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Short review of following features:

LTE10, LTE11, LTE571

Nidia Couto - nidia.couto@nsn.com


The latest version of this NEI can be found here

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1 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Main Menu

LTE10 - EPS bearers for conversational voice

LTE11 - Robust Header Compression

LTE571 - Controlled UL packet segmentation

For internal use


5 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Main Menu
RL20 - LTE10 - EPS bearers for conversational voice
Table of Contents

Introduction
1 Motivation and Feature Overview

Configuration Management
4 Parameters
Interdependencies
2 Interdependencies with Other Features and Functions
Dimensioning Aspects
5 Dimensioning Impacts and Examples
Technical Details
3 Functionality and Implementation, Message Flows
Performance Aspects
6 Counters and KPIs

NEI Contact: Nidia Couto / Dawid Czarnecki

For internal use


10 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Technical Details Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE10 - EPS bearers for conversational voice - IMS signaling

IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem


IP Multimedia Subsystem is an access-independent architecture that enables various types of multimedia services
to mobile-users using common Internet-based protocols.

Two new QCI bearers:


QCI1 bearer for transmission of voice packets
QCI5 bearer dedicated for IMS signaling
O&M switch (schedulType) allows to define whether QCI5 bearer carries IMS signaling or not
If IMS signaling is not specified for QCI5, the bearer is weighted according to QCI-specific relative weight (schedulWeight on
qciTab5)

If schedulType is not
set for signaling,
QCI5 is weighted as a
regular bearer

For internal use


14 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Technical Details Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE10 - EPS bearers for conversational voice Impacts on RRM

To ensure QoS for voice calls, both target bit rate and delay have to be maintained
The Flexi BTS takes the GBR signaled via S1 interface into account for Radio Resource Management (Admission
Control and Scheduler).
The maximum GBR for EPS bearers with QCI 1 is limited by qci1GbrLimit (default: 250kbps). EPS bearers with GBR value
higher than this will be rejected by eNB.

Admission Control
Due to QoS restrictions, two new thresholds for GBR bearers are introduced to radio admission control
GBR threshold for new calls: maxNumQci1Drb
GBR threshold for incoming calls: addNumQci1DrbRadioReasHo, addNumQci1DrbTimeCriticalHo

Scheduler
Dynamic scheduling is applied for EPS bearers with QCI 1
The uplink and downlink scheduler use the GBR delay budget for its scheduling decisions. The delay budget can
be configured by the operator (delayTarget, schedulBSD, schedulWeight)
Non-GBR data transmission might be reduced in order to achieve the GBR for voice users
Voice service (as based on GBR bearers) is not subjected to rate capping functions

For internal use


15 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Configuration Management Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE10 Parameters related to Radio Admission Control

O&M thresholds for RAC interaction with BM and MM for 10 MHz*


Modifiable
MOC Abbreviated name Values Description
by
range: 0-400, step: 1
LNCEL Operator maxNumQci1Drb Threshold for the maximum number of established QCI1-GBR-DRBs in the cell
default: 100 (for 10MHz band)
Additional margin for the maximum number of active GBRs in the cell accessing the cell
range: 0-400, step: 1
LNCEL Operator addNumQci1DrbRadioReasHo via handover with HO-cause "HO desirable for radio reasons". This margin is added to the
default: 15 (for 10MHz band)
threshold maxNumQci1Drb.
Additional margin for the maximum number of active GBRs in the cell accessing the cell
range: 0-400, step: 1
LNCEL Operator addNumQci1DrbTimeCriticalHo via hand over with HO-cause: "Time Critical HO". This margin is added to the threshold
default: 20 (for 10MHz band)
maxNumQci1Drb.

QCI1-specific Carrier BW 20 MHz 15 MHz 10 MHz 5 MHz


parameters for different max PRBs 100 PRBs 75 PRBs 50 PRBs 25 PRBs

bandwidths 19 17 10 8
used PRBs for UL-signaling (PUCCH) see RRM.2691 see RRM.2691 see RRM.2691 see RRM.2691
range, default range, default range, default range, default
Parameter step size value step size value step size value step size value
Values for RL40. For earlier 0600 0500 0400 0200
releases the number of QCI1 maxNumQci1Drb 100 100 100 75
step 1 step 1 step 1 step 1
DRBs is limited to 150 in
0600 0500 0400 0200
5MHz and 200 in other BWs. addNumQci1DrbRadioReasHo
step 1
40
step 1
30
step 1
15
step 1
15

0600 0500 0400 0200


addNumQci1DrbTimeCriticalHo 40 30 20 15
step 1 step 1 step 1 step 1

For internal use


18 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
LTE10 Coverage Aspects Table of Contents Main Menu
No impact on coverage Using retransmissions, HARQ gain can bring ~5dB improvement in LiBu

GSM/LTE RF sharing at 1800 MHz

Only UL considered (limiting link)


Short retransmission delay in LTE allows for several
HARQ retransmissions within acceptable delay budget
(50..70ms total packet delay at the air interface)
With the cost of reducing capacity as each retransmission
will require a new scheduler allocation.
Lowering AMR codec rate will also increase the cell range

Results slightly worse than GSM


(7dBm higher power).
Further improvement can be achieved after
considering the gains of packet segmentation
and TTI bundling in future releases.

Gain from RoHC already included in the calculations

For internal use


21 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
LTE10 Capacity Aspects Table of Contents Main Menu
No impact on Cell Throughput Number of UEs limited due to PDCCH resources

VoIP capacity example:

Assumptions
VoIP codec AMR12.2
10MHz BW
3 PDCCH symbols
PDCCH Alpha = 0.8

Due to the big number of small packets being sent, the


bottleneck for VoIP users is not on on U-Plane, but on C- HARQ Gain
Plane (3 retransmissions)
Each allocation requires a PDDCH grant
For non cell edge users, grants can be reduced by
aggregating multiple packets (max 3, subjected to delay
target) and sending them all at once
For user at the cell edge, each retransmission requires a
separate PDCCH grant, reducing the number of supported
users

Although more retransmissions improve


robustness and coverage, increased PDCCH
usage may lead to VoIP capacity degradation.

Such calculations can be performed


using RANdim tool. For more details,
For internal use please refer to slide 10 in RANdim
Introduction
22 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Main Menu
RL20 - LTE11 - Robust Header Compression
Table of Contents

Introduction
1 Motivation and Feature Overview

Configuration Management
4 Parameters
Interdependencies
2 Interdependencies with Other Features and Functions

Benefits and Gains


5 Simulation, Lab and Field Findings
Technical Details
3 Functionality and Implementation, Message Flows

Dimensioning Aspects
6 Dimensioning Impacts and Examples

NEI Contact: Nidia Couto / Dawid Czarnecki

For internal use


27 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Introduction Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE11 - Robust Header Compression

The robust header compression (RoHC) function compresses the header of IP packets for the EPS
bearer with QCI 1
RoHC is supported for IPv4 and IPv6. 320bits

The following RoHC profiles are supported (3GPP R8):


ROHC uncompressed (RFC 4995)
ROHC RTP (RFC 3095, RFC 4815)
ROHC UDP (RFC 3095, RFC 4815)
Those RoHC profiles must be supported by all IMS-voice
capable UEs (3GPP TS 36.306) 24bits 40bits 244bits

Operation takes place between 3rd and 2nd OSI layer

For internal use


28 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Technical Details Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE11 - Robust Header Compression Exemplification

Uncompressed transmission Compressed transmission

IP/UDP/RTP header MAC header, RLC header, Initial transmission, context is


consisting of predictable and VoIP payload, CRC from now on initialized so that next
unpredictable fields - checksum - not subjected assume Destination transmissions can be
subjected to compression to compression IP is 10.0.0.10 compressed

10.0.0.10 6 10.0.0.10 x 6

10.0.0.10 3 3

10.0.0.10 7 7

10.0.0.10 0 0

10.0.0.10 1 1

10.0.0.10 8 8

Context - information about all


In the course of transmission
Field predictable in the fields that are predictable and
header fields initialized in
course of transmission their change patterns sent in the
Unpredictable field context do not have to be
Destination IP beginning of transmission to
transmitted
allow header compression

For internal use


33 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
Benefits and Gains Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE11 - Robust Header Compression Exemplary Call

10 minutes of 12.2 kbps AMR coded VoIP call with talk spurt/silent period alternating every 1 second
(SID packets excluded)

ROHC header type Field description ROHC header bits Samples Samples [%]
IR To initialize the context of the decompressor 504 8 0,01%
IR-DYN To initialize the dynamic part of the context 120 1500 1,00%

R-0 To signal 6 LSBs of RTP Sequence Number 24 118961 79,31%

R-0-CRC To update reference value of RTP SN 32 17625 11,75%

R-2 To signal more LSBs of the RTP SN 40 6000 4,00%

R-2-Ext3 Sent when compressor does not receive ACK for R-0-CRC 56 1500 1,00%

R-0-ACK Used by decompressor to acknowledge received R-0-CRC or R-2-Ext3 packets 40 4406 2,94%

TOTAL 150000 100,00%

Uncompressed header volume Compressed header volume


IPv4/UDP/RTP packet overhead is 40 bytes RoHC headers sizes are given in the table
15000 packets x 40B x 8b = 4.8 x 107 bits 504 x 8 + 120 x 1500 + + 40 x 4406 = 4.1 x 106 bits

For this exemplary transmission, the overhead is reduced by 91.5%


Source:

For internal use


39 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Representative transmission Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE11 - Robust Header Compression

RoHC Header Size Distribution


100%
100% 98%
95%
80% 98% of RoHC
headers size is
60% 90% smaller or equal to
PDF

40 bits

CDF
40% 85%

20%
80%

0%
504 120 24 32 40 56 40 75%
RoHC header size [bits] 24 32 40 56 120 504

RoHC header size [bits]

For link budget purposes RoHC header size is assumed to


be 40 bits

For internal use


40 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Dimensioning Aspects Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE11 - Robust Header Compression Impact on Coverage

RL20@10MHz(12.2 kbps, no RoHC) RL20@10MHz(12.2 kbps, RoHC)


Enhanced Pedestrian A 5Hz (EPA05) Enhanced Pedestrian A 5Hz (EPA05)
Equipment parameters: Equipment parameters:
Tx Power: eNB 40W / UE 23 dBm Tx Power: eNB 40W / UE 23 dBm
Antenna Gain: eNB 18 dBi / UE 0 dBi Antenna Gain: eNB 18 dBi / UE 0 dBi
Feeder Loss: DL 0.4 dB / UL 0.4 dB (feederless) Feeder Loss: DL 0.4 dB / UL 0.4 dB (feederless)
Noise Figure: eNB 2.2 dB / UE 7 dB Noise Figure: eNB 2.2 dB / UE 7 dB
Other features: Other features:
eNB: 2 Tx antennas, 2 Rx antennas (2x2 MIMO) eNB: 2 Tx antennas, 2 Rx antennas (2x2 MIMO)
UE: 1 Tx antenna, 2 Rx antennas (MRC) UE: 1 Tx antenna, 2 Rx antennas (MRC)
DL F-domain Scheduler: channel-aware DL F-domain Scheduler: channel-aware
UL F-domain Scheduler: channel-unaware UL F-domain Scheduler: channel-unaware
Additional margins: Additional margins:
Interference margin for 50% load (~12dB) Interference margin for 50% load (~12dB)
2.5 dB gain against shadowing 2.5 dB gain against shadowing
IP/UDP/RTP header - 320 bits RoHC header - 40 bits
TTI bundling off TTI bundling - off

DL 171 dB* UL 150 dB* DL 171.5 dB* UL 153 dB*


Propagation
Operating Band COST 231 Hata 2-slope propagation model with
FD-LTE: 2100 MHz Antenna height NB: 30m
Antenna height MS: 1.5m
Clutter dependent figures (Dense Urban / Urban / Suburban / Rural)
3dB gain due to less bandwidth needed Std. dev.: 9 / 8 / 8 / 7 [dB]
per user (lower MCS used) Cell area prob.: 94.4 / 94.0 / 94.0 / 89.9 [%]

* Max allowable path loss (clutter not considered, only system gains/losses)
For internal use
41 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Main Menu
RL30 - LTE571 - Controlled UL packet segmentation
Table of Contents

Introduction
1 Motivation and Feature Overview

Interdependencies
2 Interdependencies with Other Features and Functions

Configuration Management
4 Parameters
Technical Details
3 Functionality and Implementation, Message Flows

Dimensioning Aspects
5 Dimensioning Impacts and Examples

NEI Contact: Nidia Couto / Dawid Czarnecki

For internal use


45 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Introduction Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE571 - Controlled UL packet segmentation

Packet Segmentation Algorithm is used as an extension to RLC


16b
MAC
Link Adaptation for Uplink coverage improvement
Higher
The enhancement in coverage comes at the cost of cell overhead
1/2 2/2

throughput RLC RLC


16b
Due to increased number of time allocations per packet, L2
SDU
MAC MAC
PDCCH load also increases 304b
Packet L2 L2
segmentation
SDU SDU
Packet segmentation is not an event-triggered mechanism, it 152b 152b
is done automatically and only for UEs with poor radio
channel Padding Padding Padding
LTE571 is simply an enhancement to the existing, non-
configurable packet segmentation mechanism on Layer 2 m m+1 TTIs m m+1 m+2 TTIs

Total energy per Total energy per


packet = packet =
22.67dBm 25.37dBm

Increased robustness by
spreading the packet in
time domain

For internal use


46 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Packet Segmentation when LTE571 is disabled Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE571 - Controlled UL packet segmentation

What happens with allocation when UE conditions are getting worse


Assumptions
(LTE571 disabled) RLC SDU size = 304 bits
1. Initially user is in good radio conditions so theres no need for segmentation. It occupies RLC + MAC header = 16 bits
the minimum number of PRBs needed to transmit its data with given MCS
2. As radio conditions worsen, AMC decreases MCS order and, consequently, more PRBs Without LTE571, allocation
are occupied of single PRB is allowed.
3. MAX_NUM_PRB (from ATB) is reached and whole packet can no longer be sent at once This way only headers are
transmitted
4. Packet is segmented. Original packet size is split into 2 packets (240b and 64b plus MAX_NUM_PRB
header). First part is sent with limit from ATB (256b TBS), second part with the lowest NPRB (from ATB)
possible number of PRBs to ensure transport of 80b packet (144b TBS, remaining filled ITBS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
with padding).
0 16 32 56 88 120 152 176 208
5. As radio conditions worsen MCS order drops (AMC) and PRB usage increases
1 24 56 88 144 176 208 224 256
6. Further increase of #PRBs not possible - MAX_NUM_PRB (from ATB) would be
exceeded. Segmentation needed. 2 32 72 144 176 208 256 296 328
Worsening radio conditions
7. Packet is segmented again 304 bits are distributed into 3 3 40 104 176 208 256 328 392 440

segments (2 segments of 152b and 1 segment of 56b). 1 segment 4 56 120 208 256 328 408 488 552

8. As MCS cannot be further decreased, ATB has to reduce the 2 segments 5 72 144 224 328 424 504 600 680
MAX_NUM_PRB
number of PRBs, increasing segmentation 3 segments 6 88 176 256 392 504 600 712 808
(from ATB)
9. Packet will be segmented as much as needed to fit into the 5 segments 7 104 224 328 472 584 712 840 968

available allocation. 8 segments 8 120 256 392 536 680 808 968 1096

10. Once MAX_NUM_PRB is reduced to 1, UE will send only 19 segments 9 136 296 456 616 776 936 1096 1256

RLC+MAC headers and no data headers only 10 144 328 504 680 872 1032 1224 1384

For internal use


49 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Packet Segmentation when LTE571 is enabled Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE571 - Controlled UL packet segmentation

What happens with allocation when UE conditions are getting worse


(LTE571 enabled) Assumptions
1. Initially user is in good radio conditions so theres no need for segmentation. It occupies RLC SDU size = 304 bits
the minimum number of PRBs needed to transmit its data with given MCS RLC + MAC header= 16 bits
2. As radio conditions worsen, AMC decreases MCS order and, consequently, more PRBs
are occupied LTE571 stablishes a
New parameters introduced
minimum TBS and PRB
3. MAX_NUM_PRB (from ATB) is reached and whole packet can no longer be sent at once
number to control generated ulsMinTbs = 72 bits
4. Packet is segmented. Original packet size is split into 2 packets (240b and 64b plus overhead ulsMinRbPerUe = 4
header). First part is sent with limit from ATB (256b TBS), second part with the lowest MAX_NUM_PRB
possible number of PRBs to ensure transport of 80b packet (144b TBS, remaining filled NPRB (from ATB)
with padding). ITBS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
5. As radio conditions worsen MCS order drops (AMC) and PRB usage increases 0 16 32 56 88 120 152 176 208
6. Further increase of #PRBs not possible - MAX_NUM_PRB (from ATB) would be 1 24 56 88 144 176 208 224 256
exceeded. Segmentation needed.
2 32 72 144 176 208 256 296 328
7. Packet is segmented again 304 bits are distributed into 3 segments (2 segments of 152b
3 40 104 176 208 256 328 392 440
and 1 segment of 88b). 40b padding need to be added to fulfill ulsMinTbs.
4 56 120 208 256 328 408 488 552
8. As MCS cannot be further decreased, ATB has to reduce the
5 72 144 224 328 424 504 600 680
number of PRBs, increasing segmentation Worsening radio conditions MAX_NUM_PRB
6 88 176 256 392 504 600 712 808
9. Once the minimum number of PRBs is reached (from ATB)
(ulsMinRbPerUe > MAX_NUM_PRB), no further 1 segment 7 104 224 328 472 584 712 840 968
2 segments 8 120 256 392 536 680 808 968 1096
segmentation is possible, even if MAX_NUM_PRB is
3 segments 9 136 296 456 616 776 936 1096 1256
reduced.
5 segments 10 144 328 504 680 872 1032 1224 1384
10. UE will keep been allocated ulsMinRbPerUe and sending
at least ulsMinTbs bits of data
For internal use
50 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
PRB assignment New condition introduced Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE571 - Controlled UL packet segmentation
If LTE571 is enabled, PRB allocation is
limited by ulsMinRBPerUe, whenver
IF ulsMinRbPerUe >= MAX_NUM_PRB : MAX_NUM_PRB is too small

Minimum number of
PRBs per UE
(LTE571)
PRBUE = max( redBwMinRbUl, PRB_ulsMinTbs, ulsMinRbPerUe)
Without LTE571 upper limit for PRB
Number of PRBs based on allocation is always coming from ATB
min TBS and MCS order (MAX_NUM_PRB)
(LTE571)
Without
ELSE: LTE571
Ordinary Scheduled UEs

max(redBwMinRbUl, PRB_ulsMinTbs)
redBwMinRbUl <= PRBUE <=<=min(redBwMaxRbUl,
PRBUE <= min(redBwMaxRbUl, PRBBSR, MAX_NUM_PRB)
PRBBSR, MAX_NUM_PRB)

Candidate Set 3 UEs

max(redBwMinRbUl, PRB_ulsMinTbs)
redBwMinRbUl<= PRBUE <=<= PRBUE <= min(redBwMaxRbUl,
min(redBwMaxRbUl, MAX_NUM_PRB)
MAX_NUM_PRB)

UEs having Scheduling Request scheduled

max(redBwMinRbUl, PRB_ulsMinTbs)
redBwMinRbUl<= PRBUE <=<= PRBUE <= min(redBwMaxRbUl,
min(redBwMaxRbUl, MAX_#_PRB_SR,
MAX_#_PRB_SR, MAX_NUM_PRB)
MAX_NUM_PRB)

Number of PRBs based on


min TBS and MCS order
(LTE571)

redBwMinRbUl - Minimum number of PRBs assigned in UL


redBwMaxRbUl - Maximum number of PRBs assigned to a UE scheduled in UL
PRBBSR - Number of PRBs that allows to transmit all the data from the buffer
For internal use
MAX_#_PRB_SR - Maximum number of PRBs that can be granted to UEs having SR to be sent
51 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
MAX_NUM_PRB - Maximum number of PRBs specified by the AMC / slow ATB
Dimensioning Aspects Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE571 - Controlled UL packet segmentation Coverage Gain

Assumptions
Sending packet segments in consecutive TTIs allows more energy per voice packet to be ulsMinTbs = 72 bits
aggregated, increasing coverage minRbPerUe = 4
The coverage gain achieved with packet segmentations grows with each segmentation VoIP codec = AMR12.2
operation, as well as L2 overhead UE Tx power = 23dBm

However the gain does not grow linearly, the smaller the segment, the lower the gain

Depending on E-ULLA settings and the desired


configuration, ulsMinRBPerUe and ulsMinTbs
have to be set accordingly

Packet segmentation can provide up to ~5 dB


coverage gain (by sacrificing capacity)
Real gains will depend on used codec, Link
Adaptation settings and number of segmentations

Simulations performed by System Architecture


suggest following values as most optimized*:
ulsMinRBPerUe = 3
ulsMinTbs = 104
*Current default values

For internal use


53 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012
Dimensioning Aspects Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE571 - Controlled UL packet segmentation Capacity Loss

Assumptions*
Since the maximum number of supported VoIP users depends ulsMinTbs = 72 bits
mostly on PDCCH resources, it significantly drops with the increase minRbPerUe = 4
of segmentation order VoIP codec = AMR12.2
UE Tx power = 23dBm
Each segment (and HARQ retransmission) will require a new PDCCH 10 MHz Bandwidth
allocation and a new PHICH in DL (for transmission of ACKs/NACKs *Same example from previous slide
per segment).
Gain provided by packet segmentation comes
The higher the achieved coverage gain, the greater is the capacity at the cost of the cell capacity
loss, which is why the most robust configurations are generally not
used

For internal use


54 Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 MBB CS Network Engineering / Nidia Couto / 30-06-2012