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25 linux basic commands https://arkit.co.in/25-commonly-used-linux-commands/

25 most
commonly used ADVERTISEMENT

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BY ARK MAY 7, 2016

25 most commonly used Linux


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use these commands without this
commands Linux administrator job
will not complete a day. We have to
use this commands for reading files,
checking present working directory,
moving files, check who logged in to
system, check disk space, check cpu
utilization, kill unwanted processes,
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change files, directories ownership
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25 linux basic commands https://arkit.co.in/25-commonly-used-linux-commands/

RHEL 7 Tutorial Managing Files


[root@ArkIT ~]# cat > and Directories
firstfile 12 FEB, 2017
This is a first file
created using cat command
CENTOS / LINUX / RHEL7
chmod Command
Understanding how-to grant
As mentioned in above > redirect file permissions
symbol we have to use along with 11 FEB, 2017

cat command to create file with CENTOS / FEDORA / LINUX / RHEL7 /


content. Whenever you type cat > UBUNTU

FILENAME hit enter, than it will just find command practical


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show blank screen below the Skills
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press CTRL+d first will save and exit.

To read file content below is the ADVERTISEMENT


command example

[root@ArkIT ~]# cat


firstfile
This is a first file
created using cat command

[root@ArkIT ~]# cat >>


firstfile
Second line of this file

[root@ArkIT ~]# cat


firstfile
This is a first file
created using cat command
Second line of this file

To append the file content >>


double grater than we have to use.
Type data and press CTRL+d to save.

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2. List files and


directories
To list files and directories in Linux
we have to use ls command

[root@ArkIT ~]# ls
anaconda-ks.cfg Desktop
Documents Downloads file
firstfile initial-setup-
ks.cfg linux Music
Pictures Public rhce
Templates Videos

long list with detailed information


show. ls -l command will show
detailed list of files and directories.

[root@ArkIT ~]# ls -l
total 24
-rw-------. 1 root root
1968 Mar 18 02:26
anaconda-ks.cfg
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 6
Mar 17 20:59 Desktop
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 6 Enter your email address - Receive
Mar 17 20:59 Documents tutorial via email
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 6
Mar 17 20:59 Downloads
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root
1084 Apr 28 08:16 file

list and sort files based on created


date

AMAZING OFFERS
[root@ArkIT ~]# ls -ltr

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total 24
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root
2016 Mar 17 20:58
initial-setup-ks.cfg
-rw-------. 1 root root
1968 Mar 18 02:26
anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root
1812 Apr 28 05:59 rhce
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root
1227 Apr 28 06:02 linux
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root
1084 Apr 28 08:16 file
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root
72 May 6 22:45 firstfile
CONTRIBUTORS

ls -ltr means l = long list, t =


time, r = recursively

3. Let you know


current working
directory
To show in which directory your
currently working use pwd
commnad

[root@ArkIT ~]# pwd


/root

4.more file
perusal filter for
crt viewing
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more command is used to filter for


paging through text one screenful at
a time.

[root@ArkIT ~]# cat


anaconda-ks.cfg |more
[root@ArkIT ~]# more -d
anaconda-ks.cfg
[root@ArkIT ~]# more
anaconda-ks.cfg

5. copy files and


directories from
source to
destination
To copy the files and directories
from one location to other location
we have to use cp command

To copy only files use below


command. If you use same
command for directories will not
work, have to use -r option along
with cp command

[root@ArkIT ~]# cp
firstfile /opt/

[root@ArkIT ~]# cp Music/

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/opt/
cp: omitting directory
Music/ <<< --- if
you didn't use -r option
this error will come

[root@ArkIT ~]# cp -r
Music/ /opt/
[root@ArkIT ~]# ls -l
/opt/
total 4
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root
72 May 7 07:15 firstfile
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 6
May 7 07:17 Music

whenever copying the files &


directories we required to preserve
time stamps to preserving the time
stamps of files & directories use
option -p along with cp command

[root@ArkIT ~]# ls -l
-rw-------. 1 root root
1968 Mar 18 02:26
anaconda-ks.cfg << --
Original file

[root@ArkIT ~]# cp -p
anaconda-ks.cfg /opt/
[root@ArkIT ~]# ls -l
/opt/anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-------. 1 root root
1968 Mar 18 02:26
/opt/anaconda-ks.cfg
<<--- copied file

ls command with
25 examples

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6. Delete files and


directories
To delete files and directories use
rm command

[root@ArkIT ~]# rm file


<<-- Delete regular file
with confirmation
rm: remove regular file
file? y
[root@ArkIT ~]# rm -f
firstfile <<-- Delete
Regular file without
asking confirmation
[root@ArkIT ~]# rm -rf
Public/ <<-- Delete
Directory without asking
for confirmation

To delete normal file use rm


command it will ask you for the
conformation when deleting. If do
not want to prompt any
confirmation use -f option. To delete
directories use rm -rf .

Note: Be careful whenever your


running rm -rf, avoid wildcard * while
running rm command, Go to the
same directory and run rm -rf using
wildcard *.

7. Moving files and

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directories
Moving files meaning that changing
the location of files from one to
another path. use mv command

Syntax: mv [source]
[destination]

[root@ArkIT opt]# mv
Music/ /root/
mv: overwrite /root
/Music? y

8. Creating New
Directories
Most of the guys who are not fimilier
with Linux also they know about
mkdir command

[root@ArkIT ~]# mkdir


/Testing <<-- Creating
Directory under /
[root@ArkIT ~]# mkdir
test <<-- Creating
Directory in current path

[root@ArkIT ~]# mkdir -p


/Test/Best/Rest/ <<--
Creating Collaborative
directories

9. Changing
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directories
To go from one directory to another
directory we have to use cd
command

as you see in above screenshot .


(dot) represents current directory.
..(dot dot) represents its parent
directory, what is the use of them..?

whenever we use cd command cd


../../../ which means we are
going two directories back from
current.

[root@ArkIT ~]# cd /tmp/


<<-- switch directory to
/tmp

[root@ArkIT /]# cd
/var/log/cups/ <<--
Switch to multiple
directories yet the same
time
[root@ArkIT cups]# cd
../../../ <<-- Going two
directories back

[root@ArkIT /]# cd -
/var/log/cups <<--
Going to previously
changed path

[root@ArkIT cups]# cd ~
<<-- Whereever your go
back to User HOME

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directory
[root@ArkIT ~]# pwd
/root

~ (tild) is used to switch back to


HOME path

10. Deleting empty


directories
We can also make use of rm
command but some time we would
like to delete only empty directories
(any directory didnt contain any
data) so rmdir command is very
handy whenever we would like to
delete empty directories. as a
example we have taken two
directories One is having few files in
it another one is empty.

[root@ArkIT ~]# rmdir


/test <<-- Directory
having few files in it
not deleted
rmdir: failed to remove
/test: Directory not
empty
[root@ArkIT ~]# rmdir
/Testing/ <<-- Directory
is empty deleted
successfully

11. Print files


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To print files from Linux command


line we can use lpr command

[root@ArkIT ~]# lpr rhce


<<-- Print rhce file to
default printer

[root@ArkIT ~]# lpr rhce


-P PRINTERNAME <<--
Print rhce file to
specified printer

[root@ArkIT ~]# lpr -#5


rhce <<--- Print only 5
pages out of all pages

12. List who is


logged into
system and
run-levels
show who logged in to server and
which run level is running currently

[root@ArkIT ~]# who


root tty1 2016-05-06
22:06
root pts/0 2016-05-07
07:10 (192.168.4.1)
root pts/1 2016-05-07
09:17 (192.168.4.1)

[root@ArkIT ~]# who -r


run-level 3 2016-05-06
22:05

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[root@ArkIT ~]# who -d

[root@ArkIT ~]# who -H


NAME LINE TIME COMMENT
root tty1 2016-05-06
22:06
root pts/0 2016-05-07
07:10 (192.168.4.1)
root pts/1 2016-05-07
09:17 (192.168.4.1)

[root@ArkIT ~]# who -a


system boot 2016-05-06
22:05
run-level 3 2016-05-06
22:05
root + tty1 2016-05-06
22:06 12:22 1604
root + pts/0 2016-05-07
07:10 02:45 3973
(192.168.4.1)
root + pts/1 2016-05-07
09:17 . 4995
(192.168.4.1)

13. Clear screen


Typing all the commands on screen
and its output in screen will look like
messy to clear all this output and
commands typed use clear
command

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Read More Install MSSQL Server in


Linux Ultimate Step by Step Guide
RHEL / Centos

14. Check disk and


partition spaces
To list partition space and its
utilization you have to use df
command

[root@ArkIT ~]# df -t xfs


Filesystem 1K-blocks Used

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Available Use% Mounted on


/dev/mapper/rhel-root
18307072 3113572 15193500
18% /

[root@ArkIT ~]# df -i
Filesystem Inodes IUsed
IFree IUse% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/rhel-root
18317312 109332 18207980
1% /

[root@ArkIT ~]# df -h
Filesystem Size Used
Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/rhel-root 18G
3.0G 15G 18% /

[root@ArkIT ~]# df -m
Filesystem 1M-blocks Used
Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/rhel-root
17878 3041 14838 18% /

df -t <FileSystem> it will list only


the partition which are formated
with specified file system type

df -i it will show with inode


utilization

df -h human redable format

df -m all partition in MB size

15. Searching for


files and its
content
Searching for the content in file

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without opening the file use grep


command

[root@ArkIT ~]# grep


commands linux
all unix commands with
examples
linux commands cheat
sheet
list of linux commands
pdf

in above example we were searching


for commands string in linux file

[root@ArkIT ~]# grep -v


commands linux
linux lab exercises
linux practice labs
linux high performance
computing

above example will exclude the


specified string (it means which lines
does not contain string will be
displayed)

For more and more examples see


this

Grep practical examples

16. Check CPU


and Memory

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utilization
top command is used to checl CPU
utilization, memory utilization and
more.

17. Stream editor


command
sed is stream editor to replace the
text in file without opening in text
editors, insert lines, delete lines and
replace strings

[root@ArkIT ~]# sed -i


's/oldstring/newstring/g'
FILENAME

Sed command with 20 practical


examples

Read More LDAP client


configuration with autofs home
directories

http://arkit.co.in/linux/sed-command-
20-practical-examples/

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18. killing
processes when
struck, hang OR
not required
To kill the processes when they
struck up, Hang state OR some
unwanted processes not required
we can kill them

Send an signal using signal id. Signal


id 9 means SIGKILL

[root@ArkIT ~]# kill -9


7330

[root@ArkIT ~]# kill -l


1) SIGHUP 2) SIGINT 3)
SIGQUIT 4) SIGILL 5)
SIGTRAP
6) SIGABRT 7) SIGBUS 8)
SIGFPE 9) SIGKILL 10)
SIGUSR1
11) SIGSEGV 12) SIGUSR2
13) SIGPIPE 14) SIGALRM
15) SIGTERM
16) SIGSTKFLT 17) SIGCHLD
18) SIGCONT 19) SIGSTOP
20) SIGTSTP
21) SIGTTIN 22) SIGTTOU
23) SIGURG 24) SIGXCPU
25) SIGXFSZ
26) SIGVTALRM 27) SIGPROF

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28) SIGWINCH 29) SIGIO


30) SIGPWR
31) SIGSYS 34) SIGRTMIN
35) SIGRTMIN+1 36)
SIGRTMIN+2 37) SIGRTMIN+3
38) SIGRTMIN+4 39)
SIGRTMIN+5 40) SIGRTMIN+6
41) SIGRTMIN+7 42)
SIGRTMIN+8
43) SIGRTMIN+9 44)
SIGRTMIN+10 45)
SIGRTMIN+11 46)
SIGRTMIN+12 47)
SIGRTMIN+13
48) SIGRTMIN+14 49)
SIGRTMIN+15 50)
SIGRTMAX-14 51)
SIGRTMAX-13 52) SIGRTMAX-
12
53) SIGRTMAX-11 54)
SIGRTMAX-10 55)
SIGRTMAX-9 56) SIGRTMAX-8
57) SIGRTMAX-7
58) SIGRTMAX-6 59)
SIGRTMAX-5 60) SIGRTMAX-4
61) SIGRTMAX-3 62)
SIGRTMAX-2
63) SIGRTMAX-1 64)
SIGRTMAX

19. Listing running


processes
when we run an command / script
which will generate an process with
process ID and CPU will assign an
Nice value priority for it.

[root@ArkIT ~]# ps
PID TTY TIME CMD
4995 pts/1 00:00:00 bash

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7416 pts/1 00:00:00 ps

[root@ArkIT ~]# ps -aux


USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ
RSS TTY STAT START TIME
COMMAND
root 1 0.0 0.4 60032 7804
? Ss 05:30 0:02 /usr/lib
/systemd/systemd
--switched-root --sy
root 2 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? S
05:30 0:00 [kthreadd]

[root@ArkIT ~]# ps -U
root -u root u <<-- list
all processes running by
ROOT user
USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ
RSS TTY STAT START TIME
COMMAND
root 1 0.0 0.4 60032 7804
? Ss 05:30 0:02 /usr/lib
/systemd/systemd
--switched-root --sy
root 2 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? S
05:30 0:00 [kthreadd]
root 3 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? S
05:30 0:00 [ksoftirqd/0]

20. Changing the


files and directory
permissions
This command most of the Linux
administrators know, Ithink nobody
will work as Linux Administrator
without knowing this command. The
command is chmod command

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[root@ArkIT ~]# ls -l
anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-------. 1 root root
1968 Mar 18 02:26
anaconda-ks.cfg
[root@ArkIT ~]# chmod 760
anaconda-ks.cfg
[root@ArkIT ~]# chmod o+x
anaconda-ks.cfg

[root@ArkIT ~]# ls -l
-rwxrw---x. 1 root root
1968 Mar 18 02:26
anaconda-ks.cfg

[root@ArkIT ~]# chmod g+x


anaconda-ks.cfg

[root@ArkIT ~]# ls -l
anaconda-ks.cfg
-rwxrwx--x. 1 root root
1968 Mar 18 02:26
anaconda-ks.cfg

We can use chmod command along


as numeric numbers and alpha

chmod command

4 = read
2 = write
1 = execute
u = rwx User
permissions
g = rwx Group
permissions

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o = rwx Other
permissions

21. Changing
group
ownershipfor files
and directories
Changing ownership of files and
directories using chown and chgrp
command

chown USERNAME:GROUPNAME
FILENAME

[root@ArkIT ~]# ls -l
anaconda-ks.cfg
-rwxrwx--x. 1 root root
1968 Mar 18 02:26
anaconda-ks.cfg

[root@ArkIT ~]# chown


root:project1 anaconda-
ks.cfg

[root@ArkIT ~]# ls -l
anaconda-ks.cfg
-rwxrwx--x. 1 root
project1 1968 Mar 18
02:26 anaconda-ks.cfg

As shown in above example


ownership of anaconds-ks.cfg has
been changed to project1 group and

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user root.

[root@ArkIT ~]# chgrp u1


anaconda-ks.cfg

[root@ArkIT ~]# ls -l
anaconda-ks.cfg
-rwxrwx--x. 1 root u1
1968 Mar 18 02:26
anaconda-ks.cfg

22. Creating and


extracting
compressed files
(zip files)
tar is the command used to create
archive and extract archive files

[root@ArkIT ~]# tar -czvf


test.tar.gz *
anaconda-ks.cfg
Desktop/
Documents/
Downloads/

tar command options

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Read More creating secret website


using Apache server in RHEL 7

-c = create
-z = gzip type file
-v = verbose
-f = file
-x = extract

[root@ArkIT ~]# tar -xvf


test.tar.gz

23. Connecting to
remote host using
secure shell
In regular times we use this
command to connect remote Linux
based host. To connect remote host
using root user we have to use
below command.

[root@ArkIT ~]# ssh


root@192.168.4.21

Above comand will not support GUI

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to connect remote host using GUI


support, we have to use below
command

[root@ArkIT ~]# ssh -XY


root@192.168.4.21

24. Securely copy


the files and
directories to
remote host
To copy the files from present host
to remote host we have to use scp
command

[root@ArkIT ~]# scp


anaconda-ks.cfg
root@192.168.4.21:/root
/Desktop/

25. cheeking
system Date and
Time
To check system Date and Time we
have to use date command

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[root@ArkIT ~]# date


Sat May 7 14:18:32 IST
2016

[root@ArkIT ~]# date


+%D:%M:%Y
05/07/16:18:2016

Thats it. 25 most commonly used


Linux commands 25 most commonly
used Linux commands 25 most
commonly used Linux commands 25
most commonly used Linux
commands 25 most commonly used
Linux commands

25 most commonly
used Linux
commands
Conclusion::
In this article we
learnedcat,ls,pwd,more,cp,rm,mv,mkdir,cd,rmdir,lpr,who,
commands.

Please provide your valuable feedback


on the same 25 most commonly used
Linux commands 25 most commonly
used Linux commands 25 most
commonly used Linux commands 25
most commonly used Linux
commands 25 most commonly used

26 of 32 2/28/2017 5:48 PM
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Linux commands 25 most commonly


used Linux commands 25 most
commonly used Linux commands 25
most commonly used Linux
commands 25 most commonly used
Linux commands 25 most commonly
used Linux commands 25 most
commonly used Linux commands 25
most commonly used Linux
commands 25 most commonly used
Linux commands 25 most commonly
used Linux commands 25 most
commonly used Linux commands

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ARK
My Name is ARK. Expert in
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