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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Fundamentals Carrier Ethernet Carrier Ethernet Key Attributes


of Services over Services over Components of
Carrier Ethernet Transport Access of Carrier Ethernet
Technologies Technologies Carrier Ethernet Services

MEF Certification Typical Target Positioning of Synchronization Carrier Ethernet


of Applications for Carrier Ethernet over Service OAM
Carrier Ethernet Carrier Ethernet with other Carrier Ethernet &
Services Services Technologies Circuit Emulation

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Carrier Ethernet Professionals are turning
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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Fundamentals of Carrier Ethernet In this Section

1 Fundamentals of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 1
1.1 Carrier Ethernet and LAN
Introduction Ethernet

1.2 Carrier Ethernet Service Types


This first section in the MEF-CECP Study Guide describes the differences
between the familiar Ethernet LAN that has been in use for over 30 years and 1.3 Virtual Service and Private
Service
Carrier Ethernet as defined by the MEF over the last 10 years.

The fundamental concepts of Carrier Ethernet, Carrier Ethernet services and Download PDF
services types (E-Line, E-LAN and E-Tree) are introduced as well as the
concepts of private and virtual Carrier Ethernet services.
Download a pdf for
offline viewing.

Reference Documents

MEF 6.1

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

1 Services Definitions

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MEF-CECP Study Guide

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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2 2.1 Transport Technologies

Carrier Ethernet services are designed to be delivered over all deployed 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport
technologies
transport infrastructures. This section explains the capabilities and relative
advantages of each transport technology in order to deploy a given Carrier 2.1.1.1 Bridging

Ethernet service in the most effective way possible. 2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)

2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone


This section also explains about use of resilience and protection mechanisms Bridging (PBB)
within the underlying transport technology to maximize the resiliency of the
2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone
Carrier Ethernet service running over that technology. Bridging - Traffic Engineering
(PBB-TE)
This material is not intended to promote a given transport technology since
the MEF defines Carrier Ethernet services without reference to a particular 2.1.2 MPLS based
standard or technology for the underlying transport. 2.1.2.1 VPWS

2.1.2.2 VPLS

2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP

2.1.3 Transparent Transport

2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH

2.1.3.2 OTN

2.1.3.3 WDM

2.2 Protection and Resiliency

Download PDF
Download a pdf for
offline viewing.

Reference Documents

IEEE 802.1Q-2009

IEEE 802.1ad-2005

IEEE 802.1ah

IEEE 802.1Qay

ITU-T G.8031

ITU-T G.8032

ITU-T Y.1415

RFC 4448

RFC 4761

RFC 5921

RFC 5960

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet


Services

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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Access In this Section


Technologies 3 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Access Technologies
Study Guide Section 3 3.1 Access Infrastructures

A key benefit of Carrier Ethernet is its ability to provide consistent, cost- 3.1.1 HFC (DOCSIS)
efficient, high-performance services delivered to users who are connected 3.1.2 PON
over the widest variety of access networks in any location. 3.1.3 Packet Radio

All the access infrastructures described in this section have significant 3.1.4 PDH

advantages depending on the range, bandwidth requirements, infrastructure 3.1.5 Fiber


availability and other capabilities required for delivery of the E-Line, E-LAN, 3.1.6 Bonded Copper
E-Tree or E-Access service. In fact, in many instances, Service Providers will
3.2 Comparisons
use a combination of several access technologies to their Subscriber's various
3.3 Examples
sites in order to complete the solution for the customer.

This section highlights the relative capabilities of each access technology so Download PDF
that both Subscribers and Service Providers can understand better how to
request and implement Carrier Ethernet services.
Download a pdf for
offline viewing.

Reference Documents

MEF Reference Presentation: Access


Technologies

MEF White Paper: Access


Technologies

IEEE 802.3
IEEE 802.16

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

3 Carrier Ethernet Access


Technologies

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MEF-CECP Study Guide

Study Guide Test Objectives References MEF Glossary MEF Diagrams


Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Key Components of Carrier Ethernet In this Section

4 Key Components of Carrier


Study Guide Section 4 Ethernet

This section describes the basic constructs and definitions of Ethernet services 4.1 Subscribers, Service Providers
and Operators
including the following:
4.2 EVC, OVC, UNI, ENNI and CEN
Subscriber (MEN)
Service Provider 4.3 Service Models
Operator
Carrier Ethernet Network (CEN) Download PDF
User Network Interface (UNI)
External Network to Network Interface (ENNI)
Ethernet Virtual Circuit (EVC) Download a pdf for
Operator Virtual Circuit (OVC) offline viewing.

Reference Documents

MEF 10.2

MEF 13

MEF 26.1

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

4 Components of Carrier Ethernet

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MEF-CECP Study Guide

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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Attributes of Carrier Ethernet Services In this Section

5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 5 Services

The Carrier Ethernet Service Definition Framework provides a model for 5.1
specifying Carrier Ethernet services. Carrier Ethernet Service types are generic 5.2 UNI Attributes
constructs used to create a broad range of services. Each Carrier Ethernet 5.3 EVC per UNI Attributes
service type has a set of Carrier Ethernet service attributes that define the
5.4 EVC Attributes
service characteristics. These Ethernet Service Attributes in turn have a set of
parameters associated with them that provide various options for the 5.4.1 L2CP per MEF 6.1.1

different service attributes as shown in the following figure: 5.5 ENNI Attributes

5.6 OVC Attributes

5.6.1 Hairpin switching

5.7 OVC End Point per ENNI


Attributes

5.8 Bandwidth Profiles

5.9
Figure 5.F1 - Type-Attribute-Attribute Parameter
[Source: MEF 6.1, figure 1] 5.10 EVC Performance Attributes

MEF 6.1 defines three Ethernet Service type generic constructs:


Download PDF
Ethernet Line (E-Line) Service type
Ethernet LAN (E-LAN) Service type
Ethernet Tree (E-Tree) Service type Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
MEF 6.1 also defines the associated service attributes and parameters for each
service type. The key differentiator is the type of connectivity provided, as
indicated by the EVC Type' service attribute. The UNI and EVC service
attributes and parameters are normatively defined in MEF 10.2. Reference Documents
The subsections of this part of the Study Guide describe each attribute type MEF 6.1
and explain how they are used to create the various Carrier Ethernet services. MEF 10.2

MEF 13

MEF 20

MEF 26.1

IEEE 802.1AX

IEEE 802.3 clause 43

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

5 Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC


Service Attributes

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MEF-CECP Study Guide

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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

MEF Certification of Carrier Ethernet In this Section


Services 6 MEF Certification of Carrier
Ethernet
Study Guide Section 6 6.1 Purpose of Certification

Introduction 6.2 Definitions, IAs, ATSs, Test


Plans
The MEF is the only industry body offering certification of Carrier Ethernet 6.3 Testing and Certification Process
services for service providers and equipment vendors. This certification is
6.4 Certification for SPs
proof that a Carrier Ethernet service, or equipment used to deliver a Carrier
Ethernet service, has been tested successfully for compliance with the 6.5 Certification for Vendors

relevant MEF specifications.


Download PDF
This section describes the:-

Purpose of MEF Certification


Download a pdf for
Development of MEF Technical Specifications, Implementation offline viewing.
Agreements, Abstract Test Suites and from there test plans that are
used in the testing process
Testing and certification process itself
Range of certifications available for Service Providers and Equipment Reference Documents
Vendors

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

6 MEF Certification

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MEF-CECP Study Guide

Study Guide Test Objectives References MEF Glossary MEF Diagrams


Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Typical Target Applications Using Carrier In this Section


Ethernet Services 7 Typical Applications Using Carrier
Ethernet Services
Study Guide Section 7 7.1 Access to IP Services

This section of the MEF-CECP Study Guide explains which aspects of Carrier 7.2 Wholesale Access Services
Ethernet need to be taken into account when running popular applications. 7.3 Mobile Backhaul
This is not an exhaustive list but does provide examples of the main factors 7.3.1 EVPL in Mobile Backhaul
relevant for different applications.
7.3.2 MEF 22 Use Cases

Section 7.1: Access to IP Services 7.4 Business Services


Popular application for enterprises using Carrier Ethernet to obtain services 7.5 TDM Private Line Replacement
from ISPs
7.6 Frame Relay/ATM Replacement
Section 7.2: Wholesale Access Services 7.7 WDM Private Network
Operators providing Carrier Ethernet services to service providers in order to Replacement

extend the coverage of the latter's footprint


Download PDF
Section 7.3: Mobile Backhaul
Using Carrier Ethernet for backhauling cell towers

Section 7.4: Business Services Download a pdf for


offline viewing.
Enterprises using Carrier Ethernet services to provide data connectivity
between 2 or more of their sites

Section 7.5: TDM Private Line Replacement


Carrier Ethernet services used to replace T1/E1 and other TDM legacy services Reference Documents

Section 7.6: Frame Relay/ATM Replacement MEF 6.1


Carrier Ethernet services used to replace Frame Relay and/or ATM network
MEF 8
infrastructure
MEF 10.2
Section 7.7: WDM Private Network Replacement
MEF 26.1
Carrier Ethernet services used instead of WDM connections
MEF 28
MEF Reference Presentation: Access
Technologies

MEF Reference Presentation: Mobile


Backhaul

MEF White Paper: CESoE

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

7 Target Applications for Carrier


Ethernet Services

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MEF-CECP Study Guide

Study Guide Test Objectives References MEF Glossary MEF Diagrams


Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Positioning of Carrier Ethernet with other In this Section


technologies 8 Positioning of Carrier Ethernet
with other technologies
Study Guide Section 8 8.1 Carrier Ethernet and L2VPN

Carrier Ethernet vs L2VPN, IP and TDM 8.2 Carrier Ethernet and IP

8.3 Carrier Ethernet and TDM


This section provides information on L2VPN, IP and TDM service solutions
comparable to Carrier Ethernet in terms of the differences between these
Download PDF
solutions and Carrier Ethernet. In addition, information is provided on ways to
achieve a comparable service over a Carrier Ethernet Network (CEN).

Download a pdf for


offline viewing.

Reference Documents

MEF 6.1

MEF 8

MEF 10.2

MEF 22.1

MEF White Paper: CESoE

IETF RFC 4448

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

8 Comparing and Positioning Carrier


Ethernet Services
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MEF-CECP Study Guide

Study Guide Test Objectives References MEF Glossary MEF Diagrams


Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9 < br/>

Circuit Emulation Service over Ethernet (CESoETH) is a technology that enables 9.1 Purpose and Need
transport of TDM services over a Carrier Ethernet Network (CEN) as well as 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
enabling packet-based clock synchronization over a CEN.
9.1.2 MEF 8 model

CESoETH is specified in MEF 8 "Implementation Agreement for the Emulation of < br/>
PDH Circuits over Metro Ethernet Networks".
9.2 CES Components

MEF 8 gives precise instructions for implementing interoperable CES solutions 9.2.1 Interface to Customer
that reliably transport TDM circuits across CENs while meeting the required 9.2.2 Generic Interworking
performance of circuit emulated TDM services as defined in ITU-T and ANSI Function (GIWF)
TDM standards. 9.2.3 Functional Layering

< br/>
This section:-
9.3 Service Definitions
Explains the concept of emulated TDM circuits over Ethernet
9.3.1 E-Line
Presents the MEF 8 model
9.3.2 UNI Attributes
Details the components required for the service
Details the specific UNI and EVC attributes of CES over Ethernet 9.3.3 EVC Attributes
Explains the concept of packet-based sychronization and its 9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes
implementation over Carrier Ethernet
< br/>

9.4 Synchronization

9.4.1 Packet Based


Synchronization Methods

9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery

9.4.1.2 NTP
9.4.1.3 1588 v2

9.4.2 SyncE

Download PDF

Download a pdf for


offline viewing.

Reference Documents

MEF 8

MEF 22.1

MEF Reference Presentation: Access


Technologies

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

9 CES over Ethernet

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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Service Operations, In this Section


Administration and Maintenance 10 Carrier Ethernet Service
Operations, Administration and
Study Guide Section 10 Maintenance

10.1 Relevant Standards


This section provides information about relevant standards, framework, fault
10.1.1 IEEE 802.1ag Overview
and performance management of Ethernet Service OAM.
10.1.2 Y.1731 Overview
< br/>
10.2 Framework

10.2.0 Domains

10.2.1 Constructs

10.2.1.1 MEP, MIP, MEG, MEG


Level

10.2.2 MEF 17

10.2.2.1 Model

10.2.2.2 Maintenance Entities

< br/>

10.3 Fault Management

10.3.1 Definition

10.3.2 Procedures

10.3.2.1 Continuity Check


Message

10.3.2.2 Loopback Message

10.3.2.3 Link Trace Message

< br/>
10.4 Performance Management

10.4.1 Definition

10.4.2 Procedures

10.4.2.0 Frame Delay

10.4.2.1 Delay Measurement


Message

10.4.2.2 Loss Measurement


Message

10.4.3 Computation Methods

10.4.3.0 Frame Delay

10.4.3.1 Inter-Frame Delay


Variation

10.4.3.2 Frame Loss Ratio

10.4.3.3 Availability

10.4.4 Measurement in E-Line, E-


LAN, E-Tree

< br/>

10.5 CoS Implementation


Agreement - MEF 23

10.5.1 Ethernet Network Section

10.5.2 CoS Label Model

10.5.3 Performance Parameters

< br/>

10.6 Performance Management


Implementation

10.6.1 Multi-CoS EVC

10.6.2 Relationship to Bandwidth


Profile

10.6.3 Interconnect via ENNI

Download PDF

Download a pdf for


offline viewing.

Reference Documents

MEF 10.2

MEF 17

MEF Reference Presentation:


Interconnect

ITU-T Y.1731

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

10 Service OAM
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MEF-CECP Study Guide

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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Disclaimer
This MEF Study Guide is designed to provide as much useful information as possible for those learning about MEF-
standardized Carrier Ethernet, and specifically for those individuals planning to take MEF Professional Certification exams
such as MEF-CECP. The MEF makes every effort to keep the MEF Study Guide as up to date and as comprehensive as
possible. However, the MEF disclaims all responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the MEF Study Guide and
disclaims all responsibility for any consequences whatsoever resulting from the use of the MEF Study Guide. Also, the MEF
does not provide any assurance that use of this MEF Study Guide will ensure that MEF-CECP examinees answer MEF-CECP
certification exams correctly or pass the exam.

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MEF-CECP Study Guide

Study Guide Test Objectives References MEF Glossary MEF Diagrams


Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

MEF-CECP Exam Objectives


MEF MEF IEEE ITU-T IETF
Objective Description
Specs Marketing Standards Standards RFC

Describe and distinguish


between the service
1.1 attributes of EPL, EVPL, EP- MEF 6.1
LAN, EVP-LAN, EP-Tree, and
EVP-Tree.

Describe how EPL, EVPL, EP-


LAN, EVP-LAN, EP-Tree, and
1.2 MEF 6.1
EVP-Tree are used to meet
various subscriber needs.

Describe the connectivity


properties of bridging,
provider bridging, provider
backbone bridging (PBB),
provider backbone bridging
with traffic engineering 802.1ah
4761
extensions (PBB-TE),
2.1 802.1Qay
Ethernet over SONET/SDH, 5921
Carrier Ethernet over MPLS 802.1ad-2005
VPWS, Carrier Ethernet over
MPLS VPLS, Carrier Ethernet
over MPLS TP, Carrier
Ethernet over OTN, and
Carrier Ethernet over WDM.

Describe the capabilities of


the bridging, provider
bridging, provider backbone
bridging (PBB), provider MEF White
backbone bridging with Paper:
4448
traffic engineering Ethernet
2.2 802.1ad-2005 Y.1415
extensions (PBB-TE), Services and 4761
SONET/SDH, MPLS VPWS, Access
MPLS VPLS, MPLS TP, OTN Technologies
and WDM with regards to
delivery of Carrier Ethernet
services.

Carrier
Describe the advantages of Ethernet 5921
2.4 specific Carrier Ethernet Access 802.1Q-2009
transport technologies. Reference 5960
Presentation

Mobile
G.8031
Describe service protection Backhaul
2.5 802.1Q-2009
mechanisms. Reference G.8032
Presentation

Describe the capabilities of


MEF White
Ethernet over PDH, Ethernet
Paper:
over bonded copper,
Ethernet
3.1 Ethernet over HFC, Ethernet
Services and
over packet radio, Ethernet
Access
over fiber and Ethernet over
Technologies
PON.

MEF White
Paper:
Compare and contrast
Ethernet
3.2 specific Carrier Ethernet
Services and
Access technologies.
Access
Technologies

Carrier
Ethernet
Access
Reference
Given a scenario, identify Presentation
which Carrier Ethernet 802.3-2005
3.3
Access Technology will meet MEF White 802.16-2009
the stated requirements. Paper:
Ethernet
Services and
Access
Technologies

Define Ethernet User-to-


Network Interface (UNI),
Ethernet External Network-
to-Network Interface MEF 10.2
4.1 (ENNI), Ethernet Virtual
Connection (EVC), Service MEF 26
Provider, Operator, and
Operator Virtual Connection
(OVC).

Describe the role of Ethernet


User-to-Network Interface
(UNI), Ethernet External
Network-to-Network
4.2 Interface (ENNI), Ethernet MEF 26
Virtual Connection (EVC),
Service Provider, Operator,
and Operator Virtual
Connection (OVC).

Define per UNI service


attributes (e.g., physical
MEF 10.2
interfaces, Frame format,
5.1
Ingress/egress Bandwidth MEF 20
Profiles, CE-VLAN ID/EVC
Map, UNI protection).

Define EVC per UNI service


MEF 6.1
attributes (e.g.
5.2
ingress/egress Bandwidth MEF 10.2
Profiles).

Define per EVC service


attributes (e.g., CE-VLAN ID
Preservation, CoS ID
Preservation, Relationship
5.3 MEF 10.2
between Service Level
Agreement and Service
Level Specification, Class of
Service).

Define OVC End Point per


ENNI service attributes
5.4 MEF 26
(e.g., ingress/egress
bandwidth profiles).

MEF 10.2
5.5 Describe bandwidth profiles.
MEF 26

Given a service scenario, MEF 6.1


describe relevant service
5.6 MEF 10.2
attribute
settings/parameters. MEF 26

Define and describe the


components of a Service
5.7 Level Specification and the MEF 10.2
relationship to Service Level
Agreement.

Define and describe ENNI


attributes (e.g., physical
interfaces, Frame format,
5.8 MEF 26
Ingress/egress Bandwidth
Profiles, End Point Map,
ENNI protection).

Define and describe OVC


attributes (e.g., CE-VLAN ID
Preservation, CoS ID
Preservation, Relationship
5.9 MEF 26
between Service Level
Agreement and Service
Level Specification, Class of
Service, hairpin switching).

Define and describe the MEF 20 802.1AX


5.10 Carrier Ethernet protection
mechanisms. MEF 26 802.3 clause 43

Describe the Certification


6.1 process and requirements
for networking equipment.

Describe the Certification


process and requirements
6.2
for services delivered by a
service provider

MEF 9
Describe what is covered by
6.3 MEF 9, MEF 14, and MEF 18 MEF 14
Certifications.
MEF 18

Describe the benefits of MEF


Certification for equipment
6.4
vendors, Service Provider,
and end users.

Carrier
Describe wholesale access
Ethernet
services, retail
Access
commercial/business
Reference
services, mobile backhaul
7.1 MEF 22 Presentation
services, Ethernet access to
IP services, and supporting
White Paper
legacy services over
Introduction
Ethernet.
to CESoE

Describe which UNI or ENNI


MEF 10.2
attribute values are selected
7.2
for a given target MEF 26
application.

Describe which EVC or OVC


MEF 10.2
attribute values are selected
7.3
for a given target MEF 26
application.

Describe how specific service


requirements of a target
application (e.g., frame
relay, Dedicated Internet MEF 6.1
7.4 Access, DSL or Cable
Internet access, TDM Private MEF 10.2
Lines, WDM private network
are met using Ethernet
services.

Mobile
Backhaul
Reference
Presentation
Given a scenario, determine MEF 6.1
7.5 appropriate Ethernet
Carrier
services. MEF 8
Ethernet
Access
Reference
Presentation

Compare and contrast


MEF 6.1 White Paper
Ethernet services with L2,
8.1 Introduction 4448
IP, and TDM private line MEF 8 to CESoE
services.
MEF 6.1
Given a scenario,
MEF 8
recommend an Ethernet
8.2
service to meet end user MEF 10.2
specifications.
MEF 22

Carrier
Define the purpose and need Ethernet
9.1 for Circuit Emulation over MEF 8 Access
Ethernet applications. Reference
Presentation

Carrier
Define the critical
Ethernet
components of circuit
9.2 MEF 8 Access
emulation over Ethernet
Reference
service.
Presentation

Define the MEF Service


9.3 Definitions used to deliver MEF 8
emulated circuits.

Define the EVC service


9.4 attributes required for MEF 8
emulated circuits.

Define the three techniques


and their uses for delivering
synchronized clock over
9.5 emulated circuits (e.g., MEF 22
Adaptive, 1588v2,
Synchronous Ethernet, NTP,
PTP).

Describe how circuit


9.6 emulation is used in Mobile MEF 22
Backhaul applications.

Describe the various


partitioning of
10.1 responsibilities for Service MEF 17
Operations Administration
and Maintenance (SOAM).

Describe the basic


10.2 mechanisms for fault MEF 17 Y.1731
management.

Global
Describe the basic MEF 10.2 Interconnect
10.3 mechanisms for performance Y.1731
Reference
management. MEF 17
Presentation

Describe the basic metrics MEF 6.1


10.4 for performance
management. MEF 10.2

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MEF-CECP Study Guide

Study Guide Test Objectives References MEF Glossary MEF Diagrams


Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Diagrams

Fundamentals Carrier Ethernet Carrier Ethernet Key


Attributes of
of Services over Services over Components of
Carrier Ethernet
Carrier Ethernet Transport Access Carrier Ethernet
Services
Technologies Technologies

MEF Certification Typical Target Positioning of Synchronization


Carrier Ethernet
of Applications for Carrier Ethernet over
Service OAM
Carrier Ethernet Carrier Ethernet with other Carrier Ethernet &
Services Services Technologies Circuit Emulation

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MEF-CECP Study Guide

Study Guide Test Objectives References MEF Glossary MEF Diagrams


Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

References
This page provides links to documents and associated links that are relevant for Carrier Ethernet study in general and
specifically for preparing for the MEF-CECP professional certification exam.

MEF Specifications MEF Specifications MEF Specifications


Service Definitions Service Attributes Service OAM
E-Line, E-LAN & E-Tree: EVC and UNI Requirements and Framework
MEF 6.1 MEF 10.2 Phase 1
MEF 17
ENNI Support for UTA and VUNI: OVC and ENNI
MEF 28 MEF 26.1

E-Access:
MEF 33

MEF Specifications MEF Specifications MEF White Papers


Implementation Abstract Test Suites
Agreements Ethernet Services and Access
Ethernet Services at the UNI Technologies
Emulation of PDH Circuits MEF 9
MEF 8 Introduction to CESoE
Traffic Management Phase 1
User Network Interface (Type 1) MEF 14
MEF 13
Circuit Emulation Services
UNI Type 2 MEF 18
MEF 20

Mobile Backhaul Phase 2


MEF 22.1

MEF Reference IEEE Standards ITU-T Recommendations


Presentations
Provider Bridges Ethernet-MPLS Interworking
802.1ad-2005 Y.1415
Carrier Ethernet and Access
Technologies Provider Backbone Bridges OAM Functions and Mechanisms
802.1ah-2008 Y.1731
Carrier Ethernet and Mobile
Link Aggregation Ethernet Protection Switching
Backhaul 802.1AX-2008 G.8031

Interconnect of Carrier Ethernet Virtual LANs Ethernet Ring Protection


Networks and Services 802.1Q-2005 Switching
G.8032
Provider Backbone Bridging -
Traffic Engineering (PBB-TE)
802.1Qay-2009

Ethernet
802.3-2005

Ethernet Link Aggregation


802.3 clause 43

Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile


Broadband Wireless Access
System
802.16-2009


IETF RFCs
Encapsulation Methods for
Transport of Ethernet over MPLS
RFC 4448

Virtual Private LAN Service


(VPLS) Using BGP for Auto-
Discovery and Signaling
RFC 4761

A Framework for MPLS in


Transport Networks
RFC 5921

MPLS Transport Profile Data


Plane Architecture
RFC 5960

Copyright 2011-2012 Metro Ethernet Forum Disclaimer Copyright 2011-2012 Ethernet Academy
Disclaimer
This MEF Study Guide is designed to provide as much useful information as possible for those learning about MEF-standardized Carrier
Ethernet, and specifically for those individuals planning to take MEF Professional Certification exams such as MEF-CECP.

The MEF makes every effort to keep the MEF Study Guide as up to date and as comprehensive as possible. However, the MEF disclaims
all responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the MEF Study Guide and disclaims all responsibility for any consequences
whatsoever resulting from the use of the MEF Study Guide.

Also, the MEF does not provide any assurance that use of this MEF Study Guide will ensure that MEF-CECP examinees answer MEF-CECP
certification exams correctly or pass the exam.

Continue toto Study


Continue Study Guide
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Carrier Ethernet Professionals are turning
to the MEF for information on the latest in
Carrier Ethernet standards development
and terminology. These professionals are
highly mobile and networked for their
work, so we at the MEF want to make our
materials as easy to access and review as
possible for professionals on the go!

MEF-CECP Exam Objectives

MEF MEF IEEE ITU-T IETF


Objective Description
Specs Marketing Standards Standards RFC

Describe and distinguish


between the service attributes
1.1 MEF 6.1
of EPL, EVPL, EP-LAN, EVP-
LAN, EP-Tree, and EVP-Tree.

Describe how EPL, EVPL, EP-


LAN, EVP-LAN, EP-Tree, and
1.2 MEF 6.1
EVP-Tree are used to meet
various subscriber needs.

Describe the connectivity


properties of bridging,
provider bridging, provider
backbone bridging (PBB),
provider backbone bridging
with traffic engineering 802.1ah
extensions (PBB-TE), Ethernet 4761
2.1 802.1Qay
over SONET/SDH, Carrier
5921
Ethernet over MPLS VPWS, 802.1ad-2005
Carrier Ethernet over MPLS
VPLS, Carrier Ethernet over
MPLS TP, Carrier Ethernet over
OTN, and Carrier Ethernet
over WDM.

Describe the capabilities of the


bridging, provider bridging,
provider backbone bridging MEF White
(PBB), provider backbone Paper:
bridging with traffic Ethernet 4448
2.2 802.1ad-2005 Y.1415
engineering extensions (PBB- Services and
4761
TE), SONET/SDH, MPLS VPWS, Access
MPLS VPLS, MPLS TP, OTN and Technologies
WDM with regards to delivery
of Carrier Ethernet services.

Carrier
Describe the advantages of Ethernet 5921
2.4 specific Carrier Ethernet Access 802.1Q-2009
transport technologies. Reference 5960
Presentation

Mobile
Describe service protection Backhaul G.8031
2.5 802.1Q-2009
mechanisms. Reference
G.8032
Presentation

Describe the capabilities of MEF White


Ethernet over PDH, Ethernet Paper:
over bonded copper, Ethernet Ethernet
3.1
over HFC, Ethernet over Services and
packet radio, Ethernet over Access
fiber and Ethernet over PON. Technologies

MEF White
Paper:
Compare and contrast specific
Ethernet
3.2 Carrier Ethernet Access
Services and
technologies.
Access
Technologies

Carrier
Ethernet
Access
Reference
Given a scenario, identify Presentation
which Carrier Ethernet Access 802.3-2005
3.3
Technology will meet the MEF White
802.16-2009
stated requirements. Paper:
Ethernet
Services and
Access
Technologies
Define Ethernet User-to-
Network Interface (UNI),
Ethernet External Network-to-
Network Interface (ENNI), MEF 10.2
4.1
Ethernet Virtual Connection
MEF 26
(EVC), Service Provider,
Operator, and Operator Virtual
Connection (OVC).

Describe the role of Ethernet


User-to-Network Interface
(UNI), Ethernet External
Network-to-Network Interface
4.2 (ENNI), Ethernet Virtual MEF 26
Connection (EVC), Service
Provider, Operator, and
Operator Virtual Connection
(OVC).

Define per UNI service


attributes (e.g., physical
interfaces, Frame format, MEF 10.2
5.1
Ingress/egress Bandwidth
MEF 20
Profiles, CE-VLAN ID/EVC Map,
UNI protection).

Define EVC per UNI service MEF 6.1


5.2 attributes (e.g. ingress/egress
Bandwidth Profiles). MEF 10.2

Define per EVC service


attributes (e.g., CE-VLAN ID
Preservation, CoS ID
Preservation, Relationship
5.3 MEF 10.2
between Service Level
Agreement and Service Level
Specification, Class of
Service).

Define OVC End Point per


ENNI service attributes (e.g.,
5.4 MEF 26
ingress/egress bandwidth
profiles).

MEF 10.2
5.5 Describe bandwidth profiles.
MEF 26
MEF 6.1
Given a service scenario,
5.6 describe relevant service MEF 10.2
attribute settings/parameters.
MEF 26

Define and describe the


components of a Service Level
5.7 Specification and the MEF 10.2
relationship to Service Level
Agreement.

Define and describe ENNI


attributes (e.g., physical
interfaces, Frame format,
5.8 MEF 26
Ingress/egress Bandwidth
Profiles, End Point Map, ENNI
protection).

Define and describe OVC


attributes (e.g., CE-VLAN ID
Preservation, CoS ID
Preservation, Relationship
5.9 MEF 26
between Service Level
Agreement and Service Level
Specification, Class of Service,
hairpin switching).

Define and describe the MEF 20 802.1AX


5.10 Carrier Ethernet protection
mechanisms. MEF 26 802.3 clause 43

Describe the Certification


6.1 process and requirements for
networking equipment.

Describe the Certification


process and requirements for
6.2
services delivered by a service
provider

MEF 9
Describe what is covered by
6.3 MEF 9, MEF 14, and MEF 18 MEF 14
Certifications.
MEF 18

Describe the benefits of MEF


Certification for equipment
6.4
vendors, Service Provider, and
end users.

Carrier
Describe wholesale access Ethernet
services, retail Access
commercial/business services, Reference
7.1 mobile backhaul services, MEF 22 Presentation
Ethernet access to IP services,
and supporting legacy services White Paper
over Ethernet. Introduction
to CESoE

Describe which UNI or ENNI MEF 10.2


7.2 attribute values are selected
for a given target application. MEF 26

Describe which EVC or OVC MEF 10.2


7.3 attribute values are selected
for a given target application. MEF 26

Describe how specific service


requirements of a target
application (e.g., frame relay,
Dedicated Internet Access, MEF 6.1
7.4
DSL or Cable Internet access,
MEF 10.2
TDM Private Lines, WDM
private network are met using
Ethernet services.

Mobile
Backhaul
Reference
Presentation
MEF 6.1
Given a scenario, determine
7.5
appropriate Ethernet services. Carrier
MEF 8
Ethernet
Access
Reference
Presentation

Compare and contrast MEF 6.1 White Paper


8.1 Ethernet services with L2, IP, Introduction 4448
and TDM private line services. MEF 8 to CESoE

MEF 6.1
Given a scenario, recommend MEF 8
8.2 an Ethernet service to meet
end user specifications. MEF 10.2

MEF 22

Carrier
Define the purpose and need Ethernet
9.1 for Circuit Emulation over MEF 8 Access
Ethernet applications. Reference
Presentation

Carrier
Define the critical components Ethernet
9.2 of circuit emulation over MEF 8 Access
Ethernet service. Reference
Presentation

Define the MEF Service


9.3 Definitions used to deliver MEF 8
emulated circuits.

Define the EVC service


9.4 attributes required for MEF 8
emulated circuits.

Define the three techniques


and their uses for delivering
synchronized clock over
9.5 emulated circuits (e.g., MEF 22
Adaptive, 1588v2,
Synchronous Ethernet, NTP,
PTP).

Describe how circuit emulation


9.6 is used in Mobile Backhaul MEF 22
applications.

Describe the various


partitioning of responsibilities
10.1 for Service Operations MEF 17
Administration and
Maintenance (SOAM).

Describe the basic mechanisms


10.2 MEF 17 Y.1731
for fault management.

Global
MEF 10.2 Interconnect
Describe the basic mechanisms
10.3 Y.1731
for performance management. MEF 17 Reference
Presentation

MEF 6.1
Describe the basic metrics for
10.4
performance management. MEF 10.2

For more information on the MEF Professional Certification program


click here.

If you have questions regarding the MEF specifications, you should join the experts at the Ethernet Academy and
participate in the Forums and Discussion Groups.

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MEF-CECP Study Guide

Study Guide Test Objectives References MEF Glossary MEF Diagrams


Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Fundamentals of Carrier Ethernet In this Section

1 Fundamentals of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 1.1
1.1 Carrier Ethernet and LAN
Carrier Ethernet and LAN Ethernet Ethernet

1.2 Carrier Ethernet Service Types


The very widely used LAN Ethernet technology developed and implemented
around the world since the 1970's is just that - a Local Area Network 1.3 Virtual Service and Private
Service
technology designed for use within buildings or between buildings in a
campus. LAN Ethernet is not designed for use over long distances within
Download PDF
cities, across regions and between continents.

LAN Ethernet is also designed for use only over specific short distance
infrastructures (e.g. 100BaseT cabling), not over Wide Area Network Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
infrastructures (e.g. PDH, SONET/SDH, DOCSIS, PON, WDM etc.)

The different aspects of a true service are also not supported by the very
popular LAN Ethernet technology which does not guarantee levels of
availability (e.g. 5 nines), Classes of Service suited to different application Reference Documents
and user needs nor does it support the type of management capabilities
MEF 6.1
required for large network service delivery that is available with legacy WAN
technologies.
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
In order to combine the advantages of LAN Ethernet's large installed base and 1 Services Definitions
the familiarity of its technology with the requirements of multi-site users and
their service providers, the MEF began in 2001 to develop the specifications
Send Feedback
that today provide the basis for the use of Ethernet as a global networking
solution.
Name:

The MEF defined five key attributes that differentiate Carrier Ethernet from
Email:
LAN Ethernet, and which form the basis for the development of Carrier
Ethernet specifications by the MEF. Comments

5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet

Send Feedback

Figure 1.1.F1: 5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet

Standardized services
Scalability
Reliability
Service management
Quality of service

Standardized services enable end users and service providers to coordinate in


order to achieve data connectivity based on Carrier Ethernet between
multiple end user sites as required by organizations around the globe.

Scalability enables the data connectivity of any number of multiple end user
sites over any distance, whether it be metro, regional, national or
intercontinental using Carrier Ethernet.

Reliability enables end users to rely on Carrier Ethernet to run their business
and mission critical applications.

Service management enables service providers to rollout, maintain and


troubleshoot data connectivity services based on Carrier Ethernet in a cost
effective and timely manner.

Quality of Service enables the use of a single network to run multiple


services to multiple end-users running a wide variety of applications with
different bandwidth and latency requirements - all by using Carrier Ethernet.

Based on the goals of the 5 attributes and the specifications developed by the
MEF, Carrier Ethernet

delivers Ethernet frames between different locations in any part of


the world at speeds between 1 Mbps and at least 10 Gbps
differentiates between traffic of multiple end-users running over a
single network
runs over multiple types of infrastructure and transport technologies
coexists with existing Layer 2 and Layer 3 solutions while taking
advantage of the huge worldwide Ethernet installed base

Carrier Ethernet Service

A Carrier Ethernet service is defined as a data communication service based


on Carrier Ethernet which is delivered to an organization (e.g. an enterprise)
by an Ethernet Service Provider. The purpose of an Ethernet service is to
connect one or more remote sites, or to connect one or more end-user sites
to an Internet service provider, in a reliable, scalable and manageable
manner. The end user (also referred to as a subscriber) benefits from a
ubiquitous, standardized, carrier-class service and network defined by five
attributes that distinguish it from familiar LAN based Ethernet.

Carrier Ethernet Network

Figure 1.1.F2: Typical Carrier Ethernet Network

The connection between the customer's site and the Carrier Ethernet Network
(CEN) is achieved by connecting a switch/router at the end-user premises
denoted as CE (Customer Equipment) to one or more switches/routers of the
Service Provider (SP). The interface between the CE and the CEN is referred
to as the User Network Interface (UNI)

Is Carrier Ethernet a service, a network or a technology?

For an end-user, Carrier Ethernet is a service defined by the five attributes of


Carrier Ethernet. For a service provider, Carrier Ethernet is simultaneously a:-

Set of certified network elements that connect to one another in


order to transport the services offered to the customer
Platform of value added services
Standardized service for all users

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MEF-CECP Study Guide

Study Guide Test Objectives References MEF Glossary MEF Diagrams


Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Fundamentals of Carrier Ethernet In this Section

1 Fundamentals of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 1.2
1.1 Carrier Ethernet and LAN
Carrier Ethernet Service Types Ethernet

1.2 Carrier Ethernet Service Types


The service provider and the end-user coordinate between them the required
service in terms of standardized service types and service attributes. 1.3 Virtual Service and Private
Service
There are three service types that describe the basic connectivity options of a
Carrier Ethernet service: Download PDF

E-Line
E-LAN Download a pdf for
E-Tree offline viewing.

These Carrier Ethernet service types are fundamental to the Carrier Ethernet
service model and are defined in MEF 6.1. All aspects of the MEF's technical,
marketing and certification work flow from the definitions and uses of E-Line, Reference Documents
E-LAN and E-Tree. Brief descriptions for these service types are provided
below, and are expanded upon in the remainder of this MEF-CECP Study MEF 6.1
Guide.
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
E-Line
1 Services Definitions
An E-Line is a point to point Ethernet service that connects exactly 2 UNIs.
Those 2 UNIs can communicate only with each other.
Send Feedback

Name:

Email:
Comments

Figure 1.2.F1: E-Line Carrier Ethernet service type

E-Lines are used to create:-


Send Feedback

Ethernet Private Lines


Ethernet Virtual Private Lines
Ethernet Internet access

For example, it can be used to replace TDM private lines. E-Line is the most
popular Ethernet service type due to its simplicity.

E-LAN

An E-LAN is a multipoint to multipoint service that connects a number of UNIs


(2 or more) providing full mesh connectivity for those sites. Each UNI can
communicate with any other UNI that is connected to that Ethernet service.

Figure 1.2.F2: E-LAN Carrier Ethernet service type

E-LANs are used to create:-

Multipoint L2 VPNs
Transparent LAN services
Layer 2 VPNs (L2VPN)
Foundation for IPTV and Multicast networks

E-Tree

An E-Tree is a rooted multipoint service that connects a number of UNIs


providing sites with hub and spoke multipoint connectivity. Each UNI is
designated as either 'root' or 'leaf'. A root UNI can communicate with any leaf
UNI, while a leaf UNI can communicate only with a root UNI.

E-Trees provide the separation between UNIs required to deliver a single


service instance in which different customers (each having a leaf UNI) connect
to an ISP which has one or more root UNIs. Having more than one root UNI is
useful for load sharing and resiliency schemes.
Figure 1.2.F3: E-Tree Carrier Ethernet service type

E-Trees are used to create:-

Multicast delivery services


Internet access
Mobile backhaul services
Telemetry services

Difference between E-LAN and E-Tree

E-LAN services are appropriate when all UNIs can generate traffic towards any
other UNI and all UNIs belong to the same administrative domain - in other
words when traffic separation between different organizations sharing the
service is not required.

E-Tree services are appropriate when the service source is located at just one
UNI, or a small number of UNIs, each of which is designated a root UNI. The
end-users of the service are typically client organizations that require that
their respective traffic will not be visible to other clients of the service.

Root vs. Leaf

In E-Lines and E-LANs, all UNIs are designated as a root UNI.

In E-Tree, UNIs are designated either as root UNIs or as leaf UNIs.Root UNIs
are used to source traffic that can be directed to any other UNI in the E-Tree.
Those UNIs should be only able to see traffic that is originates in one of the
root UNIs in the E-Tree are designated as leaf UNIs.

For example in an E-Tree used to provide access to multiple organizations to a


single ISP, the ISP POP will sit at the root UNI, whereas each organization
accessing the ISP sits at a leaf UNI so that it is unable to see traffic to and
from other ISP clients.

Multiple root UNIs are permitted in E-Trees in order to support mirror sites
(resiliency) and load sharing configurations.

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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Fundamentals of Carrier Ethernet In this Section

1 Fundamentals of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 1.3
1.1 Carrier Ethernet and LAN
Virtual Service and Private Service Ethernet

1.2 Carrier Ethernet Service Types


In its simplest form, each UNI is dedicated to a single service instance,
providing very simple mapping of customer traffic into the service. 1.3 Virtual Service and Private
Service
This type of service is referred to as a private service and is also called port-
based, where the service granularity is the port used for the User Network Download PDF
Interface (UNI) connectivity.

Private services can be offered for any topology. Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
EPL: Ethernet Private Line for port-based point-to-point service. EPL
is the private variant of an E-Line
EP-LAN: Ethernet Private LAN for port-based multipoint-to-multipoint
service. EP-LAN is the private variant of an E-LAN Reference Documents
EP-Tree: Ethernet Private Tree for port-based rooted-multipoint
service. EP-Tree is the private variant of an E-Tree. MEF 6.1

The advantage of the private service approach is its simplicity. The MEF-CECP Test Objectives
disadvantage is its lack of scalability since it requires several ports on both
1 Services Definitions
the Customer Equipment (CE) and the switch/router at the provider edge.

To overcome this barrier to scalability, the MEF defined the virtual service Send Feedback
based on the concept of VLANs where each service is identified by one or
more VLAN IDs. Following IEEE 802.1Q, the VLAN tag is the C-Tag. Name:

A virtual service means that a UNI can deliver multiple services using a single Email:
physical port, and can be offered for any topology.
Comments
EVPL: Ethernet Virtual Private Line for VLAN-based point-to-point
service. EVPL is the virtual variant of an E-Line
EVP-LAN: Ethernet Virtual Private LAN for VLAN-based multipoint-to-
multipoint service. EVP-LAN is the virtual variant of an E-LAN Send Feedback

EVP-Tree: Ethernet Virtual Private Tree for VLAN-based rooted-


multipoint service. EVP-Tree is the virtual variant of an E-Tree.

Service Multiplexing

In order to enable a virtual service, the UNI attribute of Service Multiplexing


must be set to YES.

In contrast, to enable a private service, the UNI attribute of All-to-One


Bundling must be set to YES for all UNIs belonging to the service.

This is illustrated in the example of an EVP-Tree service:

Figure 1.3.F1: Example EVP-Tree

EVC1 is used for Internet access, providing service to 3 customers UNIs A, B


and C are leaf UNIs and therefore cannot see each other's traffic. This is an
instance of an EVP-Tree service. Note that if EVC1 had been implemented as
an EVP-LAN, then UNI A and UNI B would be able to communicate and receive
each other's traffic, which in this case is not desirable. Hence the use of EVP-
Tree.

EVC2 shares the same UNI port D with EVC1 and is used to deliver video
multicast to a different set of customers.

Multiple Services using single UNI

A single UNI can serve multiple Carrier Ethernet service types, as shown in
this example.

Figure 1.3.F2: Multiple Carrier Ethernet services using single UNI

The headquarters (HQ) of the enterprise has 2 services sharing a single port on
its router:

EVPL connect the organization to its ISP. The traffic sent to the ISP carries C-
Tags as agreed with the Carrier Ethernet Network (CEN) service provider
EVP-LAN connects the HQ with 2 other branches, providing L2VPN between
these three sites.

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Please note that this PDF version of the MEF-CECP Study Guide will change very frequently. If you
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Please note that the disclaimer for the MEF-CECP Study Guide applies equally to the PDF version as
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MEF 6.1
Metro Ethernet Services Definitions Phase 2
Specification

MEF 6.1 is a specification document developed by the Technical Committee of the MEF.

Abstract:

"This document uses the service attributes and parameters that are defined in the MEF Technical Specification Ethernet
Services Attributes Phase 2 [2] and applies them to create different Ethernet services. This document defines three
generic service constructs called Ethernet Service types and specifies their associated service attributes and parameters
used to create Point-to-Point, Multipoint-to-Multipoint, and Rooted-Multipoint Ethernet services. This document also
defines the requirements for several Ethernet services that use these generic Ethernet Service types. In addition, an
informative appendix is provided showing examples of some of the defined services. This document supersedes and
replaces MEF 6, Ethernet Services Definitions - Phase 1 [1]."
Download

Reference Presentation

The MEF has prepared an overview presentation which explains the MEF 6.1 specification.

Download

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
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exam

Test Objectives 1 1 In this Section


Service Definitions 1 Fundamentals of Carrier Ethernet

1.1 Describe and distinguish between the service attributes of EPL, EVPL, EP- 1.1 Carrier Ethernet and LAN
LAN, EVP-LAN, EP-Tree, and EVP-Tree. Ethernet

1.2 Carrier Ethernet Service Types


1.2 Describe how EPL, EVPL, EP-LAN, EVP-LAN, EP-Tree, and EVP-Tree are
1.3 Virtual Service and Private
used to meet various subscriber needs. Service

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offline viewing.

Reference Documents

MEF 6.1

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

1 Services Definitions

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to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.1 2.1 Transport Technologies

Transport Technologies 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies
Carrier Ethernet services can be implemented over any network based on the 2.1.1.1 Bridging
following transport technologies:
2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)
Transparent Bridging 2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone
Provider Bridging (PB) Bridging (PBB)

Provider Backbone Bridging (PBB) 2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone


Bridging - Traffic Engineering
Provider Backbone Bridging with Traffic Engineering (PBB-TE)
(PBB-TE)
MPLS VPWS
MPLS VPLS 2.1.2 MPLS based
MPLS TP
2.1.2.1 VPWS
SONET/SDH
2.1.2.2 VPLS
OTN
DWDM and CWDM 2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP

It is important to understand which transport technologies enable which 2.1.3 Transparent Transport
Carrier Ethernet services and which attributes are required, as well as to 2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH
understand the differences in capabilities (e.g. transparency to L2CP,
2.1.3.2 OTN
topology) of these technologies. This is explained in the corresponding sections
on each technology. 2.1.3.3 WDM

For the sake of simplicity, the above technologies have been grouped under
the following categories: 2.2 Protection and Resiliency

IEEE-based transport technologies


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MPLS-based transport technologies
Transparent transport technologies

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offline viewing.

Reference Documents

IEEE 802.1Q-2009

IEEE 802.1ad-2005

IEEE 802.1ah

IEEE 802.1Qay

ITU-T G.8031

ITU-T G.8032

ITU-T Y.1415

RFC 4448

RFC 4761

RFC 5921

RFC 5960

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet


Services

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Email:

Comments

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.2 2.1 Transport Technologies

Protection and Resiliency 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies
When connecting network elements in order to create a network, it is 2.1.1.1 Bridging
common practice to consider and provision for various failures. Ideally, the
2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)
traffic should continue to flow even if a failure of a link or a port has
occurred. 2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone
Bridging (PBB)

There are three types of failures to consider: 2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone


Bridging - Traffic Engineering
1. Port Failure (PBB-TE)

2. Link Failure
2.1.2 MPLS based
3. Network Element (NE) Failure
2.1.2.1 VPWS
Since MEF services define interfaces only, we focus on the first two types of
2.1.2.2 VPLS
failures. It should be noted that NE failure handling is heavily dependent on
2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP
the transport technology of the specific network in question.

Port protection 2.1.3 Transparent Transport

2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH
We focus our discussion on the external Interfaces - namely UNI and ENNI.
2.1.3.2 OTN
MEF 20 defines as a mandatory feature of UNI Type 2.2 the capability to
2.1.3.3 WDM
protect against a UNI-N port failure and/or protect against a failure of a
physical link crossing the UNI point.
2.2 Protection and Resiliency
The solution is LAG (Link Aggregation). The basic concept is having standby
links that can be used upon failure of a working (active) link. LAG enables the Download PDF
definition of a LAG group of at least 2 ports/2 physical links and considering
them as a single logical link. The UNI-N and UNI-C can be perceived as
connected over this single logical link. Note that one could connect 4 X 1GbE Download a pdf for
links and operate 3 of them as active links with one standby link. This would offline viewing.
yield a logical link of 3 Gbps between the UNI-N and UNI-C.

For ENNI the definition is stricter. LAG is defined for exactly 2 ports where
only one link is active and the second one is standby. The reason for this Reference Documents
limitation is the desire to have the service frames and SOAM frame traverse
the same link as each other, which cannot be guaranteed with LAG operating IEEE 802.1Q-2009
more than one active link (load sharing LAG). MEF recommends operating LAG IEEE 802.1ad-2005
with its control protocol LACP.
IEEE 802.1ah

UNI protection is depicted in the following figure: IEEE 802.1Qay

ITU-T G.8031

ITU-T G.8032

ITU-T Y.1415

RFC 4448
2.2.F1 - UNI protection
RFC 4761
ENNI Protection is depicted in the following figure:
RFC 5921

RFC 5960

2.2.F2 - ENNI Protection MEF-CECP Test Objectives

2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet


It should be noted that some vendors do allow LAG between different line-
Services
cards or chasses and thus utilize LAG not only for port and link protection but
also for NE protection. However, there is no industry standard for this
Send Feedback
solution.

Service protection Name:

Service Protection deals with the need to ensure that the EVC/OVC can Email:
provide the service even if a specific link or node within the CEN fails. This
enables the Service Provider to offer high availability (e.g. five 9s Comments

availability). It should be noted that not all services require resiliency.


Services that offer this capability are sometimes priced higher. Also, it could
be that service protection is offered for a certain CoS ID and not for others.
Send Feedback
For example a certain enterprise could request that a business critical
application be protected while passing on protection for the lower-priority
Internet access. This is supported by the fact that performance attributes like
availability are per CoS ID.

There are two approaches:

Active:Standby EVC

In this approach, there are 2 EVCs with identical service attributes. At any
given time only one EVC is used for the service. At the ingress UNI a certain
logic is used to decide which of the 2 EVCs are in use.
2.2.F3 - Standby EVC in Mobile Backhaul

Single EVC with transport protection

In this approach, there is a single EVC. The transport network is provisioned to


provide protection in case of link failure. For example in MPLS-TP there would
be 2 LSPs connecting the UNIs, one designated as active while the other is
designated as standby.

Fault Identification and Recovery

When there are two paths through a network that act as active:standby, the
fundamental question is how to detect the situation where the active path is
no longer functioning.

A common requirement from the TDM world is to detect and switchover in less
than 50 msec. Ethernet protection that was built upon spanning tree would
take a few seconds to find a new path.

Since then, new mechanisms have been defined to facilitate the sub-50 msec
requirement. One common approach is to run CCM messages at a high rate
(e.g. 10 msec or even 3.33 msec).

When one end of the EVC does not receive 3 consecutive CCMs, it assumes
that the path is not functioning and will take several actions like issuing a link
fault alarm and switch to the backup path.

Note that some implementations may constantly monitor the backup path too
and determine whether the backup path is alive.

Once switchover has occured, the service is considered recovered.

This approach hides the internal resiliency mechanism from the end user who
will feel only a very short traffic disruption.

The concept is depicted in the following figure:

2.2.F4 - Internal resiliency mechanism

G.8031, G.8032

The ITU-T has defined two standards that handle path protection. These are
G.8031 (Ethernet linear protection switching) and G.8032 (Ethernet linear
protection switching) Both utilize Y.1731 CCM messages for fault detection.
G.8031 is similar to SONET path protection. It is based on a working and a
protection path between two end points. Switching upon failure can occur in
under 50 msec. The concept is illustrated in the following figure:

2.2.F5 - Link protection in G.8031 and G.8032


G.8031 can be implemented over many transport technologies and is network
topology independent.

G.8032 is specifically for ring architectures, including virtual rings, where


there are obvious main and alternate paths along the ring between any 2
points.

The protocol also breaks loops and therefore make STP redundant.

The following figure illustrates virtual ring made out of a physical star:

2.2.F6 - Virtual ring on physical star

The ring protection is illustrated in the following figure:

2.2.F7 - Ring protection

In both mechanisms assuming that the protection is done between two


external interfaces (UNI to UNI, UNI to ENNI, ENNI to ENNI), the EVC/OVC
does not sense the protection switching, other than the short interval where
all service frames are lost.

MPLS FRR

MPLS Fast ReRoute (MPLS FRR) is a local protection mechanism in MPLS


networks where the LSP can bypass a faulty node or link using locally created
bypass. This is achieved in under 50 msec and can be triggered locally upon
node or port down status.

The Ethernet layer does not sense the bypass and the EVC that is carried over
the LSP continues to flow normally, other than the short interval where all
service frames are lost.

This is illustrated in the figure below:

2.2.F8 - MPLS FRR

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.1.1 2.1 Transport Technologies

IEEE-based transport technologies 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies
Carrier Ethernet services can be delivered over IEEE 802.1 standards-based: 2.1.1.1 Bridging

Bridged networks 2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)


Provider Bridged (PB) networks 2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone
Provider Backbone Bridged (PBB) networks Bridging (PBB)

Provider Backbone Bridged with Traffic Engineering (PBB-TE) networks 2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone
Bridging - Traffic Engineering
All these networks require some form of layer 1/2 transport technology to (PBB-TE)

interconnect bridges. Typically, these bridges are interconnected with IEEE


2.1.2 MPLS based
802.3 Ethernet.
2.1.2.1 VPWS
The capabilities of each of the IEEE 802.1 standards-based technologies used
2.1.2.2 VPLS
in these networks needs to be taken into account when implementing any of
2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP
the six Carrier Ethernet services:

EPL 2.1.3 Transparent Transport

EVPL 2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH


EP-LAN 2.1.3.2 OTN
EVP-LAN
2.1.3.3 WDM
EP-Tree
EVP-Tree
2.2 Protection and Resiliency
These technologies, and the Carrier Ethernet services delivered over them,
can operate over any physical topology:
Download PDF
mesh
partial mesh
Download a pdf for
tree
offline viewing.
set of rings

Reference Documents

IEEE 802.1Q-2009

IEEE 802.1ad-2005

IEEE 802.1ah

IEEE 802.1Qay

ITU-T G.8031

ITU-T G.8032

ITU-T Y.1415

RFC 4448

RFC 4761

RFC 5921

RFC 5960

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet


Services

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.1.1.1 2.1 Transport Technologies

Bridging 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies
Bridging refers to networks that pass frames using C-Tags in accordance with 2.1.1.1 Bridging
IEEE 802.1Q. The C-Tag frame format is shown below:
2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)

2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone


Bridging (PBB)

2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone


Bridging - Traffic Engineering
(PBB-TE)

2.1.2 MPLS based

2.1.2.1 VPWS

2.1.2.2 VPLS

2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP
2.1.1.1.F1 - C-Tag Frame Format
2.1.3 Transparent Transport
The format of the C-Tag itself is provided below:
2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH

2.1.3.2 OTN

2.1.3.3 WDM

2.2 Protection and Resiliency


2.1.1.1.F2 - C-Tag Format

Download PDF
In a CEN (Carrier Ethernet Network) that is based on bridging, the ingress
bridge translates the incoming CE-VLAN ID to a specific tag defined for a
service. Each service is identified by a unique VLAN ID. In such a scenario, the
Download a pdf for
available VLAN IDs in the range 1 through 4094 must be shared and offline viewing.
coordinated between the subscribers and the CEN operator to ensure that the
same value is not used twice.
Obviously, subscribers cannot send untagged frames and frames with priority
tags across a CEN based on bridging since the egress bridge will not know how Reference Documents
to regenerate the tags and priorities in the frames forwarded to the
subscriber site. In addition, MAC learning is shared by subscriber bridges and IEEE 802.1Q-2009
the CEN's bridges, which again implies several limitations. This fact coupled IEEE 802.1ad-2005
with limited port filtering of the bridges makes support of E-Tree a significant IEEE 802.1ah
configuration challenge. In addition, such a network cannot support bundling,
IEEE 802.1Qay
as it is not possible to regenerate the original CE-VLAN IDs on an egress UNI
ITU-T G.8031
using a single C-Tag.
Since the CEN operates using bridges, it relies on xSTP (any variant of ITU-T G.8032
Spanning Tree Protocol) for loop prevention and resiliency. In the event of a ITU-T Y.1415
link failure, xSTP is used to find a new path through the CEN. This implies RFC 4448
that some subscriber L2CPs will not be tunneled through a CEN based on
RFC 4761
bridging.
RFC 5921
Using the C-Tag for service identification and dividing the applicable VLAN ID
range between the operator and the subscriber affects the number of services RFC 5960
that can be supported.
Also, there must be coordination between all participating UNIs of the CE- MEF-CECP Test Objectives
VLAN IDs used for each service. 2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet
The CoS ID for an EVC is identified by the PCP bits. No other field can Services
represent the CoS within the CEN. Therefore, if the PCP bits are used to set a
specific EVC CoS, then the CE-VLAN CoS preservation attribute cannot be set Send Feedback
to Yes.
In addition, the 8 possible values are shared between CoS ID and frame color. Name:
These values need to be transported through the CEN.
It is clear that only small scale CENs will be based on bridging, and where Email:
there are no ENNIs (since they require use of S-Tags).
Comments

The support for the various Ethernet services is summarized in the following
table:
Send Feedback
2.1.1.1.T1 - Bridging support for Carrier Ethernet Services

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.1.1.2 2.1 Transport Technologies

Provider Bridging (PB) 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies
Provider Bridging (PB), as specified by IEEE 802.1ad, aims to solve the 2.1.1.1 Bridging
problematic coordination of VLAN IDs between service providers and
2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)
subscribers that is required in bridging. PB is also designed to support
tunneling of customer traffic through a service provider's network. This 2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone
Bridging (PBB)
tunneling is achieved using a stacked VLAN approach, also known as Q-in-Q.
2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone
The IEEE 802.1ad amendment introduced a second type of VLAN tag for the Bridging - Traffic Engineering
purpose of delineating the service provider's tag from the customer's tag. This (PBB-TE)
service provider tag is known as the S-Tag, while the customer continues to
use the original VLAN tag, known as the C-Tag. 2.1.2 MPLS based

2.1.2.1 VPWS
The Double Tag Frame Format is shown below:
2.1.2.2 VPLS

2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP

2.1.3 Transparent Transport

2.1.1.2.F1 - Double Tag Frame Format 2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH

2.1.3.2 OTN
The structure of the S-Tag is shown below:
2.1.3.3 WDM

2.2 Protection and Resiliency

Download PDF
2.1.1.2.F2 - S-Tag Format
Download a pdf for
The value of the S-VLAN ID can be 1 through 4094. offline viewing.

Typically, a PB can support up to 4094 services. In some specific


configurations, a specific S-VLAN ID can be used for more than one service so
long as it can be guaranteed that those services sharing the VLAN ID are
Reference Documents
transported through separate bridges with no overlap of their paths.

IEEE 802.1Q-2009
As shown in the figure above, the S-VLAN Priority field is 3-bit wide, allowing
for 8 possible values. The Drop Eligible Indicator can be used to represent a IEEE 802.1ad-2005
frame's color. When the DEI bit is clear, the frame is considered to be Green. IEEE 802.1ah
When the DEI bit is set, the frame is considered to be Yellow. IEEE 802.1Qay

The edge bridge of the PB network performs the mapping to an EVC or an ITU-T G.8031
OVC, where the EVC or OVC is identified by an S-VLAN ID. It is also possible to ITU-T G.8032
add an S-Tag to ingress C-Tagged frame, thereby preserving the Subscriber's ITU-T Y.1415
original C-VLAN ID. This is also true in the case of an untagged frame.
RFC 4448

PB supports all six MEF-defined services (EPL, EVPL, EP-LAN, EVP-LAN, EP- RFC 4761
Tree and EVP-Tree). PB inherently supports service multiplexing by allowing RFC 5921
service providers to map C-VLANs to S-VLANs at a port being used for the UNI.
RFC 5960

PB relies on the bridges within the CEN (Carrier Ethernet Network) for
multicast operations required by E-LAN and E-Tree services. MEF-CECP Test Objectives

2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet


Note that E-Tree requires certain specific filtering to be configured on those Services
bridges connected to leaf UNIs.
The capabilites are summarized in the following table: Send Feedback

Name:

Email:

Comments

Send Feedback
2.1.1.2.T1 - Provider Bridging Support for Carrier Ethernet Services

PB forwarding is based on spanning tree for finding a path from source to


destination. PB service resiliency is based on RSTP and MSTP. Pre-defined
backup paths are not supported and therefore, the convergence time depends
on the topology and RSTP message rate. Port protection for UNI or ENNI can
be supported using LAG.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.1.1.3 2.1 Transport Technologies

Provider Backbone Bridging (PBB) 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies
Provider Backbone Bridging (PBB) in IEEE 802.1ah was developed to solve the 2.1.1.1 Bridging
problem of scaling to more than 4,094 services in a Provider Bridged network,
2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)
and to provide service providers with a bridging technology that would allow
them to encapsulate the Subscriber's MAC addresses, VLANs, and data, making 2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone
Bridging (PBB)
the transport of such frames "transparent" across their network.
2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone
Bridging - Traffic Engineering
The concept of PBB is to create a backbone network that interconnects PB
(PBB-TE)
networks at the customer edge.
PBB can be used to connect C-Tagged networks (CEs in MEF's terminology). 2.1.2 MPLS based

A PBB network (PBBN) can be a service provider's CEN that provides 2.1.2.1 VPWS
connectivity between UNIs for Subscribers through EVCs. Similarly, a PBB 2.1.2.2 VPLS
network could be an operator's network that provides connectivity from ENNI- 2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP
to-ENNI or from ENNI-to-UNI for service providers through OVCs.
2.1.3 Transparent Transport
The concept of MAC-in-MAC was introduced in PBB. MAC-in-MAC allows the
2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH
service provider to fully encapsulate the customer 802.1Q frame within
another MAC, which abstracts the service provider from the Subscriber's 2.1.3.2 OTN
address and VLAN information. 2.1.3.3 WDM
At the ingress to the PBB network, a second MAC header is inserted by the
bridge. With this technique, the Subscriber's frame is kept intact and
2.2 Protection and Resiliency
unaltered from end-to-end throughout the provider's backbone network. The
backbone bridges can only interpret the outermost MAC header information.
Download PDF
Furthermore, a new Tag type called the I-SID (Backbone Service Instance
Identifier) was introduced by PBB. The I-SID provides 24 bits for identifying
services, which enables the PBB network (PBBN) to uniquely identify up to 16
Download a pdf for
million service instances. This is equivalent to the scalability provided by offline viewing.
MPLS. In fact, the number of services per link is even higher than 16M. This is
because a link can serve multiple destination B_DA, each of which supports
16M services. Therefore, in practice, the number of services per link in PBB is
unlimited. Reference Documents

PBB introduces two new types of tags: the Backbone VLAN Tag (B-Tag) and IEEE 802.1Q-2009
the Backbone Service Instance Tag (I-Tag). The B-Tag is identical to an S-Tag, IEEE 802.1ad-2005
but is the tag that Backbone Bridges within the PBBN use to make traffic
IEEE 802.1ah
forwarding decisions. The I-Tag encapsulates the Subscriber's MAC information
IEEE 802.1Qay
and identifies the service instance through the I-SID. The I-SID is a 24-bit field
that is used to uniquely identify up to 16 million service instances. ITU-T G.8031

ITU-T G.8032
The frame format is depicted below:
ITU-T Y.1415

RFC 4448

RFC 4761

RFC 5921

RFC 5960

2.1.1.3.F1 - frame format MEF-CECP Test Objectives

On ingress, each service frame is parsed in order to identify the correct 2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet
EVC/OVC to which it is mapped. A new MAC header is then added accordingly. Services

The CEN (Carrier Ethernet Network) then forwards the frame through the
PBBN according to the backbone header. Forwarding is performed exactly as Send Feedback
in PB (Provider Bridging). Bridges learn (backbone) addresses, flood when an
unknown address is identified, and use the same xSTP-based resiliency Name:
mechanisms as in PB.
Email:
The B-Tag (which is identical to an S-Tag is format and TPID) has 3 bits of PCP
Comments
for CoS identification and can use the DEI bit for color marking within the
CEN, which is necessary for ENNI color forwarding.

One of the following actions can be performed on the value of the B-Tag's
PCP: - mapped from the original S-Tag - set to the EVC/OVC attributes -
Send Feedback

mapped from the original frame's DSCP header. This enables PBB to support
up to 8 CoSs per EVC/OVC.
PBB provides the same connectivity properties of a PB. Therefore PB can
support E-LINE, E-LAN and E-Tree with same constraints as in PB networks. In
other words, in PBB networks, there is limited transparency for EPL due to
L2CP filtering by the ingress bridges. Also, there is the need to add leaf-to-
leaf filtering in an E-Tree since this is not an intrinsic PB or PBB cabability.

The support for the various Ethernet services is summarized in the following
table:
2.1.1.3.T1 - Provider Backbone Bridging Support for Carrier Ethernet Services

PBB forwarding is based on spanning tree. In some cases the forwarding tables
can be adjusted to provide a specific path between B_SA and B_DA. PBB
service resiliency is based on RSTP and MSTP. Pre-defined backup paths are
not supported and therefore, convergence time depands on the topology and
RSTP message rate. Port protection for UNI or ENNI can be supported using
LAG.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.1.1.4 2.1 Transport Technologies

Provider Backbone Bridging - Traffic Engineering (PBB-TE) 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies
PBB networks are quite different from other transport networks in some 2.1.1.1 Bridging
fundamental aspects. The PBB network selects the path between source and
2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)
destination without the operator's control. PBB lacks pre-defined back-up
paths that are essential for delivering sub-50 msec service protection. Finally, 2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone
Bridging (PBB)
the flooding of unknown frames can impact the the ability to provide a
2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone
service with guaranteed bandwidth. Bridging - Traffic Engineering
(PBB-TE)
PBB-TE (Provide Backbone Bridging - Traffic Engineering) was specified in IEEE
802.1Qay to address these issues. Note that some vendors refer to PBB-TE as 2.1.2 MPLS based
PBT (Provider Bridging Transport).
2.1.2.1 VPWS
PBB-TE uses the same frame format as in PBB. However PBB-TE enables 2.1.2.2 VPLS
definition of end-to-end active and backup paths by means of management 2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP
plane configuration. The network operator has administrative control over
these paths, which allows them to "traffic engineer" the network. This method 2.1.3 Transparent Transport
is sometimes referred to as Connection Oriented Ethernet. 2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH
Having pre-defined paths eliminates the need to flood the network with
2.1.3.2 OTN
unknown frames and also means that xSTP is not required. Instead, CCM
messages can be exchanged along the path to detect and recover from link or 2.1.3.3 WDM

node faults in less than 50 msec.

2.2 Protection and Resiliency


PBB-TE services and CoS capabilities are the same as with PBB. This results in
extremely scalable PBB-TE networks with guaranteed paths and ability to
Download PDF
more easily guarantee bandwidth.
The support for the various Ethernet services is summarized in the following
table: Download a pdf for
offline viewing.

Reference Documents

IEEE 802.1Q-2009

IEEE 802.1ad-2005

IEEE 802.1ah

IEEE 802.1Qay

ITU-T G.8031

ITU-T G.8032

ITU-T Y.1415

RFC 4448

RFC 4761

RFC 5921

RFC 5960

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet


Services
2.1.1.4.T1 - PBB-TE Support for Carrier Ethernet Services
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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.1.2 2.1 Transport Technologies

MPLS based transport technologies 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies
Carrier Ethernet services can be delivered over networks based on MPLS 2.1.1.1 Bridging
VPWS, MPLS VPLS and MPLS-TP. These technologies are based on MPLS
2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)
standards specified by IETF and ITU-T. They all require some form of layer
1/2 transport technology betweeen the routers. These technologies can 2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone
Bridging (PBB)
operate over any physical topology: mesh, partial mesh, tree or set of rings.
2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone
Bridging - Traffic Engineering
From the point of view of Carrier Ethernet, the fundamentals of VPWS, VPLS
(PBB-TE)
and MPLS TP are similar. LERs (PEs) at the network edges and LSRs (PEs) in
the core. 2.1.2 MPLS based

2.1.2.1 VPWS

2.1.2.2 VPLS

2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP

2.1.3 Transparent Transport

2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH

2.1.3.2 OTN

2.1.3.3 WDM

2.2 Protection and Resiliency

Download PDF
Download a pdf for
offline viewing.

Reference Documents

IEEE 802.1Q-2009

IEEE 802.1ad-2005

IEEE 802.1ah

IEEE 802.1Qay

ITU-T G.8031

ITU-T G.8032

ITU-T Y.1415

RFC 4448

RFC 4761

RFC 5921

RFC 5960

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet


Services

Send Feedback

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Email:

Comments

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MEF-CECP Study Guide

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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.1.2.1 2.1 Transport Technologies

Virtual Private Wire Service (VPWS) 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies
VPWS (Virtual Private Wire Service) is the simplest form of enabling Ethernet 2.1.1.1 Bridging
services over MPLS. It is also known as ETHoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS), or VLL
2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)
(Virtual Leased Line)
2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone
VPWS comprises point-to-point LSPs that carry Ethernet PWs (pseudowires) Bridging (PBB)

between LERs (Label Edge Routers). These LERs or PEs (Provider Equipment) 2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone
Bridging - Traffic Engineering
in Carrier Ethernet terminology provide the UNI-N functionality. In such a
(PBB-TE)
case, the CEN (Carrier Ethernet Network) provides Ethernet services to CEs
(Customer Equipment) attached to the PEs. 2.1.2 MPLS based

In other deployments, the network is a CEN where some external interfaces 2.1.2.1 VPWS
are ENNIs. In such a case, the PW is between the ENNI-N and a UNI-N or 2.1.2.2 VPLS
between two ENNI-Ns. 2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP

The objective is to create virtual connections between PEs with pseudowires


2.1.3 Transparent Transport
and to transport the Ethernet services over these pseudowires.
2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH
The entire Ethernet frame (excluding FCS) is carried over the MPLS/PW. 2.1.3.2 OTN
Therefore, no MAC learning is required.
2.1.3.3 WDM

Forwarding of Ethernet frames within the MPLS network is performed using


MPLS labels. The setting of the labels and path selection is outside the scope
2.2 Protection and Resiliency
of this explanation.

Multiple PWs can be carried over a single LSP, and each PW can be configured Download PDF
to carry either one CoS (Class of Service) or multiple CoSs. Up to a maximum
of 8 CoSs can be carried over a given PW.
Download a pdf for
The following figure illustrates how a C-TAG frame sent from the CE is offline viewing.

encapsulated over MPLS PW:

Reference Documents

IEEE 802.1Q-2009

IEEE 802.1ad-2005

IEEE 802.1ah

IEEE 802.1Qay

ITU-T G.8031

ITU-T G.8032
2.1.2.1.F1 - VPWS
ITU-T Y.1415

RFC 4448
The tunnel label (LSP label) is a 20-bit field, yielding over 16 million unique
RFC 4761
labels over a link. Each LSP can carry one or more EVCs (Ethernet Virtual
Connection) or OVC (Operator Virtual Connection). Since an EVC or an OVC RFC 5921
can be mapped to a single PW or to multiple PWs, theoretically 16 million RFC 5960
EVCs and/or OVCs can be carried over a single LSP. This implies that an
almost unlimited number of Carrier Ethernet services can be implemented MEF-CECP Test Objectives
over a single VPWS.
2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet
Services
The MPLS network has a 3-bit CoS ID identifier called the EXP bits (also known
as the Traffic Class field in later RFCs). The EXP bits are used for CoS ID and
Send Feedback
color forwarding where applicable.

Up to eight CoSs can be delivered over MPLS LSPs. However, assuming that Name:
some CoSs need to also denote color, the effective number is five CoSs. MPLS
Email:
networks can support the 3-CoS model of MEF 23.
Comments
The ingress LER can tunnel almost any frame over a PW, with the exception of
PAUSE frames. It can support CE-VLAN ID and CE-VLAN CoS preservation.
Interworking with customer spanning tree is also specified. This means that
EPL and EVPL services can be provided over VPWS with transparent handling
Send Feedback
of L2CPs.

Multicast is not part of this transport technology. In the event that multicast
support is required, VPLS can be used (see next section).

Resiliency is provided by MPLS LSP and MPLS PW redundancy. This can be


based on G.8031 linear protection or MPLS FRR. Both of these techniques can
provide sub-50 msec protection. These resiliency capabilities can be
configured to provide transparent resiliency to the Ethernet service layer. This
is as a result of the fact that the protection mechanism changes the path
between the two PEs transparently to the Ethernet layer.

Support for the various Ethernet services is summarized in the following table:
2.1.2.1.T1 - VPWS Support for Carrier Ethernet Services

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.1.2.2 2.1 Transport Technologies

Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies

2.1.1.1 Bridging

2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)

2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone


Bridging (PBB)

2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone


Bridging - Traffic Engineering
(PBB-TE)
2.1.2.1.F1 - VPLS

Resiliency is also provided by the MPLS LSP and PW layers which can be 2.1.2 MPLS based
considered to be independent of the VPLS service instance. Services are 2.1.2.1 VPWS
denoted in the same manner as for VPWS, as is CoS ID. 2.1.2.2 VPLS

2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP
Each PE includes a logical element called a VSI (Virtual Switch Instance). The
VSI emulates an IEEE 802.1Q Bridge. In other words, the VSI handles C-TAG 2.1.3 Transparent Transport

frames, learns the customer MAC addresses and makes the forwarding 2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH
decision. Once a destination or set of destinations is determined, the 2.1.3.2 OTN
appropriate frame is encapsulated with the tunnel and PW headers. When
2.1.3.3 WDM
there is a need to multicast or broadcast, the ingress PE replicates the frames
and sends a copy to each egress PE. In this manner, the service "virtually
bridges" the customer end-points, simulating a private LAN. 2.2 Protection and Resiliency

Download PDF
Multiple VPLS instances - one per service or L2VPN - can use the same
network infrastructure.
Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
VPLS provides support for all 6 MEF-defined Carrier Ethernet service types.
The L2CP handling capabilities are virtually the same as for provider bridging,
as both incorporate a bridge component that handles customer C-TAG frames.
Reference Documents

The CEN (Carrier Ethernet Network) does not use xSTP (variants of Spanning IEEE 802.1Q-2009
Tree Protocol) for forwarding or resiliency. The Customer xSTP is not tunneled
IEEE 802.1ad-2005
across the VPLS-based CEN.
IEEE 802.1ah

IEEE 802.1Qay
E-Tree is naturally supported by VPLS. The concept of hub (root) and spoke
ITU-T G.8031
(leaf) is also part of the VPLS standard.
ITU-T G.8032

ITU-T Y.1415
Support for the various Ethernet services is summarized in the following table:
RFC 4448

RFC 4761

RFC 5921

RFC 5960

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet


Services

Send Feedback

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Send Feedback

2.1.2.2.T1 - VPLS Support for Carrier Ethernet Services

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.1.2.3 2.1 Transport Technologies

MPLS-TP 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies
MPLS-TP (MPLS Transport Profile) is jointly specified by the IETF and the ITU- 2.1.1.1 Bridging
T. It is designed to be a sub-set of the MPLS framework that provides
2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)
connection-oriented services better suited to transport networks.
2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone
Bridging (PBB)

MPLS-TP uses the same packet format as MPLS, as well as uses LSPs (Label 2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone
Bridging - Traffic Engineering
Switched Paths) and PWs (pseudowires)
(PBB-TE)

2.1.2 MPLS based


The MPLS-TP path is configured by the management system, but can
optionally be determined and provisioned by the GMPLS control plane. MPLS- 2.1.2.1 VPWS
TP supports active and backup paths, providing linear protection with sub-50 2.1.2.2 VPLS
msec recovery. The concept of pre-defined active and backup paths facilitates 2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP
traffic engineering and enables guaranteed bandwidth across the CEN (Carrier
Ethernet Network) 2.1.3 Transparent Transport

2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH
MPLS-TP also provides extensive OAM support, including Y.1731 FM (Fault
Management) and PM (Performance Management). Unlike MPLS, MPLS-TP does 2.1.3.2 OTN
not use IP routing, so MPLS-TP CENs can be purely layer 2 networks. 2.1.3.3 WDM

MPLS supports point-to-point LSPs and also point-to-multipoint LSPs. Unlike 2.2 Protection and Resiliency
MPLS, the forward and reverse directions of traffic are carried over the same
network path at all times. Download PDF
E-LANs and E-Trees can be implemented by running VPLS over MPLS-TP based Download a pdf for
LSPs and PWs. offline viewing.

Due to the fact that MPLS-TP uses the same frame format as MPLS, the
scalability of services and CoS identification is the same. Refer to MPLS over Reference Documents
VPWS for more details.
IEEE 802.1Q-2009
EPL services can be provided over MPLS-TP with transparent handling of L2CPs
IEEE 802.1ad-2005
in a similar fashion to that supported by VPWS.
IEEE 802.1ah

Support for the various Ethernet services is summarized in the following table: IEEE 802.1Qay

ITU-T G.8031

ITU-T G.8032

ITU-T Y.1415

RFC 4448

RFC 4761

RFC 5921

RFC 5960

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet


Services

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2.1.2.3.T1 - MPLS-TP Support for Carrier Ethernet Services


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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.1.3 2.1 Transport Technologies

Transparent Transport Technologies 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies
Carrier Ethernet E-Line services can be delivered transparently over networks 2.1.1.1 Bridging
based on SONET/SDH, OTN or WDM as explained in the following sections.
2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)
2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone
Bridging (PBB)

2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone


Bridging - Traffic Engineering
(PBB-TE)

2.1.2 MPLS based

2.1.2.1 VPWS

2.1.2.2 VPLS

2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP

2.1.3 Transparent Transport

2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH

2.1.3.2 OTN

2.1.3.3 WDM

2.2 Protection and Resiliency

Download PDF
Download a pdf for
offline viewing.

Reference Documents

IEEE 802.1Q-2009

IEEE 802.1ad-2005

IEEE 802.1ah

IEEE 802.1Qay

ITU-T G.8031

ITU-T G.8032

ITU-T Y.1415

RFC 4448

RFC 4761

RFC 5921

RFC 5960

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet


Services

Send Feedback

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Email:

Comments

Send Feedback

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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.1.3.1 2.1 Transport Technologies

SONET/SDH 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies
Carrier Ethernet E-Line services can be delivered over SONET and SDH. SONET 2.1.1.1 Bridging
and SDH are widely deployed technologies in transport networks. They are
2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)
typically based on ring topologies. Each ring can operate at several rates, up
to a maximum of 10 Gbps. 2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone
Bridging (PBB)
An example of the network architecture is illustrated below:
2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone
Bridging - Traffic Engineering
(PBB-TE)

2.1.2 MPLS based

2.1.2.1 VPWS

2.1.2.2 VPLS

2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP

2.1.3 Transparent Transport

2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH

2.1.3.2 OTN

2.1.3.3 WDM

2.2 Protection and Resiliency

2.1.3.1.F1 - Network Architecture


Download PDF
Ethernet over SONET/SDH is used to deliver Carrier Ethernet E-Lines over
SONET and SDH. Ethernet over SONET/SDH refers to encapsulation of Ethernet
frames in a specific container which has pre-determined rate. There are Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
several means for encapsulating asynchronous Ethernet traffic in a
synchronous transport like SONET or SDH. With SONET/SDH, the end-to-end
(UNI to UNI) connection is known as the path , and the Subscriber data that
flows from end-to-end is known as the path data.
Reference Documents
Encapsulation of an Ethernet frame inside GFP-F frame is illustrated below:
IEEE 802.1Q-2009

IEEE 802.1ad-2005

IEEE 802.1ah

IEEE 802.1Qay

ITU-T G.8031

ITU-T G.8032

ITU-T Y.1415
2.1.3.1.F2 - Encapsulation of an Ethernet frame inside GFP-F frame RFC 4448

All of the encapsulation techniques (e.g. GFP, POS) are not aware of the RFC 4761
Ethernet frame structure. This means that any L2CP frame can be tunneled RFC 5921
through a SONET/SDH-based E-Line service. Also, no MAC learning, forwarding
RFC 5960
or filtering is performed by these network elements.

MEF-CECP Test Objectives


Each incoming service is transported transparently over the CEN (Carrier 2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet
Ethernet Network). Each service is carried in its own container with no Services
bandwidth sharing or contention amongst containers. Likewise, each service
requires a dedicated port on the ADM. For example, if a single CE sends traffic Send Feedback
for two different EVCs across a service multiplexed UNI, two different ports
on the ADM will be needed in order for the traffic to be mapped to distinct Name:
containers. This can be done by the ADM (Add/Drop Multiplexing) function of
SONET/SDH network element. Email:

Comments

Each SONET/SDH link can support several EVCs. However, the number of
services that can be supported is limited due to the static bandwidth
allocation mechanism of SONET/SDH. Each such SONET/SDH path has no CoS
Send Feedback
awareness or VLAN tag awareness.

Note: Throughout this text, the term "awareness" is used to describe a


network's ability to identify, interpret and act upon specific information
contained within datagrams. For example, VLAN-aware means that a network
may read, manipulate or make forwarding decisions based on VLAN tags.
Conversely, the term "unaware" means that a network does not have the
capability to identify, interpret or act upon specific information contained
within datagrams.

SONET/SDH technology is suitable only for E-Line services. It can provide some
sort of service multiplexing using external ADM device for delivering EVPLs.
Resiliency is inherently supported by this transport network, which provides
sub-50 msec service restoration that is transparent to the Ethernet layer.

Support for the various Ethernet services is summarized in the following table:

2.1.3.1.T1 - SONET/SDH Support for Carrier Ethernet Services

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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.1.3.2 2.1 Transport Technologies

Optical Transport Network (OTN) 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies
E-Line services can be delivered over Optical Transport Networks (OTN) using 2.1.1.1 Bridging
Ethernet over OTN as specified by the ITU-T G.709 Recommendation. OTN is a
2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)
standard method for transparent transport of services over optical
wavelengths in WDM systems. OTN is often regarded as a next generation 2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone
Bridging (PBB)
SONET/SDH technology that supports 10, 40 and 100 Gbps transport links.
2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone
Transport of Ethernet frames over OTN is highly transparent. Bridging - Traffic Engineering
(PBB-TE)
In essence, Ethernet over OTN requires the mapping of ingress frames at a UNI
(ingress port) to a specific container called an Optical Channel Data Unit 2.1.2 MPLS based
(ODU). For example, the most appropriate OTN container for Carrier Ethernet
2.1.2.1 VPWS
services at the UNI is ODU0, which supports the transport of a 1000BASE-X
2.1.2.2 VPLS
signal mapped to the container using Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). This is
a scalable solution for delivering high bandwidth EPL Services. 2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP

Ethernet over OTN provides the same resiliency as SONET/SDH but with more 2.1.3 Transparent Transport
flexible bandwidth allocation. It is fully transparent to the Ethernet frame, 2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH
meaning any L2CP frame can be tunneled over the OTN-based network. No
2.1.3.2 OTN
MAC learning, forwarding or filtering is performed.
Support for EVPL is limited and requires specific mapping and depends on the 2.1.3.3 WDM

topology.

2.2 Protection and Resiliency


VLANs and CoS are not supported.

Support for the various Ethernet services is summarized in the following table: Download PDF
Download a pdf for
offline viewing.

Reference Documents

IEEE 802.1Q-2009

IEEE 802.1ad-2005

IEEE 802.1ah

IEEE 802.1Qay

ITU-T G.8031

ITU-T G.8032

ITU-T Y.1415

RFC 4448

RFC 4761

RFC 5921

RFC 5960

2.1.3.2.T1 - OTN Support for Carrier Ethernet Services MEF-CECP Test Objectives
2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet
Services

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
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exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Transport In this Section


Technologies 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
Study Guide Section 2.1.3.3 2.1 Transport Technologies

WDM 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport


technologies
Carrier Ethernet E-Line services can be delivered over Wave Division 2.1.1.1 Bridging
Multiplexed (WDM) networks using Ethernet over WDM technology. Both these
2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)
physical layer transport technologies carry packetized digital traffic (i.e.,
Ethernet frames) over photonic channels. DWDM and CWDM technologies can 2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone
Bridging (PBB)
be used to provide very high bandwidth connections in the order of hundreds
2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone
of Gbps over distances ranging up to 80km (50 miles) without repeaters. Bridging - Traffic Engineering
However, when WDM is used to deliver Carrier Ethernet services, it supports (PBB-TE)
point-to-point topologies only.
2.1.2 MPLS based
Incoming traffic is mapped by a multiplexer to a specific optical channel.
2.1.2.1 VPWS
Mapping is agnostic to the content and header of the Ethernet frame and
2.1.2.2 VPLS
therefore provides a very transparent point-to-point service.
2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP
This is illustrated in the following figure:
2.1.3 Transparent Transport

2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH

2.1.3.2 OTN

2.1.3.3 WDM
2.1.3.3.F1 - WDM

The WDMs cannot decipher the CoS Identifier and VLAN tag information 2.2 Protection and Resiliency
contained within an Ethernet frame, so all Ethernet frames associated with a
particular service are transported by the same photonic channel. Only physical Download PDF
layer failures can be detected and acted upon with this technology, and
recovery is performed without intervention from the Ethernet MAC layer.
Download a pdf for
offline viewing.

Reference Documents

IEEE 802.1Q-2009

IEEE 802.1ad-2005

IEEE 802.1ah

IEEE 802.1Qay

ITU-T G.8031

ITU-T G.8032

ITU-T Y.1415

RFC 4448

RFC 4761

RFC 5921

RFC 5960

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

2.1.3.3.T1 - WDM Support for Carrier Ethernet Services 2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet
Services

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

IEEE 802.1Q-2005
Virtual LANs (VLAN)

The 802.1Q-2005 standard developed by IEEE is a useful reference for understanding the topic of Virtual LANs (VLAN) in
the context of Carrier Ethernet networks. The standards document is not available directly from the MEF but may be
obtained from IEEE.

Other relevant links for VLANs can be found at the Wikipedia page on the topic.

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

IEEE 802.1ad-2005
Provider Bridges

The 802.1ad-2005 standard developed by IEEE is a useful reference for understanding how Carrier Ethernet services can be
transported over Provider Bridge networks. The standards document is not available directly from the MEF but may be
obtained directly from IEEE.

Other relevant links for Provider Bridges can be found at the Wikipedia page on the topic.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

IEEE 802.1ah-2008
Provider Backbone Bridges

The 802.1ah-2008 standard developed by IEEE is a useful reference for understanding how Carrier Ethernet services can be
transported over Provider Backbone Bridge networks. The standards document is not available directly from the MEF but
may be obtained from the IEEE.

Other relevant links for Provider Backbone Bridges can be found at the Wikipedia page on the topic.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

IEEE 802.1Qay
Provider Backbone Bridging - Traffic Engineering (PBB-TE)

The 802.1Qay standard developed by IEEE is a useful reference for understanding how Carrier Ethernet services can be
transported over PBB-TE networks. The standards document is not available directly from the MEF but may be obtained
directly from IEEE.

Other relevant links for PBB-TEs can be found at the Wikipedia page on the topic.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

ITU-T G.8031
Ethernet Protection Switching

The G.8031 recommendation developed by ITU-T is a useful reference for understanding Ethernet Protection Switching in
the context of Carrier Ethernet networks. The document can be downloaded here.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

ITU-T G.8032
Ethernet Ring Protection Switching

The G.8032 recommendation developed by ITU-T is a useful reference for understanding Ethernet Ring Protection
Switching in the context of Carrier Ethernet networks. The document can be downloaded here.

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

ITU-T Y.1415
Ethernet-MPLS Interworking

The Y.1415 recommendation developed by ITU-T is a useful reference for understanding Ethernet interworking with MPLS
in the context of Carrier Ethernet networks. The document can be downloaded here.

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IETF RFC 4448


Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Ethernet over MPLS Network

This IETF Request For Comments (RFC) provides useful background information on the transport of Carrier Ethernet
services over MPLS networks.

Abstract:

" An Ethernet pseudowire (PW) is used to carry Ethernet/802.3 Protocol Data Units (PDUs) over an MPLS network. This
enables service providers to offer "emulated" Ethernet services over existing MPLS networks. This document specifies the
encapsulation of Ethernet/802.3 PDUs within a pseudowire. It also specifies the procedures for using a PW to provide a
"point-to-point Ethernet" service."

More links relating to Ethernet pseudowires over MPLS can be found at the Wikipedia page on this topic.
Document download

Wikipedia

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to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
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exam

IETF RFC 4761


Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) Using BGP
for Auto-Discovery and Signaling

This IETF Request For Comments (RFC) provides useful background information on the transport of Carrier Ethernet
services over VPLS networks.

Abstract:

"Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS), also known as Transparent LAN Service and Virtual Private Switched Network service,
is a useful Service Provider offering. The service offers a Layer 2 Virtual Private Network (VPN); however, in the case of
VPLS, the customers in the VPN are connected by a multipoint Ethernet LAN, in contrast to the usual Layer 2 VPNs, which
are point-to-point in nature. This document describes the functions required to offer VPLS, a mechanism for signaling a
VPLS, and rules for forwarding VPLS frames across a packet switched network."
More links relating to VPLS can be found at the Wikipedia page on this topic.

Document download

Wikipedia

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IETF RFC 5921


A Framework for MPLS in Transport Networks

This IETF Request For Comments (RFC) provides useful background information on the transport of Carrier Ethernet
services over MPLS-TP networks.

Abstract:

"This document specifies an architectural framework for the application of Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) to the
construction of packet-switched transport networks. It describes a common set of protocol functions -- the MPLS
Transport Profile (MPLS- TP) -- that supports the operational models and capabilities typical of such networks, including
signaled or explicitly provisioned bidirectional connection-oriented paths, protection and restoration mechanisms,
comprehensive Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) functions, and network operation in the absence of a
dynamic control plane or IP forwarding support. Some of these functions are defined in existing MPLS specifications,
while others require extensions to existing specifications to meet the requirements of the MPLS-TP. This document
defines the subset of the MPLS-TP applicable in general and to point-to-point transport paths. The remaining subset,
applicable specifically to point-to-multipoint transport paths, is outside the scope of this document. This document is a
product of a joint Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) / International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication
Standardization Sector (ITU-T) effort to include an MPLS Transport Profile within the IETF MPLS and Pseudowire
Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) architectures to support the capabilities and functionalities of a packet transport
network as defined by the ITU-T."

More links relating to MPLS-TP can be found at the Wikipedia page on this topic.

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IETF RFC 5960


MPLS Transport Profile Data Plane Architecture

This IETF Request For Comments (RFC) provides useful background information on the transport of Carrier Ethernet
services over MPLS networks.

Abstract:

"The Multiprotocol Label Switching Transport Profile (MPLS-TP) is the set of MPLS protocol functions applicable to the
construction and operation of packet-switched transport networks. This document specifies the subset of these functions
that comprises the MPLS-TP data plane: the architectural layer concerned with the encapsulation and forwarding of
packets within an MPLS-TP network. This document is a product of a joint Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) /
International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) effort to include an MPLS
Transport Profile within the IETF MPLS and Pseudowire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) architectures to support the
capabilities and functionalities of a packet transport network.."

More links relating to MPLS-TP can be found at the Wikipedia page on this topic.

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to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
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exam

Test Objectives 2 1 In this Section


Transporting Carrier Ethernet Services 2 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Transport Technologies
2.1 Describe the connectivity properties of bridging, provider bridging,
provider backbone bridging (PBB), provider backbone bridging with traffic 2.1 Transport Technologies

engineering extensions (PBB-TE), Ethernet over SONET/SDH, Carrier Ethernet 2.1.1 IEEE-based transport
technologies
over MPLS VPWS, Carrier Ethernet over MPLS VPLS, Carrier Ethernet over MPLS
TP, Carrier Ethernet over OTN, and Carrier Ethernet over WDM. 2.1.1.1 Bridging

2.1.1.2 Provider Bridging (PB)


2.2 Describe the capabilities of bridging, provider bridging, provider backbone
2.1.1.3 Provider Backbone
bridging (PBB), provider backbone bridging with traffic engineering extensions Bridging (PBB)
(PBB-TE), SONET/SDH, MPLS VPWS, MPLS VPLS, MPLS TP, OTN and WDM with
2.1.1.4 Provider Backbone
regards to delivery of Carrier Ethernet services. Bridging - Traffic Engineering
(PBB-TE)
2.3 Deleted
2.1.2 MPLS based
2.4 Describe the advantages of specific Carrier Ethernet transport
2.1.2.1 VPWS
technologies.
2.1.2.2 VPLS
2.5 Describe service protection mechanisms.
2.1.2.3 MPLS-TP

2.1.3 Transparent Transport

2.1.3.1 SONET/SDH

2.1.3.2 OTN

2.1.3.3 WDM

2.2 Protection and Resiliency

Download PDF
Download a pdf for
offline viewing.

Reference Documents

IEEE 802.1Q-2009

IEEE 802.1ad-2005

IEEE 802.1ah

IEEE 802.1Qay

ITU-T G.8031

ITU-T G.8032

ITU-T Y.1415

RFC 4448

RFC 4761

RFC 5921

RFC 5960

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

2 Transporting Carrier Ethernet


Services

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Access In this Section


Technologies 3 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Access Technologies
Study Guide Section 3.1 3.1 Access Infrastructures

Access Infrastructures 3.1.1 HFC (DOCSIS)

3.1.2 PON
Carrier Ethernet services are designed to be delivered over all the commonly
available packet access infrastructures deployed today including: 3.1.3 Packet Radio

3.1.4 PDH
HFC (DOCSIS)
3.1.5 Fiber
PON
Packet Radio 3.1.6 Bonded Copper

PDH (T1/E1/T3/E3) 3.2 Comparisons


Dark and active fiber 3.3 Examples
Bonded copper
Download PDF
This section explains the considerations to be taken into account when using
different access infrastructures for the implementation of Carrier Ethernet
services.
Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
The range of access technologies supporting Carrier Ethernet services are
depicted in the following figure:

Reference Documents

MEF Reference Presentation: Access


Technologies

MEF White Paper: Access


Technologies
3.1.F1 - Carrier Ethernet Services over Access Infrastructures
IEEE 802.3

IEEE 802.16

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

3 Carrier Ethernet Access


Technologies

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Access In this Section


Technologies 3 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Access Technologies
Study Guide Section 3.1.1 3.1 Access Infrastructures

Carrier Ethernet over HFC (DOCSIS) 3.1.1 HFC (DOCSIS)

3.1.2 PON
Reach, Rates and Triple Play
3.1.3 Packet Radio
Hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) is an industry term for a broadband network which
3.1.4 PDH
combines optical fiber and coaxial cable. It has been commonly employed by
3.1.5 Fiber
MSO/cable TV operators since the early 1990s.
3.1.6 Bonded Copper
The fiber optic network extends from the cable operators' master/regional 3.2 Comparisons
head-end, to a neighborhoods hub site, and finally to a fiber optic node
3.3 Examples
which serves anywhere from 25 to 2,000 homes. A master head-end will
usually have satellite dishes for reception of distant video signals as well as IP
Download PDF
aggregation routers. Some master head-ends also house telephony equipment
for providing telecommunications services to the community.

By using frequency division multiplexing, an HFC network may carry a variety Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
of services, including analog TV, digital TV (standard definition and HDTV),
VoD, telephony, and high-speed data.

Data over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) is an international


Reference Documents
standard developed by CableLabs and contributing companies. DOCSIS defines
the communications and operation support interface requirements for a data
MEF Reference Presentation: Access
over cable system. DOCSIS 1.0, 1,1 and 2.0 all utilize a single upstream and a Technologies
single downstream channel, while the DOCSIS 3.0 standard allows for channel
MEF White Paper: Access
bonding, and hence higher throughput rates. DOCSIS 3.0 allows for a peak Technologies
downstream rate of approximately 350 Mbps and a peak upstream rate of IEEE 802.3
approximately 125 Mbps.
IEEE 802.16

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

3 Carrier Ethernet Access


Technologies

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Access In this Section


Technologies 3 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Access Technologies
Study Guide Section 3.1.2 3.1 Access Infrastructures

Carrier Ethernet over PON 3.1.1 HFC (DOCSIS)

3.1.2 PON
Reach, Rates and Triple Play
3.1.3 Packet Radio
Passive Optical Networking (xPON) is a point-to-multipoint optical access
3.1.4 PDH
architecture that facilitates broadband communications between an optical
3.1.5 Fiber
line terminal (OLT) at the central office and multiple remote optical network
units (ONUs) over a purely passive optical-distribution network with a reach of 3.1.6 Bonded Copper

approximately 40 km (25 miles). PON supports from 1 to 128 users per single 3.2 Comparisons
strand of fiber. 3.3 Examples

PON is a cost-effective access method because it conserves fiber for service


Download PDF
providers offering high bandwidth business and residential access applications,
green field deployments, mobile backhaul and any upgrade from twisted pair
or coaxial copper networks. PON typically provides asymmetric bandwidth,
Download a pdf for
with total downstream bandwidth reaching 10 Gbps (statistically shared offline viewing.
between all ONUs). The Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) standard was
developed by the IEEE and the Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) by the
ITU-T. EPON supports symmetrical 1 Gbps communications. GPON provides
1.25 Gbps upstream and 2.5 Gbps downstream. Ethernet services are Reference Documents
supported on both platforms. Standards are also underway at CableLabs for
translation of DOCSIS management commands into Ethernet formats to MEF Reference Presentation: Access
Technologies
manage EPON fiber access equipment. An upgrade path to 10 Gbps exists for
both PON types with work being done by the IEEE and ITU-T. MEF White Paper: Access
Technologies

IEEE 802.3
IEEE 802.16

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

3 Carrier Ethernet Access


Technologies
3.1.2.F1 - Carrier Ethernet Services over PON Infrastructures

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Access In this Section


Technologies 3 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Access Technologies
Study Guide Section 3.1.3 3.1 Access Infrastructures

Carrier Ethernet over Packet Radio 3.1.1 HFC (DOCSIS)

3.1.2 PON
Reach, rates, licensed and unlicensed
3.1.3 Packet Radio
Where wireline services are not available or practical, delivering Ethernet
3.1.4 PDH
over a point-to-point wireless access network can make a previously
3.1.5 Fiber
unattainable connection practical. Also, where mobility is required, broadband
wireless services from mobile service providers may provide an effective 3.1.6 Bonded Copper

connectivity option. 3.2 Comparisons

3.3 Examples
Terrestrial Microwave

A microwave link uses microwave frequencies (above 1 GHz) for line of sight Download PDF
radio communications (32 to 48 KM, 20 to 30 miles) between two directional
antennas. This is also known as point-to-point (PtP) Microwave. Microwave
link transceivers are now available with standard Ethernet interfaces that can Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
be used to deliver Carrier Ethernet services. The distance and throughput that
can be achieved is a function of frequency and antenna size. For example,
100 Mbps Fast Ethernet can be achieved reliably over 13 KM (8 miles) at 11
GHz but will perform poorly over 24 KM (15 miles) due to rain fade at that Reference Documents
frequency. 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet can be achieved reliably up to 48 KM (30
miles) at 6 GHz. MEF Reference Presentation: Access
Technologies
The use of microwave links avoids the need to install cables between
MEF White Paper: Access
communication equipment. Microwave links may be set up over licensed Technologies
frequencies (filed and protected by government agencies) or over unlicensed IEEE 802.3
frequencies (through the use of low power within unlicensed regulatory limits)
IEEE 802.16
Broadband Wireless
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
EVDO (Evolution of Existing Systems for Data Only) is a commonly available
upgraded service of cellular providers with CDMA (Code Division Multiple 3 Carrier Ethernet Access
Technologies
Access) systems. EVDO Rev. A allows for a maximum data transmission rate of
approximately 3.1 Mbps on the forward (downstream) channel. The EVDO Rev.
Send Feedback
A system uses the same reverse channel which limits the uplink data
transmission rate to approximately 1.8 Mbps. The EVDO system has an
Name:
upgraded packet data transmission control system that allows for bursty data
transmission rather than for more continuous voice data transmission.
Email:
GSM (Global System for Mobile)
Comments
GSM is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. Its
promoter, the GSM Association, estimates that 80% of the global mobile
market uses the standard. Release '97 of the standard added packet data
capabilities, by means of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). The latest Send Feedback

version of packet data communications are UMTS (Universal Mobile


Telecommunications System) and HSDPA/HSPA+ (High-Speed Downlink Packet
Access/ High-Speed Packet Access). These technologies enable download
speeds of up to 42 Mbps (22 Mbps in upload). One of the main advantages of
HSPA+ is its optional all-IP capability that is using native Ethernet connection
to the base station. Note that these are base station rates that are shared
amongst all active users served by a particular base station.

LTE (Long Term Evolution)

LTE is the name given to a project within the Third Generation Partnership
Project (3GPP) to improve the UMTS mobile phone standard to cope with
future technology evolutions. Goals include improving spectral efficiency,
lowering costs, improving services, making use of new spectrum and re-
farmed spectrum opportunities, and better integration with other open
standards. Being based on an all-IP infrastructure and native Ethernet
connectivity, LTE provides peak download rates of up to approximately 300
Mbps and peak upload rates of approximately 75 Mbps. Note that these are
base station rates that are shared amongst all active users served by a
particular base station.

WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)

WiMax was created by the WiMAX Forum and is a wireless point-to-multi-point


data transmission technology that is based on the IEEE 802.16 standards. With
its latest version, 802.16e adds mobility and better support for quality of
service as well as symmetrical transmission capability of typically 40 Mbps for
fixed and 15 Mbps for mobile implementation. Peak rate of the base station
can reach 70 Mbps. As a "last mile" broadband wireless access, WiMAX can be
used in the following applications: replacement to legacy T1/E1, delivery of
triple-play services, backhaul technology for Wi-Fi hotspots and mobile
backhaul and for mobile emergency response services.
3.1.3.F1 - Carrier Ethernet over Packet Wireless

Access Technologies for Mobile Backhaul

For mobile backhaul, there are of variety of access technologies, depending


on the type of radio capability. Base stations of 2G and older 3G networks
have TDM interfaces making Ethernet over PDH (either E1/T1 or bonded
T1s/E1s) the prevailing option. 4G eNodeBs and LTE base stations have
Ethernet interfaces. For these, either fiber or PON could be the ideal option,
but since fiber is not available in all locations, some will use Point-to-Point
microwave towards an aggregation node. The choices are summarized in the
following figure:

3.1.3.F2 - Access Technologies for Carrier Ethernet Mobile Backhaul

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Access In this Section


Technologies 3 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Access Technologies
Study Guide Section 3.1.4 3.1 Access Infrastructures

Carrier Ethernet over PDH 3.1.1 HFC (DOCSIS)

3.1.2 PON
An alternative to SONET/SDH nor Dark Fiber facilities are used by Service
Providers that have found that an existing PDH network - consisting of 3.1.3 Packet Radio
traditional DS1/E1, DS3 and E3 standard circuits - enable the Service Provider 3.1.4 PDH
to deliver Carrier Ethernet to locations that would otherwise be unreachable. 3.1.5 Fiber

Ethernet over Bonded T1/E1 3.1.6 Bonded Copper

3.2 Comparisons
T1 at 1.544 Mbps and E1 at 2.048 Mbps have been the dominant access
technologies for business voice and data services for decades. From their 3.3 Examples

humble beginnings as voice trunk line technologies, to their more recent


achievement as the gold standard of Internet access for small and medium- Download PDF
sized businesses, T1s and E1s have proven to be well-understood and versatile
last-mile technologies. Through the use of repeater technologies, T1/E1
facilities can be extended to practically unlimited distances from the serving Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
POP/CO.

These lines reach nearly every business in the modern world. Ethernet can be
transported over T1 and E1 as a single link or bonded group of links allowing
Reference Documents
service providers to deliver Ethernet at rates from 1 Mbps up to 16 Mbps.
Bonding brings with it the additional benefit of resiliency - a feature
MEF Reference Presentation: Access
demanded by many enterprise customers. Because there are multiple links Technologies
involved in the access method, it is inherently protected against interruptions MEF White Paper: Access
of one or more of those links (for example, a destruction of a facility by a Technologies
backhoe or an excavator). IEEE 802.3
There are three standardized methods for delivering Carrier Ethernet over IEEE 802.16

T1/E1 lines:-
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
multilink point-to-point protocol (MLPPP)
3 Carrier Ethernet Access
GFP/VCAT Technologies
G.bond or EFM
Send Feedback
While each technology has its strengths, they all deliver comparable
performance and are available from many equipment vendors.
Name:
Ethernet over DS3/E3
Email:
Just as T1/E1 is a desirable access technology for delivering Ethernet service,
DS3 and E3 circuits provide another alternative using readily available Comments
transport technology. Using DS3 and E3 circuits and circuit bonding, the
service provider can offer Carrier Ethernet services at flexible rates from 1
Mbps 130 Mbps. Ethernet over DS3/E3 is not only used as a retail service
access technology, but is often used as a low-cost infrastructure alternative Send Feedback

for backhaul between remote co-location facilities and points of presence.

3.1.4.F1 - Carrier Ethernet over DS3/E3

The following table depicts the rates that can be achieved using each variant
of Carrier Ethernet over PDH and the standards that define the bonding of
circuits:

3.1.4.T1 Summary Table for Carrier Ethernet over PDH

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Access In this Section


Technologies 3 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Access Technologies
Study Guide Section 3.1.5 3.1 Access Infrastructures

Carrier Ethernet over Fiber 3.1.1 HFC (DOCSIS)

3.1.2 PON
For applications where it is available or where the bandwidth requirements
dictate it, delivering Ethernet over optical fiber is an excellent choice. With 3.1.3 Packet Radio
virtually unlimited bandwidth support, noise immunity and the ability to 3.1.4 PDH
traverse long distances, optical fiber can provide the performance for the 3.1.5 Fiber
applications of today and those envisioned for tomorrow.
3.1.6 Bonded Copper
Active Ethernet 3.2 Comparisons

One of the most common Ethernet over Fiber architectures is point-to-point, 3.3 Examples

where the connection is from the Service Providers aggregation switch to a


Network Interface Device (NID) located at the customer premises. Download PDF

Active fiber deployments are an excellent choice for service providers when
the customer is in an on-net building in a dense metropolitan area or in a new Download a pdf for
infrastructure build-out. Fiber optics as an access medium is also preferred offline viewing.

when Ethernet speeds are 1 Gbps or higher.

The capex investment in fiber optic infrastructure is a one-time investment


with minimal recurring operational cost. Fibers ability to service 100 Mbps, Reference Documents
Gigabit and 10 Gigabit data rates, as well as multiplex multiple channels using
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM), enable it to support any foreseeable MEF Reference Presentation: Access
Technologies
future data rates and services.
MEF White Paper: Access
The distances that can be supported by a fiber infrastructure are limited only Technologies

by the active interface hardware. Using standard optics, 2 km-150 km (1.25 IEEE 802.3
94 mile) distances can be easily be achieved. IEEE 802.16

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

3 Carrier Ethernet Access


Technologies

Send Feedback

Name:

3.1.5.F1 Carrier Ethernet over Fiber


Email:

Comments

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Access In this Section


Technologies 3 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Access Technologies
Study Guide Section 3.1.6 3.1 Access Infrastructures

Carrier Ethernet over Bonded Copper 3.1.1 HFC (DOCSIS)

3.1.2 PON
Ethernet in the First Mile over Copper (EFMCu) allows fast deployment of
resilient symmetrical Ethernet Access/Backhaul links over existing voice-grade 3.1.3 Packet Radio
copper infrastructure, providing a very economical alternative to fiber. There 3.1.4 PDH
are two standardized EFMCu technologies: 3.1.5 Fiber

Long reach 2BASE-TL, delivering a minimum of 2 Mbit/s and a 3.1.6 Bonded Copper

maximum of 5.69 Mbit/s over distances of at least 2700 m, using 3.2 Comparisons
standard G.SHDSL.bis technology over a single copper pair. This 3.3 Examples
bandwidth is symmetrical.
Short reach 10PASS-TS, delivering a minimum of 10 Mbit/s over Download PDF
distances of at least 750 m (2460 ft), using VDSL technology over a
single copper pair. This bandwidth is asymmetrical, where uplink
bandwidth is around 1-2 Mbps. Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
Extensions to these standard technologies developed by some equipment
vendors have enabled Service Providers to improve on the rate/reach curves
provided by standard implementations.
Reference Documents
Both EFMCu technologies support an optional aggregation or bonding of
multiple copper pairs (up to 32), providing higher bandwidth, longer reach MEF Reference Presentation: Access
and improved resiliency. The aggregate bandwidth, in excess of 100 Mbps, for Technologies
downlink traffic, offered by copper bonding solutions meet the needs of most MEF White Paper: Access
bandwidth-intensive Carrier Ethernet applications. Technologies

IEEE 802.3
IEEE 802.16

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

3 Carrier Ethernet Access


Technologies

Send Feedback

Name:

3.1.6.F1 Carrier Ethernet over Bonded Copper


Email:

Comments

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Access In this Section


Technologies 3 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Access Technologies
Study Guide Section 3.2 3.1 Access Infrastructures

Comparisons 3.1.1 HFC (DOCSIS)

3.1.2 PON
Benefits of HFC (DOCSIS) for Carrier Ethernet services
3.1.3 Packet Radio
HFC permits the addition of high-speed data transfer to an existing Cable TV
3.1.4 PDH
(CATV) system. It is employed by many cable television operators to provide
3.1.5 Fiber
Internet access and Business Services over their existing (HFC) infrastructure.
3.1.6 Bonded Copper
With its large coverage and available performance, HFC/DOCSIS technology is 3.2 Comparisons
a valuable asset for Cable TV/MSO providers to deliver Ethernet-based
3.3 Examples
services to the SOHO/SMB and high-speed Internet access to residential
customers.
Download PDF
Benefits of PON for Carrier Ethernet services

PONs immediate benefit is the increase in the bandwidth delivered to the Download a pdf for
residential and SME/SMB subscriber compared to legacy twisted pair offline viewing.
technologies. Other benefits of PON include:

1. Delivery of new bandwidth-intensive applicaiton


2. Significant reductions in fiber infrastructure Reference Documents
3. Large reductions in electrical cost
4. Reduced maintenance requirements MEF Reference Presentation: Access
Technologies
Benefits of PDH for Carrier Ethernet services MEF White Paper: Access
Technologies
The primary benefit that comes from using T1/E1 for delivering Carrier
IEEE 802.3
Ethernet services is that Service Providers are able to reach all of their
customer locations, regardless of geography and proximity to their facilities. IEEE 802.16
In addition, the familiarity and turnkey nature of T1/E1 circuits means
services can be turned up quickly, whether access is on-net or off-net, MEF-CECP Test Objectives
allowing the service provider to recognize revenue sooner and to decouple 3 Carrier Ethernet Access
sales efforts from the infrastructure build-outs associated with many Technologies
alternative technologies.
Send Feedback
The primary benefit of using PDH (DS3/E3) is to deliver Carrier Ethernet at
rates greater than 3 Mbps over existing transport infrastructure. Rapid service Name:
turn-up and revenue recognition are additional side benefits of this
infrastructure. Email:

Benefits of Fiber for Carrier Ethernet services Comments

One major benefit of using fiber optic access technology is its ability to
future-proof bandwidth and distance requirements. Fiber offers easy
scalability to meet and adapt to the increasing customer needs.
Send Feedback

Beyond its bandwidth capacity, fiber also offers additional benefits such as
being able to transmit over greater distances and its inherent immunity to
noise and interference.

Benefits of Bonded Copper for Carrier Ethernet services

Using the existing voice-grade copper infrastructure keeps deployment costs


to a minimum, as there is no requirement for new cabling inside or outside
the residence or business. Using the multi-pair bonding service providers can
offer high performance (10-100 Mbps) service over a reliable infrastructure
with resiliency built-in.

Ethernet over Bonded Copper can also lower recurring operational costs for
CLECs or ILECs who are operating as CLECs in out-of-region territories. Using
bonded copper, Service Providers can deliver Carrier Ethernet services over
leased dry copper, which is typically much less expensive than alternatives.

Summary and Comparison

Summary of Carrier Ethernet Access Technologies


Carrier Technology Deployment Scenarios
Ethernet Alternatives (When to use the Advantages
Access technology)
Method
- Active Ethernet - On-net buildings - - Highest bandwidth -
Ethernet - Ethernet over Greenfield - Dense Noise immunity -
over Fiber SONET/SDH - Metro area - 1Gbit/s or Security - Long reach -
Passive Optical greater bandwidth SONET/SDH leverage
Network requirements existing - Growth
potential via xWDM
- Remote branch - Leverage existing
Ethernet - Bonded T1/E1 - offices - Off-net transport - Universally
over PDH DS3/E3 and customer locations deployable - Lower
bonded DS3/E3 (out of region, type 2) CAPEX - No reach
- SMB limitations - Well
understood provisioning
- Resiliency through
bonding
- Remote branch - Ubiquitous copper
Ethernet - 2BASE-TL - offices - On-net or off- availability - Rapid
over 10PASS-TS net - SMB - Campus deployment - Low cost
Copper settings - Traffic unbundled local loop -
monitoring Resiliency through
bonding
- Terrestrial - Remote branch office - Installation requires
Wireless microwave - - Campus setting - No no trenching - Rapid
Ethernet WiMAX - fiber or copper deployment - Some
Broadband available - Mobility alternatives offer
wireless - Free required mobility
space optics -
WiFi
Hybrid - Work at home - - Extensive coverage -
Fiber Coax DOCSIS 2.x/3.x SOHO/SMB - Remote High performance
branch office options - Deep
penetration into
residential and
suburban geographies

Each technology has different rate capabilities. Note that some offer only
limited uplink bandwidth. The following table summarizes the bandwidth per
each access technology:

Access Method Speed


10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, 1 Gbps, 10 Gbps, 40 Gbps
Ethernet over Active Fiber
and above
1 Gbps with EPON 1.25 Gbps upstream & 2.5
Ethernet over PON
Gbps downstream with GPON
Ethernet over SONET/SDH 155 Mbps to 1 Gbps
Ethernet over Up to 100 Mbps with DOCSIS 3.0
HFC/DOCSIS
Minimum of 2 Mbps using G.SHDSL Minimum of
Ethernet over DSL 10 Mbps over VDSL Up to 100 Mbps
(asymmetric)
Ethernet over T1/E1 1.5/2Mbps to 16 Mbps with bonding
Ethernet over DS3/E3 34/45 Mbps to 130 Mbps with bonding
Ethernet over Packet 1 Mbps to >1Gbps
Microwave
Ethernet over WiMax <70Mbps at 50km (31 mile)

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Services over Access In this Section


Technologies 3 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Access Technologies
Study Guide Section 3.3 3.1 Access Infrastructures

Examples 3.1.1 HFC (DOCSIS)

3.1.2 PON
When investigating access technologies for a specific scenario, the following
considerations should be taken: 3.1.3 Packet Radio

3.1.4 PDH
Existance of legacy lines
3.1.5 Fiber
Availability of fiber
Required bandwidth 3.1.6 Bonded Copper

Requirement for symmetric or mainly downlink bandwidth 3.2 Comparisons


Resiliency requirements 3.3 Examples
Long or short reach
Need to support TDM circuits Download PDF

Use case 1
Download a pdf for
When planning Carrier Ethernet service for a small office/home office (SoHo) offline viewing.
that is located in a new neighborhood, it is likely that there is fiber to the
premise already available. Since this is a residential area, it is also quite
possible that HFC is in place. However, HFC has limited upload bandwidth,
which can be sufficient if the SoHo only requires access to Internet services. Reference Documents
A higher symmetrical bandwidth service would be offered via direct active
MEF Reference Presentation: Access
fiber.
Technologies

MEF White Paper: Access


Use case 2 Technologies

IEEE 802.3
A SoHo requires access to Internet services. This SoHo is located in an urban
location. It is likely that there is no fiber to the premise and digging fiber is IEEE 802.16
not feasible from a cost and time perspective. More probable options include
Ethernet over bonded copper, or wireless Internet access services through MEF-CECP Test Objectives
WiMAX or LTE technologies. 3 Carrier Ethernet Access
Technologies

Use case 3
Send Feedback
A remote farm requires services for enabling video delivery and weather
information. Since the requirement is for high bandwidth of 20 Mbps, the Name:
solution would be packet microwave which is ideal for remote locations. Such
rates would exclude 3G/CDMA access, leaving WiMax or Point-to-Point Email:
microwave as possible alternatives.
Comments
Case Study Ubiquitous Ethernet Services in Action

EnvoEnvo is an environmental science company located in North America.


They specialize in data collection and analysis. Their instruments measure
Send Feedback

hydrology, chemistry, strain, pressure, chromatography, vibration,


temperature, particulates, aerosols, and other critical variables of interest to
business, industry and government. Monitoring services are provided for
clients large and small throughout the southeast US in both urban and rural
areas. Data throughput requirements range from a few hundred kbps to
500Mbps depending on the application. They also have truck-based mobile
facilities used for temporary installations.

A ubiquitous, flexible, secure and diverse network is required to support all of


EnvoEnvo's customers. EnvoEnvo's IT Director, working with the local cable
operator in northern Florida created a network that meets his challenging
requirements. Because most of the EnvoEnvo equipment has Ethernet ports,
over time he has created a large Ethernet WAN to collect data from remote
locations.

The local cable company manages the primary network. It was able to reach
many of the customer monitoring locations with an EPON network that
supports business and residential subscribers in the region. In some cases the
MSO contracts with the local ILEC or CLEC to reach locations using bonded T1s
and SONET and in some cases mid-band Ethernet over bonded copper pairs. To
meet the needs of extremely remote off-net locations, the IT Director
created a wireless system for the mobile facilities that can be connected to
most service provider's facilities. The core regional network aggregates these
signals for transmission over the MSO fiber on dedicated CWDM wavelengths.

Sample Access Connections into EnvoEnvo's E-LAN Service


B/W Access Media Access Service Application
Technology Provider
500kbps Wireless Wifi CLEC Hydrological pressure
measurement
100Mbps Fiber Ethernet MSO Remote imaging and
chemical analysis
4Mbps Copper - EFMCu ILEC Water, air, wind,
Twisted Pair temperature
50Mbps Fiber Ethernet MSO Motion and air quality
measurement
10Mbps Fiber Ethernet MSO Motion and air quality
measurement
500kbps Wireless Broadband Wireless Hydrological pressure
Wireless Operator measurement
10Mbps Copper T1 Ethernet over ILEC Air quality measurement
Bonded T1
150Mbps Fiber Ethernet over CLEC Remote imaging and
SONET chemical analysis
2Mbps Copper - HFC/DOCSIS MSO Chemical analysis
Coaxial
500Mbps Fiber Direct Fiber MSO Remote imaging and
Ethernet chemical analysis
6Mbps Wireless Microwave MSO Solar, humidity, wind and
other
3Mbps Copper - HFC/DOCSIS MSO Chemical analysis
Coaxial

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

MEF Reference Presentation


Carrier Ethernet Access
- Extending Ethernet into the First Mile

The presentation gives comprehensive overview of how Ethernet services can be delivered over various First Mile
infrastructures including HFC, PON, wireless, PDH, Fiber and bonded copper.

Download

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

MEF White Paper


Ethernet Services and Access Technologies

Abstract:

"This MEF white paper provides an overview of the various access technologies (also referred to as first-mile or last-
mile technologies) that are used to deliver MEF-compliant Carrier Ethernet services. The goal of this white paper is to
illustrate the fact that Service Providers who wish to deliver a ubiquitous Carrier Ethernet service can and should deploy
a number of available access technologies to ensure they can reach all of their business customers locations."

Download


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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

IEEE 802.3-2005
Ethernet

The 802.3 standard developed by IEEE is a useful reference for understanding how Carrier Ethernet services can be
transported over IEEE-based networks. The standards document is not available directly from the MEF but may be
obtained from IEEE.

Other relevant links for Ethernet technology can be found at the Wikipedia page on the topic.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

IEEE 802.16
Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems

The 802.16 standard developed by IEEE is a useful reference for understanding how Carrier Ethernet services can be
transported over wireless networks. The standards document is not available directly from the MEF but may be obtained
from the IEEE.

Other relevant links for wireless networks can be found at the Wikipedia page on the topic.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Test Objectives 3 1 In this Section


Carrier Ethernet Access Technologies 3 Carrier Ethernet Services over
Access Technologies
3.1 Describe the capabilities of Ethernet over PDH, Ethernet over bonded
copper, Ethernet over HFC, Ethernet over packet radio, Ethernet over fiber 3.1 Access Infrastructures

and Ethernet over PON. 3.1.1 HFC (DOCSIS)

3.1.2 PON
3.2 Describe the advantages of specific Carrier Ethernet Access technologies.
3.1.3 Packet Radio
3.3 Given a scenario, identify which Carrier Ethernet Access Technology will 3.1.4 PDH
meet the stated requirements.
3.1.5 Fiber

3.1.6 Bonded Copper

3.2 Comparisons

3.3 Examples

Download PDF

Download a pdf for


offline viewing.

Reference Documents

MEF Reference Presentation: Access


Technologies

MEF White Paper: Access


Technologies

IEEE 802.3
IEEE 802.16

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

3 Carrier Ethernet Access


Technologies

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
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Key Components of Carrier Ethernet In this Section

4 Key Components of Carrier


Study Guide Section 4.1 Ethernet

Subscribers, Service Providers and Operators 4.1 Subscribers, Service Providers


and Operators
The basic model described in MEF 10 for Ethernet services is of a Subscriber
4.2 EVC, OVC, UNI, ENNI and CEN
being the end user for the service (which can be an enterprise, an application (MEN)
service provider, SME, etc) contacting a Service Provider who manages and 4.3 Service Models
operates a Carrier Ethernet Network (CEN) for delivery of Ethernet services.

Download PDF
Subscriber is the organization purchasing and/or using Ethernet Services and
is also known as the end-user. The Subscriber describes the connectivity that
it requires and the traffic specifications in terms of guaranteed bandwidth
Download a pdf for
(CIR) and Excess Bandwidth (EIR). The Service Provider then offers the offline viewing.
Ethernet service(s) and provides (optionally) service performance metrics for
the guaranteed traffic.

Service Provider (SP) is the organization providing Ethernet Service(s). The SP


Reference Documents
contracts with the Subscriber for delivery of service per the service
requirements specified by the subscriber. The commitment of the SP is MEF 10.2
specified in the Service Level Agreement (SLA) which defines the service,
MEF 13
billing, support and maintenance.
MEF 26.1
Operators
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
MEF 26 expands the basic model (described in MEF 10) to facilitate the cases
where the service spans multiple CENs operated by different administrative 4 Components of Carrier Ethernet
entities.
Send Feedback
Each CEN is managed by an Operator where the Operator provides
connectivity services to the Service Provider that in turn provides the UNI-to-
Name:
UNI (end-to-end service) to the Subscriber (as described in the MEF 10
model) Email:

The Service Provider is in charge of assembling and managing the UNI-to-UNI Comments
service. This includes aspects of the service such as billing, technical support,
performance monitoring and reporting to the subscriber.

This model is illustrated below.


Send Feedback

Figure 4.1.F1 - Subscribers, Service Providers and Operators

The Operator may have only limited knowledge of the UNI to UNI service, or
indeed may know nothing at all about it if the Operator is simply providing a
transit CEN for several such services.

Note that the Service Provider may very well also be an Operator of a CEN. In
such cases, the Service Provider contacts another CEN operator in order to
extend the Service Provider reach to locations outside its coverage areas
('offnet locations')

The Service Provider can be a virtual entity with no ownership of its own
physical network. In such a case, the Service Provider stitches together
Ethernet services out of services bought from several CEN Operators.

The Subscriber is typically completely unaware of the existence of the


Operator and interacts only with the Service Provider.

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Key Components of Carrier Ethernet In this Section

4 Key Components of Carrier


Study Guide Section 4.2 Ethernet

EVC, OVC, UNI, ENNI and CEN (MEN) 4.1 Subscribers, Service Providers
and Operators
Definition of UNI, UNI-N and UNI-C per MEF 10.2
4.2 EVC, OVC, UNI, ENNI and CEN
(MEN)
This section describes the basic constructs and definitions of Ethernet
4.3 Service Models
services.

The User Network Interface (UNI) is the physical interface or port that is the Download PDF
demarcation between the Subscriber and the Service Provider.

The network that provides the Ethernet services is called the Carrier Ethernet Download a pdf for
Network (CEN). Note that some earlier MEF specifications refer to CEN as MEN offline viewing.
(Metro Ethernet Network) The name was changed by the MEF since Carrier
Ethernet Networks can span any geography from metro through to
intercontinental and are not limited to just metro areas.
Reference Documents

MEF 10.2
The basic service model as described in MEF 10.2 is depicted below:
MEF 13

MEF 26.1

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

4 Components of Carrier Ethernet

Figure 4.2.F1 - Basic Service Model per MEF 10.2 Send Feedback
[Source: MEF 10.2 Figure 1]

The UNI is the demarcation point where the Customer Edge (CE) connects to Name:
the network.
Email:
The functionality of UNI-C (UNI Customer side) is located on the Subscriber
site whereas the functionality of UNI-N (UNI Network side) is located on the Comments
Service Provider site closest to that of the Subscriber.

It should be noted that UNI-N or UNI-C functionality can be realized by more


than one physical network element. Send Feedback

Figure 4.2.F2 - UNI-C and UNI-N

UNI-C is responsible for:

Sending the frames towards the Customer Edge (CE)


Formating the frames in ETH format
C-tagging the frames per the service definition

UNI-N is responsible for:

Exchange of data frames with UNI-C


Enforcing bandwidth profile
Mapping to and from the EVCs

The CE and CEN exchange Service Frames across the UNI. A Service Frame is
an Ethernet (per IEEE 802.3-2005) frame transmitted across the UNI toward
the Service Provider (called an ingress Service Frame ) or an Ethernet frame
transmitted across the UNI toward the Subscriber (called an egress Service
Frame)

In addition, the CE and the CEN can exchange OAM frames for management of
the UNI link. These are NOT considered service frames.

The Service Frame consists of the first bit of the Destination MAC Address
through the last bit of the Frame Check Sequence. The protocol as seen by
the CE connected to the UNI MUST be standard Ethernet with the exception
that it may have a length greater than that specified in IEEE 802.3-2005, and
thus support Jumbo frames.

UNI Type 1 and UNI Type 2

The MEF defines two UNI types:

1. UNI Type 1: Defined by MEF 11. This is a basic UNI with manual
configuration of UNI-N and UNI-C.

UNI Type 1.1 and 1.2 are defined:

Type 1.1 : Non-multiplexed UNI for services such as EPL

Type 1.2 : Multiplexed UNI for services such as EVPL


Services like EVPL

2. UNI Type 2: Defined by MEF 20. It presents an automated


implementation model allowing UNI-C to retrieve EVC status and
configuration information from UNI-N. It supports enhanced UNI
attributes and additional fault management and protection
functionality.

UNI type 2 is further divided into UNI type 2.1 and UNI type 2.2.

UNI Type 2.1

Mandatory Features

Backward compatible with UNI Type 1


Service OAM
Enhanced UNI attributes
L2CP handling

Optional Features

Link OAM
Protection
E-LMI

UNI Type 2.2

Mandatory Features

Backward compatible with UNI Type 1


Service OAM
Enhanced UNI attributes
L2CP handling
Link OAM
Protection
E-LMI

Definition of EVC

Ethernet services are delivered using Ethernet Virtual Connections (EVCs).


EVCs can be of three types (E-Line, E-LAN or E-Tree). EVCs connect two or
more subscriber UNIs for delivery of Ethernet frames (called Service Frames)

An EVC is an association of two or more UNIs. These UNIs are said to be in


the EVC. A given UNI can support more than one EVC via the Service
Multiplexing attribute.

An example of an E-Line EVC is depicted below:

Figure 4.2.F3 - EPL EVC

The ingress Service Frame that is mapped to the EVC can be delivered to one
or more of the UNIs in the EVC other than the ingress UNI. It MUST NOT be
delivered back to the ingress UNI (note that this limitation is only for service
frames and does not affect fault management frames like Loopback) It MUST
NOT be delivered to a UNI not in the EVC. An EVC is always bi-directional in
the sense that ingress Service Frames can originate at any UNI in an EVC.

Definition of ENNI

It is likely that a potential Subscriber for Ethernet Services will have locations
that are not all served by a single CEN Service Provider. Put another way, in
order for such a Subscriber to obtain services, multiple CEN Operators will
need to be used to support all of the Subscriber's User Network Interfaces
(UNIs)

The MEF has defined three fundamental constructs to facilitate global


interconnect:

ENNI (External Network to Network Interface) is the demarcation point


between two CEN operators that connect their CENs in order to provide
Ethernet services to subscribers.

Figure 4.2.F4 - ENNI

In terms of the service model, a new entity is defined - namely the Operator.

An Operator is a CEN provider that is not the Service Provider. The Operator
is not the entity providing the service to the subscriber.

Definition of OVC

OVC (Operator Virtual Connection) is the association of External Interfaces


(UNI or ENNI) within a single CEN, where at least one External Interface is an
ENNI (Note that without this limitation, an OVC could be an EVC)

An OVC can be of 2 types (more types to be included in future revisions of


MEF 26): Point-to-point OVC and Multipoint-to-Multipoint OVC.

The concept is illustrated below:

Figure 4.2.F5 - EVC and multiple OVCs

Concatenation of OVCs are used to create EVCs.

Concatenating OVCs A, B and C create the EVC illustrated above. Each OVC is
managed by a single CEN operator. The EVC is provided by the Service
Provider which may be a fourth entity or might also be one of the three
operators shown.

Functionality of UNI, ENNI, EVC and OVC

The UNI is the demarcation point between the Subscriber and the Service
Provider.

This demarcation point can be a virtual reference point or can reside on a


port on a switch or router.

The entities of the UNI are depicted in the following figure:

Figure 4.2.F7 - UNI Entities

The UNI-C provides the Customer Edge side functions which can be
implemented on a switch or router that connects to the Service Provider's
CEN.

The UNI-C provides the CE-VLAN ID marking and can perform traffic
management functions to ensure that the traffic offered to the CEN is within
the service specifications. The UNI-C also performs OAM functions, etc.

The UNI-N is the SP's side of the UNI. It can be implemented in a single
network element or can be distributed between several network elements
within the CEN. This internal CEN implementation is outside the scope of the
MEF technical specifications.

The UNI-N performs the following functions:

Ingress Bandwidth Profile


Map of Service Frames to EVC
Optional CE-VLAN ID manipulation
Mark Color
OAM functions
UNI link functions (LACP, Link OAM, etc.)
Fault management and performance monitoring of the EVC

The EVC is the basic service container. It connects all the UNIs that belong to
a service. It enforces the connectivity rules, by blocking Leaf to Leaf
communication. The EVC provides separation between Subscribers and
between services.

The EVC is the fundamental service identifier through which configuration,


enforcement, monitoring and reporting occur.

The ENNI is the demarcation point between two CEN operators that connect
their network in order that an SP can offer multi-CEN services to subscribers.

Similarly to the UNI, each side of the ENNI which resides in different CENs has
functions defined by the ENNI-N, as depicted in the following figure:

Figure 4.2.F6 - ENNI-Ns


[Source: MEF 26.1, figure 5]

ENNI-N has the following functionality:

Managing and maintaining the ENNI link (resiliency, fault


management)
Formatting of frames transmitted to and received from the ENNI
Contains several OVC end points
Participates in Service OAM functionalities (MIPs, MEPs)
Optionally performs hairpin switching
Enforces bandwidth profiles at the ENNI including color marking

OVC functionality is similar to EVC functionality where it is limited to a single


CEN.

The OVC connects OVC end points which can reside at External Interfaces (UNI
or ENNI) OVCs are the building blocks for creating EVCs in multi-CEN
scenarios. OVCs provide separation between different services supported for
an SP by the Operator. It also provides the preservation of S-tag and C-tag
where required.

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Key Components of Carrier Ethernet In this Section

4 Key Components of Carrier


Study Guide Section 4.3 Ethernet

Service Models 4.1 Subscribers, Service Providers


and Operators
The MEF 26 Service Model
4.2 EVC, OVC, UNI, ENNI and CEN
(MEN)
MEF 26 expands the basic model described in MEF 10 to facilitate those cases
4.3 Service Models
where the service spans multiple CENs which are operated by different
administrative entities.
Download PDF
In such a case, each CEN is managed by an Operator where the Operator
provides connectivity services to the Service Provider which in turn provides
the service to the Subscriber (as in the MEF 10 model) Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
The Service Provider is responsible for assembling and managing the UNI-to-
UNI (end-to-end) service for the Subscriber. Management includes billing,
technical support, performance monitoring and reporting to the Subscriber.
Reference Documents
This model is illustrated below.
MEF 10.2

MEF 13

MEF 26.1

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

4 Components of Carrier Ethernet


Figure 4.3.F1 - MEF 26 Model

The Operator may have only limited knowledge of the UNI-to-UNI service, or Send Feedback
may know nothing at all about it in the case of the Operator that provides
transit CENs for several services. Name:
Note that the Service Provider may well also be an Operator of a CEN. In such
Email:
cases, the Service Provider/Operator contacts another CEN operator in order
to extend the Service Provider's reach to locations outside the Service Comments
Provider's coverage areas ('offnet coverage')

The Service Provider may be a virtual entity that stitches together Ethernet
services out of services the Service Provider buys from several CEN operators. Send Feedback

The Subscriber is not necessarily aware of the existence of the Operator(s).

Service Frames and ENNI frames

MEF 10.x defines the Service Frame as follows:

"An Ethernet frame transmitted across the UNI toward the Service Provider
(CEN) or an Ethernet frame transmitted across the UNI toward the Subscriber
from the CEN."

Ingress Service Frames typically map to an EVC at the UNI.

However, frames exchanged between the CE and the CEN's edge device
attached to it for the management of the UNI link (e.g. LACP, Link OAM) are
NOT service frames.

Service Frames are in the format defined by IEEE 802.3-2005 (except for
allowing larger frames like Jumbo frames). The Service Frame consists of the
first bit of the Destination MAC Address through the last bit of the Frame
Check Sequence.

MEF 26 defines the term ENNI Frame as any Ethernet (per IEEE 802.3-2005)
frame exchanged between two CEN Operators across an ENNI interface.

Note that ENNI Frame could be a service frame or could be an OAM frame of
the ENNI link.

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exam

MEF 10.2
Ethernet Services Attributes Phase 2

MEF 10.2 is a specification document developed by the Technical Committee of the MEF that specifies the service
attributes of E-Line, E-LAN and E-Tree.

Abstract:

"The attributes of Ethernet Services observable at a User Network Interface (UNI) and from User Network Interface to
User Network Interface (UNI to UNI) are defined. In addition, a framework for defining specific instances of Ethernet
Services is described. This document supersedes and replaces MEF 10 [7]."

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Reference Presentation
The MEF has prepared an overview presentation which explains the MEF 10.2 specification.

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exam

MEF 13
User Network Interface (UNI) Type 1 Implementation Agreement

MEF 13 is a specification document developed by the Technical Committee of the MEF that provides an Implementation
Agreement for UNI Type 1.

Abstract:

"This document specifies an implementation agreement for MEF User to Network Interface (UNI) Type 1. The main
objective of this version is to specify the MEF UNI characteristics and operation in manual configuration mode. This
allows existing Ethernet devices (switch, router, workstation, etc) acting as CEs to be instantly compliant to this IA with
no additional software or hardware upgrades. The main functionality of this version is to allow data-plane Ethernet
connectivity between the UNI-C and UNI-N. This document references MEF UNI Requirements and Framework [4] for all
concepts, constructs and terminology. The UNI Type 1 mode provides bare minimum data-plane connectivity services with
no control-plane or management-plane capabilities."
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Reference Presentation

The MEF has prepared an overview presentation which explains the MEF 13 Implementation Agreement.

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MEF 26.1
Metro Ethernet Services Definitions Phase 2
Specification

MEF 26.1 is a specification document developed by the Technical Committee of the MEF that defines the External Network
Network Interface (ENNI)

Abstract:

"The Metro Ethernet Network Architecture Framework specifies a reference point that is the in- terface between two
Metro Ethernet Networks (MENs), where each Operator MEN is under the control of a distinct administrative authority.
This reference point is termed the External Network Network Interface or ENNI.1 The ENNI is intended to support the
extension of Ethernet services across multiple Operator MENs. This Technical Specification specifies:

The requirements at the ENNI reference point as well as the interface functionality in sufficient detail to ensure
interoperability between two Operator MENs in- cluding Link OAM.
The connectivity attributes UNI to UNI, UNI to ENNI, and ENNI to ENNI such that multiple Operator MENs can be
interconnected and the Ethernet services and attributes in MEF 6.1 [9] and MEF 10.2 [5] can be realized."

Download

Reference Presentation

The MEF has prepared an overview presentation which explains the MEF 26.1 specification.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Test Objectives 4 1 In this Section


Basic Definitions 4 Key Components of Carrier
Ethernet
4.1 Define Ethernet User-to-Network Interface (UNI), Ethernet External
Network-to-Network Interface (ENNI), Ethernet Virtual Connection (EVC), 4.1 Subscribers, Service Providers
and Operators
Service Provider, Operator, and Operator Virtual Connection (OVC).
4.2 EVC, OVC, UNI, ENNI and CEN
(MEN)
4.2 Describe the role of Ethernet User-to-Network Interface (UNI), Ethernet
External Network-to-Network Interface (ENNI), Ethernet Virtual Connection 4.3 Service Models
(EVC), Service Provider, Operator, and Operator Virtual Connection (OVC).
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Reference Documents

MEF 10.2

MEF 13

MEF 26.1

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

4 Components of Carrier Ethernet

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
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exam

Attributes of Carrier Ethernet Services In this Section

5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 5.1 Services

This page is intentionally left blank. 5.1

5.2 UNI Attributes

5.3 EVC per UNI Attributes

5.4 EVC Attributes

5.4.1 L2CP per MEF 6.1.1

5.5 ENNI Attributes

5.6 OVC Attributes

5.6.1 Hairpin switching

5.7 OVC End Point per ENNI


Attributes

5.8 Bandwidth Profiles

5.9

5.10 EVC Performance Attributes

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Download a pdf for


offline viewing.

Reference Documents
MEF 6.1

MEF 10.2

MEF 13

MEF 20

MEF 26.1

IEEE 802.1AX

IEEE 802.3 clause 43

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

5 Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC


Service Attributes

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

[15:33:56] Susan Bud:

In this Section
Attributes of Carrier Ethernet Services
5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet
Services
Study Guide Section 5.2 5.1
UNI Service Attributes 5.2 UNI Attributes

This topic area describes the various UNI service attributes as specified in 5.3 EVC per UNI Attributes

section 7 of MEF 10.2. 5.4 EVC Attributes

5.4.1 L2CP per MEF 6.1.1


The entire list of parameters is shown on table 3 of MEF 6.1.
5.5 ENNI Attributes
These are the service attributes that are independent of the EVCs connecting 5.6 OVC Attributes
this UNI with other UNIs.
5.6.1 Hairpin switching
It should be noted that 2 UNIs connected with an EVPL service may have some 5.7 OVC End Point per ENNI
of their UNI attributes set differently. Attributes

5.8 Bandwidth Profiles

5.9

5.10 EVC Performance Attributes

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Reference Documents
MEF 6.1

MEF 10.2

MEF 13
Table 5.2.T1 - UNI Service Attributes
[Source: MEF 6.1, Table 3] MEF 20

MEF 26.1

UNI Identifier IEEE 802.1AX

IEEE 802.3 clause 43


A text string is used to uniquely identify this UNI in the CEN.

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

Physical Interface 5 Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC


Service Attributes
The UNI speed can be 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, 1 Gbps or 10 Gbps. The Mode MUST
be set to Full Duplex. Send Feedback

Essentially, all PHYs defined by IEEE 802.3-2005 are supported with the
Name:
exceptions of 1000BASE-PX-D and 1000BASE-PX-U, since Link OAM is not
supported for these PHYs. Email:

UNI Type 1 supports only a sub-set of the list. Please refer to MEF 13 for Comments
details.

UNI Type 2 (MEF 20) added almost all of the PHYs defined in IEEE 802.3
excluding 1000BASE-PX-D and 1000BASE-PX-U (xPON). 1000BASE-PX-D and Send Feedback

1000BASE-PX-U were excluded since Link OAM (which is mandatory for UNI
Type 2) is not supported on these PHYs.

UNI MTU Size

The UNI MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) Size service attribute specifies the
maximum Service Frame size (in bytes) allowed at the UNI. The UNI MTU Size
MUST be specified to have a value greater than or equal to 1522. When a
frame larger than the UNI MTU Size arrives at the UNI, it must be dropped. An
MTU size of 1522 bytes allows for a C-tagged frame of maximum frame size,
as defined by IEEE 802.3-2005.

Note that the maximal size of an untagged frame according to IEEE 802.3-
2005 is 1518 bytes.

However, MEF recognizes that a larger frame may be needed for the purposes
of encapsulation and tunneling. Furthermore, it allows the support of Jumbo
frames by setting a large value (e.g 9300 bytes).

The UNI MTU Size (and the EVC MTU Size) is a key service attribute. Some
service Providers do offer a larger MTU size for their subscribers. For
example, when using FCoE (Fiber-Channel over Ethernet) the MTU size would
need to be set to slightly above 2,048 bytes.

Note that some switches may drop any frame that is larger than the MTU
configured on their interface. This is acceptable behavior, as such a frame
can be passed. However, if the frame is dropped, it is not counted against the
Frame Loss Ratio performance attribute.

Bundling and Service Multiplexing

There are three UNI attributes that are interrelated.

They are set according to two fundamental aspects:

1. Virtual or Private Service

2. Single CE-VLAN per service or multiple CE-VLANs per service

When all UNIs associated by an EVC provide private service (i.e. a single
service per UNI port), then the All-to-One Bundling attribute is set to YES.
Note that this must be the setting for all UNIs belonging to this particular
service.

At that point, Bundling must be set to NO.

In the private case which enables the following services: EPL, EP-LAN, EP-
Tree, the UNI can be VLAN unaware, which may mean that the network
element that implements the UNI-N functionality can be VLAN unaware (for
example, when using ETH over SONET). For the private services, all VLAN Ids
and untagged frames are mapped to a single EVC. Such a service implies CE-
VLAN iD and CE-VLAN CoS preservation, meaning that any VLAN ID and VLAN
PCP which is send by the ingress CE will be sent out at the egress UNI(s)
unchanged.

When a virtual service is required - that is a VLAN-aware service - then the


following setting should apply:- Service Multiplexing attribute is set to YES. It
can still be set to NO for a specific UNI that is designed to support one
service instance.

VLAN-aware services have the UNI configured with a map of CE-VLAN IDs to
EVCs. Therefore, one or more EVCs may be built on such a UNI. In this way, it
is possible to build hundreds of EVPLs, EVP-LANs and EVP-Trees over a single
UNI port.

Note that such a UNI is still not considered to provide private service as other
UNIs associated with it do support multiple services.

The Bundling attribute controls whether multiple CE-VLAN IDs can be mapped
to a single EVC.
When Bundling is set to NO, at most one CE-VLAN ID can map to an EVC.
However, some EVCs may have no CE-VLAN IDs mapped to it.

The possible combinations are shown in table 10 of MEF 10.2:

Table 5.2.T2 - Attribute Combinations


[Source: MEF 10.2, Table 10]

Maximum Number of EVCs

This attribute defines the maximum number of EVCs that the UNI can support.
It MUST have a value of at least one. It can be set to a value higher than the
number of EVCs defined on a UNI in order to support future service growth.

This attribute is typically tied to UNI speed, and describes the limitation of
the service. MEF 13 defines a recommended minimum number of EVCs that a
UNI-N should be able to support as specified below:

Table 5.2.T3 - Minimum number of EVCs per UNI

Note that for higher rate UNIs, the number increases. This attribute enables
the Service Provider to set a higher or lower number, depending on the
service it offers.

CE-VLAN ID for untagged and priority tagged Service Frames

For Virtual services, service frames are mapped to a given service instance
(EVC) based on the CE-VLAN ID. This mapping is defined in the EVC per UNI
attributes.

There is a special case when the service frames are untagged or Priority
Tagged frames. These frames are first assigned a CE-VLAN ID in the range 1 to
4094 and are then mapped to the EVC to which that specific CE-VLAN ID is
mapped. An untagged frame at the UNI is any Ethernet frame that has
Ether_type other than 0x8100 (which indicates C-Tag).

Note that at the UNI a frame with S-Tag (Ether_type = 0x88a8) would be
considered untagged. An untagged frame is illustrated below:

Figure 5.2.T4 - Untagged frame at the UNI

A Priority Tagged Frame is a frame with Ether_type = 0x8100 that has a VLAN
ID of 0 and priority encoded by way of the PCP bits in the VLAN tag header.

Note that the CE-VLAN-ID / EVC map could then be set to discard these
frames (i.e. map to no EVC).

This attribute has no meaning for private services (when the All-to-One
Bundling attribute is set to YES), since in this case ALL Service frames
(including untagged frame and Priority Tagged) are mapped to a single EVC.

The purpose of this attribute is that IEEE 802.1 bridges assign a VLAN ID for
frames entering a port (this is sometimes referred to as PVID = Port VLAN ID)
This indicates to the bridged network that the original frame was untagged or
priority tagged.

Bandwidth Profile Per UNI

The Ingress Bandwidth Profile Per UNI and Egress Bandwidth Profile Per UNI
can be specified when enforcement is implemented per port and not per
service.

Once Ingress Bandwidth Profile Per UNI is specified, no other Ingress


Bandwidth Profile can be specified on this UNI.

Layer 2 Control Protocol Processing

Layer 2 Control Protocols (L2CP) are various Ethernet control protocols such as
Spanning Tree BPDUs, LACP, PAUSE Frames, etc.

Most of these protocols use untagged frames.

Some of the protocols are related to the UNI link or belong to the Subscriber
LAN. These must not pass the UNI-N and should be discarded.

However other protocols are designed for use also in carrier networks. For
example Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) IEEE 1588-2008 which does have to
be passed to an EVC in order to distribute clock information to remote UNIs.

In some cases, like Link Aggregation at a UNI, the UNI-N and UNI-C exchange
LACP frames. Therefore, the UNI-N needs to act as a peer for these L2CP
frames (i.e. respond to the incoming LACP frames)

L2CP header frame format is defined by various IEEE 802.1 specifications.

L2CP Frames have specific MAC DAs belonging to reserved multicast MAC
address ranges. Some of the L2CPs have their own MAC DA assigned to them.
For example the MAC DA 01-80-C2-00-00-07 is reserved for E-LMI.
Other protocols might share a MAC DA. For example, IEEE 802.3 had the
address 01-80-C2-00-00-02 allocated for all "slow protocols" like LACP.

Identifying a specific protocol can be done using MAC DA, Ether_type and slow
protocol sub-type. For more details please refer to IEEE 802.1Q.

It should be noted that a protocol might use more than one MAC DA. For
example LLDP uses 01-80-C2-00-00-00 if the subscriber wants to tunnel across
a port-based service (e.g. EPL), or it could use 01-80-C2-00-00-0E if it does
not require tunneling.

The two MAC groups are:

Table 5.2.T5 - MACs for Bridge and GARP


[Source: MEF 6.1, Table 30]

MEF 6.1.1 lists L2CP Protocols and Associated Ethertypes and Subtypes as
shown in the table below:

Table 5.2.T6 - L2CP Protocols and Associated Ethertypes and Subtypes

MEF defines the L2CP processing rules for Service Frames carrying a MAC
Destination Address (DA) within the range 01-80-C2-00-00-00 through 01-80-
C2-00-00-0F and 01-80-C2-00-00-20 through 01-80-C2-00-00-2F. The
treatment of Service Frames with other MAC DA's is defined to be the same as
the treatment of regular service frames.

Therefore if a certain vendor uses its own L2CP with MAC DA outside the
reserved MAC DA range, the L2CP handling rules do not apply to these frames.

The L2CP handling defined by MEF 6.1.1 was defined in order to align the
specification with IEEE 802.1.

For private service, the UNI for EPL, EP-LAN and EP-Tree behaves as if it were
implemented with an IEEE 802.1ad-2005 Provider Bridge S-VLAN Component.

For virtual services, the UNI for EVPL, EVP-LAN, EVP-Tree behaves as if it
were implemented with an IEEE 802.1ad-2005 Provider Bridge C-VLAN
Component associated with an IEEE 802.1ad-2005 Provider Bridge S-VLAN
Component.

There are 4 options for handling of the L2CP protocol at the UNI:

1. Discard The incoming frame is dropped by the CEN and no reply is


generated.
2. Peer The CEN acts as a peer with the CE and may generate an egress
frame based on the protocol rules. From the CE point of view, the CEN
is a single device that is running the Layer 2 Control Protocol.
3. Pass to EVC The incoming frame is mapped to an EVC based on the
CE-VLAN ID of the incoming frame. If the frame is untagged, it will be
mapped to the EVC to which all untagged frames are mapped.
4. Peer and Pass to EVC The CEN acts as peer with the CE and may
generate an egress frame. In addition, the frame is passed to the EVC.

The 'Peer' action is illustrated below:

Figure 5.2.F1 - 'Peer' action

The 'Pass to EVC' action is illustrated below:


Figure 5.2.F2 - 'Pass to EVC' action

Note that while MEF 6.1 included requirements for All Bridges, the All LANs
Bridge Management Group Address (01-80-C2-00-00-10) has been officially
deprecated in 802.1Q-2005, sub-clause 8.13.7. In the unlikely event that a
Subscriber uses this MAC Destination Address, MEF services are expected to
treat them as Data Service Frames.

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Attributes of Carrier Ethernet Services In this Section

5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 5.3 Services

EVC per UNI Service Attributes 5.1

5.2 UNI Attributes


EVC-related attributes are divided into two groups:
5.3 EVC per UNI Attributes
1. EVC per UNI Attributes these are attributes that can be set differently
5.4 EVC Attributes
for each UNI associated with the EVC
5.4.1 L2CP per MEF 6.1.1
2. EVC Attributes these are general attributes that define the EVC and
its behavior and apply on all UNIs associated with the EVC 5.5 ENNI Attributes

5.6 OVC Attributes



5.6.1 Hairpin switching
UNI EVC ID
5.7 OVC End Point per ENNI
Attributes
A string formed by the concatenation of the UNI ID and the EVC ID.
5.8 Bandwidth Profiles

5.9
CE-VLAN ID / EVC Map 5.10 EVC Performance Attributes

The map defines which value(s) of CE-VLAN ID are mapped to each of the
Download PDF
EVCs.

Each CE-VLAN ID can be mapped to at most one EVC. The CE-VLAN ID / EVC
map is the basis for service identification, which is relevant for all virtual Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
services (In private services, all CE-VLAN IDs are mapped to the single EVC)
The creation of the map depends on whether the CE-VLAN IDs are actual
VLANs of the Subscriber's LANs, or are only added by the Customer Equipment
in order to map to the appropriate EVC to the ingress service with which the
Reference Documents
frame is associated.
MEF 6.1
Note that the map can vary between UNIs associated with the same EVC. This
can happen when CE-VLAN IDs are not preserved, and instead are translated MEF 10.2
by the Service Provider. MEF 13

MEF 20
More than one CE-VLAN ID can be mapped to an EVC only if Bundling is set to
Yes at that UNI. MEF 26.1

IEEE 802.1AX
Any value of CE-VLAN ID not assigned to an EVC at a UNI must be dropped.
IEEE 802.3 clause 43

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

5 Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC


Service Attributes

Send Feedback
Figure 5.3.F1 - Mapping CE-VLAN IDs to EVCs
[Source: MEF 10.2, Figure 9] Name:

An example of a map is given below:


Email:

Comments

Send Feedback

Figure 5.3.T1 - Mapping CE-VLAN IDs to EVCs


[Source: MEF 10.2, Figure 9]

In this example the UNI attribute CE-VLAN ID for untagged and priority tagged
Service Frames is set to 17

Another example:

Figure 5.3.F2 - Mapping CE-VLAN IDs to EVCs

In this example we see:

CE-VLAN ID 1 is mapped to Blue EVC


CE-VLAN ID 2 + untagged and priority tagged frames are mapped to
Red EVC
CE-VLAN ID 400, 405 are mapped to Green EVC (this requires Bundling
= Yes)
All other CE-VLAN IDs are dropped

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Attributes of Carrier Ethernet Services In this Section

5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 5.4 Services

EVC Attributes 5.1

5.2 UNI Attributes


EVC Attributes are detailed in section 6 of MEF 10.2. They are the same
attributes for all service types. However, some must be set in a certain 5.3 EVC per UNI Attributes
manner for a given service type. MEF 6.1 details the possible values for each 5.4 EVC Attributes
of the 6 service types. 5.4.1 L2CP per MEF 6.1.1

EVC Type 5.5 ENNI Attributes

5.6 OVC Attributes


Defines the service type - namely:-
5.6.1 Hairpin switching
Point-to-Point 5.7 OVC End Point per ENNI
Multipoint-to-Multipoint Attributes
Rooted-Multipoint 5.8 Bandwidth Profiles

5.9
Note that Private/Virtual is deduced by the UNI attributes.
5.10 EVC Performance Attributes

EVC ID Download PDF

An arbitrary string - unique across the CEN - for the EVC supporting the
service instance. Download a pdf for
offline viewing.

UNI List

The UNI List for an EVC is a list of pairs of the form <UNI Identifier, UNI
Reference Documents
Type>. One pair per UNI is associated with a particular EVC. UNI Type can be
Root or Leaf. For EVC types of Point-to-Point or Multipoint-to-Multipoint, it
MEF 6.1
must be Root.
MEF 10.2
MEF 13

Maximum Number of UNIs MEF 20

MEF 26.1
Any integer 2 is allowed. It must be 2 for Point-to-Point EVC.
IEEE 802.1AX

IEEE 802.3 clause 43


EVC Maximum Transmission Unit Size
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
EVC MTU Size must be lower or equal to the UNI MTU size. It must be at least
1522 bytes in oder to support the maximum size of a standard IEEE 802.3 5 Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC
Service Attributes
frame with a C-Tag. When an ingress frame larger than the MTU arrives at the
EVC, the SLS is not applied. The result of the bandwidth profile is not
defined. Note that such a frame may be dropped but could also be delivered Send Feedback
to the EVC.
Name:
In some cases the subscriber would require a larger MTU in order to support
the delivery of specific applications. For example, FCoE (Fiber Channel over Email:
Ethernet) provides connectivity between devices that have a Fiber Channel
Comments
interface. These devices have MTU of 2,000 bytes. With the addition of an
Ethernet header, the required MTU is closer to 2,100 bytes.

Another example would be a financial application, where the source and/or


destination uses an FDDI interface. FDDI is based on IEEE 802.4 and the
Send Feedback

maximum frame size is 4,352 bytes. So the MTU for such a service would need
to be about 4,400 bytes. It should be noted that in order for the service
provider to carry such large frames, its transport network would need to
support this large MTU in its switches and routers. Not all networking devices
support these frame sizes.

Frame Delivery

The frame delivery rules enable the service provide to specify how different
frame types are to be handled. They enable setting specific rules for
forwarding, discarding or conditionally forwarding specific frame types.

For example: Broadcast frames from a LAN could be blocked over the CEN in
order to save bandwidth.

Any DATA frame (Service frame that is NOT L2CP) is subject to the delivery
rule. There are three rules:

1. Unicast Service Delivery


2. Multicast Service Delivery
3. Broadcast Service Delivery

Each DATA frame is classified to be Unicast, Multicast or Broadcast based on


its MAC DA.

Delivery rule can be one of three. Note, however, that frames with invalid
FCS (CRC) MUST be dropped.

Discard - Allows for example, the blocking of Broadcast on a given EVC.


Deliver Unconditionally Any ingress frame is delivered to the egress UNI(s)
without additional limitations.

Deliver Conditionally Must specify the exact rule. For example, deliver only
unicast frames with a known address.

Delivery rules are set for each of the three data frame types.

For an EPL, all three types must be set to Deliver Unconditionally.

This is defined in order to provide the high transparency required for this
service type.

Preservation

EVC can be set to Preserve the CE-VLAN ID and CE-VLAN CoS. This is required
when the subscriber is using such VLAN header information between its
locations.

For example, if the subscriber's LAN uses VLANs in order to separate


departments (e.g. VLAN ID 4 denotes engineering while VLAN ID 6 denotes
marketing), such VLAN ID values MUST be identical after crossing the CEN in
order not to break the Layer 2 applications. In such a scenario, the subscriber
would require preservation from the service provider.

Figure 5.4.F1 - Preserving Customer VLAN-IDs


[Source: MEF 6.1, Table 32]

Traversing a PB network creates a challenge in distinguishing untagged and


priority tagged frames. Therefore, the following definition for Preservation
was created:

If All-to-one bundling is Yes, then preservation applies to all Ingress service


frames.

If All-to-one bundling is No, then preservation applies to Ingress service


frames having CE-VLAN ID 1 through 4094.

CE-VLAN CoS Preservation means that the PCP bits in the CE-VLAN tag of the
egress frame are identical to those of the ingress frame that yielded this
egress service frame.

The two Per EVC Attributes are:

CE-VLAN ID Preservation Yes, or No


CE-VLAN CoS Preservation Yes, or No

In some cases, the service may be set to perform CE-VLAN Translation. In


other words, changing the CE-VLAN ID between ingress and egress UNIs. This
is easily implemented with routers but could be challenging using switches.
Note that translation is always bi-directional.
Figure 5.4.F2 - CE-VLAN ID Preservation Example

In this illustration, ingress frames at UNI A have CE-VLAN ID 37, when the
egress at UNI B is assigned CE-VLAN ID 156.

CE-VLAN ID Preservation and CE-VLAN CoS Preservation must be set to Yes for
all private services (EPL, EP-LAN and EP-Tree)

L2CP Handling

L2CP handling rules are set according to the definition of MEF 6.1 section 8
and differ per service type.

EVC L2CP handling per protocol can be set to:

Discard Drop the frame Peer Participate in the protocol towards the CE.

Peer can be applicable for the following L2CP LACP/LAMP, Link OAM, Port
Authentication, and E-LMI.

Tunnel Pass to the egress UNI.

Since most of the L2CP protocols are carried using untagged frames, it is a
challenge to tunnel these frames when virtual services are supported.

For Spanning Tree, tunneling XSTP may mean that these frames will not reach
all the bridges and thus the service may be affected.

The following table specifies the L2CP processing requirements for EVPL
service. The first column identifies the standard protocol, and the second
column identifies the MAC DA used to carry that protocol data unit. The third
column specifies the required action, and the fourth column specifies the
applicability - i.e. whether the action taken must be the same at all UNIs in
the EVC, or the action taken can be different on different UNIs in the EVC.

Figure 5.4.T1 - Protocols

No protocol is allowed to be tunneled in an EVPL or any other virtual service.

For EPL, one is allowed to tunnel almost everything, but this can be easily
achieved when the CEN is not packet aware (e.g. carried over SONET/SDH,
OTN etc.). Switches that conform to the IEEE 802.1 standards (like PB bridges)
would not allow forwarding of LACP, PAUSE etc.

When the Subscriber is using Spanning Tree between locations, it must ask the
Service Provider to tunnel the spanning tree BPDUs. This capability cannot be
achieved when EVPL is being provided. When E-LMI is used on the UNI link, the
UNI-N has to be set to Peer E-LMI frames. This is true regardless of the
services being offered using this UNI. Tunneling E-LMI frames seems
undesirable for all service scenarios. For additional examples please refer to
Section 5.4.1.

CoS ID

The CoS ID (Class of Service Identifier) of an EVC defines the service


treatment, optionally bandwidth profile and optionally performance
objectives.

A CoS ID may include several priorities, but these are treated as one CoS by
the CEN.

CoS ID can be derived by one of the following mutually exclusive options:

Per EVC All frames entering a particular EVC will be set to a given CoS ID

By PCP values In this case, the map of PCP to CoS ID MUST include all
possible values (0 through 7) with no overlap. Untagged frames are mapped to
the same CoS ID as Data Service Frames with PCP=0.

For example, a Service Multiplexed UNI with two EVCs: EVC_1 and EVC_2. The
mapping may be as shown in the table below:

Figure 5.4.T2 - EVCs and CoS ID example

In addition, the following rule applies to L2CP (regardless of the method


selected above)

L2CP Any L2CP protocol that is tunneled through this EVC can be set to a
different defined CoS ID. For example, the three-CoS model specified in MEF
23 suggest the following mapping: High PCP 5 Medium PCP 2, 3 Low PCP
0, 1 (note: this includes untagged frames as they are mapped together with
priority tagged frames). PCP 6 and 7 can be mapped to another, non-standard
CoS ID.

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to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
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Attributes of Carrier Ethernet Services In this Section

5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 5.4.1 Services

L2CP per MEF 6.1.1 5.1

5.2 UNI Attributes


This section expands on the EVC L2CP handling rules.
5.3 EVC per UNI Attributes
L2CP Processing Requirements for Service Frames with a MAC DA in the
5.4 EVC Attributes
range of 01-80-C2-00-00-00 to -0F
5.4.1 L2CP per MEF 6.1.1
The action (tunnel, peer, or discard) for each L2CP Service Frame is 5.5 ENNI Attributes
decided using a two-step logic based on the frame's:
5.6 OVC Attributes

1. MAC DA 5.6.1 Hairpin switching


2. Ethertype and subtype or LLC code (that is, based on the protocol) 5.7 OVC End Point per ENNI
Attributes
The logic for processing of the L2CP Service Frames is presented in the
5.8 Bandwidth Profiles
following Flow Chart:
5.9

5.10 EVC Performance Attributes

Download PDF

Download a pdf for


offline viewing.

Reference Documents
MEF 6.1

MEF 10.2
Figure 5.4.1.F1 - L2CP Handling Logic (Source MEF 6.1.1 figure A)
MEF 13

MEF 20
STEP 1 MEF 26.1

IEEE 802.1AX
Step 1 in the handling logic means that depending on the service type,
specific MAC DA's must be tunneled through the EVC. IEEE 802.3 clause 43

For private services - EPL (non-transparent option), EP-LAN and EP-Tree - MEF-CECP Test Objectives
which are delivered over a packet-aware network (e.g. IEEE 802.1 or MPLS
5 Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC
based) the following table applies:
Service Attributes

Send Feedback

Name:

Email:
Figure 5.4.1.T1 - L2CP Handling for Private Service
Comments
For virtual services - EVPL, EVP-LAN, EVP-Tree - the rule is:
For 01-80-C2-00-00-01 through 01-80-C2-00-00-0F Must not Tunnel (Go to Step
2)

Send Feedback

STEP 2

Step 2 is implemented only when Step 1 requires 'Not to Tunnel'.

For each service type, there is a specific table stating whether to Peer or
Discard the frame

For example: In the case of an EPL service.


Spanning tree frames that have MAC DA of 01-80-C2-00-00-00 are tunneled to
the EVC. However spanning tree frames with MAC DA 01-80-C2-00-00-01, for
example, would follow the definition of Step 2 to either peer for all UNIs or
discard for all UNIs. The Service Provider would select to peer on all UNIs
when the resiliency offered to the Subscriber is based on spanning tree
protocol.

Private Services

Here, the processing rules for the private services are described.

Processing rules for EPL (non-transparent option) are as follows:


Figure 5.4.1.T2 - Processing rules for EPL (non-transparent)

For EP-LAN and EP-Tree, the rules are as follows:

Figure 5.4.1.T3 - Processing rules for EP-LAN and EP-Tree

Note that the rules are similar to the ones for EPL with the following changes:

LLDP cannot operate over a service which is not point-to-point, hence


LLDP must be discarded for EP-LAN and EP-Tree
PTP Delay can be supported and if so must be peered on all UNIs

Virtual Services

The same rules apply for all 3 virtual service types as shown in the table
below:

Figure 5.4.1.T4 - Processing rules for EVPL, EVP-LAN and EVP-Tree

Transparent EPL Services

For the very transparent EPL option (which can be carried over non packet-
aware transport like SONET/SDH/OTN), the 2-step logic does not apply. The
logic is maintained from MEF 6.1 and is shown in the table below:

Figure 5.4.1.T5 - Processing rules for Transparent EPL Services


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to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
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Attributes of Carrier Ethernet Services In this Section

5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 5.5 Services

ENNI Attributes 5.1

5.2 UNI Attributes


For each instance of an ENNI, there are two sets of ENNI Service Attributes -
one for each Operator - namely ENNI-N 1 and E-NNI-N 2. A given attribute in 5.3 EVC per UNI Attributes
the set can have an identical value for each Operator while another attribute 5.4 EVC Attributes
can have a different value for each Operator. The ENNIs are illustrated below: 5.4.1 L2CP per MEF 6.1.1

5.5 ENNI Attributes

5.6 OVC Attributes

5.6.1 Hairpin switching

5.7 OVC End Point per ENNI


Figure 5.5.F1 - Operator to Operator ENNI
[Source: MEF 26.1, Table 3] Attributes

5.8 Bandwidth Profiles


Operator ENNI Identifier
5.9
A unique text string identifying this ENNI within the CEN to which it belongs.
5.10 EVC Performance Attributes
It can be up to 45 bytes long.

Download PDF

Physical interface, frame format

Each link in an ENNI MUST be one of the following physical layers in full Download a pdf for
duplex mode as defined in IEEE Std 802.3 2005 : 1000Base-SX, 1000Base-LX, offline viewing.
1000Base T, 10GBASE-SR, 10GBASE-LX4, 10GBASE-LR, 10GBASE-ER, 10GBASE-
SW, 10GBASE-LW, 10GBASE-EW. Note that the physical layer at one ENNI
supported by the Operator CEN can be different than the physical layer at
Reference Documents
another ENNI supported by the Operator CEN.
Each ENNI Frame MUST have the standard Ethernet format with one of the tag MEF 6.1
configurations specified in the table below. [DA = Destination Address, SA = MEF 10.2
Source Address, ET = Ethertype/Length, S-Tag with Tag Protocol Identification MEF 13
Field (TPID) = 0x88A8, C-Tag with TPID = 0x8100.]
MEF 20

MEF 26.1

IEEE 802.1AX

IEEE 802.3 clause 43


Figure 5.5.T1 - ENNI Frame Tags
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
Note: Different ENNI frames can take different forms from those three forms
listed in the table (i.e. there is no ENNI attribute to set for the frame format) 5 Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC
Service Attributes

Number of Links Send Feedback


Specifies the number of physical links at the ENNI. The value can be 1 or 2.
Name:
2 are used when resiliency is implemented.
Email:

Comments

ENNI Resiliency

The Protection Mechanism defines the resiliency scheme at the ENNI. There
Send Feedback
are 3 alternatives:

None - No protection, applicable only if Number of Links is 1 and


must be set so in such a case.
Link Aggregation Performing LAG with exactly 2 links (Number of
Links = 2). LAG configuration is at the Operator's discretion.
Other Any other resiliency mechanism agreed upon between the 2
Operators. This option is valid only when Number of Links = 2.

ENNI Maximum Transmission Unit Size

ENNI Max MTU Size specifies the maximum frame length allowed at the ENNI.
It must be at least 1526 bytes (to support doubled-tagged frames) and
recommended to be at least 2000 bytes in order to support other headers and
encapsulations. Unlike UNI MTU, frames larger than ENNI MTU MUST be
discarded. They may or may not consume tokens from the BWP. This is not
specified. The ENNI MTU is recommended to be at least 4 bytes larger than
any EVC MTU size crossing this ENNI.

Maximum Number of OVCs

The maximum number of OVCs allowed on this ENNI. An integer greater or


equal to 1.

Maximum Number of OVC End Points per OVC

An upper bound to the number of OVC end points that can be associated with
an OVC at this ENNI. If set to 1, then Hairpin Switching cannot be supported
at the ENNI, as it requires 2 OVC end points.

End Point Map

The End Point Map specifies how each S-Tagged ENNI Frame is associated with
an OVC End Point within an Operator CEN. The End Point Map can be
represented by a three column table. Column 1 contains S-VLAN ID values.
Column 2 contains End Point Identifiers. Column 3 contains End Point types.
Each row in this table maps the S-VLAN ID value to the End Point Identifier
and End Point Type. End Point Type must be OVC. An S-VLAN ID value cannot
appear more than once in the table. An example is shown below:

Figure 5.6.1.F2 - Service Frame in Hairpin Switching

Some rules apply:

1. When the ingress frame has S-VLAN ID that is NOT in the map, it must
not be forwarded.
2. An S-VLAN ID value cannot appear more than once in the table.
3. Ingress frame with no S-Tag must not be mapped to OVC end point.

When the ingress frame has S-VLAN ID that is NOT in the map, it must not be
forwarded. An S-VLAN ID value cannot appear more than once.

End-Point Bundling

When multiple S-VLAN ID values are mapped to a single OVC end point, the
End Point map is said to have Bundling. Remember that this is quite similar to
UNI bundling of CE-VLAN IDs. When Bundling is set, S-VLAN ID Preservation
and CE-VLAN ID Preservation MUST be Yes. Bundling is useful when multiple
EVCs are tunneled via a single OVC transit tunnel. In such a case, different
EVCs may use the same MAC address ranges and the Operator should provision
for such a scenario.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
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Attributes of Carrier Ethernet Services In this Section

5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 5.6 Services

OVC Attributes 5.1

5.2 UNI Attributes


This section describes the OVC service attributes.
5.3 EVC per UNI Attributes

5.4 EVC Attributes
OVC ID 5.4.1 L2CP per MEF 6.1.1

A string of at most 45 bytes that uniquely identifies the OVC within a given 5.5 ENNI Attributes

CEN. 5.6 OVC Attributes

5.6.1 Hairpin switching



5.7 OVC End Point per ENNI
OVC type Attributes

5.8 Bandwidth Profiles


This can be Point-to-Point or Multipoint-to-Multipoint. An OVC that can
associate two or more OVC End Points is defined to have OVC Type of 5.9
Multipoint-to-Multipoint. An OVC that associates exactly two OVC End Points is 5.10 EVC Performance Attributes
defined to have OVC Type of Point-to-Point, and can be considered a special
case of the Multipoint-to-Multipoint OVC Type. Note that because an OVC can Download PDF
associate more than one OVC End Point at a given ENNI, the type of an OVC is
not determined by the number of External Interfaces supported by the OVC.
Download a pdf for
offline viewing.

OVC End Point List

A list of OVC End Point Identifiers.


Reference Documents

MEF 6.1
Maximum Number of UNI OVC End Points
MEF 10.2
The Maximum Number of UNI OVC End Points is the upper bound on the MEF 13
number of OVC End Points that are at different UNIs that can be associated by
MEF 20
an OVC. This must be an integer greater or equal to 0.
MEF 26.1
IEEE 802.1AX

Maximum Number of ENNI OVC End Points IEEE 802.3 clause 43

A list of OVC End Point Identifiers. The Maximum Number of ENNI OVC End
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
Points is the upper bound on the number of OVC End Points that are at an
ENNI that can be associated by an OVC. This must be an integer greater or 5 Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC
Service Attributes
equal to 1.

Send Feedback

OVC Maximum Transmission Unit Size


Name:
The OVC MTU size in bytes. The OVC MTU must be at least 1526 bytes and it
is recommended to be at least 2000 bytes. It must be less than or equal to Email:

the ENNI MTU size. When an ENNI frame is larger than the OVC MTU that is Comments
mapped to an OVC, then the frame must be discarded. It may or may not
consume tokens from the ingress BWP.

Note that when an EVC that spans multiple CENs is set with a specific MTU
Send Feedback
size, then each OVC that is part of the EVC should have its MTU set to at
least the MTU size of the EVC.

CE-VLAN ID preservation

OVC CE-VLAN ID Preservation is used to achieve EVC CE-VLAN ID Preservation


that is a key property of the EPL and EP-LAN Service Types specified in MEF
6.1. In order to achieve EVC CE-VLAN ID Preservation, all OVCs that are part
of this EVC must have their OVC CE-VLAN ID Preservation set to Yes. Similar
to EVC CE-VLAN ID Preservation, the handling of untagged and priority tagged
frames can be a challenge. Therefore, there is a distinction between the two
cases, which is analogous to the all-to-one bundling case for EVC CE-VLAN ID
Preservation.
The following table describes the relationship between an ingress frame at an
External Interface and the corresponding egress frame at an External Interface
for the case where all OVC end points associated with an OVC map ALL CE-
VLAN IDs to this OVC:

Figure 5.6.T1 - Correspondence between Ingress and Egress


[Source: MEF 26.1, Table 5]

Note: This handling is required when OVC CE-VLAN ID Preservation is set to


Yes.

The following table describes the relationship between ingress frame at


External Interface to the egress frame at the External Interface for the case
where all OVC end points associated with an OVC map some but NOT ALL CE-
VLAN IDs to this OVC:

Figure 5.6.T2 - Correspondence Ingress to Egress 2


[Source: MEF 26.1, Table 6]

(*) The S-tag value is defined in the OVC end point map and can take any
value, regardless of the value of CE-VLAN ID.
Note: This handling is required when OVC CE-VLAN ID Preservation is set to
Yes.

CE-VLAN CoS preservation

OVC CE-VLAN CoS Preservation is used to achieve EVC CE-VLAN CoS


Preservation. In order to achieve EVC CE-VLAN CoS Preservation, all OVCs that
are part of this EVC must have their OVC CE-VLAN CoS Preservation set to
Yes. The mechanism specified keeps the original PCP value in both C-tag and
S-tag. Note that this means that color forwarding should be done using DEI bit
in the S-tag.
The following table specifies the required mapping for implementing OVC CE-
VLAN CoS Preservation:

Figure 5.6.T3 - CE-VLAN CoS Preservation


[Source: MEF 26.1, Table 8]

S-VLAN ID & CoS preservation

S-VLAN ID Preservation and S-VLAN CoS Preservation apply between two ENNIs
connected by an OVC. This attribute does NOT affect ENNI to UNI frame
exchange. Preservation means that the value of S-VLAN ID and/or S-VLAN CoS
at one ENNI must be equal to the value at a different ENNI connected by the
OVC.
The following rules apply:

When an OVC has the S-VLAN ID Preservation attribute with a value of


Yes, it must associate at most one OVC End Point located at a given
ENNI.
When an OVC has the S-VLAN ID Preservation attribute with a value of
No, an egress ENNI Frame mapped to an OVC End Point resulting from
an ingress ENNI Frame mapped to a different OVC End Point MUST
have an S-VLAN ID value that has a one-to-one association with the
S-VLAN ID of the ingress service frame.

Note that S-VLAN ID preservation cannot be achived when hairpin switching is


enabled.

The benefit of using S-VLAN ID preservation is to allow simpler end-to-end


service provisioning and service monitoring for cases where an EVC spans
several CENs. In such a case, the SP may require S-VLAN ID preservation from
the CEN operators in order to easily define the mapping rules of EVC to OVC.

Color forwarding

Color Forwarding describes the relationship between the color on an ingress


frame into the Operator Network and the color of the resulting egress ENNI
Frame. When Color Forwarding is Yes, the OVC cannot promote a frame
from Yellow to Green. Promoting a frame from Yellow to Green could have an
undesired impact on the EVC performance. The newly promoted Green frames
are now competing with equal rights for resources as frames marked Green at
the ingress UNI. For this reason, this attribute is useful to prevent such
behavior. When color forwarding is set, an ingress frame at ENNI declared
yellow by an ingress BWP must have its color marked in the header, using PCP
bits or DEI bit. Note that this attribute does not describe Color marking of an
egress Service Frame at a UNI because a method for such marking is not
specified in MEF 23.

Frame Delivery

Similar to EVCs, OVCs also have three attributes to govern frame delivery
rules. These are:

Unicast Frame Delivery


Multicast Frame Delivery
Broadcast Frame Delivery

Each is independent from the others and can take two values:

Deliver unconditionally This means that assuming that the frame has
a valid FCS/CRC and assuming that the ingress BWP declared the
frame color as Green or Yellow, it should be passed to the OVC.
Delivery Conditionally Must specify the condition.

An example of such a condition is that the destination MAC address is known


by the Operator CEN to be at the OVC End Point.

In some E-LAN scenarios, the SP may want to limit the consumed bandwidth
over an OVC (for example tunnel to a UNI) and thus would like to avoid
flooding for unknown addresses.

SLS
The Service Level Specification (SLS) consists of definitions of delivery
performance attributes for frames between External Interfaces, e.g. delay,
loss. For each performance attribute, the SLS also contains a quantitative
objective. When the frame delivery performance level meets or exceeds the
objective for each performance attribute, the SLS is said to be met. The SLS
that applies to a given ENNI or Service Frame is based on the Class of Service
Identifier for the frame. When an ENNI Frame is not sufficiently compliant
with an ingress Bandwidth Profile that applies to it, the SLS does not apply to
the frame. Details of ENNI and OVC SLS are expected in future versions of MEF
26.x or MEF 23.x.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
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Attributes of Carrier Ethernet Services In this Section

5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 5.6.1 Services

Hairpin Switching 5.1

5.2 UNI Attributes


Hairpin Switching occurs when an ingress S-Tagged ENNI Frame at a given ENNI
results in an egress S-Tagged ENNI Frame with a different S-VLAN ID value at 5.3 EVC per UNI Attributes
the given ENNI. This behavior is possible when an OVC associates two or more 5.4 EVC Attributes
OVC End Points at a given ENNI. 5.4.1 L2CP per MEF 6.1.1

Hairpin switching provides value in several scenarios. 5.5 ENNI Attributes

5.6 OVC Attributes


One example is where an Operator supplying a Service Provider with a
5.6.1 Hairpin switching
tunneling service (e.g. E-Access) does not have suitable Carrier Ethernet
switching capability available in its own network. Therefore the tunnel service 5.7 OVC End Point per ENNI
Attributes
is connected to a PE in the Service Provider's CEN where the switching is
implemented. The switching decision may require sending traffic over the 5.8 Bandwidth Profiles

ENNI (Service Provider CEN - Operator CEN) towards a different UNI attached 5.9
to the Operator CEN. In this example, the Service Provider CEN provides the 5.10 EVC Performance Attributes
switching capability between the Operator's two UNIs facing the Subscriber.
Download PDF
Note that hairpin switching cannot occur at a UNI.

The concept of hairpin switching is illustrated in the following figure:


Download a pdf for
offline viewing.

Reference Documents
MEF 6.1

Figure 5.6.1.F1 - Hairpin Switching MEF 10.2


[Source: MEF 26.1, figure 16]
MEF 13
In order to facilitate hairpin switching the concept of OVC end points in
MEF 20
introduced.
MEF 26.1

IEEE 802.1AX
The figure below shows an example of the use of OVC End Points for Hairpin
IEEE 802.3 clause 43
Switching. In this example, there is one multipoint EVC that associates UNI
Aa, UNI Ab, and UNI B. Operator A has two OVCs. One associates the OVC End
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
Point A4 at UNI Aa and the OVC End Point A1 at the ENNI. The other OVC
associates the OVC End Point A3 at UNI Ab and the OVC End Point A2 at the 5 Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC
Service Attributes
ENNI. Operator B has one OVC that associates the OVC End Points B1 and B2
at the ENNI and the OVC End Point B3 at UNI B. At the ENNI, the End Point
Send Feedback
Maps are such that ENNI frames mapped to A1 by Operator A are mapped to
B1 by Operator B and similarly for A2 and B2. With this configuration, a
Name:
Service Frame sent from UNI Aa to UNI Ab will pass through the Operator B
MEN where it will be hairpin switched from B1 to B2. Likewise, a similar path
Email:
will be followed by a Service Frame sent from UNI Ab to UNI Aa.
Comments

Send Feedback

Figure 5.6.1.F2 - Hairpin Switching

Note that in this example, two OVCs are used in Operator MEN A to implement
the single EVC.
In order to support Hairpin switching the following attributes must be set:

S-VLAN ID Preservation must be set to No in order to support Hairpin


switching as the S-VID must be changed when the operation is
performed
Maximum Number of OVC End Points per OVC must be set to at least
2

Word of caution:
Improper use of hairpin switching can result in a data loop between two
Operator CENs at a single ENNI. It is up to the Service Provider and Operators
to ensure that such loops do not occur.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
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Attributes of Carrier Ethernet Services In this Section

5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 5.7 Services

OVC End Point per ENNI 5.1

5.2 UNI Attributes


There are service attributes for each instance of an OVC End Point at a given
ENNI. 5.3 EVC per UNI Attributes

5.4 EVC Attributes


OVC End Point Identifier
5.4.1 L2CP per MEF 6.1.1
The OVC End Point Identifier is a string of up to 45 bytes administered by the
5.5 ENNI Attributes
Operator that is used to identify an OVC End Point within a given CEN. The
5.6 OVC Attributes
OVC End Point Identifier is not carried in any field in the ENNI Frame. It must
be unique to all OVC end points in the CEN. 5.6.1 Hairpin switching

5.7 OVC End Point per ENNI


CoS ID Attributes

A Class of Service Identifier is a set of one or more S-Tag PCP values. Each 5.8 Bandwidth Profiles
Class of Service Identifier indicates a single Class of Service instance. The Class 5.9
of Service that applies to an ingress S-Tagged ENNI Frame that is mapped to 5.10 EVC Performance Attributes
the OVC End Point is the Class of Service identified by the Class of Service
Identifier that contains the S-Tag PCP value in the frame. For example, the S- Download PDF
Tag PCP values 0, 1, 2, and 3 could constitute a Class of Service Identifier that
indicates the silver service while the S-Tag PCP values 4, 5, 6, and 7 could
constitute a different Class of Service Identifier that indicates the gold Download a pdf for
service. In this example, an S-Tagged ENNI Frame with S-Tag PCP value = 3 offline viewing.
would be given the silver service. Note that in case of S-tag bundling, the map
is independent of the S-VLAN ID. The following rules apply:

Each PCP value must be mapped to exactly one COS ID Reference Documents
One CoS ID can be set to 100% discard
CoS ID can have different maps between different OVC end points, as MEF 6.1
long as they are associated with different OVCs MEF 10.2

Frame color can be marked in one of two methods: DEI bit or S-tag PCP MEF 13

values. According to MEF 23, the following values are recommended for a 3 MEF 20
CoS model: MEF 26.1

IEEE 802.1AX
For green color or when color is marked using DEI bit:
IEEE 802.3 clause 43

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

5 Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC


Service Attributes

Figure 5.7.T1 - H, M, L - Green Color Send Feedback


[Source: MEF 26.1, figure 9]

For yellow color or when color is marked using PCP bits: Name:

Email:

Comments

Figure 5.7.T2 - H, M, L - Yellow Color


Send Feedback

Bandwidth Profiles per OVC End Point

An Ingress Bandwidth Profile (BWP) can be applied per OVC end point or per
CoS ID per OVC End point per ENNI. Note that each ingress ENNI frame can be
subject to at most one BWP.

The handling of frames is described in the following table:

Figure 5.7.T3 - Ingress Bandwidth Profile Compliance


[Source: MEF 26.1, Table 7]

Ingress BWP per OVC End Point enables similar BWP as for Ingress BWP per
UNI. It can be used for example to enforce a rate limit into the network over
an external interface.

The following figure depicts ingress BWP per OVC end point:
Figure 5.7.F1 Bandwidth Profile per OVC

Each Ingress BWP must include suitable parameters <CIR, CBS, EIR, EBS, CF,
CM>. CM must be set to color aware.

Egress BWP

An Egress Bandwidth Profile (BWP) can be applied per OVC end point or per
CoS ID per OVC End point per ENNI.

Each Egress BWP must include suitable parameters <CIR, CBS, EIR, EBS, CF,
CM>.

CM must be set to color aware. This is the only change compared to MEF 10.2
definitions for Egress BWP at the UNI. The Egress Bandwidth Profile per OVC
End Point at a UNI describes egress policing by the Operator CEN on all egress
Service Frames mapped to a given OVC End Point at a UNI.

Note that each egress ENNI frame can be subject to at most one BWP.

The Egress Bandwidth Profile per OVC End Point describes egress policing by
the Operator on all egress ENNI Frames that are mapped to a given OVC End
Point.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
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to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
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Attributes of Carrier Ethernet Services In this Section

5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 5.8 Services

Bandwidth Profiles 5.1

5.2 UNI Attributes


Concept
5.3 EVC per UNI Attributes
A Bandwidth Profile (BWP) enforces the utilization of bandwidth according to
5.4 EVC Attributes
the Service Level Specification that has been agreed upon by the Subscriber
5.4.1 L2CP per MEF 6.1.1
and Service Provider. It can be thought of as enforcing the long term average
guaranteed bandwidth (CIR) and excess bandwidth (EIR) allowed by the 5.5 ENNI Attributes
service. CIR (Committed Information Rate) is the bit rate for which the SP 5.6 OVC Attributes
provides performance guarantees in terms of performance attributes for the 5.6.1 Hairpin switching
service. EIR (Excess Information Rate) is the additional bit-rate that the
5.7 OVC End Point per ENNI
subscriber can utilize and for which traffic can probably pass through the CEN Attributes
as long as there is no congestion. Note that the total rate, sometimes known
5.8 Bandwidth Profiles
as PIR (Peak Information Rate), is the sum of CIR and EIR. The BWP classifies
5.9
the service frames into 3 "colors" each denoting a certain compliance level:
5.10 EVC Performance Attributes
Green Frames within the CIR / CBS compliance level. These frames
are subject to the SLS. Download PDF
Yellow Frames exceeding the CIR/CBS but are within the EIR/EBS.
These frames are delivered as "best effort" without being subject to
the SLS. The CEN may drop some or all of these frames based on Download a pdf for
congestion conditions in the network. offline viewing.

Red Frames not conforming to the BWP are dropped, either because
the rate exceeds the sum of CIR and EIR, or because there are
insufficient yellow tokens to admit a frame that is within EIR/EBS .
Reference Documents
There are two types of bandwidth profiles:
MEF 6.1
Ingress Bandwidth Profile limits the rates of frames entering the MEF 10.2
CEN.
MEF 13
Egress Bandwidth Profile limits the rate of frames egressing the CEN
and thus protecting overload towards the egress CE. MEF 20

MEF 26.1
Bandwidth Profile can be applied in three forms:
IEEE 802.1AX

Per UNI IEEE 802.3 clause 43


Per EVC
Per CoS ID per EVC MEF-CECP Test Objectives

However, the algorithm is the same for all three forms. 5 Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC
Service Attributes
At a given UNI, at most one ingress BWP can be applied and at most one
egress BWP can be applied to a given service frame. This means that one Send Feedback
cannot define an ingress BWP per UNI in addition to an ingress BWP per EVC.
Name:
The three BWP forms are illustrated below:
Email:

Comments

Send Feedback
Figure 5.8.F1 - Ingress Bandwidth Profile Per Ingress UNI

Figure 5.8.F2 - Ingress Bandwidth Per EVC

Figure 5.8.F3 - Ingress Bandwidth Profile Per CoS ID

An example is a 100 Mb/s UNI that services 3 EVCs. Each EVC can have CIR of
30 Mbps and EIR of 20 Mbps.

Figure 5.8.F4 - Total Bandwidth at UNI

The subscriber is guaranteed 30 Mbps per each service (SUM of CIRs must be
<= UNI speed), however, the Subscriber cannot use the excess bandwidth
simultaneously for the 3 services, or else the Subscriber would be trying to
send 150 Mbps over a 100 Mbps link.

The concept of Egress BWP per EVC is illustrated below:


Figure 5.8.F5 - Egress Bandwidth Profile per EVC
[Source: MEF 10.2, Figure 18]

The Algorithm

The bandwidth profile rates are enforced through an algorithm which is


commonly implemented as a token bucket algorithm. The MEF has defined a
two rate, three color marker (trTCM) algorithm which can be implemented via
two token buckets.
One bucket, referred to as the Committed' or C' bucket, is used to
determine CIR-conformant, in-profile Service Frames while a second bucket,
referred to as the Excess' or E' bucket, is used to determine EIR-conformant,
excess Service Frames.
Each token bucket consists of a bucket of bytes referred to as tokens'.
Initially, each token bucket is full of tokens. The number of tokens in each
bucket represents the allowed burst size, CBS, for the Committed bucket and
EBS for the Excess bucket. As Service Frames enter the provider's network (or
pass the reference point where the BWP algorithm is applied), the trTCM
decrements the number of tokens in the C bucket (green tokens) by the
number of bytes received from the service frame. If green tokens still remain,
then the Service Frame is CIR-conformant, colored green and allowed into the
provider's network.

If no green tokens remain, then a second E bucket is checked to determine if


any E bucket tokens (yellow tokens) remain. If yellow tokens are available,
then the Service Frame is colored yellow and allowed into the provider's
network. If no yellow tokens are available, then the Service Frame is declared
red and discarded. Refer to the figure below.

The MEF has defined an additional, optional capability of the trTCM whereby
unused green tokens from the C bucket may be added to the E bucket as
yellow tokens when checking EIR-conformance. This parameter is called the
Coupling Flag (CF) and is enabled when CF=1. When this capability is enabled
and when operating in color-aware mode, more yellow Service Frames are
allowed into the service provider's network.

Figure 5.8.F6 - C-Bucket and E-Bucket

Frame color is never changed to promote a frame's drop eligibility , that is,
Yellow frames can never be re-marked as Green.
The following figure illustrates the effect of BWP on a fast incoming burst of
traffic. Initially, service frames are colored green, up to CBS, then for EBS by
tes. Thereafter they are colored yellow. Any additional frame will be marked
red and discarded.

Figure 5.8.F7 - Burst Threshold

Note that actual implementation operates on whole frames, so one might not
be able to use the entire CBS bucket. For example, we assume CBS=2000
bytes and EBS=3000 bytes. 5 back to back service frames arrive at the UNI-N,
each sized at 1522 bytes. The first frame consumes 1522 bytes from the C-
bucket and is marked green. We now have 2000 1522 = 478 tokens left in the
C-bucket. The second frame is larger than the C-bucket size and hence cannot
be marked green. If CF=1, the remainder of 478 bytes would be carried to the
E-bucket, for a total of 3478 yellow tokens. Assuming CF=0, the second frame
is declared yellow. We now have 1478 tokens left in the E-bucket. The third
frame arrives and is larger than the number of tokens in E-bucket and hence
is declared Red and is dropped immediately.

Color Mode (CM) determines whether the algorithm takes into account a
previous color marking, for example frame marked Yellow by the subscriber or
at an ingress UNI. When Color Mode = Yes it is often referred to as Color
Aware algorithm.

Coupling Flag (CF) determines whether the Yellow bucket can consume
tokens from the green bucket. CF has an effect only in Color aware mode.

When CF is set to 0, the long term average bit rate of Service Frames that are
declared Yellow is bounded by EIR. When CF is set to 1, the long term average
bit rate of Service Frames that are declared Yellow is bounded by CIR + EIR
depending on the volume of the offered Service Frames that are declared
Green. In both cases the burst size of the Service Frames that are declared
Yellow is bounded by EBS.

Effect of Each Parameter Setting

Setting the appropriate values for CIR and EIR is often relatively easy. They
are either set to the exact value required by the service or are set a bit
higher (mainly for CIR) when there is a strict need to have only guaranteed
service. For example, if a customer asks for 20 Mbps guaranteed service with
strict frame delay and frame loss ratio requirements, it may be wiser to set
CIR to be 21 or 22 Mbps to avoid occasional slips. When considering the effect
of CBS one should take into consideration the offered traffic source and its
burstiness. For example, carrying 2 Mbps E1 using CES, the traffic source sends
the traffic at 2 Mbps line rate, hence there is no need for large CBS, so CBS
could be set to 1522 bytes. Note that CBS must be at least the MTU size
unless it is set to 0. However, a TCP-based application like HTTP could send
256 Kbytes of traffic at LAN rate, due to TCP windowing affect. The subscriber
CE may shape the traffic to reduce the burstiness, but if not and if the SP
would like to account these bursts, then an appropriately large CBS should be
set.

When a specific service should not have its frames declared yellow, both EIR
and EBS should be set to 0. Note that if EIR=0 but EBS=10,000 bytes, then up
to 10,000 bytes could be declared yellow for a given burst of traffic. Egress
BWP should be set to color-aware mode in order to take into account the
color marking at the ingress UNI.

Applications

Consider an enterprise with 3 locations: An HQ and 2 branch offices.

Figure 5.8.F8 - EP-LAN Application

The enterprise asks for EP-LAN service of 100 Mbps guaranteed. An EVC Ingress
BWP could be set to provide
CIR=100 Mbps
CBS=50,000 Bytes
EIR=0
EBS=0
CM=0
CF=0

If the enterprise would like specific delay guarantees to its VoIP application,
then the SP may offer 2 CoS ID, letting the CE perform the priority marking.
The VoIP service is assumed to require 10 Mbps. High marked with PCP=5 and
Low marked with PCP=0. All other PCP values could be blocked

Figure 5.8.T1 - Example EP-LAN Attributes

Now two ingress BWPs should be set - one per each CoS ID

Example for Egress BWP

Consider EVP-LAN service servicing 10 UNIs If the SP would like to ensure that
the UNI link is not flooded, it should set the egress BWP to the desired rate.
Note that in such a case, coloring the frame may not be meaningful, so CIR=0,
CBS=0 and EIR=desired rate with some reasonable EBS is the suggested
solution.
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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Attributes of Carrier Ethernet Services In this Section

5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 5.9 Services

This page is intentionally left blank. 5.1

5.2 UNI Attributes

5.3 EVC per UNI Attributes

5.4 EVC Attributes

5.4.1 L2CP per MEF 6.1.1

5.5 ENNI Attributes

5.6 OVC Attributes

5.6.1 Hairpin switching

5.7 OVC End Point per ENNI


Attributes

5.8 Bandwidth Profiles

5.9

5.10 EVC Performance Attributes

Download PDF

Download a pdf for


offline viewing.

Reference Documents
MEF 6.1

MEF 10.2

MEF 13

MEF 20

MEF 26.1

IEEE 802.1AX

IEEE 802.3 clause 43

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

5 Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC


Service Attributes

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Attributes of Carrier Ethernet Services In this Section

5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet


Study Guide Section 5.10 Services

EVC Performance Attributes 5.1

5.2 UNI Attributes


The EVC Related Performance Service Attributes specify the Service Frame
delivery performance. Four performance attributes are considered in this 5.3 EVC per UNI Attributes
specification. These are: 5.4 EVC Attributes

5.4.1 L2CP per MEF 6.1.1


Frame Delay
Inter-Frame Delay Variation 5.5 ENNI Attributes
Frame Loss Ratio 5.6 OVC Attributes
Availability 5.6.1 Hairpin switching

The Performance attributes are per CoS ID. They must be specified for at 5.7 OVC End Point per ENNI
Attributes
least one CoS ID, but some of the attributes can be set to N/S (Not
specified). 5.8 Bandwidth Profiles

5.9
In general, all service performance attributes are measured during some time
5.10 EVC Performance Attributes
interval T (e.g. 5 minutes, 2 hours, etc.).

Service performance is measured between an ordered pair of UNIs. Download PDF

For E-Line, there are 2 ordered pairs (UNI1, UNI2) and (UNI2, UNI1).
Download a pdf for
For E-LAN and E-Tree, measurement can be performed on any sub-set of the offline viewing.
ordered pairs.

For E-Tree, each pair must include at least one root UNI.

Reference Documents
Frames are counted against the performance attribute only if they meet all
the following criteria:
MEF 6.1
The egress frame results from an ingress frame where both UNIs MEF 10.2
(ingress and egress) belong to the ordered set. MEF 13
The first bit of the frame must arrive to the egress UNI during the
MEF 20
time interval T.
MEF 26.1
The ingress BWP had compliance level of green.
IEEE 802.1AX
Note that Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast and L2CP frames can all be used for
IEEE 802.3 clause 43
performance measurement.

One-way Frame Delay MEF-CECP Test Objectives

5 Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC


The One-way Frame Delay for an egress Service Frame at a given UNI in the Service Attributes
EVC is defined as the time elapsed from the reception at the ingress UNI of
the first bit of the corresponding ingress Service Frame until the transmission
Send Feedback
of the last bit of the Service Frame at the given UNI. This delay definition is
illustrated below.
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Figure 5.10.F1. - One way frame delay Send Feedback


[Source: MEF 10.2, Figure 5]

Note that this definition of Frame Delay for a Service Frame is the one-way
delay that includes the delays encountered as a result of transmission across
the ingress and egress UNIs as well as that introduced by the CEN.

Measuring One-way delay requires clock synchronization between all UNIs


associated with an EVC, therefore, in some cases approximation can be used
from measuring Two-way delay. However, such approximation should be
carefully considered as the delay on each direction may be different in some
CEN technologies or under certain traffic and load conditions.

MEF 10.1 had Percentiles as the attribute for One-way delay.

The 99th Percentile is 50 msec means that 99% of the measurements during
the time interval T should be less than 50 msec.

For Multipoint EVCs, the Percentiles are calculated taking the MAX (worst
case) over all ordered UNI pairs defined for the sub-set (which could be all
UNIs in the EVC or any defined sub-set of them).

MEF 10.2 introduced two new metrics for One-way Frame Delay:

1. Delay Range The Maximal difference over time interval T between


Percentiles Py to Px
2. Mean Frame Delay The Arithmetic Mean of all measurements over
time interval T

Inter-Frame Delay Variation

Inter-Frame Delay Variation (IFDV) is the difference between the one-way


delays of a pair of selected Service Frames. This definition is borrowed from
RFC3393 where IP packet delay variation is defined. For a particular Class of
Service Identifier and an ordered pair of UNIs in the EVC, IFDV Performance is
applicable to Qualified Service Frames.

NOTE MEF 10.1 refer to Inter-Frame Delay Variation as Frame Delay


Variation.

This performance attribute is not Jitter which has a different definition and is
not appropriate for packet-based services.

The Inter-Frame Delay Variation Performance is defined as the P-percentile of


the absolute values of the difference between the Frame delays of all
Qualified Service Frame pairs that satisfy the following conditions:

The difference in the arrival times of the first bit of each Service
Frame at the ingress UNI was exactly D t.

Inter-Frame Delay Variation Performance depends on the choice of the value


for D t. Values for both D t and T typically should be chosen to achieve a
reasonable level of statistical accuracy.

The choice of the value for D t can be related to the application timing
information. As an example for voice applications where voice frames are
generated at regular intervals, D t may be chosen to be few multiples of the
inter-frame time.

Figure 5.10.F2 - Inter frame delay variation

For Multipoint EVC, the IFDV is calculated as the Maximal value over all
ordered pairs belonging to the sub-set of all possible ordered pairs.

Frame Loss Ratio

The Frame Loss Ratio (FLR) is calculated by counting the number of frames
sent (during time interval T with compliance level of green by Ingress BWP for
the given CoS ID) and the number of frames that arrived at the egress UNI.

Frame Loss Ratio = [(Number of Frames sent) - (Number of Frames Received)]


/ (Number of Frames sent)

For Multipoint EVC, the FLR is calculated as the maximum FLR value over all
ordered pairs belonging to the sub-set of all possible ordered pairs. For
example:
Figure 5.10.F3 - Frame loss ratio

Availability

Availability Performance is the percentage of time within a specified time


interval during which the Frame Loss Ratio (FLR) is small. As an example, a
service provider can define the availability performance to be measured over
a month and the value for the Availability Performance objective to be 99.9%.
In a month with 30 days and no scheduled downtime, this parameter will
allow the service to be unavailable for approximately 43 minutes out of the
whole month.

Informally, Availability Performance is based on Service Frame loss during a


sequence of consecutive small time intervals. If the previous sequence was
defined as available, and if the frame loss is high for each small time interval
in the current sequence, then the current sequence is defined as unavailable.
Otherwise the current sequence is defined as available. On the other hand, if
the previous sequence was defined as unavailable, and if frame loss is low for
each small time interval in the current sequence, then the current sequence is
defined as available. Otherwise, the current sequence is defined as
unavailable.

For Multipoint EVC, the Availability is calculated as the maximum value over
all ordered pairs belonging to the sub-set of all possible ordered pairs.

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exam

MEF 20
User Network Interface (UNI) Type 2 Implementation Agreement

MEF 20 is a specification document developed by the Technical Committee of the MEF that provides an Implementation
Agreement for UNI Type 2.

Abstract:

"This document specifies an Implementation Agreement (IA) for MEF User to Network Interface (UNI) Type 2. This
Implementation Agreement adds new functionalities to MEF UNI Type 1 [MEF13], such as E-LMI based on [MEF16], Link
OAM based on clause 57 of [IEEE 802.3], Service OAM based on [ITU-T Y.1731] and [IEEE 802.1ag] and Protection using
Link Aggregation based on clause 43 of [IEEE 802.3].."

Download

Reference Presentation
The MEF has prepared an overview presentation which explains the MEF 20 Implementation Agreement.

Download

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exam

IEEE 802.1AX-2008
Link Aggregation

The 802.1AX-2008 standard developed by IEEE is a useful reference for understanding the topic of Link Aggregation in the
context of Carrier Ethernet networks. The standards document is not available directly from the MEF but may be obtained
from IEEE.

Other relevant links for Link Aggregation can be found at the Wikipedia page on the topic.

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
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exam

IEEE 802.3 clause 43


Ethernet Link Aggregation

The 802.3 standard (clause 43) developed by IEEE is a useful reference for understanding Ethernet Link Aggregation in the
context of Carrier Ethernet. The standards document is not available directly from the MEF but may be obtained from
IEEE.

Other relevant links for Ethernet Link Aggregation technology can be found at the Wikipedia page on the topic.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Test Objectives 5 1 In this Section


Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC Service Attributes 5 Attributes of Carrier Ethernet
Services
5.1 Define per UNI service attributes (e.g., physical interfaces, Frame format,
Ingress/egress Bandwidth Profiles, CE-VLAN ID/EVC Map, UNI protection). 5.1

5.2 UNI Attributes


5.2 Define EVC per UNI service attributes (e.g. ingress/egress Bandwidth
5.3 EVC per UNI Attributes
Profiles).
5.4 EVC Attributes
5.3 Define per EVC service attributes (e.g., CE-VLAN ID Preservation, CoS ID 5.4.1 L2CP per MEF 6.1.1
Preservation, Relationship between Service Level Agreement and Service Level
5.5 ENNI Attributes
Specification, Class of Service).
5.6 OVC Attributes
5.4 Define OVC End Point per ENNI service attributes (e.g., ingress/egress 5.6.1 Hairpin switching
bandwidth profiles).
5.7 OVC End Point per ENNI
Attributes
5.5 Describe bandwidth profiles.
5.8 Bandwidth Profiles
5.6 Given a service scenario, describe relevant service attribute 5.9
settings/parameters.
5.10 EVC Performance Attributes

5.7 Define and describe the components of a Service Level Specification and
the relationship to Service Level Agreement. Download PDF

5.8 Define and describe ENNI attributes (e.g., physical interfaces, Frame
format, Ingress/egress Bandwidth Profiles, End Point Map, ENNI protection). Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
5.9 Define and describe OVC attributes (e.g., CE-VLAN ID Preservation, CoS ID
Preservation, Relationship between Service Level Agreement and Service Level
Specification, Class of Service, hairpin switching).
Reference Documents
5.10 Define and describe the Carrier Ethernet protection mechanisms.
MEF 6.1

MEF 10.2

MEF 13

MEF 20

MEF 26.1

IEEE 802.1AX

IEEE 802.3 clause 43

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

5 Key UNI, ENNI, OVC, and EVC


Service Attributes

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

The MEF Certification Program comprises three parts:-


In this Section
MEF Services Certification Program
6 MEF Certification of Carrier
MEF Equipment Certification Program Ethernet
MEF Professional Certification Program 6.1 Purpose of Certification

The purpose of these three certification programs is to provide the 6.2 Definitions, IAs, ATSs, Test
Plans
Subscribers, Service Providers and Operators with a neutral reference point for
compliance with and knowledge of Carrier Ethernet specifications. 6.3 Testing and Certification Process

6.4 Certification for SPs


MEF Certification in Subscriber RFPs
6.5 Certification for Vendors
Subscribers (e.g. enterprises, governmental organizations, health and
educational facilities) are buying more and more Carrier Ethernet services Download PDF
from Service Providers. When buying Carrier Ethernet services, Subscribers
often need to choose between several Service Providers in order to determine
their final choice. MEF certification of services provides a valuable starting Download a pdf for
point in the selection process of suppliers of Carrier Ethernet services. offline viewing.

MEF Certification in Service Provider and Operator RFPs

MEF Certification enables Service Providers and Operators to go to market wit


Reference Documents
Carrier Ethernet services certified as being compliant with MEF specifications
to support the following market requirements:
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
Subscribers demand of Service Providers that services be predictable in terms
of service functionality and performance. MEF certification increases the 6 MEF Certification
confidence of Subscribers that services offered to them do meet functionality
and performance requirements. Send Feedback

Services RFPs need to be less complex. MEF certification (e.g. MEF 9 and MEF Name:
14) in an RFP replace longform descriptions of Subscriber requirements.
Email:
Services certification also streamlines the interconnection services between
different Service Providers and Operators. Comments

Service Providers and Operators choosing equipment upon which to implement


Carrier Ethernet services have a very large range of vendor suppliers to choose
from. Increasingly, Service Providers and Operators are stating mandatory Send Feedback

requirements for MEF certification in their RFPs to Equipment Vendors to


reduce the number of products to be assessed. Once the field of of potential
products has been narrowed down, Service Providers and Operators save test
time in their own labs by relying on MEF certification to allow them to focus
on testing product features specific to their own needs, rather than having to
retest standardized Carrier Ethernet functionality.

MEF Certification Registry

As of March 2012, there are over 60 Service Providers around the world that
have demonstrated their commitment to Carrier Ethernet standardization
through MEF certification of their services. Similarly, more than 80 Equipment
Vendors with products certified as supporting Carrier Ethernet services in
compliance with MEF specifications.

The names of these certified Service Providers and Equipment Vendors can be
found at the MEF Certification Registry together with the respective serviecs
and products.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

MEF Certification of Carrier Ethernet In this Section


Services 6 MEF Certification of Carrier
Ethernet
Study Guide Section 6.2 6.1 Purpose of Certification

Definitions, Implementation Agreements, Abstract Test Suites and Plans 6.2 Definitions, IAs, ATSs, Test
Plans
The MEF produces three types of technical documents: 6.3 Testing and Certification Process

Technical Specifications (TS) 6.4 Certification for SPs

6.5 Certification for Vendors


The TS includes architectural and abstract models required to create a robust
platform of technical requirements and defintions. TSs are the principal
Download PDF
documents that define mandatory and optional elements, attributes etc. of a
Carrier Ethernet network (e.g. UNI, ENNI, services etc.) Examples of TSs
include MEF 6.1, MEF 10.2 and MEF 22.
Download a pdf for
Implementation Agreements (IA) offline viewing.

The IA typically quantify specific parameters and attributes called out in the
TS so that consistent, interoperable implementation can occur. The IA is
mainly used to define interfaces and system behavior. Examples of IAs include Reference Documents
MEF 20 and MEF 23.

Abstract Test Suites (ATS) MEF-CECP Test Objectives

The ATS comprises a series of tests to be used to measure conformance to 6 MEF Certification
specific MEF specifications - which can be Technical Specifications or
Implementation Agreements. The purpose of the ATS is to form the basis of Send Feedback
test plans such as those used in the MEF Certification Programs. Examples of
ATSs include MEF 9, MEF 14 and MEF 18 Name:

Test Plan
Email:
The MEF Certification Test Lab uses one or more ATSs to create a separate
Comments
Test Plan where each set of tests in the plan are based on specific test cases
in the ATS. In some cases, there will be a reference to the source TS or IA
that specified the requirement or capability that is being verified. A MEF
member that schedules certification of a service or device by the MEF Send Feedback

Certification Test Lab will receive the Test Plan as part of the preparation
process before undertaking the certification test.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

MEF Certification of Carrier Ethernet In this Section


Services 6 MEF Certification of Carrier
Ethernet
Study Guide Section 6.3 6.1 Purpose of Certification

Testing and Certification Process 6.2 Definitions, IAs, ATSs, Test


Plans
Requirements from Equipment Vendor 6.3 Testing and Certification Process

An Equipment Vendor can apply to have a service or device certified by the 6.4 Certification for SPs
MEF Certification Test Lab if it is a MEF member in good standing. The MEF 6.5 Certification for Vendors
member approaches the MEF approved test lab (Iometrix) at
certification@iometrix.com for more information on pricing and scheduling. Download PDF
The testing and certification process takes place directly between the MEF
member and Iometrix. The MEF's responsibility is to develop the underlying
Technical Specifications, Implementation Agreements, Abstract Test Suites Download a pdf for
and to approve the Test Plan developed by Iometrix. offline viewing.

Equipment Vendor Testing Process

Test plans, configuration guides and engineering support are made available Reference Documents
by Iometrix to Equipment Vendors at all stages of the vendor's preparation for
certification testing.
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
Testing takes place at the Iometrix facilities in San Francisco, California or
6 MEF Certification
under special arrangement at the vendor's facilities. Tests are typicall
scheduled at least one month in advance for a one week period at mutually
agreed dates. Send Feedback

Vendors are requested to provide on-site engineering support to configure Name:


equipment and resolve exceptions that may arise during the course of testing.
Email:
Vendors are responsible for the delivery of all components to be tested and
Iometrix supplies all test equipment and software. Comments

Requirements from Service Provider

A preliminary technical review is conducted by Iometrix to assess the Send Feedback

correspondence of a Service Provider's commercial offering, footprint and


network topology to MEF Ethernet service specifications and requirements.
Pre-qualified services are then fully described in the Service Implementation
Specification - a master document that governs the entire certification testing
process.

For Carrier Ethernet 1.0 (MEF 9 and MEF 14) certification, services submitted
for testing must be terminated at the UNI on MEF certified equipment - a list
of which can be found at the MEF Certification Registry.

No certification requirements apply to core network equipment. However,


Carrier Ethernet services offered on different transport technologies such as
SONET/SDH, DWDM and MPLS are generally subject to separate certifications.

Service Provider Certification Process

The number of sites selected for the service testing depends on the Carrier
Ethernet service. For EPL services, two sites are selected. For EVPL and E-LAN
services, three sites are selected. The sites selected will be readily accessbile
central offices distributed across the service coverage areas: Metro, regional
or national for domestic services; transnational, continental and
transcontinental for international services.

Tests are performed remotely from the Iometrix test control center using
probes supplied by Iometrix and installed by the Service Provider at each site
with a remote access connection. The IRU, AC powered probes are equipped
to test multiple services simultaneously and are attached to the Subscriber
side of the UNIs to verify end-to-end service delivery.

The time to complete a full cycle of MEF 9 and MEF 14 tests is typically two
weeks exclusive of service provisioning and troubleshooting.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

MEF Certification of Carrier Ethernet In this Section


Services 6 MEF Certification of Carrier
Ethernet
Study Guide Section 6.4 6.1 Purpose of Certification

Certification for Service Providers 6.2 Definitions, IAs, ATSs, Test


Plans
Carrier Ethernet 1.0 (MEF 9 and MEF 14) 6.3 Testing and Certification Process

Service provider members of the MEF seeking to certify one or more of their 6.4 Certification for SPs
EPL, EVPL and E-LAN services as conforming to MEF 9, MEF 14 and/or MEF 18 6.5 Certification for Vendors
specifications within the Carrier Ethernet 1.0 generations framework can apply
to the MEF Certification Test Lab (Iometrix) to schedule and prepare for Download PDF
independent, streamlined testing of their service(s).

The testing and certification in Carrier Ethernet 1.0 (MEF 9 and MEF 14) is
Download a pdf for
based on a 'Certification by ATS' model. This means that a single ATS is used offline viewing.
as the basis for each certification. MEF 9 is the Abstract Test Suite used as
the basis of the test plan for conformance to EPL, EVPL and E-LAN functional
specifications. MEF 14 is the Abstract Test Suite used as the basis of the test
plan for conformance to performance specifications for EPL, EVPL and E-LAN. Reference Documents

To date, over 60 Service Providers have certified well over 200 Carrier
Ethernet services as conforming with MEF 9 and/or MEF 14. MEF-CECP Test Objectives

6 MEF Certification
Carrier Ethernet 2.0 (E-Line, E-LAN, E-Tree and E-Access)

Carrier Ethernet 2.0 Certification becomes available in 2012. This 2.0 Send Feedback
certification transitions the industry from 'Certification by ATS' to
'Certification by Service'. Instead of certifying a service as conforming to a Name:
particular MEF ATS, the certification verifies that the service conforms to the
Email:
relevant sections of a range of Abstract Test Suites as described in the Carrier
Ethernet 2.0 Certification Blueprint.
Comments

Key Words

MEF 9; MEF 14; ATS; E-Line; E-LAN; E-Tree; E-Access


Send Feedback

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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

MEF Certification of Carrier Ethernet In this Section


Services 6 MEF Certification of Carrier
Ethernet
Study Guide Section 6.5 6.1 Purpose of Certification

Certification for Equipment Vendors 6.2 Definitions, IAs, ATSs, Test


Plans
Carrier Ethernet 1.0 (MEF 9, MEF 14 and MEF 18) 6.3 Testing and Certification Process

Equipment vendor members of the MEF seeking to certify one or more of their 6.4 Certification for SPs
equipment products as conforming to MEF 9, MEF 14 and/or MEF 18 6.5 Certification for Vendors
specifications within the Carrier Ethernet 1.0 generations framework can apply
to the MEF Certification Test Lab (Iometrix) to schedule and prepare for Download PDF
independent, streamlined testing of their product(s).

The testing and certification in Carrier Ethernet 1.0 (MEF 9, MEF 14 and MEF
Download a pdf for
18) is based on a 'Certification by ATS' model. This means that a single ATS is offline viewing.
used as the basis for each certification. MEF 9 is the Abstract Test Suite used
as the basis of the test plan for conformance to EPL, EVPL and E-LAN
functional specifications. MEF 14 is the Abstract Test Suite used as the basis
of the test plan for conformance to performance specifications for EPL, EVPL Reference Documents
and E-LAN. MEF 18 is the Abstract Test Suite used as the basis of the test plan
for conformance to functional and performance specifications for circuit
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
emulation of TDM circuits over Carrier Ethernet networks.
6 MEF Certification
To date, over 80 Service Providers have certified nearly 1,000 Carrier Ethernet
services as conforming with MEF 9, MEF 14 and/or MEF 18.
Send Feedback
Carrier Ethernet 2.0 (E-Line, E-LAN, E-Tree and E-Access)
Name:
Carrier Ethernet 2.0 Certification becomes available in 2012. This 2.0
Email:
certification transitions the industry from 'Certification by ATS' to
'Certification by Service'. Instead of certifying a product as conforming to a
Comments
particular MEF ATS, the certification verifies that the product enables the
delivery of a service (E-Line, E-LAN, E-Tree and/or E-Access) conforming to
the relevant sections of a range of Abstract Test Suites as described in the
Carrier Ethernet 2.0 Certification Blueprint. Send Feedback

Key Words

MEF 9; MEF 14; MEF 18; ATS; E-Line; E-LAN; E-Tree; E-Access

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Test Objectives 6 1 In this Section


Certification 6 MEF Certification of Carrier
Ethernet
6.1 Describe the Certification process and requirements for networking
equipment. 6.1 Purpose of Certification

6.2 Definitions, IAs, ATSs, Test


6.2 Describe the Certification process and requirements for services delivered Plans
by a service provider. 6.3 Testing and Certification Process

6.3 Describe what is covered by MEF 9, MEF 14, and MEF 18 Certifications. 6.4 Certification for SPs

6.5 Certification for Vendors


6.4 Describe the benefits of MEF Certification for equipment vendors, Service
Provider, and end users. Download PDF

Download a pdf for


offline viewing.

Reference Documents

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

6 MEF Certification

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Typical Target Applications Using Carrier In this Section


Ethernet Services 7 Typical Applications Using Carrier
Ethernet Services
Study Guide Section 7.1 7.1 Access to IP Services

Access to IP Services 7.2 Wholesale Access Services

7.3 Mobile Backhaul


Many of today's enterprise applications are transported using IP. This can be
any Internet application but especially relevant are applications and content 7.3.1 EVPL in Mobile Backhaul
consumption from application content providers (e.g. VoIP gateway, video 7.3.2 MEF 22 Use Cases
content, etc.). Subscribers to a CEN Service Provider can take advantage of 7.4 Business Services
the benefits of Carrier Ethernet services when consuming IP services.
7.5 TDM Private Line Replacement

When connecting to the Internet, the CEN can provide the connectivity 7.6 Frame Relay/ATM Replacement
required to the ISP's POP facilitating any required bandwidth with the 7.7 WDM Private Network
granularity, manageability and service performance supported by Carrier Replacement
Ethernet. Likewise, when a subscriber wants to connect to an application such
as a VoIP gateway, this too can be delivered over Carrier Ethernet. One of the Download PDF
benefits to the Subscribers is that the same CEN Service Provider that provides
services for corporate interconnectivity can also provide the Internet
connectivity. Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
There are two Ethernet services that are appropriate for this application:

1. EVPL between each customer and the content provider or ISP.


2. EVP-Tree where the content provider/ISP is designated as a root and Reference Documents
each subscriber is designated as a leaf ensuring that each subscriber's
traffic cannot be seen by other subscribers. MEF 6.1

MEF 8
The EVPL is simpler from an implementation point of view, but has scalability
issues, requiring many EVPLs. Also, the bandwidth is not shared between MEF 10.2
subscribers, which may be a problem for large deployments in view of the MEF 26.1
fact that Internet access is often bursty and used at different times of the MEF 28
day by different subscribers.
MEF Reference Presentation: Access
Technologies
In the following example an ISP named Turbo 2000 Internet Access Inc. is
MEF Reference Presentation: Mobile
connected to three enterprises for Internet Access. Each customer connects to
Backhaul
the ISP's POP using EVPL with CE-VLAN ID of 2000. This enables the customer
MEF White Paper: CESoE
to use the same UNI port for other services (e.g. Disaster Recovery, L2VPN,
etc.) using different CE-VLAN ID(s).
MEF-CECP Test Objectives

7 Target Applications for Carrier


Ethernet Services

Send Feedback

Name:
Figure 7.1.F1: Example - Turbo 2000 Internet Access, Inc.

Email:
In this example, assume that Customer 1 has purchased a 300 Mbps downlink
service and 100 Mbps uplink service for connecting to the ISP over an Comments
unprotected UNI that will be used for another service too. The service has a
single CoS, with the following performance objectives measured over a 1 hour
period:
Send Feedback

Frame loss ratio = 0.1%


One-Way Mean Frame Delay = 30 msec

The appropriate UNI Attributes for Customer 1 are:

Table 7.1.T1: Example - UNI Service Attributes

The appropriate EVC attributes for the EVPL connecting Customer 1 to the ISP
POP are:

Table 7.1.T2: Example - EVC Service Attributes

Table 7.1.T3: Example - EVC per UNI Service Attributes

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Typical Target Applications Using Carrier In this Section


Ethernet Services 7 Typical Applications Using Carrier
Ethernet Services
Study Guide Section 7.2 7.1 Access to IP Services

Wholesale Access Services 7.2 Wholesale Access Services

7.3 Mobile Backhaul


Carrier Ethernet Service Providers often are required to provide service to
locations outside their CEN reach ('offnet'). In such cases, the SP can buy a 7.3.1 EVPL in Mobile Backhaul
tunnel service from an Access Service Provider. The latter may not be a full 7.3.2 MEF 22 Use Cases
CEN Operator, but rather a simplified service where the Access SP provides 7.4 Business Services
such service utilizing a relatively simple device, often referred to as a NID
7.5 TDM Private Line Replacement
(Network Interface Device). This NID is typically co-located at the End-User's
7.6 Frame Relay/ATM Replacement
site and acts as the demarcation point for the service. It only provides a
subset of the UNI functionality. The balance (and vast majority) of the UNI 7.7 WDM Private Network
Replacement
functionality is implemented "behind" the ENNI in the Service Provider's
network at a reference point known as the Virtual UNI (or VUNI). A tunnel is
Download PDF
created between the VUNI at the ENNI and the RUNI at the NID. This tunnel is
referred to as a UNI Tunnel Access (UTA), and provides a largely transparent
connectivity between the RUNI and the CEN's ENNI. Typically, most of the
Download a pdf for
UNI-N functions are implemented at the VUNI, while the RUNI functionality is offline viewing.
very basic.

The UTA service is very transparent. The Access SP provides a transparent EPL
with no service awareness. At the VUNI, the incoming service frames are Reference Documents
mapped to different EVCs based on the UNI CE-VLAN ID/EVC map.
MEF 6.1
The following figure illustrates this service set-up:
MEF 8

MEF 10.2
MEF 26.1

MEF 28

MEF Reference Presentation: Access


Figure 7.2.F1 Technologies
MEF Reference Presentation: Mobile
Backhaul
UTA Service Attributes
MEF White Paper: CESoE
This tunnel has a single CoS at the Access SP and is not service aware. There
could be a single per UNI bandwidth profile applied on all service frames MEF-CECP Test Objectives
mapped to the tunnel. L2CP rules must tunnel all protocols in order to
7 Target Applications for Carrier
provide the highest level of transparency possible. Ethernet Services
In some scenarios, there are more than 2 operators involved in the service
delivery. The following example presents a case where Operator 1 is the SP
Send Feedback
and 2 EVCs associate a RUNI served by Operator 3. A single UTA is created to
tunnel all traffic to/from this RUNI up to the VUNI at the ENNI-N on Operator
Name:
1 side of the ENNI between Operator 1 and Operator 2. The VUNI provides the
OVC end-point for each OVC associated with these EVCs. Email:

Comments

Send Feedback

Figure 7.2.F3

The UTA OVC End Point attributes at the RUNI have some additional
constraints which are described in the following table:

Table 7.2.T1

The UTA OVC attributes have some additional constraints which are described
in the following table:

Table 7.2.T2

The ENNI has only a single additional constraint: At an ENNI in the VUNI
Provider CEN, the End Point Type within an End Point Map for ENNI frames
mapped to a VUNI must the value of VUNI

For more details, refer to MEF 28.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Typical Target Applications Using Carrier In this Section


Ethernet Services 7 Typical Applications Using Carrier
Ethernet Services
Study Guide Section 7.3 7.1 Access to IP Services

Mobile Backhaul 7.2 Wholesale Access Services

7.3 Mobile Backhaul


The term Mobile Backhaul refers to the network between the base station
sites (NodeB, eNodeB, BTS) and the network controller site (Radio Network 7.3.1 EVPL in Mobile Backhaul
Controller = RNC, S-GW). This network is called the Radio Access Network 7.3.2 MEF 22 Use Cases
(RAN) by the 3GPP. Mobile backhaul networks have traditionally been realized 7.4 Business Services
using TDM and ATM technologies. However, next generation mobile equipment
7.5 TDM Private Line Replacement
and networks are based on Ethernet. Carrier Ethernet services provide the
7.6 Frame Relay/ATM Replacement
connectivity in the mobile backhaul network, possibly in a converged network,
together with traditional fixed services. Ethernet is becoming increasingly 7.7 WDM Private Network
Replacement
available, even at sites with access to legacy services. This opportunity allows
mobile operators to make the choice of which transport technology to utilize.
Download PDF
In some cases where there is circuit based equipment that is co-located with
newer Ethernet based equipment, it may be suitable to use a single transport
technology to lower costs. A mobile backhaul network can take on a
Download a pdf for
constellation of forms depending on factors such as transport technology, offline viewing.
mobile standard, operator preference, etc. Figure 1 describes a simple
reference model where the mobile backhaul is a single Carrier Ethernet
Network (CEN) that connects the mobile network nodes, referred herein as
RAN Customer Edge (RAN CE). RAN CE is a generic term that identifies a Reference Documents
mobile network node or site, such as a RAN Network Controller (RAN NC) or a
RAN Base Station (RAN BS). A RAN NC may be a single network controller or a MEF 6.1
site composed of several network controllers including: OSS, WCDMA Radio MEF 8
Network Controller, S-GW or synchronization server. A RAN BS may also be a
MEF 10.2
single base station or a collection of several base stations. Multiple RAN NCs
MEF 26.1
and RAN BSs can be connected to the CEN at any given time.
MEF 28

MEF Reference Presentation: Access


Technologies

MEF Reference Presentation: Mobile


Backhaul

MEF White Paper: CESoE

Figure: 7.3.F1
[Source: MEF 22, Figure 1] MEF-CECP Test Objectives

More complex scenarios involving multiple CEN domains are possible. Note 7 Target Applications for Carrier
Ethernet Services
that the CEN SP provides a service to a mobile operator and not to end users
(mobile users).
Send Feedback
For a GSM network with 3G and 3.5G (known as HSPA) technology, each NodeB
is connected to a single RNC location, which may encompass several co- Name:
located RNCs. NodeBs do not communicate directly one with the other (note
that in LTE this is no longer the case). Therefore, there are two suitable Email:
Carrier Ethernet services:
Comments

1. EVPL between each Base Station site to the RNC site


2. EP-Tree where each Base Station site is designated as a leaf and the
RNC site is designated as a root.
Send Feedback

The EVPL approach is illustrated in the following figure:

Figure: 7.3.F2
[Source: MEF 22, Figure 8]

For more detailed information on use of EVPLs for mobile backhaul, go to


EVPL in Mobile Backhaul.

The EP-Tree option is illustrated in the following figure:

Figure: 7.3.F3
[Source: MEF 22, Figure 11]

The mobile network has several classes of service for different applications
that use the network. The following table describes MEF 22 recommended
mapping between the 3GPP classes and the CEN CoSs:

Table: 7.3.T1
[Source: MEF 22, Table 2]

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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Typical Target Applications Using Carrier In this Section


Ethernet Services 7 Typical Applications Using Carrier
Ethernet Services
Study Guide Section 7.5 7.1 Access to IP Services

TDM Private Line Replacement 7.2 Wholesale Access Services

7.3 Mobile Backhaul


For many years the popular service to connect PBXs over a public network was
implemented via Private Line services offered by Service Providers using their 7.3.1 EVPL in Mobile Backhaul
SONET/SDH networks. In these services, each location has a PBX connected via 7.3.2 MEF 22 Use Cases
an E1/T1 (or bundled E1/T1 for increased bandwidth) to an ADM switch of the 7.4 Business Services
SONET/SDH network.
7.5 TDM Private Line Replacement
For example, in the following figure we see a Private Line service providing 2
7.6 Frame Relay/ATM Replacement
Mbps between 2 PBXs.
7.7 WDM Private Network
Replacement

Download PDF

Figure 7.5.F1 - PBX over legacy PDH and SONET


Download a pdf for
E-Line is the modern solution for connecting PBXs and supports replacement offline viewing.
of TDM Private Line services. Carrier Ethernet Service Providers can offer not
only TDM Private Line replacement, but also a variety of other Carrier
Ethernet based solutions using the same infrastructure.
Reference Documents

The solution is implemented by implementing a CESoETH service between the MEF 6.1
two locations. MEF 8

MEF 10.2
MEF 26.1

Figure 7.5.F2 - PBX over Carrier Ethernet MEF 28

MEF Reference Presentation: Access


The service can be provided using EPL or EVPL. EVPL allows the Service Technologies
Provider to offer another communication service (e.g. L2VPN) for the
MEF Reference Presentation: Mobile
customer utilizing the same UNI port. Backhaul
In order to provide the required bandwidth, the service should offer the MEF White Paper: CESoE
following:
CIR=2 Mbps, CBS=10,000 bytes, EIR=0, EBS=0 MEF-CECP Test Objectives
Performance objectives: Frame Delay, Inter-Frame Delay Variation and Loss
7 Target Applications for Carrier
Ratio to ensure low loss rate and minimal delay variation.
Ethernet Services


Send Feedback

Name:

Email:

Comments

Send Feedback

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Typical Target Applications Using Carrier In this Section


Ethernet Services 7 Typical Applications Using Carrier
Ethernet Services
Study Guide Section 7.6 7.1 Access to IP Services

Frame Relay/ATM Replacement 7.2 Wholesale Access Services

7.3 Mobile Backhaul


Some WAN services today are offered over ATM public networks or in some
cases over Frame Relay (FR). These legacy networks enable different types of 7.3.1 EVPL in Mobile Backhaul
transport protocols (IP, TDM, etc.) over virtual circuits. However, these 7.3.2 MEF 22 Use Cases
services are often highly bandwidth constrained and are relatively expensive. 7.4 Business Services
Furthermore, they mainly provide point-to-point connectivity (although some
7.5 TDM Private Line Replacement
ATM networks support Ethernet L2VPN using technologies like LAN Emulation
7.6 Frame Relay/ATM Replacement
(LANE).
7.7 WDM Private Network
The following figure describes such a scenario where an enterprise connects Replacement
its 3 locations over 3 point-to-point circuits from a WAN service provider who
operates an ATM or FR network: Download PDF

Download a pdf for


offline viewing.

Reference Documents

Figure 7.6.F1 - Legacy ATM-FR


MEF 6.1
In this set-up, each Network Edge at each location would have an ATM or FR MEF 8
interface(s) pointing towards the WAN provider. For the sake of this example,
MEF 10.2
we can assume that each circuit provides 2 Mbps guaranteed bandwidth
between each location. MEF 26.1

MEF 28
The need for more bandwidth at a lower price, and with a more sophisticated
MEF Reference Presentation: Access
and dynamic service provisioning, presents the opportunity for a Carrier Technologies
Ethernet Service Provider to offer a very attractive alternative.
MEF Reference Presentation: Mobile
Backhaul
The customer can buy one of the following two services and replace the
current Network Edge with a switch/Customer Edge: MEF White Paper: CESoE

1. 3 EVPLs, each having ingress BWP per EVC with CIR=2 Mbps, CBS=20 MEF-CECP Test Objectives
Kbytes and possibly also allowing for some additional traffic using EIR=2
7 Target Applications for Carrier
Mbps, EBS=20 Kbytes Ethernet Services
2. Single EVP-LAN with ingress BWP of 4 Mbps CIR. The choice of EVP-LAN
enables the enterprise to consider buying additional services like Send Feedback
Internet access. For this reason, the Service Provider facilitates the
addition of new Carrier Ethernet services over the same UNI. Name:

The first alternative is depicted below, where a site requires a single UNI port
Email:
for the 2 EVPLs:
Comments

Send Feedback

Figure 7.6.F2 - Carrier Ethernet replacing ATM-FR

Traffic Forwarding

In the ATM network, each incoming frame would have been classified and
directed towards the appropriate site. This would be done by setting the
appropriate ATM header fields (VPi, VCi). In the case of Carrier Ethernet
services , the CE would put an appropriate CE-VLAN ID at location A. The CE-
VLAN ID/EVC map would be:

Figure 7.6.T1 - Table of CE-VLAN ID per EVC

All other CE-VLAN IDs are not expected and therefore will be dropped.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Typical Target Applications Using Carrier In this Section


Ethernet Services 7 Typical Applications Using Carrier
Ethernet Services
Study Guide Section 7.3.1 7.1 Access to IP Services

EVPL in Mobile Backhaul 7.2 Wholesale Access Services

7.3 Mobile Backhaul


The following explanation expands on the use case where a distinct EVPL
service is implemented between each RAN BS and RAN NC with the following 7.3.1 EVPL in Mobile Backhaul
configurations: 7.3.2 MEF 22 Use Cases

7.4 Business Services


The RAN NC uses a configured CE-VLAN ID to identify a RAN BS in the
mobile backhaul network. The CE-VLAN ID is mapped at the RAN NC 7.5 TDM Private Line Replacement

UNI-N and at the RAN BS UNI-N to the EVC connecting the RAN BS and 7.6 Frame Relay/ATM Replacement
RAN NC. This implies that each RAN NC UNI can distinguish up to four 7.7 WDM Private Network
thousand distinct RAN BSs. Replacement
At the RAN NC side, the CE-VLAN ID assignment is performed at the
UNI-C. At the RAN BS side the CE-VLAN ID assignment can be either Download PDF
performed at the UNI-C or at the UNI-N depending on which option
(described later in this paragraph) is selected.
Bundling is disabled, which means that all traffic types are sent on Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
the same CE-VLAN ID.
Multiple Classes of Service can be supported. They are differentiated
through either PCP or DSCP marking. CoS ID is identified by
<EVC+PCP> or <EVC+DSCP>. In this use case CoS ID preservation is Reference Documents
enabled and 4 classes of service are supported.
MEF 6.1
The table below shows an example of how Carrier Ethernet services can be
delivered in the mobile backhaul according to the assumptions made for the MEF 8
present use case. MEF 10.2
MEF 26.1

MEF 28

MEF Reference Presentation: Access


Technologies

MEF Reference Presentation: Mobile


Backhaul
Table 7.3.1.T1 - EVC per EVP-Line
MEF White Paper: CESoE
This use case may also take into consideration additional factors that result in
four possible options, each using a different service frame format at the
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
RAN BS UNI-C:
7 Target Applications for Carrier
Option A : The CE-VLAN ID Preservation Attribute is enabled and the Ethernet Services
RAN BS UNI-C transmits/receives tagged service frames to/from the
RAN BS UNI-N with the CE-VLAN ID preconfigured for the RAN BS Send Feedback
itself. Either PCP or DSCP values specify different Classes of Service.
Option B : The CE-VLAN ID Preservation Attribute is disabled and the Name:
RAN BS UNI-C transmits/receives untagged service frames to/from
UNI-N where they are mapped to the default CE-VLAN ID. DSCP Email:

values specify different Classes of Service. A default mapping of Comments


untagged service frames is configured at each RAN BS UNI-N.
Option C : The CE-VLAN ID Preservation Attribute is disabled and the
RAN BS UNI-C transmits priority tagged service frames towards the
UNI-N, where they are mapped to the default CE-VLAN ID, and Send Feedback

receives untagged frames. PCP values specify different Classes of


Service. A default mapping of priority tagged service frames is
configured at each RAN BS UNI-N.
Option D : The CE-VLAN ID Preservation Attribute is disabled and BS
UNI-C transmits/receives tagged service frames to/from UNI-N with a
preconfigured CE-VLAN ID, identical for each BS. Either PCP or DSCP
values specify different Classes of Service.

Options B, C and D may ease the configuration of the RAN BS because they
are agnostic to the CE-VLAN ID value used to identify Service Frames in the
mobile backhaul.

The following shows an example of the CE-VLAN ID / EVC mapping for each
option and the configuration both at the RAN BS UNI-N and at the
RAN NC UNI-N:

Table 7.3.1.T2 - EVC ID at RAN NC UNI-NI

The symbol * indicates the CE-VLAN ID value used at the UNI for both
untagged and priority tagged frames.

The CoS ID Preservation attribute should be enabled for each option in order
to simplify configuration.

Note that the CoS ID per <EVC> model can also be supported by this use case
if the assumption to use a single EVP Line per RAN BS that supports multiple
services is removed. According to this new assumption each RAN BS can
support multiple EVP Lines whereby mobile traffic classes may be grouped into
different EVCs. Each EVP Line is mapped to a unique CE-VLAN ID and so each
CE-VLAN ID identifies a specific set of services between the RAN NC and a
specific RAN BS.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Typical Target Applications Using Carrier In this Section


Ethernet Services 7 Typical Applications Using Carrier
Ethernet Services
Study Guide Section 7.3.2 7.1 Access to IP Services

MEF 22 Use Cases 7.2 Wholesale Access Services

7.3 Mobile Backhaul


Based on the basic reference model described above, it is possible to derive
the use cases below, where each use case presents a possible deployment 7.3.1 EVPL in Mobile Backhaul
scenario using Ethernet services. Although the use cases are not exhaustive of 7.3.2 MEF 22 Use Cases
all possible deployment scenarios, they are the foundation of the Mobile 7.4 Business Services
Backhaul Implementation Agreement Phase 1 (MEF 22).
7.5 TDM Private Line Replacement
Use cases 1a and 1b below depict deployments where the RAN BS and RAN NC
7.6 Frame Relay/ATM Replacement
can not be directly connected to a UNI because they have non-Ethernet based
interfaces, such as ATM or TDM. These interfaces are illustrated in Figure 1 7.7 WDM Private Network
Replacement
and Figure 2 as Non-Ethernet I/F. Use cases 1a and 1b require that the RAN
CEs first connect to a Generic Inter-working Function (GIWF), which in turn is
Download PDF
connected to the UNI.

Download a pdf for


offline viewing.

Figure 1 (7.3.2.F1) - Generic Interworking Function with Legacy MBH Network


[Source: MEF 22, Figure 2]
Reference Documents
Figure 1, above, illustrates a split access scenario - Use Case 1 - where there
are two parallel networks, a legacy network and CEN, that transport different MEF 6.1
types of mobile traffic. This may be appropriate in cases where an Operator MEF 8
wants to offload low priority, high bandwidth traffic from the legacy network
MEF 10.2
to the CEN in order to scale according to network demand. How and where
MEF 26.1
traffic is split and sent over the legacy network is out of scope for this Study
Guide. MEF 28

MEF Reference Presentation: Access


Technologies

MEF Reference Presentation: Mobile


Backhaul

MEF White Paper: CESoE


Figure 2 (7.3.2.F2) - Generic Interworking Function without Legacy Network
[Source: MEF 22, Figure 3]
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
Figure 2 depicts a deployment scenario - Use Case 2 - where the legacy
7 Target Applications for Carrier
network has been substituted by a Carrier Ethernet Network and where the Ethernet Services
RAN CE is connected to the CEN via a GIWF. In this use case all traffic from
the RAN CE is transported over the CEN using Ethernet services. The last two
Send Feedback
use cases illustrate RAN CE equipment that can be connected directly to the
UNI via an Ethernet interface eliminating the need for a GIWF. Use Case 2 is
Name:
similar to Usase Case 1 in the way the CEN is used to offload certain traffic,
such as low priority high bandwidth traffic, from the legacy network. How the Email:
RAN CE transports real-time and synchronization traffic via the legacy network
is out of scope. Comments

Send Feedback

Figure 3 (7.3.2.F3) - UNI with MBH Legacy Network


[Source: MEF 22, Figure 4]

Lastly, Figure 4 shows the case where all traffic is transported via Ethernet
services over the CEN. How the Ethernet services are implemented may vary
depending on the mobile technology that is deployed, vendor equipment,
operator requirements, and the type of services offered by the carrier.

Figure 4 (7.3.2.F4) - UNI without Legacy MBH Network


[Source: MEF 22, Figure 5]

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Typical Target Applications Using Carrier In this Section


Ethernet Services 7 Typical Applications Using Carrier
Ethernet Services
Study Guide Section 7.4 7.1 Access to IP Services

Business Services 7.2 Wholesale Access Services

7.3 Mobile Backhaul


Carrier Ethernet for Business covers a wide variety of communication services
offered to enterprises, SMBs and corporate offices of all sizes. The following 7.3.1 EVPL in Mobile Backhaul
are the areas in which high-bandwidth, low-latency and reduced-cost are 7.3.2 MEF 22 Use Cases
enabling and improving applications. 7.4 Business Services

Site-to-site access 7.5 TDM Private Line Replacement

Data center & server consolidation 7.6 Frame Relay/ATM Replacement


Business continuity/disaster recovery 7.7 WDM Private Network
Service orientated architecture Replacement
Software as a service
Converged networking Download PDF

Carrier Ethernet provides scalable, efficient and easy to manage solutions for
enabling all of these services and applications. Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
For example, the following use case features a fashion retailer with over 200
store locations.

Limited bandwidth on legacy dial-up network required sending sales and stock
Reference Documents
information in batch up-loads overnight. This delayed fulfilling restocking,
resulting in the inability to quickly meet customer demand and poor MEF 6.1
utilization of resources. Security is a constant issue, but the CCTV is
MEF 8
essentially an offline and reactive service.
MEF 10.2
The goals of the project in this use case are to increase capacity, improve
MEF 26.1
network resiliency and scalability, provide the flexibility to simplify addition
MEF 28
and removal of new stores matching retail environment and reduce cost by
converging voice and data networks via VoIP and to improve security and fight MEF Reference Presentation: Access
Technologies
stock shrinkage with national central CCTV monitoring ability.
MEF Reference Presentation: Mobile
The low cost solution is based on a mixture of enabling transport technologies. Backhaul

The EP-Tree service type is implemented to ensure separation between the MEF White Paper: CESoE
divisional operations under the supervision of the corporate headquarters. This
solution is based on standardized, certified, Ethernet Business Services. MEF-CECP Test Objectives

7 Target Applications for Carrier


The following figure depicts the solution: Ethernet Services

Send Feedback

Name:

Email:

Figure 7.4.F1 - Example Business Services Application Comments

EP-Tree is selected in order to facilitatea high-degree of transparency


between the locations. It should be noted that each store location can
communicate with any node designated as a root (HQ is this case), for Send Feedback

example, enabling dual-homed UNI for additional resiliency, or enabling


connectivity to a central storage location. The service will support two CoSs:
H for delay sensitive applications like VoIP and disaster recovery and L for
any other type of traffic. H CoS is marked with PCP=5. L CoS is marked with
PCP=0

In this use case the following attributes should be set at the HQ UNI:

Figure 7.4.T1

The appropriate EVC attributes are:

Figure 7.4.T2
Figure 7.4.T3

In some cases when an enterprise wishes to buy a site-to-site service from an


SP, the reality is that the SP cannot reach all of the locations. This is because
the SP does not have local facilities in the area to serve a site. In such a case,
the SP contracts with another CEN Operator that has local facilities into these
locations in order to provide the service.

In the following example we have two services:

Point-to-point EVC between 2 subscriber sites (orange line)

Multipoint to Multipoint service between 4 locations (red line)

Figure 7.4.F2 - Operators and Service Providers for Business Services


Applications

The SP that also operates a CEN (right side) contracts Operator (left CEN) in
order to reach all locations.

The Point to Point EVC is realized by 2 point-to-point OVCs (OVC A and OVC
B) This can be an EVPL or EPL. For our example, we shall assume that the E-
Line is EPL.

The Multipoint to Multipoint EVC is realized by 2 multipoint-to-multipoint


OVCs (OVC C and OVC D).

However, the subscriber's UNIs are configured and the service is managed by
the SP, with no customer awareness of the existence of the ENNI and OVCs.

The following attributes should be set for OVC A:

Figure: 7.4.T4

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Typical Target Applications Using Carrier In this Section


Ethernet Services 7 Typical Applications Using Carrier
Ethernet Services
Study Guide Section 7.7 7.1 Access to IP Services

WDM Private Network Replacement 7.2 Wholesale Access Services

7.3 Mobile Backhaul


A WDM Private Network refers to the situation in which an enterprise
customer connects WDM links between its locations in order to obtain a high- 7.3.1 EVPL in Mobile Backhaul
bandwdith low-latency connection between its sites. Usually, these networks 7.3.2 MEF 22 Use Cases
are point-to-point where each router's port is connected to a specific router 7.4 Business Services
port at another location.
7.5 TDM Private Line Replacement
Such a scenario is illustrated in the following figure:
7.6 Frame Relay/ATM Replacement

7.7 WDM Private Network


Replacement

Download PDF

Download a pdf for


Figure 7.7.F1 - 3 E-Lines replace WDM offline viewing.

At each location, the router identifies the destination of each packet, based
on IP or MAC addresses, and forwards the packet to the correct port. Each of
these connections can be configured to, for example, 2 Gbps. For each
Reference Documents
connection there is full transparency, as the WDM network is packet unaware
and VLAN unaware. The disadvantage of this private solution is the need to MEF 6.1
install and manage the WDM links and also may not be feasible for long-haul
MEF 8
scenarios. This solution requires leasing dark fiber facilities from an Operator,
which is typically a very expensive offering, making this solution even less MEF 10.2
attractive for long-haul applications. Also, this type of solution cannot scale MEF 26.1
easily as the enterprise adds more locations. MEF 28

Carrier Ethernet offers a comparable solution where all locations are MEF Reference Presentation: Access
Technologies
connected using an EP-LAN service, which enables the relatively simple and
MEF Reference Presentation: Mobile
fast addition of new sites as the enterprise grows. It provides the same
Backhaul
transparency as a WDM network and supports any-to-any communication
MEF White Paper: CESoE
supporting new services like shared storage, video distribution etc.

The solution is depicted below: MEF-CECP Test Objectives

7 Target Applications for Carrier


Ethernet Services

Send Feedback

Name:

Figure 7.7.F2 1 E-LAN replaces WDM Email:

Example Comments

All three UNI ports will be configured to All-to-One bundling and therefore
require no VLAN configuration. Furtheremore, this service can now provide
multiple CoSs, each with its own bandwidth profile and performance
Send Feedback
requirements. In order to facilitate the legacy service example of 2 Gbps
between each 2 locations, the following bandwidth profile can be set:

Ingress bandwidth profile per UNI:

CIR = 4 Gbps

CBS = 1 Mbytes

EIR = 2 Gbps [Note: this enables the customer to use more


bandwidth than before, but without performance guarantees]

EBS = 256 Kbytes

And egress bandwidth profile per UNI:

CIR = 4 Gbps

CBS = 1 Mbytes

EIR = 2 Gbps EBS = 256 Kbytes

L2CP processing will be set to tunnel to the EVC all types of L2CPs in order to
provide the same transparency as the WDM private network previously
provided. Best of all, this Carrier Ethernet service does not require the
customer to lease costly dark-fiber services between locations.

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

MEF 8
Implementation Agreement for the Emulation of PDH Circuits over Metro Ethernet Networks

MEF 8 is a specification document developed by the Technical Committee of the MEF that provides an Implementation
Agreement for emulation of TDM services over Carrier Ethernet.

Abstract:

"This document provides an implementation agreement for the emulation of TDM services belonging to the Plesiochronous
Digital Hierarchy (PDH) across a Metro Ethernet Network. Specifically it covers emulation of Nx64 kbit/s, DS1, E1, DS3
and E3 circuits. Generically this is referred to as Circuit Emulation Services over Ethernet (CESoETH)."

Download

Reference Presentation
The MEF has prepared an overview presentation which explains the MEF 8 specification.

Download

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

MEF 28
External Network Network Interface (ENNI) Support for UNI Tunnel Access and Virtual UNI
Technical Specification

MEF 28 is a specification document developed by the Technical Committee of the MEF that defines the External Network
Network Interface (ENNI) support for UNI Tunnel Access and Virtual UNI.

Abstract:

"The External Network Network Interface (ENNI) is a reference point that describes the interface between two Metro
Ethernet Networks (MENs) [Editor: Carrier Ethernet Networks (CENs)] and is intended to support the transparent
extension of Ethernet services across multiple Network Operator MENs [Editor: CENs], where each Network Operator MEN
[Editor: CEN] is under the control of a distinct administrative authority. This Technical Specification extends the ENNI by
defining the UNI Tunnel Access (UTA) which associates a Virtual UNI (VUNI), a remote UNI, and at least one supporting
OVC."
Download

Reference Presentation

The MEF has prepared an overview presentation which explains the MEF 28 specification.

Download

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

MEF Reference Presentation


Optimizing Mobile Backhaul

This presentation provides an overview of how Carrier Ethernet is used to maximize operational use of mobile backhaul
connectivity for cellular base stations.

Download

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

MEF White Paper


Introduction to Circuit Emulation Services over Ethernet

Abstract:

"This paper provides an introduction to Circuit Emulation Services over Ethernet (CESoE) enabling the support of
synchronous services such as T1/E1 over an asynchronous Ethernet infrastructure. The paper discusses the benefits of
CESoE to service providers offering Ethernet access services, as well as to subscribers to those services in various
applications. Finally, the paper discusses the current activities of the MEF in standardizing and promoting CESoE."

Download


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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Test Objectives 7 1 In this Section


Target Applications for Ethernet Services 7 Typical Applications Using Carrier
Ethernet Services
7.1 Describe wholesale access services, retail commercial/business services,
mobile backhaul services, Ethernet access to IP services, and supporting 7.1 Access to IP Services

legacy services over Ethernet. 7.2 Wholesale Access Services

7.3 Mobile Backhaul


7.2 Describe which UNI or ENNI attribute values are selected for a given target
7.3.1 EVPL in Mobile Backhaul
application.
7.3.2 MEF 22 Use Cases
7.3 Describe which EVC or OVC attribute values are selected for a given target
7.4 Business Services
application.
7.5 TDM Private Line Replacement
7.4 Describe how specific service requirements of a target application (e.g., 7.6 Frame Relay/ATM Replacement
frame relay, Dedicated Internet Access, DSL or Cable Internet access, TDM
7.7 WDM Private Network
Private Lines, WDM private network are met using Ethernet services. Replacement

7.5 Given a scenario, determine appropriate Ethernet services.


Download PDF

Download a pdf for


offline viewing.

Reference Documents

MEF 6.1

MEF 8

MEF 10.2
MEF 26.1

MEF 28

MEF Reference Presentation: Access


Technologies

MEF Reference Presentation: Mobile


Backhaul

MEF White Paper: CESoE

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

7 Target Applications for Carrier


Ethernet Services

Send Feedback

Name:

Email:

Comments

Send Feedback

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Positioning of Carrier Ethernet with other In this Section


technologies 8 Positioning of Carrier Ethernet
with other technologies
Study Guide Section 8.1 8.1 Carrier Ethernet and L2VPN

Carrier Ethernet and L2VPN 8.2 Carrier Ethernet and IP

8.3 Carrier Ethernet and TDM


L2VPN over Metro or Wide Area Network is a service where a customer
connects several locations with Layer 2 connectivity, that is, without IP
Download PDF
routing. In the past, Service provides offered this service over Frame Relay
(FR) for relatively low-bandwidth applications of 56 Kbps to 40 Mbps and over
ATM for higher bandwidth, b ut even ATM networks would not support services
Download a pdf for
that require more than few hundred Mbps. offline viewing.

Each location connects to the SP's network using a switch that maps incoming
traffic flows to ATM/FR PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit) having fixed CIR and
burst setting, with no ability for bandwidth sharing between different
Reference Documents
applications of the subscriber.
MEF 6.1
In most cases the service offered was point-to-point.
MEF 8
Note: ATM supported LANE (LAN Emulation) but this was never a widely used
MEF 10.2
service.
MEF 22.1
The network that realized the service was often TDM-based, providing very MEF White Paper: CESoE
predictable bandwidth and delay performance and high level of fault IETF RFC 4448
management and resiliency. However, these legacy networks were expensive
to manage, had a relatively limited bandwidth that could be allocated to a MEF-CECP Test Objectives
single service, and had relatively high price points.
8 Comparing and Positioning Carrier
Carrier Ethernet provides a much more scalable, cost-effective alternative. Ethernet Services
In CE, the subscriber can map traffic to the services based on CE-VLAN IDs Send Feedback
and can have bandwidth profiles that enable sharing of bandwidth between
different service instances. Name:

CE also enables the introduction of E-LAN and E-Tree services which could not Email:
be supported efficiently over ATM or FR.
Comments
Both technologies require no IP coordination with the SP as the forwarding
and mapping to the services are not based on IP routing.

To summarize, the key advantages of Carrier Ethernet over legacy L2 services


Send Feedback
are:

Scalable bandwidth (granularity, up to 10 Gbps)


Support of Multi-point services
Bandwidth sharing between services

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Positioning of Carrier Ethernet with other In this Section


technologies 8 Positioning of Carrier Ethernet
with other technologies
Study Guide Section 8.2 8.1 Carrier Ethernet and L2VPN

Carrier Ethernet and IP 8.2 Carrier Ethernet and IP

8.3 Carrier Ethernet and TDM


L3VPN / IP Service

Many core networks are built over IP/MPLS both nationally and internationally. Download PDF

IP/MPLS or L3VPN is a technology where the traffic is carried over PW over


LSP tunnels and the forwarding is L3-based. The infrastructure is made up of Download a pdf for
routers that are MPLS-capable. Such a network can provide connectivity offline viewing.
service to subscribers, in a similar manner to the way CEN provides Ethernet
services.

These L3 services are non-standard, and there is currently no Standards Reference Documents
Development Organization that is attempting to create standards for such
services. In contrast to L3VPN, Ethernet services are built on the concept of MEF 6.1
Ethernet based forwarding, hence can be referred to as L2VPN. When we MEF 8
consider L3VPN Vs. L2VPN the following comparison can be made:
MEF 10.2

L2VPN L3VPN MEF 22.1


Ethernet port (or PDH MEF White Paper: CESoE
Ethernet UNI
Customer Handoff circuit) IETF RFC 4448
Service Identification VLAN ID / EVC IP Address
Granular, up to 10 MEF-CECP Test Objectives
Service Rate Granular, up to 10 Gbps
Gbps 8 Comparing and Positioning Carrier
Defined by Service Ethernet Services
performance objectives,
SLS Proprietary Send Feedback
controlled by Bandwdith
profile
Name:
CoS Identification PCP, DSCP, Per EVC DSCP/ToS
Packet/Frame MAC Address (E-LAN) VLAN Email:
IP Address
Routing/Forwarding ID (E-Line)
Comments
Link Trace, Continuity
Fault Management Check (Layer 2 Ping), Traceroute, ICMP Ping
Loopbacks
Frame Delay, Frame Delay Packet Delay, Packet Send Feedback

Performance Management Variation, Frame Loss Delay Variation,


Ratio, Service Availability Packet Loss,

In some cases a global solution may result in a combination of L2VPN and


L3VPN services. The main reason is that for long haul, from time to time,
forwarding based on Ethernet addresses does not scale, whereas L3VPNs are
available throughout the globe on international links.

A simplified view of this combined service is depicted below:

Figure 8.2.F1: Carrier Ethernet and IP/MPLS Core Network

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Positioning of Carrier Ethernet with other In this Section


technologies 8 Positioning of Carrier Ethernet
with other technologies
Study Guide Section 8.3 8.1 Carrier Ethernet and L2VPN

Carrier Ethernet and TDM 8.2 Carrier Ethernet and IP

8.3 Carrier Ethernet and TDM


TDM Private Line services enable a subscriber to connect two locations using a
dedicated "pipe" having fixed bandwidth and fixed delay and delay variation
Download PDF
characteristics using a WAN network operator . This service is very bandwidth
limited, as it is often limited to about 50 Mbps. Furthermore, the bandwidth
is always symmetrical, although many applications are asymmetric in nature.
Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
The bandwidth allocated for a service instance is always allocated and cannot
be shared amongst services. This explains why these services are not cheap.
Migrating these services to Ethernet services enables the customer the
flexibility to buy the bandwidth it needs, in the direction it needs. It also
Reference Documents
enables more sophisticated bandwidth sharing schemes and of course scales as
the number of locations grow. For the cases where time synchronization is MEF 6.1
important, synchronization over packet networks (1588v2 or NTP) can be
MEF 8
used. TDM-based CES over Ethernet services also provides a comparable
MEF 10.2
service.
MEF 22.1
Example:
MEF White Paper: CESoE

Assuming that the customer has a symmetrical service of 4 Mbps using 2xE1s IETF RFC 4448
to connect two locations, then the most appropriate Ethernet service to start
with would be an EPL, which provides the most transparent service. In such a MEF-CECP Test Objectives
case the following UNI Attributes are recommended: 8 Comparing and Positioning Carrier
Ethernet Services
All-to-One Bundling = Yes (which means Bundling=No, Service
Multiplexing = No)
Send Feedback
Ingress Bandwidth Profile per UNI

CIR = 4 Mbps Name:


CBS = 50,000 bytes
EIR=0 Email:

EBS=0 Comments
L2CP Processing Tunnel all L2CPs

Where a single EVC with single CoS ID is planned, the following EVC Attributes
are recommended:
Send Feedback

No bandwidth profile
Conditional delivery Deliver Unconditionally for Unicast, Multicast,
Broadcast
Service Performance will be set to target the performance
guaranteed to the subscriber

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

MEF 22.1
Mobile Backhaul Implementation Agreement Phase 2

MEF 22.1 is a specification document developed by the Technical Committee of the MEF that provides an Implementation
Agreement for Mobile Backhaul.

Abstract:

"This document identifies the requirements for MEF Ethernet Services and MEF External Interfaces (EIs such as UNIs) for
use in Mobile Backhaul networks based on MEF specifications. In addition, new interface and service attributes have been
specified where needed. The services and requirements in this Implementation Agreement are based on the services
defined in MEF 6.1 [3] as well as the attributes in MEF 10.2 [7], in MEF 10.2.1 [8] and this IA. The aim is to be flexible
to support a wide range of Ethernet service based mobile network deployments."

Download
Reference Presentation

There is currently no overview presentation available for MEF 22.1.

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
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Test Objectives 8 1 In this Section


Comparing and Positioning Ethernet Services 8 Positioning of Carrier Ethernet
with other technologies
8.1 Compare and contrast Ethernet services with L2, IP, and TDM private line
services. 8.1 Carrier Ethernet and L2VPN

8.2 Carrier Ethernet and IP


8.2 Given a scenario, recommend an Ethernet service to meet end user
8.3 Carrier Ethernet and TDM
specifications.

Download PDF

Download a pdf for


offline viewing.

Reference Documents

MEF 6.1

MEF 8

MEF 10.2

MEF 22.1

MEF White Paper: CESoE

IETF RFC 4448

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

8 Comparing and Positioning Carrier


Ethernet Services
Send Feedback

Name:

Email:

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.1 < br/>
Purpose and Need 9.1 Purpose and Need

Since the 1960's when TDM was first developed for wide area networks, a huge 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
installed-base of TDM circuits and equipment ports (T1/E1, T3/E3 etc.) has 9.1.2 MEF 8 model
emerged throughout the world supporting both voice communications and also < br/>
data networking.
9.2 CES Components
However, with the advent of the Internet, packet-based networking (Carrier 9.2.1 Interface to Customer
Ethernet, IP, MPLS) for both data networking and voice communications has
9.2.2 Generic Interworking
overtaken TDM, becoming the primary approach to digital networking in wide Function (GIWF)
area networks. 9.2.3 Functional Layering

The original purpose of TDM was to enable multiplexed voice calls over a < br/>
single physical circuit. Voice calls require minimum end-to-end delay (latency) 9.3 Service Definitions
and delay variation to achieve reasonable voice quality. This purpose was
9.3.1 E-Line
achieved by designing TDM in such a way that clock synchronization between
9.3.2 UNI Attributes
both ends of the circuit could be achieved via the TDM circuit, as well as
guaranteed and permanent transmission and receipt of TDM frames based on 9.3.3 EVC Attributes
the synchronized clocks - whether or not actual traffic is contained within the 9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes
TDM frames. This translates into low latency and delay variation at the < br/>
expense of bandwidth and flexibility.
9.4 Synchronization
Packet-based networking originally provided cost effective networking with 9.4.1 Packet Based
high bandwidth capabilities and flexibility, but without the guarantee of low Synchronization Methods
latency and delay variation required for voice calls and some data 9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery
applications. However, with the advent of Carrier Ethernet, and the 9.4.1.2 NTP
improvement of the underlying transport infrastructures, it is now feasible to
9.4.1.3 1588 v2
guarantee low latency and delay variation in packet-based networks enabling
9.4.2 SyncE
the transport of all types of applications including voice and clock
synchronization.
Download PDF
With almost 50 years of deployment of equipment with TDM-ports (e.g. PBXs,
telephone switching centers, mobile backhaul equipment), there is still a need
to connect TDM equipment, albeit over packet-based networks rather than Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
TDM circuits.

Carrier Emulation Services over Ethernet (CESoETH) enables users of TDM


equipment and clock synchronization to use cost effective Carrier Ethernet
services to transport TDM and clock traffic together with all other applications Reference Documents
over a single packet-based network.
MEF 8
MEF 22.1

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.1.1 < br/>
What is CESoETH? 9.1 Purpose and Need

Circuit Emulation Service over Ethernet (CESoETH) is a technology for 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
transporting TDM services over a Carrier Ethernet Network (CEN) 9.1.2 MEF 8 model

< br/>
CESoETH tunnels TDM traffic through a CEN where the packet network
emulates a circuit-switched network, re-creating the TDM circuit at the far 9.2 CES Components
end such that the CEN is invisible to TDM source and destination equipment. 9.2.1 Interface to Customer
CESoETH runs on a standard Ethernet point-to-point service (E-Line). CESoETH
9.2.2 Generic Interworking
can be referred to as TDM emulation over packet network. Function (GIWF)

9.2.3 Functional Layering


The service is illustrated in the following figure:
< br/>

9.3 Service Definitions

9.3.1 E-Line

9.3.2 UNI Attributes

9.3.3 EVC Attributes


Figure 9.1.1.F1 - CESoETH
9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes
CESoETH enables an Carrier Ethernet Service Provider to offer a true
< br/>
converged service over the packet network - a service that supports both
9.4 Synchronization
legacy TDM-based interfaces and services, along side more advanced
Ethernet-based services. 9.4.1 Packet Based
Synchronization Methods
CESoETH is the solution for any point-to-point service between locations that 9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery
have TDM interfaces such as E1, T1, E3, T3 where the wide area network is a 9.4.1.2 NTP
CEN. When the service itself is TDM and when timing synchronization is
9.4.1.3 1588 v2
important (e.g. mobile backhaul) CEsoETH provides a solution for timing re-
generation. It is important to understand that the same UNIs that are used to 9.4.2 SyncE

support CESoETH service can be used to support other Ethernet services which
are packet based. However, this is achieved using a separate EVC. Download PDF


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offline viewing.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.1.2 < br/>
MEF 8 Model 9.1 Purpose and Need

MEF 8 is the Implementation Agreement for Circuit Emulation over a Carrier 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
Ethernet Network (CEN) 9.1.2 MEF 8 model

< br/>
The TDM service is carried over an E-Line. A single E-Line can support multiple
TDM services. The Subscriber connects to the Service Provider network via a 9.2 CES Components
TDM interface. However a CEN supports only Ethernet UNIs. A component is 9.2.1 Interface to Customer
defined to convert TDM to Ethernet. This component is called Generic
9.2.2 Generic Interworking
Interworking Function (GIWF) Function (GIWF)

9.2.3 Functional Layering


This model is illustrated in the following figure:
< br/>

9.3 Service Definitions

9.3.1 E-Line

9.3.2 UNI Attributes

9.3.3 EVC Attributes

9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes

< br/>
Figure 9.1.2.F1 9.4 Synchronization

It should be noted that this schematic drawing may be realized using a single 9.4.1 Packet Based
Synchronization Methods
network element at the CEN's edge which presents a TDM interface and has an
internal Carrier Ethernet UNI. The Carrier Ethernet UNI is a standard MEF UNI. 9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery

9.4.1.2 NTP
From that point on, the transport network is 'unaware' that a TDM service is
9.4.1.3 1588 v2
being carried over the EVC/OVC.
9.4.2 SyncE
In order to provide the level of transparency and the constant bit-rate
required by TDM services, this specific EVC is not shared with other traffic. Download PDF

However, the same UNI can be used to support other services between these
customer locations, using separate EVCs and utilizing the service multiplexing
Download a pdf for
capabilities of MEF services. offline viewing.

It should be noted that similar techniques are used by IETF solutions for
carrying TDM traffic over MPLS or IP networks using pseudowires.
Reference Documents
When two Subscribers need a TDM service to access a PSTN, each customer
will have its own T-Line over an EVPL to the PSTN. If the 2 locations also
MEF 8
require communication between themselves, a third (not shown in the figure)
MEF 22.1
T-Line is created. This service scenario is depicted in the figure below:
MEF Reference Presentation: Access
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Figure 9.1.2.F1

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.2 < br/>
CES Components 9.1 Purpose and Need

CESoETH requires several architectural components in addition to the 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
implementation of TDM to Ethernet conversion. This section describes the 9.1.2 MEF 8 model
various components and their use in the implementation of a Carrier Ethernet- < br/>
based TDM service.
9.2 CES Components

9.2.1 Interface to Customer

9.2.2 Generic Interworking


Function (GIWF)

9.2.3 Functional Layering

< br/>

9.3 Service Definitions

9.3.1 E-Line

9.3.2 UNI Attributes

9.3.3 EVC Attributes

9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes

< br/>

9.4 Synchronization

9.4.1 Packet Based


Synchronization Methods

9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery

9.4.1.2 NTP
9.4.1.3 1588 v2

9.4.2 SyncE

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.2.1 < br/>
Interface to Customer 9.1 Purpose and Need

The Subscriber of CESoETH is presented a TDM interface by the Service 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
Provider. TDM services may be transported in two ways:- 9.1.2 MEF 8 model

< br/>
structure-agnostic (where any underlying structure is ignored by the
transport mechanism) 9.2 CES Components
structure-aware (where the underlying structure is exploited by the 9.2.1 Interface to Customer
transport mechanism)
9.2.2 Generic Interworking
Function (GIWF)
MEF Specifications supports the following interfaces:
9.2.3 Functional Layering
DS1 at 1.544 Mbit/s as defined in ANSI [T1.102] and [T1.107] < br/>
E1 at 2.048 Mbit/s as defined in ITU-T Recommendations [G.702] and
9.3 Service Definitions
[G.704]
N x 64kbit/s data (i.e. 64 kbit/s, 128 kbit/s, 192 kbit/s) as defined in 9.3.1 E-Line

ITU-T recommendation [I.231.1] 9.3.2 UNI Attributes


DS3 at 44.736 Mbit/s as defined in ANSI [T1.107] 9.3.3 EVC Attributes
E3 at 34.368 Mbit/s as defined in ITU-T Recommendation [G.751]
9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes

The TDM data (and optionally clock) is converted and mapped to packets for < br/>
transport over a CEN. This operation is performed by the GIWF. After this 9.4 Synchronization
conversion from TDM to packet, there is a standard MEF ETH UNI - the point
9.4.1 Packet Based
at which the ETH service starts. Synchronization Methods

At the egress of the ETH service, the GIWF regenerates the TDM stream. 9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery

9.4.1.2 NTP
Note that the ETH service that carries the CES data is managed and
9.4.1.3 1588 v2
maintained from UNI to UNI. However, the specific statistics that are
delivered for CESoETH are measured between GIWFs. 9.4.2 SyncE

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.2.2 < br/>
Generic Interworking Function (GIWF) 9.1 Purpose and Need

The Circuit Emulation Interworking Functional, also known as the Generic 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
Inter-Working Function (GIWF), is defined as the adaptation function that 9.1.2 MEF 8 model
interfaces the CES application to the Ethernet layer. GIWF handles the < br/>
emulation of the service presented at the CES TDM Interface. The CES GIWF is
9.2 CES Components
responsible for all the functions required for the emulated service to function
including: 9.2.1 Interface to Customer

9.2.2 Generic Interworking


Encapsulation on ingress Function (GIWF)
Decapsulation on egress 9.2.3 Functional Layering
Payload formation and extraction
< br/>
Synchronization
Carriage of TDM signaling and alarms 9.3 Service Definitions
Error Response and Defect Behaviour 9.3.1 E-Line
TDM performance monitoring 9.3.2 UNI Attributes

The details of these functions are detailed in section 6 of MEF 8 but are 9.3.3 EVC Attributes
outside the scope of this study guide. 9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes

< br/>
The GIWF has two interfaces:
9.4 Synchronization
Customer facing - CES TDM Interface
9.4.1 Packet Based
ETH UNI facing - CES Payload (i.e. packetised TDM payload, CES Synchronization Methods
control word, optional RTP header)
9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery

9.4.1.2 NTP
9.4.1.3 1588 v2

9.4.2 SyncE

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to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.2.3 < br/>
Functional Layering 9.1 Purpose and Need

Circuit Emulation Services over Ethernet (CESoETH) uses a point-to-point 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
connection between two GIWFs. Essentially it uses the CEN as an intermediate 9.1.2 MEF 8 model
network (or virtual wire) between two TDM networks. This is handled as an < br/>
application layer function in terms of the layered network model defined in
9.2 CES Components
MEF 8. The GIWF provides the adaptation of the CES application to the
Ethernet services layer. 9.2.1 Interface to Customer

9.2.2 Generic Interworking


This functional layering is shown in the table below with mapping onto the Function (GIWF)
various encapsulation headers 9.2.3 Functional Layering

< br/>
CES Application Data
9.3 Service Definitions
Adaptation Function
9.3.1 E-Line
Ethernet Service Layer
9.3.2 UNI Attributes

9.3.3 EVC Attributes


When one considers a packet "inside the CEN" the realization of the above
layered model will look as shown below: 9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes

< br/>
TDM Payload
9.4 Synchronization
RTP (Optional) 9.4.1 Packet Based
Synchronization Methods
CESoETH Control Word
9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery
Emulated Circuit Identifier
9.4.1.2 NTP
VLAN Tags 9.4.1.3 1588 v2

MAC SA 9.4.2 SyncE

MAC DA Download PDF

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Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.3 < br/>
Service Definitions 9.1 Purpose and Need

9.1.1 What is CESoETH

9.1.2 MEF 8 model


The Carrier Ethernet carrying the CESoETH must an E-Line with specific UNI,
EVC and EVC Per UNI attributes. This section explains why an E-Line must be < br/>
used and the attributes for that E-Line. 9.2 CES Components

E-Line requirement for CESoETH 9.2.1 Interface to Customer

UNI attributes for CESoETH 9.2.2 Generic Interworking


Function (GIWF)
EVC attributes for CESoETH
EVC Per UNI attributes for CESoETH 9.2.3 Functional Layering

< br/>

9.3 Service Definitions

9.3.1 E-Line

9.3.2 UNI Attributes

9.3.3 EVC Attributes

9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes

< br/>

9.4 Synchronization

9.4.1 Packet Based


Synchronization Methods

9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery

9.4.1.2 NTP
9.4.1.3 1588 v2

9.4.2 SyncE

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
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exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.3.1 < br/>
E-Line 9.1 Purpose and Need

Only E-Lines can be used for CESoETH. This is because the E-Line is the single 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
Carrier Ethernet service type for point-to-point connections, and CESoETH is 9.1.2 MEF 8 model
inherently a point-to-point service. In other words, only E-Lines connect < br/>
exactly two customer TDM interfaces over a CEN.
9.2 CES Components
Subscribers can choose between using an E-Line EPL (private service) and an 9.2.1 Interface to Customer
EVPL (virtual service) An EPL is chosen where only one Carrier Ethernet
9.2.2 Generic Interworking
service is required on the UNI (i.e. CESoETH) EVPL is chosen when more than Function (GIWF)
one Carrier Ethernet service is required on the UNI (e.g. CESoETH and Internet 9.2.3 Functional Layering
access; two CESoETH etc.)
< br/>
Altough EPL provides higher transparency in terms of L2CP processing, this is 9.3 Service Definitions
not relevant for CESoETH, which does not make use of L2CP.
9.3.1 E-Line

Note that the UNI-N in this case is a regular UNI-N supporting Ethernet 9.3.2 UNI Attributes
services. However, the UNI-C is internal to the GIWF since the customer has a 9.3.3 EVC Attributes
TDM interface to the network.
9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes

The service requirements for CESoETH are: < br/>

9.4 Synchronization
Point-to-point service
Guaranteed bitrate in known quantum (2 Mbps for E1, 1.5 for T1, 9.4.1 Packet Based
Synchronization Methods
etc.)
Single class of service 9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery

9.4.1.2 NTP
Specific service performance targets to support service QoS similar to
TDM networks, meaning: 9.4.1.3 1588 v2

Low loss ratio 9.4.2 SyncE


Small delay
Small delay variation Download PDF

No VLAN manipulation is required


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The following example describes how mobile backhaul of 2G traffic can be offline viewing.
realized using E-lines between each cell site and the BSC.

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Figure 9.3.1.F1 - Mobile Backhaul


MEF-CECP Test Objectives

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.3.2 < br/>
UNI Attributes 9.1 Purpose and Need

A UNI that is an end-point to a CESoETH service is a regular UNI with no 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
specific additional requirements imposed on the UNI. Either UNI type (1, 2.1, 9.1.2 MEF 8 model
2.2) can be used. Some specific UNI attributes should be set specifically in < br/>
order to facilitate the CESoETH service. The table below lists and explains the
9.2 CES Components
additional requirements of the various UNI attributes:
9.2.1 Interface to Customer

9.2.2 Generic Interworking


UNI Service Attribute Recommended Setting Function (GIWF)

9.2.3 Functional Layering


UNI Identifier No Aditional Requirement
< br/>
Physical Medium No Aditional Requirement
9.3 Service Definitions
Speed No Aditional Requirement 9.3.1 E-Line

Mode FDX 9.3.2 UNI Attributes

9.3.3 EVC Attributes


MAC Layer 802.3-2005
9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes
UNI MTU Size No Aditional Requirement
< br/>
Service Multiplexing Yes if there are several EVCs
connecting this UNI No if the UNI is 9.4 Synchronization
used for a single CESoETH and 9.4.1 Packet Based
nothing else Synchronization Methods

Bundling No 9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery

9.4.1.2 NTP
All to One Bundling No if Service Multiplexing was set to
Yes Yes if Service Multiplexing was 9.4.1.3 1588 v2
set to No
9.4.2 SyncE
CE-VLAN ID for untagged and No Aditional Requirement
Priorty Tagged frames
Download PDF
Maximum Number of EVC No Aditional Requirement

Ingress BWP per UNI Should not be specified, as CESoETH


needs its own per-EVC BWP in order Download a pdf for
to ensure the CIR for constant rate offline viewing.
traffic

Egress BWP per UNI No

L2CP Processing Pass to EVC all L2CPs, expect for Reference Documents
PAUSE frames PAUSE cannot be
used along side with guaranteed bit- MEF 8
rate applications
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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.3.3 < br/>
EVC Attributes 9.1 Purpose and Need

The EVC that carries CESoETH can be an EPL or an EVPL. It carries non-VLAN 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
traffic and therefore VLAN and CoS preservation are irrelevant. Since CESoETH 9.1.2 MEF 8 model
uses no L2CP it implies that all L2CP can be discarded by the EVC. < br/>

The major issue to consider is the service performance attributes for this 9.2 CES Components
single CoS ID service. 9.2.1 Interface to Customer

The Delay and Delay Variation are to be set according to the specific 9.2.2 Generic Interworking
Function (GIWF)
requirements of the customers, but must be kept to a minimum.
9.2.3 Functional Layering
The following table lists the EVC attributes and the suggested settings for < br/>
such an EVC:
9.3 Service Definitions

EVC Service Attribute Recommended Value 9.3.1 E-Line

9.3.2 UNI Attributes


EVC Type Point to Point
9.3.3 EVC Attributes
UNI List No Additional Requirement
9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes
EVC MTU Size No Additional Requirement < br/>

CE-VLAN ID Preservation No 9.4 Synchronization

CE-VLAN CoS Preservation No 9.4.1 Packet Based


Synchronization Methods
Unicast Service frame Delivery Deliver unconditionally 9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery

9.4.1.2 NTP
Multicast Service frame Delivery Deliver unconditionally
9.4.1.3 1588 v2
Broadcast Service frame Delivery Deliver unconditionally
9.4.2 SyncE
L2CP Processing Discard all L2CPs

EVC Performance Download PDF


Frame loss ratio 0.01%

One-Way Frame Delay 10 msec for


99th percentile Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
One-Way Frame Delay Variation 1
msec for 99 th percentile

Availability 99.95%

Reference Documents
Note that the exact values for service performance may be dictated by the
MEF 8
appropriate TDM standard or the service requirement that the Subscriber has.
MEF 22.1

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.3.4 < br/>
EVC per UNI Attributes 9.1 Purpose and Need

The major issue to consider when setting the EVC per UNI attributes for 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
CESoETH is the ingress bandwidth profile (BWP) The service must guarantee 9.1.2 MEF 8 model
CIR at a rate that matches the TDM traffic CBR. Because the packetization < br/>
process adds additional overhead and because the BWP counts also the ETH
9.2 CES Components
headers in some cases, the CIR could be set a little higher compared to the
TDM nominal bitrate. 9.2.1 Interface to Customer

9.2.2 Generic Interworking


For example, for an EVC carrying E1, the CIR could be set to say 2.2 Mbps, Function (GIWF)
allowing 10% margin. If the service was originally an E3 of 34.368 Mbps, then 9.2.3 Functional Layering
the CIR could be set to say 38 Mbps.
< br/>
CBS can be set relatively to a relatively small level since the TDM traffic is 9.3 Service Definitions
very constant with minimal bursts. Since it is important not to drop any 'TDM
9.3.1 E-Line
service' packets, a CBS of 3 times the MTU could be set.
9.3.2 UNI Attributes
EIR and EBS are set to 0 since ALL traffic must be counted against the SLS. 9.3.3 EVC Attributes

CF and CM are not relevant in such a case. 9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes

< br/>
The following table lists the EVC per UNI attributes and the suggested settings
9.4 Synchronization
for such an EVC:
9.4.1 Packet Based
Synchronization Methods
EVC per UNI Service Attribute Recommended Value
9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery
UNI EVC ID No Additional Requirement
9.4.1.2 NTP
CE-VLAN ID / EVC Map No Additional Requirement 9.4.1.3 1588 v2

Ingress Bandwidth Profile per CIR = 2.2Mbps for E1 service 9.4.2 SyncE
EVC CBS=3x1522 = 4566 bytes EIR=0,
EBS=0 CF=0, CM=0
Download PDF
Ingress Bandwidth Profile per CoS Must not specify
ID

Egress Bandwidth Profile per EVC Must not specify Download a pdf for
offline viewing.
Egress Bandwidth Profile per CoS Must not specify
ID

Reference Documents

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.4 < br/>
Synchronization 9.1 Purpose and Need

Synchronization is the means of keeping all digital equipment in a 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
communications network operating at the same specified clock rate. 9.1.2 MEF 8 model
Differences in timing at nodes within a network cause the receiving node to < br/>
either drop or reread information sent to it. This is referred to as 'clock slip'.
9.2 CES Components
For example, if the sender operates with a clock rate faster than the
receiver's clock rate, the receiver cannot keep up with the incoming traffic. 9.2.1 Interface to Customer
When the receiver cannot keep up with the sender, it will periodically drop 9.2.2 Generic Interworking
some of the information sent to it resulting in reduced voice quality or Function (GIWF)

retransmission of data if the source can support this. 9.2.3 Functional Layering

< br/>
To achieve the required synchronization of the TDM nodes across the
asynchronous Ethernet network, a clock recovery mechanism must be 9.3 Service Definitions
employed at the receiver side of a CESoETH connection. Clock recovery 9.3.1 E-Line
mechanisms need to withstand the potential Frame Delay, Inter-Frame Delay 9.3.2 UNI Attributes
Variation (IFDV) and frame loss of Ethernet networks yet still comply with
9.3.3 EVC Attributes
strict synchronization standard requirements. Variations of recovered clocks
9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes
must be maintained within the range of a few nano-seconds to a few micro-
seconds (depending on the TDM services) even though Carrier Ethernet < br/>
Networks (CENs) may introduce frame delay variation in the order of 9.4 Synchronization
milliseconds.
9.4.1 Packet Based
Synchronization Methods
The different sync parameters are illustrated below:
9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery

9.4.1.2 NTP
9.4.1.3 1588 v2

9.4.2 SyncE

Download PDF

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Reference Documents

Figure 9.4.F1 - Sync Parameters


MEF 8
Synchronization can be achieved for both phase and/or Time of Day. There MEF 22.1
are three catagories of solutions:
MEF Reference Presentation: Access
Technologies
1. External source GPS or TDM network. This is outside the scope of the
Carrier Ethernet domain.
MEF-CECP Test Objectives
2. Synchronization of packet network elaborated in the following
sections. 9 CES over Ethernet
3. Synchronization over physical Ethernet Synchronous Ethernet or SyncE
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Synchronization is a key component in cellular network technologies and
different cellular network technologies have different synchronization Name:
requirements.
Email:
Synchronization is used to support mobile application and system
requirements to minimize air interference, facilitate handover between base Comments
stations, and to fulfill regulatory requirements. Various cellular network
technologies stipulate that the radio signal must be generated in strict
compliance with frequency, phase and time accuracy requirements.
Send Feedback

The following table specifies for each mobile technology which parameters are
required to be synchronized:

Mobile Network Frequency Sync Time-of-day / Phase


Architecture Sync
CDMA2000 Yes
GSM Yes
UMTS-FDD Yes
LTE-FDD Yes
UMTS-TDD Yes Yes
LTE-FDD with MBMS- Yes Yes
Single Freq. Network
LTE-TDD Yes Yes
Mobile WiMAX Yes Yes
TD-SCDMA Yes Yes

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.4.1 < br/>
Packet Based Synchronization Methods 9.1 Purpose and Need

Packet-based methods use a master-slave mechanism where a master 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
distributes timing to the slaves via packets that carry timestamps. The master 9.1.2 MEF 8 model
has access to an accurate reference, such as GPS and this source clock is < br/>
distributed from a Primary Reference Clock (PRC).
9.2 CES Components

9.2.1 Interface to Customer

9.2.2 Generic Interworking


Function (GIWF)

9.2.3 Functional Layering

< br/>

Figure 9.4.1.F1 - Packet Based Methods 9.3 Service Definitions

9.3.1 E-Line

9.3.2 UNI Attributes

9.3.3 EVC Attributes

9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes

< br/>

9.4 Synchronization

9.4.1 Packet Based


Synchronization Methods

9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery

9.4.1.2 NTP
9.4.1.3 1588 v2

9.4.2 SyncE

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.4.1.1 < br/>
Adaptive Clock Recovery 9.1 Purpose and Need

Adaptive Clock Recovery (ACR) is a method with several variants and 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
implementations. In all of them, ACR reconstructs (recovers) the original clock 9.1.2 MEF 8 model
from the actual payload of the data stream. In other words, a synchronous < br/>
clock is derived from an asynchronous packet stream.
9.2 CES Components
This is achieved by having the clock source send bits at a constant rate and 9.2.1 Interface to Customer
aggregated into packets. However, these packets experience variable delay
9.2.2 Generic Interworking
over the CEN. As long as the packets arrive with a high probability (meaning Function (GIWF)
very low FLR) and within bounds on delay and inter-frame delay variation, 9.2.3 Functional Layering
averaging functions can be employed to find the original clock rate.
< br/>
From the CEN's point of view, these packets can be carried in a dedicated EVC 9.3 Service Definitions
or could have a CoS with stringent performance objective within an EVC that
9.3.1 E-Line
carries other traffic.
9.3.2 UNI Attributes
These two approaches are illustrated below: 9.3.3 EVC Attributes

9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes

< br/>

9.4 Synchronization

9.4.1 Packet Based


Figure 9.4.1.1.F1 - Adaptive Clock Recovery Synchronization Methods

9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery

9.4.1.2 NTP
9.4.1.3 1588 v2

9.4.2 SyncE

Download PDF

Figure 9.4.1.1.F2 - Adaptive Clock Recovery

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
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covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.4.1.2 < br/>
NTP 9.1 Purpose and Need

Network Time Protocol (NTP) is one of the oldest Ethernet protocols still in 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
use. It was originally designed over 25 years ago. 9.1.2 MEF 8 model
NTPv3 is defined in RFC 1305. < br/>
NTPv4, which is backwards compatible with NTPv3, is defined in RFC 5905.
9.2 CES Components
NTPv4 offers several improvements over previous versions of NTP - one of 9.2.1 Interface to Customer
them being to extend the potential accuracy to tens of microseconds. NTPv4
9.2.2 Generic Interworking
can usually maintain time to within 10-20 milliseconds over the public Function (GIWF)
Internet and can achieve microsecond accuracy or better in local area 9.2.3 Functional Layering
networks (under ideal conditions)
< br/>
The main issue with NTP is that its accuracy can degrade substantially during 9.3 Service Definitions
periods of network congestion. NTP packets are carried over UDP/IP/ETH
9.3.1 E-Line
transport which is then encapsulated depending on the CEN transport
9.3.2 UNI Attributes
technology. Therefore, NTPv4 requires a dedicated CoS ID with stringent
performance objectives for Frame Loss Ratio, Frame Delay and Frame Delay 9.3.3 EVC Attributes
Variation. 9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes

< br/>
NTP is quite simple in its operation: The NTP client polls the NTP server at
regular intervals and the server responds with a time stamp. The disadvantage 9.4 Synchronization
of using NTP for precise timing applications is that there is no allowance to 9.4.1 Packet Based
account for network delays other than through multiple poll time averaging Synchronization Methods
techniques and buffering. So NTP, even in the latest implementation, does 9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery
not meet the higher precision requirements for 3G/4G mobile backhaul. 9.4.1.2 NTP
9.4.1.3 1588 v2

9.4.2 SyncE

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.4.1.3 < br/>
1588 v2 9.1 Purpose and Need

The Precision Time Protocol (PTP) specified in IEEE standard 1588v2 is the 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
latest in packet-based timing technology. Originally designed to provide 9.1.2 MEF 8 model
precise timing for critical industrial automation applications, it is now < br/>
providing the highest level of accurate frequency, phase and time of day to
9.2 CES Components
wireless backhaul networks.
9.2.1 Interface to Customer
PTP overcomes the Ethernet NTP latency and delay variation issues, providing
9.2.2 Generic Interworking
an unprecedented accuracy in the nanosecond range. The effects of network Function (GIWF)
latency are greatly reduced by using a technique whereby the master and 9.2.3 Functional Layering
slave communicate with one another to cancel out a measured delay between
< br/>
the two nodes.
9.3 Service Definitions
The IEEE1588 standard makes several assumptions about the network being
9.3.1 E-Line
used (e.g. multicast support) but the key assumptions that affect clock
9.3.2 UNI Attributes
accuracy are:
9.3.3 EVC Attributes
1. The transmission delays are almost constant over time (or at least
9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes
change slowly)
< br/>
2. The transmission delays are symmetrical between master and slave
(i.e. time to travel from master to slave is the same as from slave to 9.4 Synchronization
master) 9.4.1 Packet Based
Synchronization Methods
When carried over a Carrier Ethernet Network (CEN), 1588v2 requires a
9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery
dedicated CoS or even a dedicated EVC with stringent requirements on Frame
9.4.1.2 NTP
Loss Ratio, Frame Delay and Inter-frame Delay Variation.
9.4.1.3 1588 v2
PTP Network Components
9.4.2 SyncE
The following figure shows an example PTP synchronization network topology.
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Figure 9.4.1.3.F1 - PTP Synchronization Network Topology

Grandmaster Clock MEF 8

MEF 22.1
This is the primary reference source within a PTP sub-domain. The
MEF Reference Presentation: Access
Grandmaster clock has a high-precision time source, which can be a GPS Technologies
reference or an atomic clock.

MEF-CECP Test Objectives


Boundary Clock
9 CES over Ethernet
Boundary Clock (BC) is specified by both Version 1 and Version 2 of IEEE
standard 1588. The boundary clock functionality can be implemented in a
Send Feedback
switch/router at the boundary of a network.

IEEE 1588 boundary clocks are an effective way to reduce packet delay Name:
variation. A boundary clock runs the PTP protocol and is synchronized to the
Email:
master clock. The boundary clock, in turn, acts as a master clock to all slaves
within the same network. Comments

The boundary clock acts as an interface between separate PTP domains


intercepting and processing all PTP messages and passing all other network
traffic. The boundary clock does not pass Sync, Follow_Up, Delay_Req, or Send Feedback

Delay_Resp messages.

Cascading of boundary clocks introduces the cascade effect, because boundary


clocks distribute timing based on the a local clock and so each clock depends
on the quality of all preceding clocks. The Best Master Clock (BMC) algorithm
(see below in PTP Operation) is used by the boundary clock to select the best
clock any port can connect to. The chosen port is set as a slave to the
selected Grandmaster clock, and all other ports of the boundary clock are
asserted as masters to their domain. The following figure shows a network
topology with boundary clocks:

Figure 9.4.1.3.F2 - Network Topology with Boundary Clocks

Transparent Clocks
Transparent clocks were added to version 2 of the 1588 standard as an
improved method of forming cascaded topologies where each clock does not
depend on the quality of the preceding clocks. Rather than acting as a multi-
port ordinary clock as boundary clocks do, transparent clocks update a newly
introduced time-interval field within PTP event messages. This 64-bit time-
interval correction field allows for switch delay compensation to a potential
accuracy of less than ne picosecond.

There are two types of transparent clocks:- end-to-end and peer-to-peer.

End-to-end transparent clocks forward PTP event messages, but modify the
messages for the residence time for the message to traverse the transparent
clock. The residence times are accumulated in the correction field of the PTP
event message or the associated follow-up message.

Figure 9.4.1.3.F3 - Transparent Clocks

Peer-to-peer transparent clocks measure the local link delays using the peer
delay mechanism, in addition to the residence time. The computation of link
delay (peer delay mechanism) is based on an exchange of Pdelay_Req,
Pdelay_Resp, and possibly Pdelay_Resp_Follow_Up messages with the link
peer.

Figure 9.4.1.3.F4 -Peer to Peer

Peer-to-peer and end-to-end transparent clocks cannot be mixed on the same


communication path. Peer-to-peer transparent clocks can allow for faster
reconfiguration after network topology changes.

In summary, transparent clock is a PTP enhanced switch which modifies the


precise timestamps within the PTP messages to account for receive and
transmit delays within the individual switch itself, thus leading to more
accurate synchronization between the slave and master clocks.

PTP Operation

PTP operation is based upon the transfer of short messages to determine


system properties and to convey time information. A delay measurement
method is used to determine path delay, which is then used for the
adjustment of local clocks. IEEE 1588 uses a specific algorithm - the Best
Master Clock (BMC) algorithm - in order to determine which clock is of the
highest quality within the network and to create a master/slave hierarchy.

The BMC node (grandmaster clock) then synchronizes all other nodes (slave
clocks) in the network. The BMC algorithm is then run continuously to quickly
adjust for changes in network configuration. So, if the BMC node is removed
from the network or is determined by the BMC algorithm to no longer have
the highest quality clock, the algorithm determines the new BMC node.

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covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Synchronization over Carrier Ethernet & In this Section


Circuit Emulation 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
Study Guide Section 9.4.2 < br/>
SyncE 9.1 Purpose and Need

The IEEE 802.3-2008 standard specifies that transmit clocks can operate with 9.1.1 What is CESoETH
a frequency accuracy of up to +/-100 ppm. 9.1.2 MEF 8 model

< br/>
The Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) approach provides a mechanism to deliver a
network traceable physical layer clock over IEEE 802.3 PHYs with EEC as 9.2 CES Components
specified in ITU-T G.8262 [33]. The SyncE model follows the same approach 9.2.1 Interface to Customer
that was adopted for traditional TDM (PDH/SDH) synchronization (i.e. utilizing
9.2.2 Generic Interworking
the physical layer line signals) and implemented with similar engineering rules Function (GIWF)
and principles. Synchronous Ethernet has also been designed specifically to 9.2.3 Functional Layering
inter-work with the existing SONET/SDH synchronization infrastructure.
< br/>
Note that Synchronous Ethernet is used to deliver frequency, but not phase or 9.3 Service Definitions
time of day.
9.3.1 E-Line

The following figure proivdes an example of synchronization using Synchronous 9.3.2 UNI Attributes
Ethernet: 9.3.3 EVC Attributes

9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes

< br/>

9.4 Synchronization

9.4.1 Packet Based


Synchronization Methods

9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery

9.4.1.2 NTP
Figure 9.4.2.F1 - Synchronization using Synchronous Ethernet
[Source: MEF 22.1, Figure 22] 9.4.1.3 1588 v2

The architectural aspects of Synchronous Ethernet are defined in ITU-T 9.4.2 SyncE
G.8261. SyncE provides the capability to provide an Ethernet clock that is
traceable to a primary reference clock (PRC) as defined in ITU-T G.811. Download PDF

The details of the clock aspects of Synchronous Ethernet equipment can be


found in the ITU-T G.8262. The latter specification defines the requirements Download a pdf for
for clock accuracy, noise transfer, holdover performance, noise tolerance and offline viewing.
noise generation.

It should be noted that SyncE requires all network elements in the network to
be upgraded to support SyncE. Therefore SyncE might only be practical for Reference Documents
use in small network domains, while a hybrid solution complemented by a
packet-based synchronization method would be required to extend its reach. MEF 8

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Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Test Objectives 9 1 In this Section


Circuit Emulation over Ethernet 9 Synchronization over Carrier
Ethernet & Circuit Emulation
9.1 Define the purpose and need for Circuit Emulation over Ethernet
applications. < br/>

9.1 Purpose and Need


9.2 Define the critical components of circuit emulation over Ethernet service.
9.1.1 What is CESoETH
9.3 Define the MEF Service Definitions used to deliver emulated circuits. 9.1.2 MEF 8 model

9.4 Define the EVC service attributes required for emulated circuits. < br/>

9.2 CES Components


9.5 Define the three techniques and their uses for delivering synchronized
clock over emulated circuits (e.g., Adaptive, 1588v2, Synchronous Ethernet, 9.2.1 Interface to Customer

NTP, PTP). 9.2.2 Generic Interworking


Function (GIWF)
9.6 Describe how circuit emulation is used in Mobile Backhaul applications. 9.2.3 Functional Layering

< br/>

9.3 Service Definitions

9.3.1 E-Line

9.3.2 UNI Attributes

9.3.3 EVC Attributes

9.3.4 EVC per UNI Attributes

< br/>

9.4 Synchronization

9.4.1 Packet Based


Synchronization Methods

9.4.1.1 Adaptive Clock Recovery

9.4.1.2 NTP
9.4.1.3 1588 v2

9.4.2 SyncE

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Reference Documents

MEF 8

MEF 22.1

MEF Reference Presentation: Access


Technologies

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

9 CES over Ethernet

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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Service Operations, In this Section


Administration and Maintenance 10 Carrier Ethernet Service
Operations, Administration and
Study Guide Section 10.1 Maintenance

10.1 Relevant Standards


Relevant Standards
10.1.1 IEEE 802.1ag Overview
Ethernet OAM is based on several standards: 10.1.2 Y.1731 Overview

IEEE 802.3ah: Link OAM < br/>


IEEE 802.1ag: Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) 10.2 Framework
ITU-T Y.1731: Requirements for OAM functions in Ethernet-based
10.2.0 Domains
networks and Ethernet services
10.2.1 Constructs
The following figure describes their relationship and applicability for Ethernet 10.2.1.1 MEP, MIP, MEG, MEG
services: Level

10.2.2 MEF 17

10.2.2.1 Model

10.2.2.2 Maintenance Entities

< br/>

10.3 Fault Management

10.3.1 Definition
10.1.F1 - SOAM relationship between standards
10.3.2 Procedures

10.3.2.1 Continuity Check


Message

10.3.2.2 Loopback Message

10.3.2.3 Link Trace Message

< br/>
10.4 Performance Management

10.4.1 Definition

10.4.2 Procedures

10.4.2.0 Frame Delay

10.4.2.1 Delay Measurement


Message

10.4.2.2 Loss Measurement


Message

10.4.3 Computation Methods

10.4.3.0 Frame Delay

10.4.3.1 Inter-Frame Delay


Variation

10.4.3.2 Frame Loss Ratio

10.4.3.3 Availability

10.4.4 Measurement in E-Line, E-


LAN, E-Tree

< br/>

10.5 CoS Implementation


Agreement - MEF 23

10.5.1 Ethernet Network Section

10.5.2 CoS Label Model

10.5.3 Performance Parameters

< br/>

10.6 Performance Management


Implementation

10.6.1 Multi-CoS EVC

10.6.2 Relationship to Bandwidth


Profile

10.6.3 Interconnect via ENNI

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Reference Documents

MEF 10.2

MEF 17

MEF Reference Presentation:


Interconnect

ITU-T Y.1731

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

10 Service OAM
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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Service Operations, In this Section


Administration and Maintenance 10 Carrier Ethernet Service
Operations, Administration and
Study Guide Section 10.1.1 Maintenance

10.1 Relevant Standards


IEEE 802.1ag Overview
10.1.1 IEEE 802.1ag Overview
IEEE 802.1ag specifies protocols and procedures for Connectivity Fault 10.1.2 Y.1731 Overview
Management (CFM) for VLANs or services. These services could be Ethernet
< br/>
Virtual Connections (EVCs) or Operator Virtual Connections (OVCs)
10.2 Framework
IEEE 802.1ag defines methods to:
10.2.0 Domains

detect 10.2.1 Constructs


verify 10.2.1.1 MEP, MIP, MEG, MEG
isolate Level
report 10.2.2 MEF 17

10.2.2.1 Model
end-to-end Ethernet connectivity faults.
10.2.2.2 Maintenance Entities
Ethernet OAM runs over bridged networks in the Ethernet service layer, as
< br/>
opposed to link layer OAM that is specified by IEEE 802.3 for cases where the
link is Ethernet. 10.3 Fault Management

10.3.1 Definition
IEEE 802.1ag and ITU-T Y.1731 define joint constructs and terminology. It
10.3.2 Procedures
enables defining levels of hierarchical administrative domains, performing the
CFM procedures within each domain independently. 10.3.2.1 Continuity Check
Message
The following procedures and packet formats are defined: 10.3.2.2 Loopback Message

10.3.2.3 Link Trace Message


1. Continuity Check
2. Loopback < br/>
3. Link trace 10.4 Performance Management
4. Alarm Indication Using Remote Defect Indication (RDI) - RDI is
10.4.1 Definition
triggered by the fault detection mechanism in the CCM procedure .
10.4.2 Procedures

10.4.2.0 Frame Delay

10.4.2.1 Delay Measurement


Message

10.4.2.2 Loss Measurement


Message

10.4.3 Computation Methods

10.4.3.0 Frame Delay

10.4.3.1 Inter-Frame Delay


Variation

10.4.3.2 Frame Loss Ratio

10.4.3.3 Availability

10.4.4 Measurement in E-Line, E-


LAN, E-Tree

< br/>

10.5 CoS Implementation


Agreement - MEF 23

10.5.1 Ethernet Network Section

10.5.2 CoS Label Model

10.5.3 Performance Parameters

< br/>

10.6 Performance Management


Implementation

10.6.1 Multi-CoS EVC

10.6.2 Relationship to Bandwidth


Profile

10.6.3 Interconnect via ENNI

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Reference Documents

MEF 10.2

MEF 17

MEF Reference Presentation:


Interconnect

ITU-T Y.1731

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

10 Service OAM
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MEF-CECP Study Guide

Study Guide Test Objectives References MEF Glossary MEF Diagrams


Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Service Operations, In this Section


Administration and Maintenance 10 Carrier Ethernet Service
Operations, Administration and
Study Guide Section 10.1.2 Maintenance

10.1 Relevant Standards


ITU-T Y.1731 Overview
10.1.1 IEEE 802.1ag Overview
ITU-T Y.1731 augments IEEE 802.1ag in defining capabilities to perform 10.1.2 Y.1731 Overview
Performance Monitoring (PM) for Ethernet services. It also provides additional
< br/>
Fault Management (FM) capabilities. Y.1731 defines the frame format and
multicast addresses to be used for both PM and FM. 10.2 Framework
The following procedures and packet formats are defined: 10.2.0 Domains

1. AIS (Alarm Indication Signal): Generated when an end-point detects loss 10.2.1 Constructs
of connectivity 10.2.1.1 MEP, MIP, MEG, MEG
2. Lock: Used to verify connectivity problems in out-of-service mode Level

3. Test: Used to test the connectivity out-of-service. It can be used as 10.2.2 MEF 17
part of RFC 2544 or ITU-T Y.1564 testing 10.2.2.1 Model
4. Delay Measurements: Using DMM/DMR procedure 10.2.2.2 Maintenance Entities
5. Loss Measurement: Using LMM/LMR procedure
< br/>
Some messages use unicast MAC DA and some use reserved multicast DA, 10.3 Fault Management
which is treated as L2CP. For multicast, the MAC DA address is defined as
10.3.1 Definition
follows:
10.3.2 Procedures
There are two types of frames: Class 1 and Class 2 10.3.2.1 Continuity Check
Message
Class 1 - used by CCM - uses MAC DA of 01-c2-80-00-00-30 through 01-c2-80-
10.3.2.2 Loopback Message
00-00-3x, where MEG level is represented by x
10.3.2.3 Link Trace Message
Class 2 - used by LBM and LTM - uses MAC DA of 01-c2-80-00-00-3y through < br/>
01-c2-80-00-00-3F, where y=8+MEG level
10.4 Performance Management

10.4.1 Definition

10.4.2 Procedures

10.4.2.0 Frame Delay

10.4.2.1 Delay Measurement


Message

10.4.2.2 Loss Measurement


Message

10.4.3 Computation Methods

10.4.3.0 Frame Delay

10.4.3.1 Inter-Frame Delay


Variation

10.4.3.2 Frame Loss Ratio

10.4.3.3 Availability

10.4.4 Measurement in E-Line, E-


LAN, E-Tree

< br/>

10.5 CoS Implementation


Agreement - MEF 23

10.5.1 Ethernet Network Section

10.5.2 CoS Label Model

10.5.3 Performance Parameters

< br/>

10.6 Performance Management


Implementation

10.6.1 Multi-CoS EVC

10.6.2 Relationship to Bandwidth


Profile

10.6.3 Interconnect via ENNI

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Reference Documents

MEF 10.2

MEF 17

MEF Reference Presentation:


Interconnect

ITU-T Y.1731

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

10 Service OAM
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Studying for MEF-CECP Certification


MEF-CECP Study Guide

Study Guide Test Objectives References MEF Glossary MEF Diagrams


Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Service Operations, In this Section


Administration and Maintenance 10 Carrier Ethernet Service
Operations, Administration and
Study Guide Section 10.2 Maintenance

10.1 Relevant Standards


Framework
10.1.1 IEEE 802.1ag Overview
This section explains about the domains and constructs used in Ethernet 10.1.2 Y.1731 Overview
Service OAM, as well as MEF 17 Framework and Requirements Phase 1.
< br/>

10.2 Framework

10.2.0 Domains

10.2.1 Constructs

10.2.1.1 MEP, MIP, MEG, MEG


Level

10.2.2 MEF 17

10.2.2.1 Model

10.2.2.2 Maintenance Entities

< br/>

10.3 Fault Management

10.3.1 Definition

10.3.2 Procedures

10.3.2.1 Continuity Check


Message

10.3.2.2 Loopback Message

10.3.2.3 Link Trace Message

< br/>
10.4 Performance Management

10.4.1 Definition

10.4.2 Procedures

10.4.2.0 Frame Delay

10.4.2.1 Delay Measurement


Message

10.4.2.2 Loss Measurement


Message

10.4.3 Computation Methods

10.4.3.0 Frame Delay

10.4.3.1 Inter-Frame Delay


Variation

10.4.3.2 Frame Loss Ratio

10.4.3.3 Availability

10.4.4 Measurement in E-Line, E-


LAN, E-Tree

< br/>

10.5 CoS Implementation


Agreement - MEF 23

10.5.1 Ethernet Network Section

10.5.2 CoS Label Model

10.5.3 Performance Parameters

< br/>

10.6 Performance Management


Implementation

10.6.1 Multi-CoS EVC

10.6.2 Relationship to Bandwidth


Profile

10.6.3 Interconnect via ENNI

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Reference Documents

MEF 10.2

MEF 17

MEF Reference Presentation:


Interconnect

ITU-T Y.1731

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

10 Service OAM
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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Service Operations, In this Section


Administration and Maintenance 10 Carrier Ethernet Service
Operations, Administration and
Study Guide Section 10.2.0 Maintenance

10.1 Relevant Standards


Domains
10.1.1 IEEE 802.1ag Overview
An OAM Domain is defined as a network or sub-network, operating at the ETH 10.1.2 Y.1731 Overview
Layer and belonging to the same administrative entity within which OAM
< br/>
frames can be exchanged.
10.2 Framework
Each Service Provider and/or Operator network is typically associated with an
10.2.0 Domains
administrative boundary. A service may be implemented across a single or
10.2.1 Constructs
across multiple (sub)networks. An OAM Domain determines the span of an OAM
flow across such administrative boundaries. OAM Domains can be hierarchical 10.2.1.1 MEP, MIP, MEG, MEG
Level
but must not partially overlap.
10.2.2 MEF 17
A Subscriber's OAM Domain may completely overlap multiple Service Providers' 10.2.2.1 Model
OAM Domains such that Service Providers OAM Domains remain transparent to
10.2.2.2 Maintenance Entities
the Subscriber's OAM Domain.
A Service Provider's OAM Domain may completely overlap multiple CEN < br/>
Operators' OAM Domains such that CEN Operators OAM Domains remain 10.3 Fault Management
transparent to Service Provider's OAM Domain. 10.3.1 Definition

The following figure illustrates an OAM domain: A single CEN to which 4 CEs 10.3.2 Procedures
are attached: 10.3.2.1 Continuity Check
Message

10.3.2.2 Loopback Message

10.3.2.3 Link Trace Message

< br/>
10.4 Performance Management

10.4.1 Definition

10.4.2 Procedures
10.2.0.F1 - SOAM Domain 10.4.2.0 Frame Delay
[Source: MEF30, Figure 2]
10.4.2.1 Delay Measurement
Message

10.4.2.2 Loss Measurement


Message

10.4.3 Computation Methods

10.4.3.0 Frame Delay

10.4.3.1 Inter-Frame Delay


Variation

10.4.3.2 Frame Loss Ratio

10.4.3.3 Availability

10.4.4 Measurement in E-Line, E-


LAN, E-Tree

< br/>

10.5 CoS Implementation


Agreement - MEF 23

10.5.1 Ethernet Network Section

10.5.2 CoS Label Model

10.5.3 Performance Parameters

< br/>

10.6 Performance Management


Implementation

10.6.1 Multi-CoS EVC

10.6.2 Relationship to Bandwidth


Profile

10.6.3 Interconnect via ENNI

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Reference Documents

MEF 10.2

MEF 17

MEF Reference Presentation:


Interconnect
ITU-T Y.1731

MEF-CECP Test Objectives

10 Service OAM

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MEF-CECP Study Guide

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Links to all the topics List of the certification Links to all documents Consolidated list of Gallery of diagrams used
covered by the MEF-CECP test objectives providing referenced by the MEF- primary and equivalent in MEF materials
Study Guide in one easy- the examinee with a CECP certification exam, terms used in the MEF
to-navigate page summary of the topics as well as other useful
covered in the MEF-CECP information
exam

Carrier Ethernet Service Operations, In this Section


Administration and Maintenance 10 Carrier Ethernet Service
Operations, Administration and
Study Guide Section 10.2.1 Maintenance

10.1 Relevant Standards


Constructs
10.1.1 IEEE 802.1ag Overview
This section explains the basic constructs of Ethernet Service OAM. 10.1.2 Y.1731 Overview

ME (Maintenance Entity) represents an OAM entity that requires management. < br/>
An ME is essentially an association between two maintenance end points 10.2 Framework
within an OAM Domain, where each maintenance end point corresponds to a
10.2.0 Domains
provisioned reference point that requires management.
10.2.1 Constructs
The MEs that are relevant for E-Lines are shown in the figure below: 10.2.1.1 MEP, MIP, MEG, MEG
Level

10.2.2 MEF 17

10.2.2.1 Model

10.2.2.2 Maintenance Entities

< br/>
10.2.1.F2 - SOAM Maintenance Entities 10.3 Fault Management
[Source: MEF 17, Figure 1]
10.3.1 Definition
Subscriber ME is the OAM Domain that connects the Cust