedin Londonby5 o'clock.

Note:until/tillareonly usedin negativesentences: Shewill


nothavefinishedthereportuntil/till
6o'clock.
Shewillhavefrnishedthereportby 6.30.(NOTw+'i$lt4#e#)

80
&ffirmmffilffr
#ffim%ffi

Future Perfect ContinuoUS(wirhavebeen+ present


participre)

We usethe future perfectcontinuous:


o to emphasise the durationof an actionup to a certaintime in the fuiure ByJune,
hewillhavebeenteaching
in
thisschoolfor fifteenyears.

Note
\U LC

' The
s future perfect
ruLurv p continuous
t r rr c L L L U t t L t I l u u u 5 tis
5uusecl
5 e u with by
wlLIl D y ..". for
". T or

', i: . .':
,l, ..1:_. .'..,r,
.

a. Putthe verbsin brackets


intothe correcttense b. Whichtenseformwasusedin parta to talk
to describe
the future. about:

Tomorrownight my friendSophieis comingto visitme. Her a timetables/programmes ...


train 1) ... (arrive)at sixo,clockand sinceI o actionswhich will have finishedbeforea stateo
2) (still/work) at that time, we futuretime
3) . .. (meet)in the citycentreat sevenl'm a fixedarrangement in the nearfuture
sure that we 4) (have) dinner at d an action which will be in progressat a stated
Gianni'sbecausewe alwaysseemto end up there.By the futuretime .
time we have finished eating I guess that Sophie e predictionbasedon what we know
5)...... ... .. (persuade m)e t o t a k e h e r t o t h e
cinemabecausethere'sa film that shewantsto see

81
Gremffiffi$
w%w
2 Complete
goingto.
by fillingin willor be
eachexchange 4 Underline
the correcttenseform.

We will start the meetingas soon as everyone


1 A: Whatareyoudoingthisafternoon? arrives/willarrive
B: I meetJessfor a coffee.
Would I expectwe are being/will be there in another
y o u l i k et o c o m e ?
n o u ro r s o
2 A Didyou remembermy book? 5 If you need/willneedanymorehelp,just askBob.
B : Oh no, sorry | . give it to you 4 Joycewon't be able to come unlessshe has
tomorrow finished/willhavefinishedheressay
I doubt whetheryou are/will be ableto find it if
3 A : We haven'tgot anybread
you don't askherto drawyou a map.
B : O K ,I g o a n dg e t a l o a f
Do you thinkyou'llseeKeithwhenyou are/willbe
4 A M e l i ss t u d y i n g m e d i c i n ei s, n ' ts h e ? at work?
B : Yes,she be a doctorwhen she
f i n i s h ecso l l e g e
5 A : What ......(you) wear 5 Putthe verbsin brackets into the futuresimple,
futurecontinuousor futureperfecf,asin the
to the party?
exampres.
B : I don't know,probablymy blackdress

6 A : It'sverycoldtoday,isn'tit? a By Monday morning, Kelly will have written


B : Yes,l'm sureit snow (write)her Historyessay
b Kellycan't come with us on Sundaybecause
7 A It turnsout that I cancomeafterall.
shevylllbewriting(write) her Historyessay
B : Oh excellent,| . . see you on
Fridaythen 2 a l ' m s u r ew e (win) the match
this afternoon
8 A : I don't want to missthe startof the play.
b lf we do, thenwe . . .. . . (win) our last
B : It'sOK lf we leavenow,we be
fivegames.
t h e r eo n t i m e
3 a He . . (work)all dayon Saturday
9 A : Watchoutl You . burnyourself
b ByJanuaryhe (work) therefor
B : O h ,I d i d n ' tr e a l i steh e o v e nw a ss t i l lo n
threeyears
1 0 A : l s S u ed r i v i n gi n t ot o w n ?
4 a She (clean)the housebefore
B : Yes,I'm sureshe giveyou a lift
J a c ka n dS a l l ya r r i v e
if you askher.
b She . . . (clean)for ages because
it's reallyuntidy
3 a. Dr Saunders
isthe headof the politics
departmentat a smallcollege.
Lookat the 5 a lf Angela can get some time off work, we
calendarwhichshowshisarrangements for the .. (fly)to Parisfor the weekend
nextfew months,thenmakeup sentences, as p lf Angelagets time off work, at this time on
in theexamole. Fridaywe (fly)to Parrs

6 a Do you think we (finish)the


h a v ea m e e t i n gw i t h o t h e r reporttoday?
lecturers in the department b Definitely, if we work hardwe
fly to New Yorkfor a conference (finish)it by threeo' clock
finishwriting articlefor Politics

l e a v ef o r c l i m b i n gh o l i d a iyn i h e
LakeDistrict 6 Choose
thecorrect
itemA, B,Cor D.
h o s td i n n e rp a r t yt o w e l c o m e
I d o n ' tk n o ww h e nh e
A comes C i sc o m i n g
B w i l lc o m e D will havecome
He's
havinga meeting
withtheotherlecturers
in the
department
onJune17th. B yA u g u s t N
, i n a. E n g l i sfho r s i xy e a r s
A i ss t u d y i n g C is goingto study
b. Nowmakeyourown calendar for the nextfew B will study D w i l l h a v eb e e ns t u d y i n g
months,andtellthe class.
82
w
m%ffi
&2u'"?,
l ' v eg o t p l a n sf o r t h i sw e e k e n d| . . t o D u b l i n
A w i l lb e g o i n g C w i l l9 o
8 Putthe verbsin brackets
intothe correcttense
B g o D amgoing
4 Youcan'tgo out in thisweatheryou a colo
A w i l lc a t c h C a r ec a t c h i n g
B catch D aregoingto catch
B y t h i st i m e n e x tm o n t h ,h e . i n t h i sa r e af o r
ten years
A w i i l h a v eb e e nl i v i n g C w i l l l i v e
B w i l lb e l i v i n g D lives
C a n y o u h e l p m e t i d y t h e l i v i n gr o o m ?J i l l
o v e rt h i se v e n i n g
A i sc o m i n g C w i l lc o m e
B comes D is goingto come
He hisprojectby Monday
A flnishes C w i l lb ef i n i s h i n g
B i sf i n i s h i n g D w i l l h a v ef i n i s h e d
I think I a partynextweekendWho shallI
invite?
A am having C have
B am to have D will have

9 You'dbettertakeyour raincoatlt
A w i l lr a i n C w i l l h a v er a i n e d
B i s g o i n gt o r a i n D rains
10 We mustfinishpackingWe earlytomorrow
morntng
A leave C w i l ll e a v e
B a r el e a v i n g D a r eg o i n gt o l e a v e
9 Usean appropriatefuture tenseto completethe
sentences
that Anna might actuallysay,as in the
7 a. lmagineit is NewYear'sEve.Writedownfive examples.
resolutionsfor the comingyear.
1 Shehearsa weatherreportpredictingsunshine
" lts goingta bea be.autiful
day "
2 Herfriendsayshe feelshot
"l'!lapenawinrlaw "
3 Herbossasksherwhen shewill finishthe report
"l
4 S h ei sc a t c h i n tgh e 8 o ' c l o c kt r a i nt o M a n c h e s t e r .
"My train
5 S h e h a s a r r a n g e dt o h a v el u n c hw i t h h e r f r r e n d
Amy tomorrowafternoon
" A m ya n dI
6 Someone asksheraboutherplansfor the weekeno
"At thistime on Saturday,

5 h ei s g o i n gt o t h e c i n e m ab u t s h ei s l a t ea n ds h e
isworriedthat she'llmissthe startof the film
lh goingtosave
money. "Bythe time I get there,
b. In pairs,try to guesseachother,sresolutions. S o m e o n ae s k sh e rh o w l o n gs h eh a sb e e nl i v i n gi n
London
A:Areyougoingtocutdownonsweets? "By nextAugust,| . .
B;lVo. etc
83
&{3e.3%ffi,
10 Fillinthecorrect
tense. 12 Formcomplete sentences
by matching
the items
ll below,asin the example.
tt youanswer
I tT-e-l a question
correctly,
DearAnn,
ETI tt it rainstomorrow,
t'm writinEto tell you all l:Tl [tt go to themarketbeforework
aboutmy plansf or the ETI trshepasses herexams,
summer.|m very excited!t ETI yougeta t O%discount
think it 1) (be) the lGTl Jounwillgetyoua ticket
bestsummerever! DTI Hecan'tsleep
rhis July,I 2) ETI tt youthrowsomething in thealr,
(travel) to Mexico.As soon a if I getupearly enough
ds | 3) (receive) b shewillgoto college in September
this month's pay check,t c if yougiveherthemoney
4) . . . (bool<) my tickets and I d gravity bringsit backdownto Earth
s) . . (alsolbuy) somenew e yougettwo polnts
summerclothes.uopefully,t f if youpayin cash
6) (have) enoughmoneyleft g thegamewillbecancelled
over to buy a new cameraas well, h if hedrinkscoffeein theafternoon
' because
I am sure I 7) . . (see)lots
lfyouanswer
a question yougettwopoints.
correctly,
of interesting thingsduringmy trip.
on 4th August,I 8) . (have) a big 13 a. Rickisambitious andismakingplansfor the
party at my house,because it is my 30th birthday. future.Lookat the thingsthat hesayshewill
It 9) (be) great,with lots of brilliant bedoingor will havedoneby thetimehe is35.
musicand tasty food. I hopeyou 10).. Makesentences, asin the example.
(come)t
Well, t've got a lot to do, so t 11) (say) ,, . workasa senior manager
goodbyef or now. I 12) . . (write) again fora large
company
when t 13) .. .(get back) f rom ntexicoto tell ,i." .becomeamulti-millionaire
you all about it! . marry hisgirlfriend,
Sarah
with love, o liveina large
house
Lucy inthesuburbs of London

l'llbeworking
asasenior
manager
fora largecompany.

b. Writefivesentencesdescribing whatyouwill
havedoneor will be doingin ten years'time.

14 Matchthe itemsin Column A with the itemsin


ColumnB in orderto makecorrectType0
11 Fillinif or unless. conditional
sentences,asin theexample.

1 Youwiil catcha cold you weara warm C o l u m nA C o l u m nB


coattoday
FTFI boilwater a it becomesice
2 it's nice and warm, we will go for a
ETI add four and two b it evaporates
p r c nr c
l3Tl m i xb l u ea n dy e l l o wp a i n t c it melts
3 sheworks harder,shewon't passthe put water in the freezer
lZTl d it sinks
examS you get green
iSTl leaveicecreamin the sun e
4 | w i l l i n v i t eJ o h nt o t h e p a r t y . . . I s e eh i m you get six
ETI dropa brlckin water f
5 l ' m n o t g o i n gt o s p e a kt o h e r. s h es a y s
sherssorry 1- b lf youboilwater,
it evaporates.
a i A
6+
l i . l i r l li ll l j l i l r r r i L r r r : l
wffim.mrc#ffiffi
Kmw%ffi
1 5 Complete
thesentences
using
Type0 orType1 3 lf we leaverightaway,I cangiveyou a lift
conditionals. provided
' ':: n'u" '.'
1 If you haven'tgot enoughmoney, 1": ll ,isr,t
u*uy
4 He has arrangedto leavework at four o'clock
2 l f y o us e eC a r l a , tomorrowafternoon
3 W e ' l lm i s st h e p l a n e ts He
4 lcemelts at four o'clocktomorrowafternoon
5 lf the weatheris good, 5 Takea coatwith you, it mightbe coldlater
6 Theywill be havinga party Takea coatwith you
. . coldlater

Useof English . ErrorCorrection

. KeyWordTransformations 17 Cross
outtheincorrect
wordineachsentence.
1 I'm goingto moveinto my new flat the nextweek.
Studythe examples.
In eachcase,the secondsenrence 2 Takesomeextramoneyin the caseyou needit.
hasa similar
meaning
to thefirstsentence. 3 Unlessyou do your homework,you will not be in
trouble
My parentssaidI couldgo to the partybut I hadto be 4 She'sgoingto stayin, in caseher parentswill call
h o m eb y m i d n i g h t 5 lf you dropa coinin water,it will sinks
long My parentssaidi couldgo to the partyas 6 Beforewe will leave,I want to changemy shirt
l o n ga s l w a s h o m eb y m i d n i g h t 7 By the end of the week, I will havebeingstarted
T a k ey o u rm o b i l ep h o n ew i t h y o u I m i g h tn e e dt o c a l l my newJob
you rarer 8 A s l o n ga s y o u w i l l b r i n gi t b a c k you can
case Takeyour mobilephonewith you in caseI borrowthe car
needto callyou later 9 Thistime nextmonth,I will havebe relaxing on the
beach
N/umwill be homesoon,so we'd bettercleanup this
1 0 | w o n d e rw h e t h e rH e l e nw i l l h a v ec o m e t o t h e
MCSS
prcntctomorrow
is We'd better clean up this messbecause
m u m i s g o i n gt o b e h o m es o o n
' WordFormation
Youcanborrowmy dictionary tonightbut I will needit
b a c kt o m o r r o wm o r n i n g
provided You can borrow my dictionarytonight
providedyou give it backto me tomorrow interest- interested
morntng fascinate- fascinating
accept- acceptable
lf you don't studyharder,you won't passthe exam
sense - sensible
unless Youwon't passthe examunlessyou study
hal,der
1 8 Formthe correctadjectivefromthe wordin bold.
1 He'snot a goodteacherHislessons
16 Complete the sentences
with two to fiveworos, arevery BORE
including
the wordsin bold.Do not changethe Art expertsargueabouthow
meaning of theoriginal
sentence. . . t h e p a i n t i n gi s . VALUE
I c o u l dh e a rt h e . voices EXCITE
1 lf youdon'ttelluswhatthe problem
is,thenwe
of thechildrep n l a y i n gi n t h e p a r k
can'thelpyou
Billwill takecareof it; he'svery
unless Wecan'thelpvou
DEPEND
what the problemis.
5 T h ei s l a n di s ACCESS
I canlendyou the moneybut you mustgiveit back 6 Thatwas a really FRIGHTEN
to me by the weekend experience I
long I c a nl e n dy o ut h e m o n e y D i dy o u k n o wt h a t M r J a c k s oinsa
. it backto me by the weekend policeofficer? RETIRE
=
=r-

t i ", i,.tlirii':
. OpenCloze . M ultiple
Choice
Cioze
19 Readthetextbelowandthinkof the Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C or D which
20
wordwhichbestfitseachspace. Use bestfitseachspace.
Thereisan example (0)at the beginning.
onlyoneword in eachspace.Thereis an
example(0)at the beginning.

Advice and
0)bcfure
thanever
abroad
traver
,^re^.";pre
orusnow
many n*"'#tn":::1"^,:;",;"' ; ;fl[$:*f:l: and
::;J::;;'i ;";;'" P* i:*"s'iic'iime
H[:I':;J"J 2)'""""" "'beingin a strangeplace'a long
no maiorproblems' our'health'Thereare
o" OuO3) """"""'
way from home'can knowabout'so that
wherever
J u s th e a r i n g the name some things tftut memorable for all
going, they wrt-t fravea holidaythat is
"u"'yo"nJti"id
many p e o p l e
t o c o n j u r eu p i m a g e so f a t r o p i c a l they are
p a r a d i s ew i t h c o c o n u t p a l m s , w h i t e s a n d y '
' -tfrightA)""""""
the heatentrackyou should
+habeaten
' the
destination ': Ul
b e a c h e sa,n dt h e b e a u t i f ubl l u e s e a T a h i tiist h e iour may neeo
your doctor Oefore you sei 6) """" ":: '
l a r g e s ti s l a n d 1 ) F r e n c hP oy n e s i a ,a talk to "ouwith you on
g r o u po f 11 8 i s l a n disn t h e S o u t hP a cf r cO c e a n vaccinations or to t"n" certainmedications suffer
some diseasethat travellers
'-
which attractsvisitorsfrom 2) overthe your trip. The 7) , "otton areas' only drlnk
p"it""i"S' ln high+isk
wono from though,is {ooo This includes not
There is never a bad time 3) that 8) J*" 0"""0 or sterilised' your
v r sr t water waterto brush
o'*nt anOusing safe
Tahiti,but most touristscome between.June havingice in your ;;tpecrallv carerulwith
meat
teeth.when * t) ' """ "':;";J' ts
4) . . October,when the weatheris slightly eat any food that
'u'ud'' and never
c o o l ea r n dd r i e r5 ) . i t i s d u r i n gt h e r e s to f and seafood,avoid ratherthan 10)""" " "' hot'
t h e y e a r A n e x c e l l e nr te a s o nf o r v i s i t i n gd u r i n g undercooked o""'u"llun"*u'*' on holidaycan
nuoJ"n unywhere'bxl:::ele at
J u l y i s t h e m o n t h - l o n gH e i v ai T a h i t if e s t i v a l Accidents
"* so'don'tteaveyour common11)""""""'
be at higher ritx'
w h i c h i n c l u d e sm u s i c ,d a n c i n ga n d s p o r t i n g on motorbikesnever
ln cars always *"u' u seatbelt'and
competitions Another event 6) the home. poolwithyoung
helmet ri you u'" by the sea^orlhe
whoie of FrenchPolynesiagets very excited forget your An aduli'who is a
7) , i s t h e H a w a i kN you 12) ' - to take extracare' all
i u tc a n o er a c e w children,
watchingthe kids 13) """"""'
, hich
'*;"iJ be
8) placeeachNovemberUp to sixtysix- strongswimm"'' sun' Buildup vourexposure
Ol'ig"t':
m a nt e a m sc o m p e t ei n t h e r a c ew h i c hv i s i t sf o u r times.Anothe'rtorlou:V :1" ' ' ' of the day' whenthe
in the 14)
d i f f e r e n ti s l a n d sa l o n g a c o u r s et h a t i s m o r e slowlyand stayinOoors ' a hat ano
,vong""ri. *n"" you ur" outside'wear
than116km9) sun is at it. factorfor
t;; - " l- ' the rightprotection
l\4osttouristshavesomethingmore reiaxing always,." tun'"'"1"n
rn 10) , a n d t h e y c a n e n j o ys h o p p i n gi n yOUrSkin'
r'!f r" :
.,.4,.i'.r,i,FrrrLi:*i'!are:rrrrrrrlqr:1'!j{\rlritsx\\\\l{\'rilrer{i!-
s t y l i s hb o u t i q u e sa n d t r a d i t i o n a m r\li!|191f \illlilrrr!4\liFf llisi]l-!r't\[ry]\lHrN\fi'
l a r k e t so r ,,,rffi nrB r"ruiir\tinirilIili\\lliP

w a l k i n ga n dc l i m b i n gi n t h e v o l c a n im c ountains
H o w e v eirt 1 1 ) h a r d l ys u r p r i s i nt g
h a tt h e
O A ago ffi before C since D yet
main reasonspeopletravelto Frenchpolynesia 1 A tflp B travel C visit D holiday
a r et o r e l a xo n t h e a m a z i n gb e a c h eosr t o t a k e 2 A flowever B Because a
L
\At.L^.^--
VVIIgItrd) D Despite
12) in water sports Scuba diving, 3 A by B to C for D o f
s u r f i n ga n d s a i l i n ga r ev e r yp o p u l a ri n t h i s p a r t 4 A cau5es B grounds C motives D reasons
13) .. t h e w o r l d W h a t e v eyr o u r r e a s o n s 5 A away B off C along D u p
14) c o m i n gt o T a h i t yi o u a f e b o u n dt o 6 A off B up C t o D down
b e c h a r m e db y t h i s s t u n n i n gi s l a n da n d i t s 7 A more B many C much D most
u n i q u e m i x t u r eo f F r e n c ha n d 5 o u t h p a c i f i c 8 A have B has C had D having
c u l t u r e sM o s tt o u r i s t fsi n dt h a t o n ev i s i ti sn e v e r 9 A does B comes C has D goes
e n o u g ha n da r ed r a w nb a c kt o F r e n c h polynesia 1 0 A frying B baking C piping D smoking
15) a n dr i m ea g a i n 11 A mrnd B reason C brain D sense
1 2 A need B rnust C require D can
1 3 A through B during D for
1 4 A middle B centre C medium n
u -.,^.-^^
dvtrrogq
1 5 A to B -+
O L C for D with
wffiggffiE$?Effi
&mm%
Revision(Unitsl-3) 1 4 W i l ly o u y o u rc a rt o n i g h t ?
A haveused C used
Circle
thecorrect B be using D use
21 item.
15 Thefilm. .. at6o,clock
Oil . on water A will start C is starting
A is floating C hasfloated B starts D wjll be starting
B hasbeenfloating D floats 1 6 D o n ' tw o r r y. . . . . B i l li s l a t et o n i g h t H e , l b
l ew r t n
2 |. to Joe'sflat oncebefore me.
A o n l yg o C haveonlybeen A when C if
B a m o n l yg o i n g D haveonlybeengoing B unless D a s l o n ga s
3 She playing
c o m p u t egr a m e s 1 7 O h d e a r |; . . . h i sn a m e
A is loving C loves A will forget C had forgotten
B hasloved D hasbeenloving B haveforgotten D forgotten
E m i l yr e m e m b e r s Ben at the party last 1 8 Theyhavebeenmarried sixteenyears
month A since C through
A seeing C haveseen B during D for
B to see D seen 1 9 H e. . . o f b u y i n ga s e c o n d - h a nc da r
R o bg o t r nt h e c a ra n d . away A thinks C i st h i n k i n g
A drove C had driven B w i l lt h i n k D w i l jb et h i n k i n g
B was driving D drives
They for about twenty minutes when
Murphyscoredthe firstgoal 22 Fillinthemissing
word.
A played C had beenplaying
B wereplaying 1 D o n ' tc a l lm e o n S u n d a yb e c a u sIe .. oe
D usedto play
studyingfor my exam
Hewon't havecome sixo,clock. 2 | wonder John will be at the party
A when C until tonight
B while D before 3 We are . . . . . t o t h e c i n e m at o n i g h t W h y
WhenI wasa child,we . swimmingeveryday don't you comewith us?
A weregoing C had gone 4 t h e e n d o f t h i s m o n t h ,l , l l h a v eb e e n
B u s e dt o g o D h a db e e ng o i n g workingherefor two years
5 Will you be able helpme paintmy
I d o u b tw h e t h e w
r e t h e w o r kt h i sm o r n i n g
a p a r t m e nt th i sw e e k e n d ?
A a r ef i n i s h i n g C w i l lf i n i s h 6 This . next week, we will be flyingto
B finish D havefinished
Madrid
10 Did you know that Hannah forty next 7 P i c km e u p a t 7 p m ,I w i l l . f i n i s h e dm y
October? homeworkby then.
A i sg o i n gt o b e C w i l lb e 8 We havinglunchwith Colintoday.
B will havebeen D n a 5D e e n 9 | won't going away on holidaythis
1 1 l f s h es e e sM a r k ,s h e year I can'taffordit
him the good news
A tells 1 0 | c a n ' t b e l i e v et h a t m y D a d w i l l . 72
i st e l l i n g
B willteli yearsold thisyear
D w i l lb e t e l l i n g
1 1 S h e ' s. . , forgetting t o t u r n h e rc o m p u t e r
1 2 | d o n ' tt h i n kw e ' l lb e a b l et o l i f t i t someone off
e l s eh e l p su s
12 How haveyou knownpamfor?
A i f C unless 13 | seeyourhousefrom here
B when D because '14
Bythe time theycalledwe had .. arrived
1 3 I ' l ld r o py o u a l i n e . l'mon holiday home.
A until C when 15 When I was a studentI to worK as a
B as soonas D i f waiter

87
lnff
= Li5#

Infinitive
Formsof the infinitive

I Present
ACTIVE
(to) repair
PASSIVE
(to) be repaired
PresentCont. ( t o )b e r e p a i r i n g
Perfect (to) haverepaired (to) havebeenrepaired
PerfectCont. (to) havebeenrepairing

Theverbtensescorresponding
to the tensesof the infinitiveareas follows:

Verb Tenses Infinitive


p r e s e nst i m p l e( h ev i s i t s )
to visit
f u t u r es i m p l e( h ew i l lv i s i t )
p r e s e nct o n t i n u o u(sh ei sv i s i t i n g )
t o b ev i s i t i n g
f u t u r ec o n t i n u o u(sh ew i l l b e v i s i t i n q )
p a s ts i m p l e( h ev i s i t e d )
presentperfect(hehasvisited)
to havevisited
pastperfect(hehadvisited)
futureperfect(hewill havevisited)
p a s tc o n t i n u o u(sh ew a sv i s i t i n g )
presentperfectcontinuous (hehasbeenvisiting)
to havebeenvisiting
p a s tp e r f e cct o n t i n u o u(sh eh a db e e nv i s i t i n g )
futureperfectcontinuous (hewill havebeenvisiting)

Thepresentinfinitiverefersto the presentor future


I expectto findoutmyexamresults soon(active)
I hopeto beaccepted at Leeds lJniversity. rpassive t
T h ep r e s e n ct o n t i n u o u si n f i n i t i v er e f e r tso a n a c t i o nh a p p e n i nagi t h e t i m e o f s p e a k i n g
Daveappears to bestudyingat themoment.
Theperfectinfinitiverefersto the past lt showsthat the actionof the infiniiivehappenedbeforethe action
of the verb
Theboysclaimto havefinishedtheirhomework(active)
Theirhomeworkappearsto havebeenfinished.(passive)
Theperfectcontinuousinfinitiverefersto the past lt emphasises the durationof the actionof the infinitive
which happenedbeforethe actionof the verb Heseems to havebeenworkingconstantly forthelastcoupleof
weeks.

Note:the perfectinfinitiveand the perfectcontinuousinfinitiveareusedwith modalverbsandverossucnas


seem,claim,expect,believe,and appear

Theto-infinitiveis used:
. to expresspurposeCarlwenttotheshoptobuy somebread.
o aftercertainverbs(agree,appear,decide,expect,hope,plan,promise,refuse,etc) Sheishopingtogeta
promotion.
' afteradjectiveswhichdescribe (happy,sad,glad,etc);express
feelings/emotions willingness/unwillingness
(willing,eager,reluctantetc),referto a person's (clever,kind etc)and the adjectives
character luckyand
fortunate, I wasveryluckyto win therace
= &
::: ..i=:-=

Note:with adjectives that referto character we canalsousean impersonal construction


It waskindofyou to giveJohna lift.
aftercertainnounsand pronouns(somethinE, anyoneetc)to showthat somethingis necessary or possible,
Wasthereanyonethereta helpyou?
o after too/enough Vanessa istoo impatientto waitin a queue.
Mikeisn'toldenoughto vote.
a to talk aboutan unexpected eventusuallywith only lgothomeonlytofindthatlhadforgottenmykeys.
o with it + be + adjective/nounltwasdifficulttasolvetheproblem.
a after be + first/second/next/lastetc 5hewasthelastpersonto finishtheexam.
o afterverbsand expressions suchas ask.learn,explain,decide,find out, want, want to know etc when they
arefollowedby a questionword Sheexplainedwhatwehadtoda.
BUT:wonder why is followedby a clause(NOTan infinitive) /wonder why she didn't tell us.
afterwould like,would prefer,would love etc to express a specificpreference
lwould loveto visitlndiaoneday.
in the expressions to tell you the truth. to be honest,to sum up, to beginwith etc
Tobehonest,I'drathernotgo.

N o t ei:f t w o t o - i n f i n i t i v e s a r e l i n k e d b y a n d o r o r , t h e t o o f t h e s e c o n d i n f i n i t i v e c a n b eSohmeipt treodm i s e d t o c a l l


and tellmewhatwashappening.

Theinfinitivewithout to is used:
. after modalverbs Gregcanplaythepiano.
o after the verbslet, make,see, hear,and feel Herbossmadeherworkovertime.
B U t w e u s e t h e t o - i n f i n i t i v e a f t e r b e m a d e , b e h e a r d , b e s e e n e t c ( p a s s iS v ehfeowr m
a s) m a d e t o w o r k
overttme.
Note:when see,hearandwatch arefollowedby an -ing form thereis no changein the passive
Hesawmetalkingto Anna.- | wasseentalkingto Anna.
. afterhad better and would ralher Wehadbetterleavesoon.
. H e l p c a n b e f o l l o w e d b y e i t h e r t h e t o - i n f i n i t i v e o r t h e i n f i n i t i v e w i t h o uStht oe h e l p e d m e ( t o ) p a i n t m y f l a t .

- i n gF o r m
Formsof the -ing form

: ACTIVE I PASSIVE :
I Present ! v i s i t i n g ! b e i n gv i s i t e d i
! Perfect ! havingvisited ! havingbeenvlsited i

I Thepresent-ing form refersto the presentor future Hehateswalkingtowork.HehatesbeingvisitedonSundays.


a Theperfect-ing form showsthat the actionof the -ing form happenedbeforethe actionof the verb We can
usethe simple-ing form insteadof the perfect-ing form with no changein meaning Sheadmittedvisiting/
havingvisitedJamie.

The-ing form is used:


. as a noun Swimmingisa greatwayto getfit.
r aftercertainverbs(admit,appreciate,avoid,confess,continue,deny,fancy,go (for activities), imagine,
mind, miss,quit, save,suggest,practise,consider,prevent)Jackwantstoquitsmoking.
. generalpreferenceTomhatesworkingatthebank.
afterlove,like,enjoy,prefer,dislike,hate to express
BUT:for a specificpreference(wouldlike/wouldprefer/wouldlove)we
usea to-infinitive. l'dlovetocome.
lRflt
reLJ=#

T h e- i n g f o r m i s u s e d :
' afterexpressions suchas be busy,it's no use,it's (no) good, it's (not) worth. what's the useof, can't help,
there's no point in, can't stand, have difficulty (in), have trouble elc I am busywritinga report.
. afterspend,waste,or lose(time,money,eIc) Wewastedalotof timefixingthecomputer.
. afterverbsand expressions suchas look forward to, be usedto, in additionto, objectto, prefer(doingsth
to sth else) Heisn'tusedto livingalone.
o after prepositionsElaineisscared of flying.
' afterthe verbshear,listento, notice.see,watch, and feel to describe an incompleteacliontheardSamantha
talkingon thephone(l onlyheardpartof theconversation)
BUT:we usethe infinitivewithout to with hear,listento, notice,see,watch, and feel to describe the
completeaction I heardSamantha tellthestory.(lheardthewholestory)

Differencein meaningbetweenthe to-infinitiveand the -ing form:

o r t h e - i n g f o r m b u t w i t h a c h a n g ei n m e a n l n g
S o m ev e r b sc a nt a k ee i t h e rt h e t o - i n f i n i t i v e

forget+ to-infinitive = not remember mean+ to-infinitive = intendto


Heforgotto buymilk. Henevermeantto upsether.
forget+ -ingform= not recall mean+ -ingform= involve
l'll neverforgetvisitingEgypt. Beinga firefightermeanstakingrisks.
remember = not forget
+ to-infinitive regret+ to-infinitive= be sorryto (normallyusedin the
Didyouremember to callLucy? presentsimplewith verbssuchas say,tell, inform)
remember+ -ingform= recall I regretto informyouthatyourphonehasbeencutoff.
lremember
comingherebefore. regret+ -ingform= feelsorryabout
Heisgoingto regretsellinghisrecordcollection.

LOmpansons
Use
' W e u s e t h e c o m p a r a t i v ef o r m t o c o m p a r et w o p e o p l e ,t h i n g s ,p l a c e s e, t c W e u s u a l l ru7s e t h a n w i t h
c o m p a r a t i vaed l e c t i v e s
Mary rsyoungerthanJane
' We usethe superlativeform to compareone person/thing/etc with more than one person/thing/etc in the
s a m eg r o u p W e u s et h e . , . o f l i n w i t h s u p e r l a t i vaed j e c t r v eW
s e u s ei n w i t h t h e s u p e r l a t i vweh e nw e t a l ka b o u t
places
It's themostexpensive necklacein the shop (NOT@

Spelling
' With one-syllable adjectives endingin -e, we add-r in the comparative and-st in the superlative form
ntce-ntcer-nrcest
' W i t h o n e - s y l l a b laed j e c t t v eesn d i n gi n a v o w e l + a c o n s o n a n tw, e d o u b l et h e l a s tc o n s o n a nat n d a d d - e r l -
est
thin - thinner- thinnest
o with two-syllabla e d j e c t i v eesn d i n gi n - l y o r - y , w e c h a n g et h e - y t o i a n d a d d- e r l - e s t
easy-easier-easiest

90
= #
i i= ij:=i:=

Adjective C o m p a r a t i v eS u p e r l a t i v e Adjective C o m p a r a t i v eS u p e r l a t i v e
short brg bigger thebiggest lrregular good better the best
ad 1 e c t i v e s 5mail 5mailer t h e s m a l l e s t forms bad worse theworst
-v adiectives NOISV l0rsrer the noisiest little less the least
longer many more the most
beautiful more the most
a0iectrve5 b e au t if uI b e au t i fuI much more the most

' We useadjectives
or theircomparative
and superlative
formsto makecomparisons
Adjectives
. very + adjective (emphasises adjective)George isa verygoodstudent.
' as + adjective+ as ( to showthat two peopleor thingsaresimilarin someway In neqattve
senrences
we use
not as/so ... as) l'm sureBian isascleveraspolly.
' less+ adjective+ than (expresses the difference betweentwo peopleor things Theoppositeof more ...
than) Thesequelwaslesssuccessful than theoriginal.
' t h e l e a s t + a d j e c t i+v oe f l i n ( c o m p a r e s o n e p e r s o n o r t h i n g t o t w o o r m o r e p e o p l e o r t h i n g s i n t h e s a m e
group Theoppositeof most ... oflin) lt'stheleastexpensiverestaurantinthecitv.

Comparatives
' much/alot/farla little/a bitislightly/even+ comparative(expresses the degreeof differenceberweentwo
peopleor things)AnnersmuchyoungerthanSteve. - Ridinga motorbike isa lotmoredangerous thandrivinga car.- She
wasfar happierwhensheonlyworkedpart time.- t think it'sa littlewarmerthan it wasyesterday.
- lt wasa bit more
expensivethanI thoughtit wouldbe.- Shesaidthatthesecond examwasslightlyeasierthan thefirstone.- Sincehis
operation, hehasbeenwalkingevenmoreslowly
BUT:many more + uncountablenoun romatemanymorebiscuits thanpaul.
' comparative+ comparativeshowsthat somethingis increasing or decreasing
Weseemto startlaterand latereveryday.
' t h e + c o m p a r a t i v.e. . ,t h e + c o m p a r a t i v(es h o w tsh a t t w o t h i n g sc h a n g et o g e t h eor r t h a t o n et h i n gd e p e n d s
on anotherlhing) Thelongerthejourneywenton,themorebeautifulthescenerv became.

Superlatives
' by far + the + superlative
(emphasises
the difference
betweenone personor thingandtwo or morepeopleor
thingsin the samegroup)Helsbyfarthebestplayerintheteam

- Quite- Rather
Fairly - Pretty
a a + fairly Thisisa fairlycheapdressbutl'm sureyoucanfindsomething cheaper
a quite a/an = enoughThisisquitea cheapdress. youshoutd buyit.
a q u i t e+ a d j e c t i v essu c ha s h o r r i b l er,i d i c u l o u b
s ,r i l l i a n ta, m a z i n ge,x t r a o r d i n a irm
y ,p o s s i b lter u
, e ,c e r t a r ne,t c i=
completely,totally)Getting
thisfinished isquiteimpossible.
by5 o'clock
! rather+ a(n)or a rather(= morethan usual/wanted etc)She,sgotrathera/a rathergoodpointsayingso.
a rather+ comparativeform + than He'srathertallerthanI expected.
a a pretty (quitecommonin everydayEnglish) He'sgota prettynastycuton hisarm.

91
T o o- E n o u g h
. Too hasa negativemeaninglt showsthat somethingis morethan enough,necessary or wanted We usetoo
inthefollowing ways:
. too + adjective/adverb + to-infinitive /trstoocoldformetoswim.
a too ... for somebody/something Thiscoffee istoostrongfor me.
a too ... for somebody/something+ to-infinitive Thelakeistoopollutedfor fishto livein.

W e a l s ou s et o o + m u c hw i t h u n c o u n t a b n l eo u n sa n dt o o + m a n yw i t h c o u n t a b l ne o u n si n t h e p l u r a l
Thereistoo muchrubbishin thebin.-Therearetoo manycarson theroad.
B u t : B e f o r e a d j e c t i v e s n o t f o l l o w e d b y a n o u n o r a d v e r b s , w e u s e o nTl e
y tror yoi s t o o s h o r t t o p l a y b a s k e t b a l l .
(NOTtee msehshe+!)

' E n o u g hh a sa p o s i t i v m
e e a n i n gi t s h o w st h a t t h e r el sj u s ta s m u c ho f s o m e t h i nagsi sw a n t e do r n e e d e dW e
useenoughin the followingways:
. adjective/adverb + enough+ to-infinitive ltiswarmenaughtoswim.
BUT:not + adjective/adverb + enough+ to-infinitive(negative meaning)ltisn'twarmenoughtoswim.
. enough + noun + to-infinitive I'vegotenoughtimeto havea coffee.

Fillin the correctformof the verbin brackets 2 Heatherbroughtthat CDso that we canlistento it
(to -infinitive
or -ingform),asin the examples. H e a t h ebr r o u g h t. . . .
3 The exercise was easy Everyone could do it
1 Hegoesto eveningclasses to lecrn(learn)ltalian Theexercise was easyenough
2 Learning
(learil a languagecanhelpyouto get a job 4 Kevinshouldn'tdriveso quickly,its dangerous
3 Oh no! | forgot (buy) eggs It'sdangerous
when I was at the supermarket 5 T i n as a i ds h ew o u l dc a l lm e b u t l ' m s t i l lw a i t i n g
The governmentis determined I ' m s t i l lw a i t i n g. . . ..
(solve)someof the environmental problems facing
Ine area
Dan prefers (cook)at hometo 3 Write the correctform of the verb in brackets.
eatingout
6 There'sno point in (buy) a I like (watch) TV at the
computerif you arenot goingto useit. weeKen0S
7 They have decided (decorate) l'd like ... (So) to the cinema
the livingroom tonrght
8 The childrenlove (9o) to the l'll neverforget (meet) Davio
swimmingpool Beckham
9 | regret (tell) Alice what Sean 4 Don'tforget (lock)the door.
hadsaid 5 He regrets (leave) school so
10 Hydroelectricity
and wind turbines can be used eafly
.. (provide)environmentallyfriendly I regret . . (inform) you that you
ener9y. haven'tbeenacceptedfor the job
7 Doyou remember. . .. . .. (visit)Paris?
2 Rewritethe sentencesusingfor, asin the example. 8 Remember
9 She stopped
.. (call) me tonight.
(work) when she
1 | mustfinishthiswork today wassixty-five
It's importantfarmeta finishthisworktoday. 't0 H e s t o p p e d (fix)thepuncture
....
+ #
3g- ei=#
4 Lookat pictures
andin pairsmakeup dialogues,
as 3 O n ed a yI h o p et o
in theexample. 4 l w o u l dl o v e
5 I had better

you fancy/meeVcoffee/after
work?
Sorry/ca
n'V agree/do/overti
me
tonight :
7 Complete
the tableby fillingin the adjectives,
comparatives
andsuperlatives, asin the exampre.
Do you fancy meeting for a eoffee
afterwork?
SorryIcant. ... nljectiyg Comparative : Superlative
'' -- --- ,"--a -

1 i bright hrinhrar briElitest


2. t al l e r
3 l expenslve
4a easrest
5 l mnrp tntaracirn^ :

6. srmple
A We/decide/give/you/job a ;
latest
B that be/fantastidwhen/ 8; t-^-+

you likeme/start? q l
brg
t0: worse i

8 Putthe adjectives
in brackets
intothe comparative
or superlative
form,addinganynecessarywords.

A: Theweather'sbeautifultoday,isn'tit?
B: Yes,they said on the radio that it was lilg
you look/forwardtolgo/ ftelrtesf(hot) day of the yearso far
partytonight? A : I t h i n kl ' d p r e f e trh e b l a c ks k i r t
Yes/can't B : I k n o wb u t t h i so n e i s (cheap)
waiVsee/old
friendsagain A : T h ef i l ml a s t e df o r m o r et h a nt h r e eh o u r s l
B: Yes, it was much (long) |
expected
4 A : C h r i si st h e b e s tp l a y eor n t h e t e a m ,i s n , th e ?
B: Actually,I think Stevets even
(good)
5 A: Markisveryclever,isn'the?
Matchthe phrasesin ColumnA to thosein Column B: Yes,he's (intelligent)personI
B to makecomplete sentences,
thenmakesimilar know
sentencesusingthe phrases
in ColumnA andyour 6 A: We havea lot of work to do at the moment
own ideas. B: This is always (busy)time of
year
A B 7
A: I wasverysurprised when I met Maggie
I can'tstand g o i n gt o S p a i nt h i ss u m m e r
B: Why? Did you think she would be
i tove watchingold movies
(young)?
rd tike u s ea c o m p u t e r g A : It'sabouta two-hourdrive
l'mthinking
about to goawayfortheweekend B : R e a l l y|?t h o u g h ti t w a s m u c h
I can beingin crowded
places (far)awaythan that
9 A: Didyou readthat book?
6 Usethe phrases
to makeup sentences
about B: Yes,it was excellent, (interest)
yourself.
t h i n gI h a v er e a di o r a g e s
1 | c a n ' th e l p 10 A: Are you goingto the hairdresser,s today?
2 l,m not usedto B: No I phoned, but (early)
appointment they hadwas at two o'clockand I
haveto be at work at one

93
t!

!:=tj=#
I Write the correctform of the comparativeor 11 Underline
thecorrect
word.
superlativeand then completethe sentences with
your own ideas. 1 I quite/pretty enjoyedthe concertbut it could
havebeenbetter
(difficult)scnoor
1 | find that ;#sil;sis f&emcsiCjffic;;fr 2 lf l were you, I would take the bus; it's
subject fairly/rathera longway to walk
2 l n m yo p i n i o n (frightening) 3 S h e ' sa r a t h e r / q u i t fea s tr u n n e rl ' m s u r es h e ' lw
l in
a n i m aol f a l li s the race
3 (good)holidayI everhadwas 4 I know you don't believeme, but it's fairly/quite
true
4 Salads
are (healthy)than 5 I think this examwas fairly/quitea lot easierthan
lastyear's
5 l ' m s u r et h a t 6 The restaurantwas rather/prettymore crowded
(interesting) job than than I expected
6 i t h i n kt h a t (funny)film 7 lt's a verynicehousebut it will needquite/pretty
I h a v es e e ni n a l o n gt r m e a lot of work beforeanyonecanlivethere
7 ( b i g )e n v i r o n m e n t a l 8 lt was a quite/prettygood film,you shouldseeit
problemfacingmy country
8 Gold (expensive)
than
12 Fillintoo/enough.
9 (happy)personI know
1 0 | w o u l ds a yt h a t 1 Davidis tootiredto go to the party
(fast)than 2 S a mi s o l d to go into town on his
own
3 He arrivedat the cinema late to
10 Usetheinformation
belowandtheprompts
to watchthe film
makeupsentences
usingmuch,
more,monyor
abit, 4 J a n e h a s n ' ts t u d i e d t o p a s sh e r
asintheexamples. exam
5 T h i ss o u pi s hot to eat
6 P a u lh a s n ' tg o t , m o n e yt o b u y a
new car

a - l ' I

t , s e o T 'F" Yn"o- 'i l q n

' Error
Correction
''::..:4. -+ | 1.

1 3 Cross
outtheincorrect
wordineach
sentence.
Delaysper week:
CabinCrew per flight: 1 l ' m g o i n gf o r s h o p p i n o y ,o u l dy o u l i k e
g n S a t u r d aw
to comewith me?
2 Let'stake my car,it'smorebiggerthan yours
. be/old 3 The exam is too difficult,so you'd better study
AirTropicanaisa bit olderthanTrans-European
Airways. nar0
. fly/far 4 I hateto watchingold movies
Air Tropicanafliesnuch furtherthanTrans-European 5 | c a n ' ts t a n dt o b e i n gi g n o r e d
Airways. 6 Youshouldbe mostcarefulwhenyoucrossthe road
r aircrafVold 7 We will get thereon time if we will leavenow
. have/accidents 8 T h i ss m a lTl Vc o s t sa sm o r et h a nt h a t b i go n e !
. flylinteresting places 9 | h a v e n 'gt o t v e r ye n o u g hm o n e yt o g o o n h o l i d a y
. planes/reliable th isyear
. service/good 1 0 T h em o r eo l d e rh e o e t s .t h e l a z i ehr e b e c o m e s

94
#ffirmr$xffiffitr
3re #-
. KeyWordTransformations 5 l ' m g l a dI d o n ' tl i v ei n a c o l dc o u n t r y
hate I would a coldcountry
Studythe examples.
Ineachcasethe second
sentence
has 6 C h r i sw o u l dr a t h e rn o t g o t o t h e c i n e m at o n i q h t
a similar
meaning
to thefirstsentence. feel Chris
t o t h e c i n e m at o n i g h t
7 My parentswon't let me watchTV until I finishmy
I couldn't move the washing
homework
becauseit was so heavy
make My parents my
too The washingmachinewas too heavy
homeworkbeforethey let me watchW'
for me to moveby myself 8 | havenevermet anyonewho cooksas badlyas
I wanted to get two ticketsfor the concertbut r yourbrotherdoes
couldonlyaffordone worstYourbrother
enough I didn't haveenough money for two cookI haveevermet
ticketsfor the concert 9 WheneverI eat snails,I remembermy first trip to
I alwaysworryabout my familywhen I go awayon a Paris
b u s i n e st rsi p without I can'teat snarls
help I can't help worrying about my family
when I go awayon a business
1 0 Thecake
wastoosmall
sonoteveryone
,"J: ;il::
trip
enough Therewasn't
l'm reallyexcitedaboutstartinguniversity
everyone to havea piece
forward l'm reallylooking forward to starting 1 1 It was dlfficultto persuadeRobertto take the
untverstty. courSe
I could never be happy working in a fast food difficulty I
restau
rant. Robertto takethe course
hate I would hate to work in a fast food 12 Jane's
carisasold as Lisa's
restau
rant same Lisa's
caris
I alwaysget depressed when I see peopletreating Jane's
a n i m a lcsr u e l l y
without I can't see people treating animals
. WordFormation
cruellywithout gettingdepressed
My fatherinsists
that I waterthe plantson Saturdays.
makes My father makesme water the plants
on Saturdays broad- broaden
8 | haveneverhadsucha tastymealbefore p o p u l a-r p o p u l a r i s e
best Thisisthe best mealI haveeverhad. j false- falsify
\-
r i c h- e n r i c h

14 Completethesentenceswithtwoto fivewords,
including
thewordin bold.Donotchange the Formthe correctverb from the word in bold.
15
meaningof theoriginal
sentence.
1 T h et e a c h esr h o u l d SIMPLE
I can'taffordto buythoseboots
the informationso that evervbodv
expensiveThose
understands it
me to buy.
Thesetrousersaretoo long,l'll have
2 lt's not her fault that she,slazy as her mother
ro them SHORT
alwaysdoeseverything for her
T h e ya r ep l a n n i n g
to MODERN
help S h ec a n ' t
the factoryand buy new machinery
because her mother always does
They boiledthe water in order to
everything for her
. i t PURE
3 Please remindme to callthe plumbertomorrow
I t h i n ky o u s h o u l d LARGE
forget Don'tiet me
s o m eo f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s
t h e p l u m b etro m o r r o w
T h ec o u n c ihl a sd e c i d e tdo
I can'twait to meetyourbrother
t h e m a i nr o a di n t o WIDE
forward I'm
the citycentre
y o u rb r o t h e r
95
J;
:=
=i- i,4-+*
. OpenCloze . Multiple
Choice
Cloze
16 Readthe text belowandthinkof the 17 Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C,or D
wordwhichbestfitseachspace. Use whichbestfitseachspace.Thereisan example (0)at the
onlyoneword in eachspace.Thereisan beginning.
example(0)at the beginning.

,l-.

WtreelieBins
i1:'r
Once0) up** a time, binswere large,heavy,
tl. human beings?Many people
metal objectswhich were difficultto lift and j;; I
believe that they are, and are fascinatedby these enormous yet
carry Theywere 1) of one long metal .3il::
gracefulcreatures.In recent years, whale watching has become '.
sheet,joined along its longestedge, with a i,.
extremelypopular,as more and more peoplewant to experience the ii,
circularmetalbase Theyhad two handles,one
feelingthattheyare developing a 1) .,...,..,.
relationship withwhales. .:'
2) w h i c h d u s t m e nw o u l d u s e t o l i f t
Whalewatchinginvolvessailingout a long way from shore,often
them and swingthem onto their shoulders,
throughvery2) ,......... waters.As a result,manywhalewatchersaretoo
showinglittlecarefor hygiene,or for their own
busyworryingabouttheirupsetstomachsor tryingnotto falloverboard
physica wle l l - b e i n g
to actuallylookfor whales.Mostof them3) .......... on a guideto keepan ,
As soon 3) plastic bins became
4)..........outfortheJ|ashofafinorag|impseofatai|to|etthemkn
a v a i l a b l et h, e s et o o k 4 ) from the old
whento look.
m e t ao l n e sT h e yw e r es i m i l airn a p p e a r a n caen d
However, therewill not alwaysbe whalesto see,and even5) .......,...
w e i g h t ,b u t w e r eh a r d e r5 ) d a m a g eo r
thereare,thereis no 6) .......... thatthe whalewatcherswill noticethem.
dent However, beingmadeof plastic,theywere
W h a l e sa r es o 7 ) . . . . . . . .h. .o m ei n t h es e a ,a n d8 ) . . . . . . . .i.n, t ot h ew a t e rs o - ,
not suitablefor hot waste,6) as ashes,
well that they can be hardfor peopleto 9) ..,....... evenwhen one has
asthesedestroyed their interrors
I n m a n yp a r t so f t h e w o r l d ,t h e s t a n d a r d bin
been pointed 10) .......... 1othem.A competentguidewillusuallybe able :'i"
h a sn o w b e e nr e p l a c e7d) to find at leastone, though,and it has to be said that a whalein its
the wheelie
bin Theseare large,rectangular, plasticboxes n a t u r a1l 1 ). . . . . . . .i.s. a w o n d e r f usli g h t .
o n w h e e l sw , i t h a h i n g e dl i d a n d a b a r w h i c h The luckywhalewatcherwillbe 12) .......... to a spectacular displayof ,
a l l o w st h e b i n t o 8 ) water gymnastics, as occasionally, whaleswill 13) .......... intothe air or
. . p u s h e do r p u l l e d
a l o n g M o s t w h e e l i eb i n sa r e b l a c k ,b u t s o m e wave at their audience with their tails. They often spout jets of water
..
are green,brown or red Theyare designedto high 1a) .......... the air. These acts generally make whale watchers feel
b e j u s t a s s p a c i o uass t h e o l d b i n s ,9 ) as thoughtheirtrip has been15) ,......... and has broughtthemcloserto :l
w e l l a s b e i n g e a s i e rt o m o v e a r o u n d a n d understanding thesehuge,strangemammals.
10) l i k e l yt o c a u s ei n j u r i e sM a n yl o c a l
c o u n c i lisn s i stth a t b i n sa r el e f ta t t h e s i d eo f t h e
road for collection,and for many people,
0 A clever
'l
G intelligent C smart D bright
A private B i n d i v i d u a l C own D personal
c a r r y i n go n e o f t h e o l d b i n s 1 1 ) the 2 A rough B uneven C lagged D coarse
back gardento the front of the housewas 3 A trust B ASSUMC C rely D believe
e n o u g ht o c a u s es e r i o um s uscle damage 4 A ear B eye C arm D elbow
N o m a t t e r1 2 ) . w e l l - d e s i g n eadb i n 5 A I T B though L d 5 D whether
maybe, however, therewill alwaysbe problems 6 A p r o m i s e B a g r e e m e n t C g u a r a n t e e D contract
Wheeliebins are unattractive and can also be 7 A i n B to C with D a t
difficultto manoeuvre up and down stepsWhat 8 A mix B blend C combine D join
13) more, if you are unfortunate J A spot B look C watch D glance
enoughto dropsomethingin the bottomof one 10 A i n B to C out D for
of them, you will havea hard time getting it 1 1 A home B place C habitat D location
14) a g a i n ,a s t h e b i n sa r e a b o u t f o u r 1 2 A given B +t t/ ^c oa +L^c-ul C shown D entertained
feet tall Nevertheless, they are certainlya step t 5 A fall B SWtm C climb D jump
15) , and giveus hopethat, perhaps one 1 4 A into B ACTOSS c u p D through
day,someonewill designa trulytrouble-free bin A w o r t h w h i l e B usefu I
tl C wasted D sensible
96
(Units
Revision 1-4) 1 4 We'd betterwait . . . . it stopsraining.
A before C until
18 Circle
thecorrect
item. B for D while
15 backby Tuesday
1 You must .. to the party c
A coming C to come B hasbeen D will havebeen
B come D to coming
1 6 Hefailed . hisnew boss.
Shallwe stop on the way there something A to impress C
to eat? B impressing D Inrmpresstng
A getting C to get
17 lt's . . . than a weeksinceI spoketo Jim
B get D havegot
A over C more
You'dbetter .. . . it with Mrs Harrisand find out B rather D much
thedetails.
18 Thisbag is . . heavyfor John
A discussing C to discuss
A enough C s o
B discuss D havediscussed
B much D too
I e n j o y. . . t o w o r kl n t h e m o r n i n g
1 9 S h ew a sm a d e late
A walking C to walk
A stay C to stay
B walk D b ew a l k i n g
B staying D havingstayed
5 Shewent on a diet . someweight
20 D o n ' tg o y o u rn a m ei sc a l l e d
A losing C to lose
A untij C a ss o o na s
B lose D havinglost
B after D yet
6 | wanted Laurabeforesheleft
A seeing C to see
B see D to seeing 19 Fillinthemissing
word.
7 lt's a shame Lisa couldn't come, I was looking 1 She . learnedto usethe computer
forward .. . .. her 2 H e w a s r e a l l yh a p p yt o . . . a b o u tJ o , s
A meeting C to meet engagement
B meet D to meeting 3 T o n yh a s. . . . . . . .. . w o r k i n gh a r da l ld a y
We should let Gary . . ... what time we are 4 Theriveris . . pollutedto swim in
meeting. 5 He asked they hadto go
A knowing C to know 6 It'sa . . .. colderthan it was yesterday.
B know B to knowing 7 Peteris ... determined asJames
8 Sam is by ... the best studentin the
Bobis veryworriedabout .. the exam.
class.
A failing C to fail
9 Thefurtherwe walked,the .. tiredwe
B fail C havingfailed
0ecame
1 0 I regret you that the restaurantwill nor 10 Thereare too factoriesin this part
o p e nt h i se v e n i n g of town
A informing C to inform 1 1 T h e l o n g e rt h e t e l e p h o n e c a l l ,t h e
B inform D to haveinformed you pay
't1 1 2 l ' m s u r ey o u c a nd o b e t t e r . . ..this.
What'sthe ... boringfilm you'veseen?
A much 1 3 She didn't get the job becauseshe wasn,t
C most
B more e x p e r i e n c e. d . . .
D less
1 4 I t ' sb e e nr a i n i n g. . . . . mornrng
12 Don'ttell Ann sheasks 1 5 S h ei s n ' t. . . . . t o w o r k i n gl a t e
A as longas C provided 't6
. you washedthe dishes?
B unless D if 1 7 She .. .. havinglunchat 12 o,clock
1 3 H e ' sl a t e . . usual yesreroay.
A much C so 1 8 Take anumbrella in .. it rains.
B like D as 19 . /you
vu vgo
v to v v u t N yesterdayT
L v work yE)l

2 0 It was cold yesterday but today is


colder
_a.1
it:
=
il- ii:=+=

ModalVerbs
Use , ! Presentlirtur"
ability Shecanplaytheviola. Shecould/wasableto play theviola.(repeated
a c t i o n- a b i l i t yi n t h e p a s t )
He'sableto writepoems Wewereable to escapefromthe burninghotel.
( s i n g la
ec t i o n )
possibility Shecanstillbeat schooL (90%certain)
Shecouldbe late.(50o/o certain;it's possible (Luckily
Hecouldhavedrowned. he didn't)
s h ew i l l b e l a t e )
Sammaybesleeping. (50%certain;it'spossible A n n m a y h a v e g o t l o s t . ( P e rshhaepi ssl o s t)
that he issleeping)
Theymight needsomehelp.(40% certain; Tommight havesoldhlscor (Perhapshe has
p e r h a ptsh e yn e e ds o m eh e l p ) s o l di t )
It is likelythat Tomwillcometomorrow. Itwaslikelythat thestarhaddisappeared.
Tomislikelyto cometomorrow Thestar waslikelyto havedisappeared.
probability Shewill be 20 nextmonth.(100% certain;
prediction)
Theyshould arrive tonight.(90o/o certain; Sheshouldhaveleftbynow.(5hehasprobably
futureonly,it'sprobable) left )
Heoughtto beat worknow.(90% certain;he Heoughtto haverecorded hisnewCDby now.
w i l l p r o b a b lby e a t w o r k ) (Hehasprobablyrecordedit )
l o g i c aal s s u m p t i o n sYoumustknowthat.(90% certain- positive; Shemusthavebeenseriously l//.(posiiive;l'm
l'm sureyou know that) sureshewas)
Shecan'thaveso manypets.(negative;l'm Theycan't have beenabroad.(negative;l'm
s u r es h eh a s n ' t ) suretheyweren't)
Theycouldn'tbe at home now (negative; I Theycouldn'thavebeenmarried.(negative;I
d o n ' tt h i n kt h e y ' r ea t h o m en o w ) d o n ' tt h i n kt h e yw e r em a r r i e d
)
permrssron You can/can'topen your book (giving or They weren't allowed to/couldn't enter the
r e f u s i npg e r m i s s i oinn;f o r m a l ) country.
CouldI go out?(more polite; asking for \he wasallowedto seethe fiIes.(not: eeuld)
permission)
Youmaygoout.(formal; givingpermission)
Might I make a phonecall?(more formal;
a s k i n gf o r p e r m i s s i o n )
l'm afraidyoucan't/mustn't makea phonecall.
(informal,refusingpermission)
Passengers maynot usemobilephones. (formal;
-
refusingpermissionwrittennotice)
necessity I mustpaythebilltomorrow. (l sayso) I hadto paythebillonFriday.
(l was obligedto)
Theyhaveto wearuniforms. (necessitycoming Theyhad to wearuniformsat theprivateschool.
from outsidethe speaker)
He'sgot to catchthetrain.(informal) Hehad to catchthetrain.
Thecqrneedsservicing. ORThecarneedsto be Thecarneededservicing. ORThecarneededto
serviced. (lt's necessary) (it
beserviced. was necessary)
Shedoesn'thave to/doesn'tneed to/needn't Shedidn'thaveto/didn'tneedto workovertime. (lt
- dr hUcJnt rnt- t^L C ^ F
f\/na if nov/ flt iqn't |n'AL aL oL c) ). d
a tr yv Ul wasn'tnecessary for herto work overlimeand
necessity) shedidn't - absence of necessity)
Yououghtto dropthema line.(t's necessary) Youneedn'thavemademe a cake.(lt wasn't
necessary to makeme a cake,but you did )

nl^r
VX
J\)

I Ll l l l l l l t l l i l Ll i ' l r I i i ] r rLL rlir j i i ,L : i:ri r i r: i ) r , r , r , r r j i : ,l


w
i i= ii:=i.-=

'.
I Past
advice Youshouldbemorecareful. (generaladvice;I Youshouldhavebeenmorecareful.(but you
adviseyou) weren't)
You ought to brush your teeth every day. He ought to have givenher
d /iff. (but he
(l adviseyou; mostpeoplebelievethis) didn't)
Wehadbettercancelthistrip.(lt'sa good idea; It would have beenbetterif
we had cancelled
adviceon a specificsituarron; thetrip.(but we didn't)
Shallwe borrowmoneyfrom thebank?(asl<ing
for advice)
criticism Youcouldat leastletmeknow. Youcouldat leasthaveletmeknow.
Heshouldtryagain. Heshould havetriedagain.(but he didn,t)
Sheoughtto beon time. Sheought to havebeenon time.(lt was the
r i g h t h i n gt o d o ,b u t s h ed i d n , d
t o it )
obligation I muststudyharder(l needto; I sayso) I had to studyharder.
I haveto studyharder. (l'm obligedto; my I had to studyharder.
teachers sayso)
Weoughtta exercise daily.(lt'sthe right thing Weoughtto havegivenmoremoneyto charity. (lt
to do, but we don't alwaysdo it ) wasthe rightthingto do,but we didn,tdo it )
requests CanI borrowyourbook?(informal)
CouldI borrowyourbook?(polile)
MayI havethebookwhen youfinishit?(f ormal)
Mightlturn up theradio?(veryformal)
Willyouhelpmewith thisexercise? (veryfriendly)
Wouldyou mind notsmokingin here?(polite)
offers CanI helpyouwiththehousework? (informal)
Shall I preparesnacks
forthepicnrc? (informal)
Wouldyou likeme to mowthelawnfor vou?
suggestions Shallwego to thetheatre?
Wecanalwayscatcha laterbus.
Wecouldgo to thebeachat theweekend.
prohibition
lgyt?yla Uue usedmycar. -iTh.y*-
You can't make overseas calls.(you aren,t They couldn't make overseai ;l/r.
allowedto) weren'tallowedto )
Youmustn'ttakephotographs. (it,sforbidden)
Youmaynot parkhere.(f ormal)
duty AIImotoristsmustobserve thenighwiy Code" Allemployees hadto signnewcontracts.
People oughtnottosmoke. (lt'sthe rightthing Sheoughtto havetakenherparents, (lt
advice.
to do, but peopledon't alwaysdo it ) w a st h e r i g h tt h i n gt o d o , b u t s h ed i d n , td o
It)

Needn't- Didn't needto - Needn,thave


' don'thaveto/don'tneedto/needn't+presentinfinitive(itisnotnecessarytnthepresentorfuture)
youdon,thave
to/don'tneedto/needn'twakeupearlytomorrow.It'sSunday.(ltis not necessary to wake up )
' didn'tneedto/didn'thaveto + present (it was not necessary
infinitive in the pastandwe maynot know if the
acttonhappenedor not ) shedidn'tneedto/didn'thoveto wakeup earlyyesterday.
It wassunday.(ltwasn,tnecessary
for herto wakeup earlyand we don,tknow if shedid or not
)
o needn't+ bareperfectinfinitive
(we knowthat sth happenedrn the pastalthoughit was not necessarv
)
Youneedn'thaveleftsoearlylastnight.(you
did, althoughitwas not necessarv,)

99
Irr
l] :E

:-= Li=*:

*tr.ir"ffirr ; - rvraylvrishi ip"rtibir -.3, pi.J.rru*ptio.r)


PresentInfinitive Shemuststudya lot. l'm sureshestudiesa lot.
Shemaystudya lot. Perhaps shewillstudya lot.
PresentContinuous Shemustbestudying. l'm suresheisstudying.
lnfinitive Shemoy/mightbestudying. Perhaps shewill bestudying
PerfectInfinitive Shecan'thavestudied. I'msureshedidn'tstudy.
Shecan'thavestudied. l'msureshehasn'tstudied.
Shecan'thavestudied. l'msureshehadn'tstudied,
PerfectContinuous Shemayhavebeenstudying. Perhaps shewasstudying.
Infinitive Shemayhavebeenstudying. Perhaps shehasbeenstudying.

Tags
Question
Questiontags areshortquestions
at the end of statements
usedto confirmif the statementis true or not
. Theyareformedwith the modalor auxiliary verbfrom the mainsentence and the appropriate
subject
pronoun
A positivestatementtakesa negativequestionlag Youorecomingwithus,aren'tyou?
A negativestatementtakesa positivequestionIag Hecan'tspeakEnglish,canhe?
. Whenthereis no auxiliary or modalverb,we usedo/doesor did + subjectpronoun
Helenworksfor lnfotec,doesn'tsheTFelixdoesn'tlikeclassical
music,doeshe?
. Whenthe statementcontainsa negativeadverbof frequency suchas rarely,neverihardly,seldom,we usea
positivequestiontag SheneverwatchesTV, doesshe?
. Thequestiontagsof someverbs/expressions areformeddifferently
I am invitedto theparty,aren'tl?
(imperative) Leavemealone,will/won'tyou?Don'ttellanyone,will you?Let'shavea picnic,shallwe7
Thereis someicein thefridge,isn'tthere?Therearea fewbiscuitsleft,aren'tthere?
Hehasgot a motorbike, hasn'the?BUTYouhaveenoughmoney, don'tyou?
ThisislThatisJane'sbaq,isn'tit?

Note:
. Whenyou aresureof'_p9answerand expectagreement, yourvoicegoesdown in the questiontag
Hehaslivedabroad,hasn'the?
. W h e n y o u a r e n o t s u r e o f t h e a n s w e r , y o u r v o i c e g o e s u p i n t h e q u e sYt iooundt ao gn ' t e a t m e a t , a f f i w l

I Complete
the dialogues
by fillingin must,mustn't,
con,con't,needn't
or haveto,asin the example.

1 A: Do I needto buy a ticketin advance? 5 A: Haveyou seenthis note I got from Alex? |
B : N o ,y o u . a i l b u yo n et h e r e ,i f y o u l i k e . readanyof it
2 A . I h a v e n 'et a t e na n y t h i n ga l ld a y B : O h ,I k n o w H i sh a n d w r i t i nigsa w f u l ,i s n ' ti t ?
B: Really? You be starving 6 A: So,we'll meetat the stationat sixo'clock
3 A : A r ey o uw o r k i n gl a t ea g a i nt o n i g h t ? B: OK, fine. You forget to call
B: Yeswe Adamto let him knowwhat timewe'rearriving
finishthe projectby the
weeKen0 7 A: lt's a shamewe didn't book that holiday,isn't
4 A : W o u l dy o u l i k em e t o c o o kd i n n e rt o n i g h t ? ir?
B: Oh you do that l'll make B: Yesbut there'snothingwe do
g h e nI g e t b a c k
s o m e t h i nw it
about now, l'm afraid

100
.i= ffi
: 1= li:=+r::
A: Youlook happyWhat did the doctorsay? 3 The doctorsaidI can't/mustn'teat too much red
B : O h , h e s a i d m y k n e e i s m u c h b e t t e ra n d I meat
. g o b a c ka n ds e eh i ma g a i n 4 He'sgot a terribletoothacheHereallyshould/could
A : D o y o ut h i n kt h a t ' sp a u l ' ss i s t e r ? go to the dentist
B : N o ,i t . b e H es a i ds h ew o u l db e 5 I m u s t n ' t / m i g h tg o o u t t o n i g h t ,i f I f i n i s ht h i s
i n R o m et h i sw e e k project
6 You must/ought to eat at leastthree piecesof
1 0 A : l sJ a n eh o m ey e t T
fruit eachday .
B : N o ,s h e s t i l lb e a t w o r k S h es a i d 7 You mustn't/shouldn'tforget to pay the phone
shewouldbe latetoday
b i l lt o d a y
8 You must/oughtto wear a helmetwhen you ride
2 Underlinethe correctmodalverb. a motorbike,it'sagainstthe jaw not to
1 Shesaidshecouldn't/can't 9 You might/mayborrowmy new earrings,as long
comeyesterday because
a sy o u d o n ' tl o s et h e m
s h e h a d a l r e a d ym a d ep l a n st o g o o u t w i t h h e r
10 You shouldn't/can'thaveeatenso manysweets
sister
2 W e c a n ' t / m u s t n 'ht a v er u n o u t o f m r l k ,I b o u g h t No wonderyou'vegot stomachachel
s o m et h i sm o r n i n g
3 We needto/shouldhaveinvitedCraigto the party Fillin needn'thave/didn,tneedto and the correct
5
4 Louise isn't upstairs.She can/must have left form of the verb in bracketsto completethe
already sentences.
5 | w o n d e rw h y H a n n a hd i d n , tc o m et o w o r k t o d a y
M a y b eo n e o f u s m a y / s h o u l d c a l la n d c h e c kt h a t 1 L u c k i i yI (do)all of the work
s h e ' sa l r i g h t a g a i nb e c a u sIeh a da b a c ku p c o p yo n d i s k
6 W e m u s t / m i g h tf i n i s ha l l t h e w o r k b y 1 O3 0 l , m 2 l t t u r n e do u t t h a t I ( c a l l )J o
not sureyet b e c a u sIea nh a da l r e a dtyo l d h e rt h e n e w s
7 We needn't/oughtn't to leave right away, we 3 | (buy) more milk because
haveplentyof time M u m h a da l r e a dby o u g h ts o m e ,
8 l'm afraidyou can't/mustn'tspeakto Mr Lambert 4 She (dress)smartlyfor the
a t t h e m o m e n t h, e ' si n a m e e t i n g party,so shewore herjeans
9 | can'tdo my HistoryhomeworkDo you think you 5 John (go) into the bank, he
could/shouldhelpme? c o u l dh a v ec l o s e dh i sa c c o u not v e rt h e p h o n e
10 Youmustn't/needn't tellhimaboutthe oartvWe 6 They (walk)to the supermarket
wantit to bea surprise because Simongavethem a lift

3 Wheremightyouseeeachof the followingsigns?


a
Writesentences
to explainwhat eachonemeans, b Usecan,cont,hoveto,
asin theexample. don'thavetoand
needntwith the
promptsbelowto ask
andanswer questions
aboutusingpublic
transportin your
country.
Youcanuse
yourown ideas.
H
#t

1 (lnapark)- Youmustn't
playballgames
in thisarea.
a buya ticketto travelon the bus/train
4 Underline
the correctmodalverb,thenexplainits a buy a monthlytravelpass
use. o travelfreeif you areover65
1 Excuseme,will/couldyoutell me howto get to a e a to r d r i n ki n t h e v e h i c l e
OxfordStreet,please? o buyticketsin advance
2 Youneedn't/shouldn'tpickup the children
from A: DoI haveto buya ticketto travelon thetrainor bus?
school,
l'm leaving
workearlytodaysoI cando it B: Yes,
youdo.CanL..etc

101
F
tat
*!
*
:F==
LJ=;#
7 Lookat the photographs
andusethe promptsto l e g o t o t h e c i n e m at o n i g h t ?
2 A : S h a lw
makeup sentencesusingmust,mustn'tor needn't. B : a Sorry,we won't
b Sorry,I can't
. buy a ticket
3 A : C o u l dy o u p o s tt h i sf o r m ew h i l ey o u ' r eo u t ?
. throw litterover
B : a N o ta t a l l
theside b No problem
. makea reservation
4 A C a nI t a l kt o y o u f o r a m o m e n t ?
Youmustbuya ticket B : a Yes,you will
yougeton the
before b Certainly
ferry. Wouldyou pickRonup tomorrow?
B : a Of courseI would
havetoo much b O f c o u r s eI w i l l
ruggage 6 A : W i l ly o ut a p et h a t f i l mf o r m e t o n i g h t ?
c h e c ki n B : a l ' d b e h a p p yt o
t a k ey o u rl u g g a g e b Yes,I may
on board

10 Fillinthecorrect
question
tags.

1 Let'sgo for a walk, .?


2 He rarelygoesout on a week night, )
o t a k ey o u rr e c e i p t
5 Shelivesnearme, ?
o forgetyourPIN
4 Thisis your newspaper, ?
number
5 Youhaven'tfinishedyour homework,
haveyourlD with
6 Thechildrenareveryquiettoday, ?
you
7 He is a good cook, ?
8 Youhaven'tgot a CD player,
9 Tonylovesltalianfood, 7
8 Lookat the pictures
andmakeasmany 1 0 Youwill cometo the party, .. ?
assumptions aspossible,
asin the examples.

Hemightbelateforan
Useof English
appointment. . Error
Correction
Hecan'tbeonholiday.
Hecouldbeon hiswayhome.
11 Cross
outtheincorrect
wordineach
sentence.
I m u s tt o g o t o t h e b a n ka t l u n c h t i mteo g e t s o m e
money
2 Y o us h o u l dt o s t o pe a t i n gj u n kf o o d
3 Theydidn't havebeento work becauseit wastheir
dayoff
I w a s n ' tb e a b l et o c a l ly o u O e c a u syeo u r p n o n e
w a se n g a g e d
Don't let me forget, I must have to phone my
p a r e n ttso n i g h t
I a m u s e dt o b e a b l et o p l a yt h e p i a n ow h e n I w a s
younger
H e d i d n ' tn e e dt o h a v ec l e a nt h e k i t c h e nb e c a u s e
9 Choosethe correctanswer. R i c kh a da l r e a ddy o n ei t
.J N e e dI t o g o w i t h t h e m ?
1 A : D o y o ut h i n ky o u c o u l dh e l pm e w i t h t h i s ? 9 W e d o n ' to u g h th a v et o g o i f y o ud o n ' tw a n t t o
B: a Of course 1 0 T h e ym i g h t h a v et o c a u g h tt h e t r a i n i f J o a nh a d
b Yes,I needto b e e nr e a d yo n t i m e

1I n-)
wz_

i I l l i l l l i l l ' l l l l L l l l l r [ ] r | ! r i i I r : r i l L l r Lr b , , ! r ' r r l
ffimwwwffiffif
Effi#%
. WordFormation . KeyWordTransforrnations

usedwith Studytheexamples.ln eachcasethesecondsentence


has
a similar
meaning
to thefirstsentence.
deactivate,decode verbs
disadvan tag e, disinf ect
verbs,adjectives,
n o un 5 Youcan'tget a drivinglicenceif you are underj 7
in-: independent,indecisive adjectives, nouns rnust You must be 17 or overto get a driving
il-: (beforel) illogicat adjectives, nouns licence
im-: . (beforem and p) impossible adjectives, nouns
(beforer) irresistible 2 lt'sa good ideato brushyourteeth aftereverymeal
ir-: adjectives, nouns
non-: non-smoker,non-toxrc should You should brush your teeth after
adjectives, nouns
un-: unfailuntidy everymeal
adjectives, adverbs
a n dn o u n s 3 There's
a possibility
that Jjmwill be at the party.
might J i mm i g h t b e a t t h e p a r t y .
4 H a v i n grespectfor your parentsis the right th jng to
12 Completethesentences
witha wordformed
from do.
thewordin bold. ought You ought to have respectfor your
parents
1 Luckily,
the housewas
5 Do I needto get a visato visitthe USA?
. when the fire OCCUPIED necessary ls tt necessary to get a visato visitthe
brokeout
It wasa relaxed,. FORMAL
occaSton
You mustkeepon workingwith 13 Completethe sentences with two to five words,
him no matterhow muchyou includingthe word in bold. Do not changethe I

AGREE meaningof the originalsentence.


lf you the turkey, FROST 1 l ' m s u r et h a t F r a n km i s s e tdh e t r a i n .
w e w i l l c o o ki t t o n i g h t . have Frank the train
Hewas surethat what theywere 2 lt was not necessary for usto booka tablebecause
d o i n gw a s ,., sohe LEGAL the restaurant is neverbusyon Mondaynights
decidedto callthe police have Therestaurant is neverbusyon Monday
He haswrittenten novelsaswel as n i g h t ss, o . . . . .a t a b l e .
a n u m b eor f ... books, FICTION 3 lt is forbiddento studentsto talk to one another
I havea meetingat 5 30, it'sreally d u r i n gt h e e x a m
. because I normally C O N V E N I E N T must Students
finishwork at 3:00o'clockon o n ea n o t h e d r u r i n gt h e e x a m
Fridays 4 Youshouldget somedetailsfrom theirwebsite
Don't be so ! The PATIENT ought you
b u sw i l l b e h e r ei n a m i n u t e moredetailsfrom theirwebsite,
Matt wasvery and LUCKY 5 R o b i nm u s tb e h e r e ,h i sc a ri ss t i l li n t h e c a rp a r r .
m i s s e tdh e g o a l .I t h o u g h th e w a s certain I
the bestplayeroverall hereh, i sc a ri ss t i l li n t h e c a rp a r k
1 0 Theyrun a PROFIT NeedI callto confirmmy booking?
o r g a n i s a t i ownh i c hh e l p st h e necessary
ts
homeless in London to confirmmy booking?
1 1 What he wassayingwastotally 7 My doctoradvisedme to stayin bed
.. t o t h e m a i nt o p i c RELEVANT should My doctortold me that
of the meeting
1 2 You mustn't . the OBEY 8 lt isposibte
thatI wil J: fffl to hetp
you
law or you'llget into trouble. might tthinkt. you

103
5 =
=ilELJ=*
. OpenCloze . M ultiole
Choice
Cloze

14 Readthe text below and think of the 15 Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C or D which
word which bestfits eachspace.Use bestfitsthe space,
asin the example.Thereisan example (0)
only one word in eachspace.Thereis an at the beginning.
e x a m p l e( 0 ) a t t h e b e g i n n i n g .

Don't be SAD
Mostof us,at sometime or 0) cnofher, suffer Curry,nowadays,is becomingknown as a 0) ir"=#ii';,:,-r=i+j English
from the 'winterblues',As the daysget shorter food In fact, it is 1) . easierto find an Indianrestauranl
and cooler,we find ourselves feelingtired and t h a na f i s ha n dc h i ps h o pi n m o s tl a r g ec i t i e sa n dt o w n si n t h e U K
w e t e n d1 ) . . . e a t m o r et h a nw e s h o u l dl t The reasonsare obvious,curriesare tasty, whereastraditional
is perfectlynatural,our internalbiological clocks Englishfood 2) . sometimesbe quite bland What few
a r e s i m p l yr e a c t i n gt o t h e c h a n g e si n s u n l i g h t peopleknow, 3) , is that most of the herbsand spices
p a t t e r n sT h eo n l ys o l u t i o ni st o c a r r y2 ) . . . . . . .. usedto makecurryhavemedicalproperties
a n d t r y t o m a k et h e b e s to f t h i n g s3 ) . . . . . . G a r l i ca n do n i o n sh a v eb e e nu s e d4 ) t h o u s a n dosf y e a r s
w a i t i n gf o r s p r i n g . to help lowercholesterol and blood pressure and treat infections.
Some people, however, 4) the Turmericacid aidsdigestion,actsas an antisepticand supposedly
'winter
blues'overwhelming. Theyhavelittleor hasantr-cancer propertiesCoriander, used5) , ., , , the ancient
no interest5) work, school,familyor Greeksand Egyptians to flavourwine, is known to easemigraine
friends Theyare tired all the time, 6) headaches
matterhow muchsleepthey get,and theycrave Gingeris 6) . . known for its abilltyto suppressnausea
carbohydrates (potatoes,bread,spaghetti,etc) and reducefever When usedtopicallyit alsoactsas an effective
Theyalsoexperience feelingsof despair,misery 7) Chilliis alsofamousasa topicalpainreliever aswell as
and hopelessness Theseare symptomsof the b e i n ga b l et o s t o p b l e e d i n g8 ) . a p p l i e dt o a c u t . l t a l s o
disease 7) ... as SADor Seasonal Affective h e l p s t h e b o d y p r o d u c ee n d o r p h i n sw h i c h c a u s ef e e l i n g so f
Disorder pleasureClovesare usefulfor preserving food and they are also
The cure 8) . . . a logicalone. Sufferers a(n)9) . ingredientin topicalpainrelievers usedby dentists
needexposure to brightlight Formild formsof But, be warned,beforeyou go rushingto your spicerack to
t h e d i s e a s es i m p l ys p e n d i n gm o r e 9 ) . . . . . . . 10 ) y o u ra c h e sa n d p a i n sm a k es u r et h a t y o u 11)
outsideusuallyhelpsto relievethe symptoms, what you are doing Most of thesespicescan havea 12)
but seriousSAD sufferersneed 10) effectif you usetoo much lt is also13) to find out what
moreeffectivetreatment.Accordingto medical f o r mt h e ys h o u l db e i n F o re x a m p l ec,u t t i n ga r a wc h i l lpj e p p ear n d
professionals,the recommendedtreatment r u b b i n gi t i n t o a n o p e n1 4 ) c o u l db e 1 5 ). a sw e l l
11) . . . S A Di s e x p o s u r ef r, o m 3 0 m i n u t e s a sh a r m f u l .
to two hours daily,to a 'light box' This box
p r o d u c eas b r i g h tl i g h tw h i c hi s s i m i l atro b e i n g
o u t s i d eo n a c l o u d yw i n t e r ' sd a y i n A l a s k aT h e
p a t i e n t1 2 ) . . . . . t o a l l o wt h e l i g h tt o m a k e 0A ac c epte d B u s u a l |El tradtttonal lJ cultural
l Aquite B often C very D seldom
contactwith their eyesas research has shown
2 A is B would C could D can
that it is the effectof light on the eyes,rather
3 Aso B f o r t u n a t e lC
y nevertheiessD however
13) o n t h e s k i n ,w h i c h r e d u c e sS A D
4 A for B rn C since D during
symptoms. Exercisecan also help relieve
5 Awith B by C for D from
symptomsof depressron
6Amuch B highly C very D well
L u c k i l yt h
, o u g h ,m o s t 1 4 ) us simply
7 A painkillerB stopper C reducer D destroyer
experience a mild form of the diseaseIn thls
8Awhile Bwhen C as D whether
case, an effective cure includes anything
9 Afirst B important C usual D main
15) a C a r i b b e a nh o l i d a yt,o a g r e a t
10 A solve B fix C cure D mend
evening outwithfriends.
11 Athink B consider C learn D know
12 A positive B unknown C negative D minimal
13 Aimportant B needed C advised D significant
14 A lnjury B hurt C sprain D wound
15 A hurtful B painful C helpful D awful

104
W
w
*
E!.==#
Revision(Unitsl-5) 1 4 P u p i l s. . inthecorridors
A d o n ' th a v et o r u n C m u s t n ' tr u n
B n e e d n ' rt u n
16 Circle
thecorrect
item. D n e e d n ' bt e r u n n i n g
15 . you tell me how to get to the stationfrom
He hasworkedwith hisfather he left school here,please?
A when B since C before D while A Shali B Could C Should D May
| .. . to the partybut I didn'tstaylongbecause I 1 6 T h e r e. be an electionthis year,but l'm not
wastired 5Ure.
A amgoing C h a db e e ng o i n g A must B might C ought D should
B was going D went 17 We could to the theatre,but it was raining
3 lt .. . heavilyall week and the roadsare wet heavily
and slippery. Ago C havegone
A h a dr a i n e d C h a sb e e nr a i n i n g B begoing D havebeengoing
B i sr a i n i n g D rains 1 8 L e a v em e a l o n e ., . . you?
4 W h a tt i m ed i dJ o h n ' sf l i g h t .. yesterday? A shall B will C do D have
A land C landed 1 9 T h a th o u s e . . f 3 0 , 0 0 0i n 1 9 9 8
B belanding D w a sl a n d i n g A cost B will cost C hascost D costs
H ep u t t h e l a d d e u
rp t h ew a l l . 20 Thematchwill havefinished six.
A to B against C from D between A when B after C by D since
Bythistime nextyear| . . payingfor my car
A havefinished
B w l l l h a v ef i n i s h e d
C amfinishing 17 Fillinthemissing
word.
D a m g o i n gt o b e f i n i s h i n g

l f h e h a se n o u g hm o n e y h
, e.. o n h o l i d a yi n 1 Do I to do my homeworknow?
thesummer 2 She .. be ill I saw her just five minutes
A goes C willgo ago.
B istogo D w i l l h a v eg o n e 3 Thecoffeeis . . .. hot for me to drink
4 We aren't going to the cinema tonight,
8 C o l i nw o n ' t c o m eu n l e s h
se .. theessav
..we?
A willfinish C i sf l n i s h i n g 5 Thewater isn'thot yet
B finishes D w i l l h a v ef i n i s h e d
6 .. you be coming to the party on
When I was at school,I reallyhated . . for Saturday?
exam5. 7 He isthe . .. . interesting man l,veevermet
A study C usedto study 8 You . .. .. smokein here lt,snot airoweo.
B to study D studying 9 l ' l lb e h o m ee a r l y t h e b u si s l a t e
10 Oh no! | forgot 1 0 W h e nI w a s a c h i l d w , e .. . to go to Spain
those letterswhen I was
out. everySummer
A posting 1 1 J a n ec o u l d . . . h e l p e du s ,b u t s h ed i d n , t
C to post
B post 12 He is to workingon Saturdays.
D to haveposted
1 3 L e t ' sp l a ys q u a s h , .. we?
1 1 S o l d i e r .s. . obey ordersfrom their superior '14
Thebandhad beenplayingfor an hour
officers. the lightswent out
Acan B might C haveto D ought to 1 5 D o n ' tp h o n ea t 6 : 0 0 l ' l l h a v i n ga p r a n o
12 You to the supermarketlater, l'll go lesson
t o m o r r o wm o r n t n g . 16 We were not .. to takephotos
A n e e d n 'gt o t a v eg o n e
C n e e d n 'h 17 Tomrarelydrivesto work, he7
B didn't haveto go D neededto go 1 8 H o wo l d l i t t l eM a r yb e i n M a r c h ?
19 Was Sharon to read and write when
13 That have been Harry,scar you saw
shewas fiveyearsoldT
yesterday.
Hisis blue,not green.
20 When we were youngerwe used to go sailing
A needn't C mightn't
.. ... weeKeno
B couldn't D shouldn't

105
!'i'

il =
:; '; E: eJ=*
-rr-^ t-)^--i,,^
I r rc rd>>tvc

Verb/TenseForm Active Passive


P r e s e nsti m p l e Hiscompanybuildshousesandofficeblocks Houses andofficeblocksarebuilt by his
company.
Present continuous Theyarebuildinga newhospital. A newhospital is beingbuilt.
P a s st i m p l e Theybuilt thesehousesin the 1950s. Thesehouses werebuiltin the l950s.
Pastcontinuous Theywerebuildingthesupermarket when Thesupermarket wasbeingbuilt when
theyranoutof money. theyranoutof money.
F u t u r es i m p l e Theywill builda bridgeacrosstheriver. A bridgewill be built acrosstheriver.
Prp(ont narfort Theyhavebuilta biggercinema. A biggercinemahasbeenbuilt.
Pastperfect Theyhad builthalfof thehouses beforethey Halfof thehouses hadbeenbuiltbefore
laidthephonecables. thevlaidthe phone cables.
Futureperfect Theywill havebuilt it by theendof theyear. It will havebeenbuilt by theendof theyear
Presentinfinitive Theycanbuildan extension in theirback An extension canbe built in theirback
qarden. qarden.
Perfectinfinitive Theymusthavebuiltthesecond terminalat Thesecond terminalat theairportmust
theairportbynow. havebeenbuilt bynow.
-ing form Theywantto preventthemfrombuildinga Theywantto preventa newroadfrom
newroad. beingbuilt.
Modals Theyshouldbuilda newTownHall. AnewTownHallshouldbe built.

Thepresent
perfectcontinuous,futurecontinuous, pastperfectcontinuous
andfutureperfectcontinuous
arenot
y
normal usedinthepassive
Wecanusetheverbto get insteadof theverbto be in everyday
speechwhenwetalkaboutthingsthathappen
by
accidentorunexpectedly
Hegotinjuredwhenhewasplayingrugby.(nsteadofhewosinjured...)

We usethe passive:
' whenihe person or peoplewhodo theactionareunknown, unimportantor obvious
fromtheconiext,
Hrswalletwas (Wedon'tknowwho stoleit )
stolen.
Thecarisbeingrepaired.(ft
isunimportant whoisrepairingit )
Thecriminals (lt isobvious
havebeenarrested. thatthe policearrested
them)
' whentheactionitselfismoreimportant thantheperson/people whodo it, asin newsheadlines, newspaper articles,
formalnotices,advertisements, processes,
instructions, etc Thegallery
willbeopened to thepublic
onJuly7th.(formal
notice)
' whenwe wantto avoidtakingresponsibility foranactionor whenwe referto an unpleasant eventandwe do notwant
to saywho or whatisto blameMstakes havebeenmadeinthepast.

Changingfrom the activeto the passive:


o the objectof the activesentencesbecomes the subjectin the passive
sentence
. theactive
verbremains in thesametensebutchangesintoa passive
form
I thesubjectof theactive
sentencebecomestheaqent,andiseitherintroducedwiththepreposition
by or isomitted

106
I I i , l i l l [ ] lI I l l l l l r0 r 1 L i i I i l , I M L , i r i , ,r , , , 1 , , r '
ffirmrmffiffi$
ffi#%

f Acrtr/El

rapns
fPASstr/E
I Subject

only transitive verbs(verbsthat take an ob.lect) canbe changedinto the passrve


Jackieis redecoratingtheflat. (transitive verb) l Theflat is beingredecorated byJackie.
BUT:Jackielivesonthethirdfloor(intransitive verb) - no passivefarm:Thethirdfteerl yJafu.
Note: Sometransitive verbs(have,be, exist,seem,fit, suit, resemble,lack,etc)cannotbe changedinto the
passive, hasa redjumper.(NOTMdjry1@k)
Rick
by + agent is usedto saywho or what carriesout an actton
with + instrument/material/ingredient is usedto saywhat the agentused
Thepastasaucewasmadeby Tony. / lt wasmadewith freshtomatoesfrom thegarden.
Theagent can be omittedwhen the subjectis they,he,someone/somebody, people,one, elc
Somebody hascleaned thecar. -) Thecarhasbeencleaned.
Theagentis not omittedwhen rt is a specific or importantperson,or when it is essential to the meaningof the
sentenceThenovelwaswrittenby Charles Dickens. Newmeasures areto beintroducedby the localcouncil.
Whenwe want to find out who or what performedan action,the passive questionform is Who/What... bv?
Whowasthepicturepaintedby?
With verbswhichcantaketwo objectssuchas bring,tell, send,show,teach,promise,buy,sell,
read.offer,
give,lend,etc,we canform two differentpassive sentences
Emilytoldthechildrena story.(active)
Thechildrenweretolda storybyEmily(passive, more usuar/
A storywastoldto thechildren byEmily.(passive, lessusuarT
lf, in an activesentence,a preposition followsa verb,then it is placedimmediately afterthe verbin the passive
Christhrewtheballinto theair. r Theballwasthrown into theair bv Chris.
' Theverbshear,help,seeand makearefollowedby the bareinfinitivein the activebut by the
to-infinitivein
the passive
Theteachermadethestudentsworkveryhard. t Thestudentsweremadeto workveryhardby theteacher.
' Let becomesbe allowed to in the passive,Shelet thechildren
stayup late. t Thechildrenwereallowedto stavuD
late.

Relative
Clauses
Relatlve
clauses
areintroduced
with eithera relativepronounor a relativeadverb.

RelativePronouns
We use:
1 who(m)/that to referto people Tina,whoisHelen's got herBAlastsummer.
sister,
2 which/that to referto things Thepenwhichisonyour deskis
mine.
3 whosewith people,animalsand objectsto show possession (insteadof a possessive
adjective)Bob,whose
fatherisa lawyer,
gotpromoted lastmonth.

107
nlffir
* r5#

W h o , w h i c h a n d t h a t c a n b e o m i t t e d w h e n t h e y a r e t h e o b j e c t o f t h e r e l a t i v 5e hc e
l a3ut sh e g(iw
r lh o ) t t o l d
youabout.BUTShe's thedoctorwholivesnextdoar.(whocan'tbeomitted)
Whom canbe usedinsteadof who when it isthe objectof the relativeclauseWhom is alwaysusedinstead
of who or that after a preposilionThat's themanto whomlwasspeaking lastnight
Who, which, or that arenot omittedwhen they arethe subjectof a relativeclauseThemanwholivesnextdoor
isa doctor.
Whoseis neveromitted,She'sthegirl whosecarlbought.

RelativeAdverbs
We use:
1 when/that to referto a time (when/thatcan be omitted) Thatwastheyear(when/that)wewenttosouthAfrica.
2 where to referto placesThetownwherehelivesisin theNorthWestof England.
3 why to givea reason,usuallyafter the word reason(why can be omitted) Thereason(why)hedid thisis stillnot
clear.

ldentifyingand Non-ldentifyingRelativeClauses
. An identifyingrelativeclausegivesnecessary
information,essential
to the meaningof the mainsentencelt is
not put in commasand is introduced with who, that, whose,where,when or the reason(why).
ThedoctorwhotreatedHannahsaidshewouldbefinein a coupleof davs.

. A non-identifyingrelativeclausegivesextrainformationand ls not essential


to the meaningof the main
sentencelt is put in commasand is introducedwith who, whom, which,whose,where or when
Thedoctor,who wasveryfriendly,
gaveHannahan injection.

'l a. Fillin the gapsin the table. 5 When I spoke to him this morning he
. . . . .. t h e g a r d e nf e n c e
6 Yesterday she took the bus to work because
h e rc a r
7 The report ...... by Harry
and Sarah.
8 Duringthe last year,two new supermarkets
. . in the centreof town

Fillin byor with, as in the example.

1 The salad dressingls made r,vltholive oil and


vrnegar.
b. Usethe appropriateverb forms from the table 2 The car was being fixed a friend of
to completethe sentences. ours
3 Thetreewas cut down a chainsaw.
1 The companysforssinformationabout all its 4 On Saturdayafternoonsthe streets are filled
customers on computer. . shoppers
2 Theparcel tomorrow. 5 That book was written .... . my favourite
3 T h ep o l i c e. . . . t h e m a nf o r autnor
6 All of this troublewas caused Sally's
a letterto Anna at interfering

108
?:='==:r:.;-:
3 a. Readthe passageandput the verbsintothe 4 A : H a v et h e yf i n i s h e b
du i l d i n g
t h e n e wc j n e m a
correctpassive
tense. yet?
B : Yes,I heardthat iVopen/the mayornextweek

lne
Didyou writethat report?
firstmodern
B : No, I think iVwrrte/Fiona
OlympiGc ames

A t h e n si n 1 8 9 6 T h e y 2 ) . . 6 A : Why wereyou late?


(organise) by the lnternational Olympic B : My flighVdelay/by
the badweather
Committee, which3) (found)two years
e a r l i ebr y t h e F r e n c h m aBna r o np i e r r ed e C o u b e r t i nA t 7 A Haveyou got yourcarbackyet?
the firstgames,athletesfromjust 13 countries
B : No, iVstill/not
repair
4) (invite)to take partin 42 eventsSince
t h e n ,t h e s u m m egr a m e s5 ) ( h o s t )b y a
differentcityeveryfour years(exceptduringthe World 8 A : Haveyou finisheddecorating yourflat?
W a r sa ) n dt h e i rp o p u l a r i thya sg r o w na n dg r o w n T h e B : No, but iVfrnish/by
the end of the month
2000 Gamesin Sydney, Australia, which
6) ( a t t e n d )b y m o r et h a n 1 O , O O 0 o n. C a nI b o r r o wy o u rb l u ej u m p e r ?
athletesfrom almost2OOcountries, B : Sorry,but iVwash/at the moment
7) (think)to havebeen
the biggestand the bestyet lt
1 0 A : H o wo l d i st h i sp i c t u r e ?
8) (hope)that the evenr
B : l V p a i n V m o trhea n 1 0 0y e a r sa g o
will be evenmoresuccessful in the
yearsto come

5 Rewritethe followingpassagein the passiveform.

b. Askandanswerquestions,
asin the example. '3a
The poticearrestedlocatman ,r"o;:;", ;.;;;';;;. ;;.r'
A: Wherewerethefirstmodern
OlympicGamesheld?
i:f the armedrobberyof the petrolstationon GeorgeStreet
B: They
wereheldin Athens.
Who.. .? etc. ::{
:1 TheycaughtRowerunningaway from the sceneand they
t; found that he was carryingmorethan f2OO0in cash They
a,
4 Usingthe prompts,
writesentences
in the passive, ri later officiallycharged him with the robbery A police
asin the examole. ; s p o k e s m aann n o u n c etdh a t R o w ew i l l a p p e a ri n c o u r tn e x t
,l m o n t h l f h e i sf o u n dg u i l t yt,h ej u d g ec o u l ds e n t e n chei mt o
up to ten yearsin prison

Rewritethe newspaper headlines


ascomplete
sentences,
asin the examole.

I Investigationto be held into tragiccoachcrash I

, Extrafundingfor hospitals.
1 A : W h a ta r et h e c h i l d r e d
no i n g ? I ueroict not reached
B : They/teach/E nglish Ot iurY in the announcedby Health
, : . :
TheyarebeingtaughtEnglish. : waterman case -, : -. Minister
2 A . That'sa reallynicedress
Ove-o+y sTRiKETo EE ++to
B : Thanks,iVgive/tome for my birthday Fy TRAIMDRvER5

D o y o u f a n c yg o i n go u t f o r d i n n e rt o n i g h t ? Aninvestigation
willbeheldintothetraqiccoachcrash.
B : SorryI can't,I/invite/to a party

109
ff
ti := L==#
lf possible, in the
rewritethe followingsentences 10 Lookat thepictures
andmakeupasmany
passrve. sentencesaspossible
usingrelatives.

Julielivesin Barcelona
Can'tbeput intothepassive
TheychosePaulto be the newteamcaptain
Paulwaschosento bethenewteamcaptain.
Theyhaveclosedthe roadbecause ofthe floods
4 Theyhavetwo sonsanda daughter
a l a r mc l o c k
5 Thepostmandelivered the letterjust beforewe left
goldfish
6 Thatold shirtdoesn'tfit me anymore

8 Fillin who,whichorwhose,then
saywhetheror not
b i n o c lua r s
the relativepronouncanbe omitted,asin the
examptes.

That'sthe woman wh*se daughterworks in the


bank ir***of&eoffiiffedj tr
Maryis the personwJ'l*lwantedto speakto {r**
&c*ffiiri*dj
That'sthe book I wantedto borrow
from you e-
* -r

4 l s M a r kt h e b o y hasgot a motorbike? " e""


%
l an t e r n
5 M r J o h n s o ni s t h e m a n n o u s e1 50 n
t o po f t h e h i l l .
TL^-^ ^-^ +L^ -L^^-
| | tc)c dtc L It c )t luc5 . lbought last
week
.Jamie is the person . i s i n c h a r g eo f t h e
project chef
8 lsn't ClaireWinters the woman
Agoldfish
isasmall
fishwhich asapet,
wekeep
brotherworkswith Steve?
9 R o h ' ct h o n o r c n n won the tennis
11 Circle
thecorrect
item.
c o m p e t i t i o nn,o t W i l l
'10 1 Do you know the man owns the
That'sthe school the boysusedto go
to newsagent's?
A which B whose C who
2 N e i l s a i d t h a t t h e r e ' sa f i l m o n a t t h e c i n e m a
. . . we mightenjoy
9 Matchthe itemsin the two columns.
Thenusethe
A which B who
correctrelativepronoun,who,whoseor which,to C whose
makeup complete sentences. 3 W h a t ' st h e n a m e o f t h a t c o m e d i a n TV
showyou werewatchinglastnight?
FTdl n doctorissomeone a fixedour car A who's B whose C whom
ETI rhe tigerisan b is usedto boilwater 4 The students, essayswere due the next
animal c c a nb e f o u n di n day,wereall workingin the library
FTI Thisis Peter lndia A whose B that C who
ETI n kettleissomething thesick
d cures
ETI Cregisthemechanrc youmer
e srsrer 5 Thisis MissWalters you spoketo on the
yesterday phone
A which B whom C who's
1- d Adoctor
issomeone
whocures
thesick. 6 T h e n e w w a s h i n gm a c h i n e she bought
wasverycheap
A where B which C who
11n'
t t \ J

iI :l ltl il tt 0 il [] rilil nilnr


Useof English . ErrorCorrection

. WordFormation 13 Cross
outtheincorrect
wordineach
sentence.
1 Theirhouseit was brokeninto lastweek
2 Amandawho was invitedto the partyby Jane
3 He is saidthat to be veryrich
4 S h e ' sh a db e e nh e rh a i rc u t ,h a s n ,st h e ?
out-: more,better (outperform)
5 Thereportis stillbeinghadtypedat the moment
over-: to a great extent (overreact)
6 I was agreedwith everything
post-: ' after (post-graduate)
theyweresaying.
7 That'sthe manwho isworksin the supermarket
pre-: before(pre-school)
8 Joyce,whosedaughterlivesnextdoor,sheworksin
re-: again(rewrite)
thehospital
semi-: half(semi-detached)
9 T h a tw h i c hi st h e g i r lw h o b o u g h tR o b , h
s ouse
sub-: under,less(sub-zero)
1 0 5hewas seento talkingto Benlastnight
super-: big, more(supermarket)
under-: not enough(underpaid)
. KeyWordTransformations

12 Complete
eachof thesentences
witha word Studythe examples.ln eachcasethe secondsentencehas
formed
fromthewordin bold. a similarmeaningto the firstsentence.

1 He everybodyelse PLAY
apporntment,
i n t h e t o u r n a m e nat n dw o n e a s i l y
2 The seatshad beenarrangedin a allowed I was allowedto leaveearlybecauseI had
a d e n t a al p p o i n t m e n t .
facingthe front of CIRCLE
the room 2 The governmenthassuggested that we shouldtry to
3 Thefilm was in Frenchwith English conservewater.
TITLE by lt has been suggestedby the government
4 T h e g a r d e nhad been neglected that we shouldtry to conserve
water
and wasvery GROWN 3 Most people believethat the OlympicGamesnerp
5 You mustn't how ESTIMATE promoteworldpeace.
difficuitit is goingto be believed The OlympicGamesare believedto help
6 Theirhousewas destroyedby the promoteworld peace
earthquake but theyaredetermined
4 We got a qualifiedplumberto installour new shower.
to it BUILD
7 lna. had We had our new shower installedby a
.interview,the MATCH
q u a l i f i ep
dl u m b e r .
coach tried to explain why his
team had playedso badly 5 Someone
stolehercarlastnight.
8 Before you put in the chicken, was Hercarwas stolenlastnight
. the ovento 1BO"C HEAT 6 They will replacethe broken wrndow romorrow
9 She had always dreamed of morntng.
b e c o m i na
g STAR be The broken window will be replaced
10 | a n d w a s l a t ef o r SLEPT tomorrowmornjng
scnool
7 Theyare expectingthe Royalcoupleto arriveback in
E n g l a n od n S u n d a ym o r n i n g
expected The Royalcouple are expected to arrive
b a c ki n E n g l a n od n S u n d a m
y orning
8 lf I don't finjshthe reportby Friday,
I won,t be abteto
go awaythisweekend
finished tf this report isn,t finished by Friday, I
U won't be ableto go awaythisweekend.
"j

111
*!&
ffi =
r- Li-*
tl4 Complete the sentenceswith two to . M u l t i o l eC h o i c eC l o z e
fivewords,including the wordin bold.
Donot change the meaningof the 1 5 Read thetextbeloWthencircle
theanswerA, B,Cor Dwhich
originalsentence. bestfitsthespace.
There
isanexample(0)at thebeginning.

She has to finish her essayby next


Monday
Wg
finished Heressay Going abroadhas neverbeen
by nextMonday easierToday,thanks 0) f* the
Theylet me takethe dayoff yesterday UK'sPetTravelScheme(PETS),
allowed I you can safelyand easilytake
the day off yesterday your pet with you when you
travel to many European
Peoplebelievethat the traincrashwas
c o u n t r i e as n d t o a n u m b e r
causedb y a s i g n afla i l u r e
of long haul destinations
believed lt . .
1 ) . . . . . . . .. . . .A u s t r a lai an d
train crashwas causedby a
N e w Z e a l a n dF . i r s to f a l l ,
s i g n afla i l u r e
vorir net ncpds to have a
They delivered her new furniture m i c r o c h i p2 ) This
yesterday m e a n st h a t a s m a l lm i c r o c h i p ,
was H e rn e w f u r n i t u r e a b o u tt h e 3 ) of a grain
. .. yesterday of rice,is inserted4) the
The mechanicat the garageserviced looseskin 5) the back of
the neck The microchiphas a special
o u rc a r .
had We c o d eo n i t w h i c hi s 6 ) . . . . . . . . t o e a c h
animal and is used for identification7)
t h e m e c h a n iact t h e g a r a g e
I n f o r m a t i oanb o u tt h e a n i m asl u c ha s n a m e a , g e ,b r e e da n dv a c c i n a t i o n
A national newspaperhas reported d e t a i l sa, l o n g8 ) . . . . d e t a i l sa b o u tt h e o w n e r a, r e9 ) on a
t h a t t h e m i n i s t eirs g o i n gt o r e s i g n central computer The next step is to have your pet vaccinated
by lt has 10) rabiesThenafter a follow-upblood 11) , a PETS
n a t i o n a l n e w s p a p e rt h a t Certificate or passportwill be issuedand your pet canset off with you
t h e m i n i s t e ri s g o i n g t o Of course,this new conveniencedoesn't come cheap, with the
restgn 12) costof the procedure amountingto f200
It is expectedthat Barcelona
will win 13) , w h e n c o m p a r e dt o t h e o l d w a y , a q u a r a n t i n e
the match 14) of six months at a cost of f2,OO0,it is certainlya
Barcelona 15) i n t h e r i g h td i r e c t i o n
the match

T h ep o l i c ea r et o c a r r yo u t a t h o r o u g h
investigation O A for to C with D o f
#
be A t h o r o u g hi n v e s t i g a t i o n 1 A counting B l-A^aih6r C plus D including
b yt h e p o l i c e 2 A fitted B installed C built-in D fixed
T h e l o c a lc o u n c i h l a s s u g g e s t etdh a t 3 A amount B rar9eness C size D range
t h e p o l i c es h o u l di m p o s eh e a v yf i n e s 4 A to B Into C beside D b v
f o r d a n g e r o udsr i v i n g 5 A In B on C a t D b v
by l t ........ 6 A unrque B individual C only D same
t h e l o c a l c o u n c i lt h a t t h e 7 A reasons B intentions C functions D purposes
p o l i c es h o u l di m p o s eh e a v y 8 A to b with c b v D for
f i n e sf o r d a n g e r o udsr i v i n g 9 A stored B deposited C reserved D collected
1 0 A to B o9or r)L C for D through
11 A e x a m i n a t i oBn research C test D investigation
1 2 A total B SUM C added D complete
1 3 A Whereas B l-)oqnito C However D Eventhough
1 4 A nori nd B time C <i:no D stretch
1 5 A B stride C walk D step
1I 1t z )_

l , r ' r r
l=:=
:;il

:i- ii:=;+j:
. OpenCloze
R e v i s i o( U s-G)
n n i t1
Readthe text belowandthinkof the wordwhich
16 17 Circle
thecorrect
item.
bestfitseachspace.Useonlyonewordin each
space.Thereisan example(0)at the beginning. 1 He f o r t h a t p h o n ec a l ls i n c e5 o , c l o c k
A waits C h a sb e e nw a i t i n g
B i sw a i t i n g D w i l lw a i t
2 lf I hearfromJoey,I you know
A am letting C w i l lb e l e t t i n g
_[
i r*rl-r.=; i*:r-rlll
'-'
L""
'dr
L
rr-' r+/
B let D w i l ll e t
3 H i sp r e v i o ujso b w a sj u s t , . w e l l p a i da s t h e
More and 0) ;=Gr-people today are turning to the
o n e h e h a 5n o w
I n t e r n etto m e e t 1 ) e m p l o y m e nnte e d sA c c o r d i n g
A not B more C slightly D as
2) one recentsurvey,more3) one million
U K r e s i d e n t ss e a r c h f o r j o b s t h r o u g h t h e I n t e r n e t 4 There'sno point in how you feel,because
4) m o n t h l n r e s p o n s5 e) this demand, she'snot interested
thousandsof new sites,offeringto matchjob huntersto A explaining C explained
suitable a d v e r t i s e m e nht sa,v e6 ) B explain D to explarn
I a u n c h e dF o rt h e
lob-seeker, thesesitesareveryconvenientThereis no more 5 i w o u l dl o v e my own restaurant
one day
h u n t i n g7 ) a l i s to f t h o u s a n dosf a d v e r t i s e m e nr or s A own C owning
f i n d t h e o n e t h e y a r e l o o k r n gf o r T h e y c a n s i m p l y B to own D to beowning
8) r i d o f u n s u i t a b l ea d v e r t i s e m e n b t sy b e i n g
6 She b e m a r r r e d S h e w a s w e a r i n ga
specific9) their searchdetails lf they do not wish
w e d d i n gr i n g
to accept a salary 10) less than f3O,OOO,
A could B needn't C must D c an ' t
11) if they do not wish to work outsidea certatn
area,for example, then they cantype in this informationat 7 We to go to bed soon We'vegot a very
the start of their searchin 12) to savetnemsetves busydaytomorrow
t h e t r o u b l eo f r e a d i n ga b o u tj o b st h a t a r e 1 3 ) no A should B ought C must D can
rnterest to them TheInternetalsoallowsthe job_seeker to 8 He g e t t h e r e i n t i m e ; t d e p e n d so n t h e
sendtheirCVsto a numberof differentplacesmorequickly
trafflc
They can 14) get up-to-the-minuteinformation A might B must C ought D need
a b o u tw h i c hj o b s a r e s t i l la v a i l a b l eS o , n e x tt i m e y o u a r e
15) the lookoutfor that exciiingnew opporrunrry; 9 Theleakwas fixed a plumber.
g e t o n l i n ea n dg e t a h e a c , , A w i th B for C by D to
1 0 H e c a n ' t c o m e b e c a u s eh e to work
overttmeeverynightthisweek
A makes C i sm a k i n g
B i s b e i n gm a d e D i sm a d e

18 Fillinthemissing
word.
'l
C h i n e s ies in Taiwan
2 Haveyou invitedto the party?
3 She will have working here for
% b l iwenty-fiveyearswhen sheretires
4 That'sthe house I grew up
1 l 5 The demonstrators want to stop the law from
t "'
o't , passed
, i
This is Peter James is the new
1"..
c o m p u t etre c h n i c r a n
H e h a s b e e ns t u d y i n ga l l n i g h t H e
l''r'' I
t , t. i be exhausted
., 8 It is that he will be the nextpresident
f t
9 Thesaucewas made freshherbs
1 0 The priceof computersis expected
Ise
113
j-

Causative
form
o We usehave+ object+ past participleto saythat we havearrangedfor someoneto do somethingfor us The
pastparticiplehasa passive
meaningShehadherhaircutat thenewhairdresser's. (5hedidn'tcut herown hair)
. Questions and negations
of the verb have are formed with do/does (present simple)or did (pastsimple)
Didyouhavethecarpetscleanedlastweek?
. Wealsousehavesomethingdonetotalkaboutanunpleasantexperiencethatsom WehbeondKyahtaedw a s
in town,shehadherbagstolen.(= her bag was stolen)
. Wecanusetheverbgetinsteadofhaveininform c oanl v e r s a t i ol 'nl lg e t t h e p h o t o g r a p h s d e v e l o p e d w h e n l g o
tntotown.

Regularactiveform Causativeform
PresentSimple He fixeshisbike He has hisbikefixed
PresentContinuous H e i s f i x i n gh i sb i k e He is havinqhisbikefixed
P a s tS i m p l e He fixed hisbike He had hisbikefixed
PastContinuous Hewas fixing hisbike Hewas havinohisbikefixed
FutureSimple H ew i l l f i x h i sb i k e Hewill havehisbikefixed
F u t u r eC o n t i n u o u s H ew i l l b e f i x i n gh i sb i k e H ew i l l b e h a v i n gh i sb i k ef i x e d
PresentPerfect H eh a sf i x e dh i sb i k e He has had hisbikefixed
PresentPerfectContinuous H e h a sb e e nf i x i n gh i sb i k e He has beenhavinghisbikefixed
PastPerfect H e h a d f i x e dh i sb i k e H e h a d h a d h i sb i k ef i x e d
PastPerfectContinuous H eh a d b e e nf i x i n gh i sb i k e H eh a d b e e nh a v i n gh i sb i k ef i x e d
Infinitive H es h o u l df i x h i sb i k e He shouldhavehisbikefixed
-ing form It'sworth fixing hisbike It'sworth havinghlsbikefixed

Reoorted
Soeech
. We usedirectspeechto quotesomeone's exactwords We enclosetheirwordsin invertedcommas
"llivein HighfieldRoad,"Evesaid.or Evesaid,"llivein HighfieldRoad."
o We usereportedspeechto reportthe exactmeaningof what someonesaid,but not in the exactwords We
do not useinvertedcommasPersonalpronouns,possessive adjectivesand possessive
pronounschange
according to the meaningof the sentenceEvesaidthatshelivesin Highfield Road.
o We can reportsomeone's wordsa longtime aftertheyweresaid(out-of-datereporting)or a shorttime after
theyweresaid(up-to-datereporting)

S a y - T e- A
llsk
Saycan be usedboth in directand reportedspeechlt is usedwith or without a personal object Whenit is
usedwith a personal objectit is alwaysfollowedby to (saidto him) In reportedspeechsay is not followedby
an objectpronoun,but it can be followedby that
Direct: "l'mtired,"shesaid. OR "l'mtired," shesaidto me.
Reported: Shesaid (that)shewastired.
Tellcanbe usedboth in directand reportedspeechlt is alwaysfollowedby a personal
object(toldhrm)
Direct: "lcomefromNewcastle,"Garytoldme.
Reported: GarytoldmethathecomesfromNewcastle
Ask is usedin directquestionslt is alsousedin reportedquestions
and requests
Direct: "Where areyougoing?"heaskedme.
"Hurryup,"shesaid.
Reported: Heaskedmewherelwasgoing.
Sheaskedusto hurrvup.

114
i l r l l l l n u uur L rr u n r L r ,
+ w
ii= ti=*

Expressions
usedwith say,tell and ask

hello,good morning/afternoon etc,something/nothing, so,a prayer,a fewwords,etc


the truth, a lie,a story,a secret,a joke,the time,the difference,
one from another,somebody
one,sname,
somebody the way,somebody so,someone,s fortune,etc
a question,a favour,the price,aftersomebody,
the time,around,for somethrng/somebody,
etc

In reportedspeech:
. Tenses
changeas fotrows

" I walk to work everyday -+ Hesaid(that)he walkedto work everyday


PresentSimple P a s tS i m p l e
" I a m g o i n gt o t h e c i n e m a -+ H es a i d( i h a t )h e w a s g o i n gt o t h e c i n e m i .
PresentContinuous
" I nave finishedmy homework',
haveTtntsneo **+ Hesaid(that)he had finishedhishoinework_
PresentPerfect
" I b o u g h tt h e i rn e w C D .
Hesaid(that)he boughVhad nougfrttherr;;:;tO.
PastSimpleor Pastperfecr
" l w a s p l a y i n gf o o t b a lal t 1 2 o , c l o c k" -+ H es a i dt h a t h ew a s p l a y i n g / h abde e np l a y i n gf o o t b a lal t 1 2
PastContinuous
PastContinuousor PastperfectContinuous
" l w i l l g o a n db u ys o m eb r e a d" I H es a i dt h a t h e w o u l d g o a n db u ys o m eb r e a d .
FutureSimple(will) Conditional(would)

Thepastperfectand pastperfectcontinuous
do not changein reportedspeech

' Somewordsand time expressions changeaccording


to the meaningof the sentence
here+ there,come+ go
today,tonight+ that day,that night
yesterdayr the day before,the previousday
now >then, at that/the time/moment.immediately
two daysago + two days before
lastmonth- the month before,the previousmonth
thisweek+ that week
tomorrow+ the next/followingday
nextmonth+ the month after,the following month
. Somemodalverbsalsochange,as follows:
will , would
- could,can (futurereference)>could/wouldbe able
can(ability) to
+
may might
shall ' should
must(obligation)
+ p''rt,71rud
,o
-
needn't needn't/didn,tneedto/didn.t haveto

115
Y

f
e

lr E= Li=*
Usethe promptsto saywhatyou cando at eachof 3 Lookat the pictures
and makesentences
usingthe
the businesses. causative
form,asin the example.

RomsPizzs
Beautiful
Itolisn
Top stylisf ct low prices
pasta
ond pizza

We'll developyour
holidoy snops while you wcit

===--= Seclgrity
We con insfoll locks, security lighfs,
burgloralorms.

They/photograph/take
LEAFLFfS ANb FLYER5ARE OUR 5PECTALTY Theyarehavingtheirphotographtaken.
2 She/order/take
5 She/teeth/check
4 He/trousers/a
lter

pizzaldeltver
4 Rewritethe sentences
usingthe causative
form,as
in theexample.
(bythem).
Youcanhavea pizzadelivered
1 Someone isgoingio paintourhousetomorrow
2 hair/cut
Wearegoingtohaveourhousepainted
tomorrow.
3 photographs/ develop
4 n e wb u r g l aar l a r mi/n s t a l l 2 Weareinstalling
central
heating
thiswinter
5 leaflets/print
6 carlrepair 3 T h eh a i r d r e s sceur t m v h a i rt h i sm o r n i n o

4 T h e yw i l l d e l i v eor u r f u r n i t u r eo n F r i d a y

2 Rewritethe sentences
usingthe causative
form,
5 T h ep l u m b eirs f i x i n qt h e s i n ki n t h e k i t c h e n
in the example.

Hiscarisserviced
twicea year
Hehashiscarserviced
twicea year.
zHerjacketis beingdry cleanedat the moment
5 Complete
the sentences
usingthe causative.

3 Theirnew gasfirewas installed lastmonth 1 Ann'shairistoolongShe


4 M y m o b i l ep h o n ew a ss t o l e nl a s tn i g h t
5 Thedoctorcheckedhisbloodpressure. Theywantedto havea marqueein their garden
o Dida professional decorate theirhousefor them? They
We still haven'ttakenour holidayphotographs
to
be developedWe
yet
4 4 / '
t t o

i: lLrl lll ll iill iNll [] r [] [,r NrLr]


rn[],r Lrxrrx:rtrililxrdnn,,-,rnu,!,n,ri.
John is at the optician'sHe
7 Reportwhatthe doctorsaidto the patient,asin the example.

You need to arrange for


someoneto repairyour roof
You

Mary's purse was stolen


yesterdayMary

Tony'snosewasbrokenduring
the match.Tony

T h e p a i n t e ri s p a i n t i n gB e n ' s lf it is broken,
bedroom Ben. we will haveto
put it in a cast

6 Complete the sentences by


fillingin the correctformof
say,tell,or ask,asin the
examole.
asked
1 She to sitdown'
thePatient
Alisonref#me that she was 2
goingon holidaynextweek 3
N e i l ' sg o i n g i n t o t o w n , h e 4
. if we wanted 5
anythingfromthe shops 6
lf you seeCarol
her that Harrywas looking
f o r h e re a r