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# Q1.

The diagram shows what happens to each 100 joules of energy from crude oil when it is
used as petrol in a car.

The widths of the arrows show exactly how much energy is transferred in each particular way.

(a) Complete the diagram by adding the correct energy value alongside each arrow.
(2)

(b) Calculate how efficient the car engine is at transferring the energy from petrol into useful
movement.

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........................................................................................................................

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(2)
(Total 4 marks)

Page 1 of 60
Q2. The Sankey diagrams show the energy transferred to the surroundings each second by
three different bulbs.

(a) The filament bulb is the least efficient of the three bulbs.

## Explain what least efficient means.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(2)

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(b) Calculate the percentage efficiency of the halogen bulb.

## Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

Efficiency = ................................
(2)

(c) What effect does the wasted energy from a bulb have on the surroundings?

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) Use the Sankey diagrams to give a reason why the overall cost of using an LED bulb is the
lowest of the three bulbs.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(1)

(e) The table gives further information about each type of bulb.

## LED 15.00 25000

Use only the information in the table to answer the following questions.

## (i) Which type of bulb is the most cost-effective?

Bulb ............................................................

Reason .................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
(2)

Page 3 of 60
(ii) Sales of LED bulbs are increasing.

## Suggest one reason why.

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 9 marks)

## Q3. A hairdryer is supplied with 800 J of energy every second.

miro kovacevic

(a) Describe all the energy transfers that take place in the hairdryer when it is being used.

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(4)

(b) Why must the total energy output of the hairdryer always equal the total energy input to the
hairdryer?

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

Page 4 of 60
Q4. (a) A student investigated the insulating properties of three materials.

## The diagram shows the apparatus the student used.

In the investigation:

different insulating materials, A, B and C, were placed in contact with the hot metal
plate

## temperature sensors measured the temperature on each side of the material

the difference in temperature across the insulating material was then calculated

## the differences in temperature were compared to measure the effectiveness of each

insulating material.

The graph shows how the temperature measured by temperature sensor 2 changed over
10 minutes for each of the materials.

Time in minutes

(i) What was the temperature of the hot metal plate? ............................C
(1)

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(ii) Which material, A, B or C, is the best insulator?

Material: ..............................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
(2)

## (iii) Which material, A, B or C, has the highest U-value?

Material: ..............................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
(2)

(b) The table shows information about three home insulation methods for an average sized
home.

## Double glazing 5000 60

Draught excluders 90 30

## Which method of home insulation is the most cost-effective over 10 years?

........................................................................................................................

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(4)
(Total 9 marks)

Page 6 of 60
Q5. Laptop computers can get very hot when they are left on for a long time. This decreases the
energy efficiency of a laptop computer.

## Tick ( ) one box.

Statement Tick ( )

## A greater proportion of the energy is usefully transferred.

(1)

(b) To prevent laptop computers from overheating, a laptop can be placed on a Chill mat.

## Figure 1 shows a Chill mat.

Figure 1

Describe three ways in which the features of the Chill mat help to increase the rate of
energy transfer from a laptop computer.

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(3)

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(c) The input energy to a laptop computer is 20 J each second. When the laptop is being
used, 12 J of energy is transferred usefully each second and 8 J of energy is wasted each
second.

Use the grid in Figure 2 to complete the Sankey diagram for the laptop computer when it
is being used.

Figure 2

(2)
(Total 6 marks)

Q6. The diagrams show what happens to each 100 joules of energy from burning coal on an
open fire and in a stove.

Page 8 of 60
(a) Add the missing figures to the diagrams.
(3)

## (b) Which is more efficient, the open fire or the stove?

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Page 9 of 60
Q7. A car burns petrol as it travels along a flat road.

The diagram shows what happens to each 100 joules (J) of energy released by burning
the petrol.

(Total 3 marks)

## Q8. A gas burner is used to heat some water in a pan.

Of the energy released by the burning gas by the time the water starts to boil:

## 7% has been transferred to the gas burner itself.

Page 10 of 60
(a) Use the above information to complete the pie-chart.

(3)

## (i) What happens to this wasted energy?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) What percentage (%) of the energy from the gas is wasted? Answer: ................ %
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

Q9. The diagram shows what happens to each 100 joules of energy from crude oil when it is
used as petrol in a car.

The widths of the arrows show exactly how much energy is transferred in each particular way.

(a) Complete the diagram by adding the correct energy value alongside each arrow.
(3)

Page 11 of 60
(b) Calculate how efficient the car engine is at transferring the energy from petrol into useful
movement.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

## (c) Two students are discussing the diagram.

The first says that none of the energy released from the crude oil is really lost.

The other says that all of the energy released from the crude oil is really lost.

## What do you think?

.....................................................................................................................................

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(4)
(Total 9 marks)

Page 12 of 60
Q10. The drawing shows parts of a house where it is possible to reduce the amount of energy
lost.

(a) Give one way in which the amount of energy lost can be reduced from each of the
following parts of the house.

1, 2 and 4 ....................................................................................................................

5 ..................................................................................................................................

7 ..................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) Energy consumption can be reduced by using a more efficient boiler or more efficient light
bulbs.

## What is meant by a more efficient light bulb?

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Page 13 of 60
Q11. The diagram below shows a 60 watt electric light bulb.

(a) 60 W means that 60 joules of energy are transferred into the bulb each second.
In use, how much energy is given out by the bulb each second?

.................................................................................................................................. J
(1)

## and ................................................... energy.

(2)

(c) Some of the energy given out is wasted. Why is some of the energy wasted?

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q12. (a) In winter, energy is transferred from the warm air inside a house to the air outside.

(i) What effect will the energy transferred from the house have on the air outside?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) What would happen to the energy transfer if the temperature inside the house were
reduced? Assume the temperature outside the house does not change.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

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(b) To increase energy efficiency, a householder installs a heat exchanger to an outside wall
of the house. The heat exchanger uses heat from the air outside to warm the inside of the
house. The diagram shows the idea of the heat exchanger.

## Physics Through Applications edited by J Jardine et el (OUP, 1989), copyright

Oxford University Press, reprinted by permission of Oxford University Press.

## (i) Why does the heat exchanger cost money to run?

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

## (ii) The heat exchanger is cost effective in reducing energy consumption.

Explain why.

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(2)
(Total 5 marks)

Page 15 of 60
Q13. The diagram shows the label from a new freezer.

(a) An old freezer has an energy consumption per year of 350 kWh.

Use the equation in the box to calculate the extra cost of using the old freezer for one year
compared with using a new A rated freezer.

## Assume 1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) of energy costs 12 p.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

(2)

## (b) The price of the new freezer was reduced in a sale.

Reducing the price reduces the payback time for replacing the old freezer from 12 years
to 9 years.

Calculate, in pounds, how much the new freezer was reduced in the sale.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

## Price reduced by = ........................................

(2)

Page 16 of 60

Replacing an old freezer with a new A rated freezer will benefit the environment.

Do you agree that replacing the freezer will benefit the environment?

## Answer yes or no. ..............................

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(2)
(Total 6 marks

Q14. (a) The diagram shows the energy transformations produced by a TV.

(i) Use the information in the diagram and the equation in the box to calculate the
efficiency of the TV.

efficiency =

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

Efficiency = ..............................
(2)

Page 17 of 60
(ii) What eventually happens to the useful energy transferred by the TV?

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

## (b) Electrical appliances left on standby use energy.

The bar chart shows the power for the appliances that one family leaves on standby when
they go on holiday.

## The family is on holiday for a total of 175 hours.

(i) Use the information in the bar chart and the equation in the box to calculate the
energy wasted by leaving the compact stereo on standby while the family is on
holiday.

## energy transferred = power time

(kilowatt-hour, kWh) (kilowatt, kW) (hour, h)

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

## Energy wasted = .............................. kilowatt-hours

(2)

Page 18 of 60
(ii) Electricity costs 12 p per kilowatt-hour.

Use the equation in the box to calculate the cost of leaving the compact stereo on
standby while the family is on holiday.

## total cost = number of kilowatt-hours cost per kilowatt-hour

...........................................................................................................................

Cost = .............................. p
(1)

## Explain why leaving appliances on standby damages the environment.

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(2)
(Total 8 marks)

## Q15. The pictures show three different types of electric heater.

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(a) The ceramic heater is run on full power for 5 hours.

Use the following equation to calculate, in kilowatt-hours, the amount of energy transferred
from the mains to the heater.

## energy transferred = power time

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

## Energy transferred = .............................. kilowatt-hours

(2)

(b) Which heater will be the most expensive to run on its highest heat setting?

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

## (c) A heater is needed for a small office.

Comparing each type of heater with the other two, give one advantage of using each type
of heater in the office.

## oil-filled panel heater .................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

## fan heater ....................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

## ceramic heater .............................................................................................................

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(3)
(Total 6 marks)

Page 20 of 60
Q16. A vacuum flask is designed to reduce the rate of heat transfer.

(a) (i) Complete the table to show which methods of heat transfer are reduced by each of
the features labelled in the diagram.

## The first row has been done for you.

vacuum

silvered
surfaces

plastic cap
(2)

(ii) Explain why the vacuum between the glass walls of the flask reduces heat transfer
by conduction and convection.

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(2)

## (b) The diagram shows a gas flame patio heater.

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(i) Explain why the top surface of the reflecting hood should be a light, shiny surface
rather than a dark, matt surface.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Most of the chemical energy in the gas is transformed into heat. A small amount of
chemical energy is transformed into light.

## Draw and label a Sankey diagram for the patio heater.

(2)

(iii) State why the total energy supplied to the patio heater must always equal the total
energy transferred by the patio heater.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 9 marks)

Page 22 of 60
Q17. The picture shows a new washing machine. When the door is closed and the machine
switched on, an electric motor rotates the drum and washing.

## (i) An electric motor is designed to transform electrical energy into

............................................... energy.
(1)

(1)

## (b) What happens to the energy wasted by the electric motor?

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(1)

Page 23 of 60
(c) The diagram shows the label from the new washing machine.

An A rated washing machine is more energy efficient than a C rated washing machine.

## Explain what being more energy efficient means.

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(2)

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(d) The graph shows that washing clothes at a lower temperature uses less energy than
washing them at a higher temperature. Using less energy will save money.

## (i) Electricity costs 12 p per kilowatt-hour (kWh).

The temperature setting is turned down from 40 C to 30 C.

Use the graph and equation in the box to calculate the money saved each wash
cycle.

## total cost = number of kilowatt-hours cost per kilowatt-hour

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

## Money saved = .................................................. p

(2)

(ii) Suggest why reducing the amount of energy used by washing machines could
reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere.

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

Page 25 of 60
Q18. A wood burning stove is used to heat a room.

## Photograph supplied by iStockphoto/Thinkstock

The fire in the stove uses wood as a fuel. The fire heats the matt black metal case of the stove.

## (a) The air next to the stove is warmed by infrared radiation.

How does the design of the stove help to improve the rate of energy transfer by infrared

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(2)

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(b) Burning 1 kg of wood transfers 15 MJ of energy to the stove. The stove then transfers 13.5
MJ of energy to the room.

## Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

Efficiency = .................................................
(2)

(c) Some of the energy from the burning wood is wasted as the hot gases leave the chimney
and warm the air outside the house.

## Name one other way energy is wasted by the stove.

........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) Some people heat their homes using electric heaters. Other people heat their homes
using a wood burning stove.

Give two environmental advantages of using a wood burning stove to heat a home rather
than heaters that use electricity generated from fossil fuels.

1 .....................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

2 .....................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(2)

Page 27 of 60
(e) The metal case of the stove gets hot when the fire is lit.

## Specific heat capacity of metal case 510 J/kg C

Calculate the energy required to raise the temperature of the metal case to 70 C.

## Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.

Show clearly how you work out your answer and give the unit.

........................................................................................................................

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........................................................................................................................

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## Energy required = ..............................................................

(3)
(Total 10 marks)

Q19. The Sankey diagrams show the energy transfers in a traditional coal-burning power station
and a combined heat and power (CHP) station.

## Waste energy Waste energy

(a) What effect does the waste energy from a power station have on the surroundings?

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(1)

Page 28 of 60
(b) Calculate the efficiency of the CHP station.

## Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

Efficiency = ............................................................
(2)

(c) Why is a CHP station more efficient than a traditional coal-burning power station?

........................................................................................................................

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........................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) A CHP station is usually used to meet the demand for electricity within the local area.
The electricity is not transmitted and distributed through the National Grid.

## A system of cables, transformers and power stations

(1)

(ii) Using the electricity locally and not transmitting it through the National Grid increases
the overall efficiency of a CHP station by 7%.

## Give one reason why.

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 7 marks)

Page 29 of 60
Q20. The picture shows a washing machine. When the door is closed and the machine switched
on, an electric motor rotates the drum and washing.

## (i) An electric motor is designed to transform electrical energy into

............................................... energy.
(1)

(1)

## (b) What happens to the energy wasted by the electric motor?

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(1)

Page 30 of 60
(c) The graph shows that washing clothes at a lower temperature uses less energy than
washing them at a higher temperature. Using less energy will save money.

Temperature setting in C

## The temperature setting is turned down from 40 C to 30 C.

Use the graph and equation in the box to calculate the money saved each wash
cycle.

## total cost = number of kilowatt-hours x cost per kilowatt-hour

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

## Money saved = ...............................................

(2)

(ii) Reducing the amount of energy used by washing machines could reduce the amount
of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere.

Explain why.

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

Page 31 of 60
Q21. The diagram shows a car radiator. The radiator is part of the engine cooling system.

Liquid coolant, heated by the car engine, enters the radiator. As the coolant passes through the
radiator, the radiator transfers energy to the surroundings and the temperature of the coolant
falls.

## (a) Why is the radiator painted black?

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(2)

Page 32 of 60
(b) Different radiators have different numbers of cooling fins along the length of the radiator.

The sketch graph shows how the number of cooling fins affects the rate of energy transfer

The number of cooling fins affects the rate of energy transfer from the radiator.

Explain how.

........................................................................................................................

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........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) When the car engine is working normally, 2 kg of coolant passes through the radiator each
second. The temperature of the coolant falls from 112 C to 97 C.

## Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

## Energy transferred each second = .............................................................. J

(3)

Page 33 of 60
(d) On cold days, some of the energy transferred from a hot car engine is used to warm the
air inside the car. This is a useful energy transfer.

What effect, if any, does this energy transfer have on the overall efficiency of the car
engine?

## decreases the does not change the increases the

efficiency efficiency efficiency

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

Page 34 of 60
M1. (a) energy used to refine oil... = 20J

## energy used to make car move = 20J

all three correct = 2 marks
two correct = 1 mark
one / none correct = 0 marks
2

## (b) 25% / 0.25

allow error carried forward correctly from part (a)

## if answer is incorrect accept evidence of

or 20% / 0.2 for 1 mark
2
[4]

## M2. (a) highest proportion / percentage of (input) energy wasted

NB this answer gains 2 marks
allow higher / greater
allow ratio
accept for 1 mark lots of energy wasted
or
allow for 1 mark wastes most energy
2

(b)

## 10 % (or 0.1 if % sign crossed out)

allow 1 mark for the correct substitution into the correct equation
eg (5/50) 100
or (1/10) 100
allow 1 mark if 0.1 is given as the answer, but % sign is still present
2

## (c) heats it (the surroundings)

allow given off as heat

or

## increases the temperature

ignore global warming
1

## (d) lowest energy input / needed / used

allow input only 2 J
1

Page 35 of 60
(e) (i) filament (bulb)
allow 1 mark for filament bulb being chosen provided a reason is
given (reason may be incorrect, but sensible eg cheapest)
1

## lifespan is longest for the purchase cost

accept cost per hour is least / hours per is most
accept relevant calculation
1

## (ii) longest lifespan

allow lasts 25 000 hours
do not accept most cost-effective
1
[9]

## M3. (a) electrical

for full marks an indication of an energy transfer must be given
ignore electricity
1

1

(and) sound
ignore noise
1

## (and) energy that heats (the hair / surroundings)

allow heat (energy)
allow light with a correct
explanation e.g. glowing element, indicator light
1

## (b) energy cannot be created / destroyed

accept energy is conserved
1
[5]

## M4. (a) (i) 80(C)

1

(ii) material C
second marking point scores only if correct material named
1

Page 36 of 60
temperature increase is slowest / heats up over a longer time period

or

## the temperature (after 10 minutes) was the lowest / coolest

allow lower / cooler accept smaller temperature change / rise
ignore keeps most heat in
if figures quoted need to compare all 3 temperatures
1

(iii) material A
second marking point scores only if correct material named

## worst insulator / best

allow worse insulator

conductor
allow better conductor
1

or

## the temperature (after 10 minutes) was the highest

allow higher
allow lets most / more heat / energy through
allow biggest / bigger temperature change
allow fastest / faster temperature rise
1

## (b) 4400 (double glazing)

all net saving calculations required for 4 marks
1

## 210 (draught excluders)

allow double glazing not paid for itself (after 10 years)
1

## 1150 (loft insulation)

if no calculation or only 1 calculation of net savings over 10 years,
allow 2 marks for 3 calculations; 1 mark for 1 or 2 calculations of
savings over 10 years:
600 (double glazing)
300 (draught excluders)
1500 (loft insulation)
1

Page 37 of 60
loft insulation
If no other correct calculations, allow 1 mark for 3 correct payback
calculations (83.3 yrs, 3 yrs and 2.3 yrs).
2 marks for answer of loft insulation has shortest payback time
3 marks for answer of loft insulation justified by correct payback
figures
If no other calculations allow 1 mark for calculation of savings /
cost
Eg 0.12, 0.33, 0.42 or 12%, 33%, 42%
1
[9]

1

## (b) any three from:

allow heat for energy

## metal is a good conductor

mesh has a big surface area
allow mesh / holes allows airflow
black surfaces are good emitters / radiators (of infrared radiation / energy)
black surfaces are good absorbers of infrared radiation / energy from the laptop
computer
fans increase convection
allow fans replace hot air with cooler air
allow fans maintain / increase temperature difference / gradient
(between laptop and surroundings)
3

Page 38 of 60
(c) arrow 4 squares wide labelled wasted (energy) and arrow 6 squares wide labelled
useful (energy)

i.e.

Wasted energy
allow for 1 mark:
correct width arrows with no labels
or
correct width arrows with numerical labels only
or
arrows plotted correctly but wasted energy arrow in incorrect
position
or
a correctly labelled diagram showing useful energy is greater than
wasted energy
2
[6]

(ii) 60*

(iii) 25
each for 1 mark
3

## (b) stove because

more of the energy heats up room / heats the room more
or
less energy escapes up chimney / less energy wasted
[Do not allow less waste with the stove]
or
no un burnt fuel in smoke
reason for 1 mark
1
[4]

Page 39 of 60
##

(a) 60

(b) 15

(c) 5
each for 1 mark
credit 1 mark for (a) +(b)+ (c) = 80
or (a) > (b) > (c) to maximum of 3
[3]

## M8. (a) 60% sector correct

other two sectors closer to 13:7 than 12:8 or 14:6
sectors correctly labelled (w.r.t rank order of size)
each for 1 mark
3

## (b) (i) ideas that wasted energy

is transferred to surrounding air
pan
stove
is converted to another/correctly named energy form
any 2 for 1 mark each
2

(ii) 40
for 1 mark
1
[6]

M9. (a) ( B)
( )
(A C)

A = B or A/B = 20
gains 1 mark

but A = B = 20
gains 2 marks

A + B + C = 100
for 1 further mark

or C = 60
3

Page 40 of 60
(b) evidence of or 20%/0.2 gains 1 mark

gains 2 marks
2

## (c) ideas that

lost energy is (also) transferred (in ways we dont want)
total amount of energy (before and after any transfer) remains the same
energy becomes (progressively) more spread out/less easy to transfer again
this applies to all the energy/even to the energy usefully transferred
each for 1 mark
4
[9]

## M10. (a) insulation

allow example e.g fibreglass
1

double glazing
allow curtains
1

draught excluder
allow double glazing / close fitting door
allow turning down thermostat once only / turn down the heating
1

## (b) transfers more useful energy

allow converts more energy into light / less into heat / less energy
wasted
1
[4]

M11. (a) 60
for 1 mark
1

gains 1 mark

gains 2 mark

## anything to heat and light

gains 1 mark
2

Page 41 of 60
(c) (unwanted) heat produced
for 1 mark
1
[4]

## M12. (a) (i) makes it warmer / raises the temperature

accept produces convection (current)
accept makes it less dense
1

## (ii) reduced or slows down

1

(b) (i) electrical energy (to run the pump) must be paid for
accept electricity for electrical energy
accept electricity is needed for the pump
accept it uses electricity
accept because of the pump
1

(ii) more useful (heat) energy is transferred into the house than the energy
used to operate the pump

or reduced cost of heating the house is greater than the cost of running the
(electrical) pump

## or costs little to run compared to the savings made

accept for 1 mark
reduces energy bills
or reduced fuel costs / heating costs owtte
do not accept its cheap
2
[5]

M13. (a) 15
allow 1 mark for use of 125 (kWh)
allow 1 mark for an answer 1500
allow both marks for 1500 pence / p
allow 1 mark for correct calculation of annual cost for either freezer
(27 and 42)
2

(b) 45

or their (a) 3
allow 1 mark for correct use of 3
allow 1 mark for 12 9 = 3
2

Page 42 of 60
(c) any two from:
the marks are for the explanation

## less electricity / energy needed / used

accept less energy wasted

## less (fossil) fuels burned

accept a named fossil fuel
do not accept conserving (fossil) fuels

## less polluting gases emitted

accept a named polluting gas / greenhouse gases / carbon
emissions / reduce global warming
accept an answer in terms of nuclear fuel
eg less nuclear fuel required (1)
less nuclear waste (1)
2

or no plus explanation

accept CFC gases

[6]

## M14. (a) (i) 0.6

accept 60 %
allow 1 mark for useful energy = 480
answer 0.6 with any unit or 60 gains 1 mark only
2

## (ii) transferred to surroundings

accept goes into the air
accept heats the surroundings up
accept transferred into heat (only)
do not accept wasted / lost unless qualified
destroyed negates mark
transferred into light / sound negates mark
1

## (b) (i) 1.75

allow 1 mark for converting to kW
answers of 0.7, 0.525, 0.35, 0.875, 1.05, 5.25 gains 1 mark
answers of 1750 or 17.5 gains 1 mark
2

## (ii) 21p or 0.21 or their (b)(i) 12

1

Page 43 of 60
(c) any two from:

## (more) electricity needs to be generated

(more) electricity is being used

## (more) fossil fuels burnt

accept named fossil fuel

## (more) pollutant gases emitted

accept named gas
accept harmful for pollutant
accept greenhouse gases
accept atmospheric pollution
accept answer in terms of any form of electricity generation and an
associated environmental problem
2
[8]

M15. (a) 9
allow 1 mark for correct substitution
(1.8 5)
an answer of 9000 gains 1 mark
an answer of 2 or 15 gains 1 mark
2

## (b) (3kW) fan heater

accept 3kW
accept the middle one
1

Page 44 of 60
(c)
features common to more than one heater, treat as neutral

oil-filled

## cannot be knocked over / space saving / no trailing wires

do not accept just wall-mounted

## or more control over heat output

do not accept just 3 heat settings
1

fan

## warms (office) rapidly or can be used to cool air (in summer)

accept can be used as a fan
accept cool air fan (setting)
accept it has a cool air setting in case it gets too hot
do not accept a specific reference to cooling the heater
1

ceramic

## can be switched on for set periods of time

do not accept just has a timer

1
[6]

## M16. (a) (i) silvered surfaces

more than the correct number of ticks in a row negates the mark

2

plastic cap

vacuum

## plastic cap (1)

Page 45 of 60
(ii)
any mention of air or any other substance in a vacuum scores zero

## because there are no particles in a vacuum

accept atoms / molecules for particles
accept vacuum is empty space
accept there is nothing in a vacuum
accept there is no air / gas in the vacuum

## conduction and convection need particles / medium

need reference to both conduction and convection
accept correct descriptions
2

(b) (i) less heat lost (to air above the heater)
do not accept no heat lost

## light shiny surfaces are poor emitters (of radiation)

references to reflection are neutral

## or dull, matt surfaces are good emitters (of radiation)

do not credit answers which infer reflection from the underside of
the hood
ignore correct reference to absorption
2

than the other
ignore input

eg

2

## (iii) energy cannot be destroyed

accept (principle of) conservation of energy
do not accept because energy cannot be lost without clarification
1
[9]

## M17. (a) (i) kinetic

do not accept movement
1

Page 46 of 60
(ii) thermal
accept heat for thermal

sound
do not accept noise for sound
both answers required in either order
1

## (b) transferred to surroundings / surrounding molecules / atmosphere

it escapes is insufficient
or
accept warms the surroundings
accept a correct description for
surroundings eg to the washing machine
do not accept transformed into heat on its own
1

## (c) a smaller proportion / percentage of the energy supplied is wasted

owtte
accept a statement such as less energy is wasted for 1 mark
do not accept costs less to run
ignore references to uses less energy
2

## (d) (i) 2.4 (p)

accept 2 p if it is clear from the working out this is rounded from
2.4 p
allow 1 mark for correct substitution of correct values
ie 0.2 12
allow 1 mark for calculating cost at 40 C (13.2 p)
or
cost at 30 C (10.8 p)
2

Page 47 of 60
(ii) any one from:

## less electricity needed

ignore answers in terms of the washing machine releasing less
energy
an answer in terms of the washing machine releasing CO2 negates
the mark
do not accept less energy is produced

## less fuel is burned

accept a correctly named fuel
do not accept less fuel is needed
1
[8]

## matt surfaces are better emitters (than shiny surfaces)

accept matt surfaces are good emitters
ignore reference to good conductor
2

## provided no subsequent step shown

an answer of 90 scores 1 mark
an answer of 90 / 0.90 with a unit scores 1 mark
2

## (c) (producing) light

allow (producing) sound
1

Page 48 of 60
(d) any two from:

wood is renewable
accept wood grows again / quickly
accept wood can be replanted

## (using wood) conserves fossil fuels

accept doesnt use fossil fuels

## wood is carbon neutral

accept a description
cheaper / saves money is insufficient
2

(e) E=mc

2 550 000
allow 1 mark for correct substitution
ie 100 510 50
provided no subsequent step shown
answers of 1 020 000, 3 570 000 gain 1 mark
2

joules /J
accept kJ / MJ
do not accept j
for full credit the unit and numerical answer must be consistent
1
[10]

## M19. (a) warms it

do not accept answers in terms of waste gases or pollution
1

## (b) 80% or 0.8

answers of 80 or 0.8 plus a unit gain 1 mark only
or allow 1 mark for a correct substitution, ie

## an answer of 35% or 0.35 gains 1 mark

answers of 85%, 75%, 0.85 or
0.75 gain 1 mark
2

(c) some of the energy that would be wasted (by a coal-burning power station)
accept less waste energy
1

## is usefully used (to heat homes etc)

accept energy used to heat homes etc
1

## (d) (i) A system of cables and transformers

1

Page 49 of 60
(ii) less energy / power loss / wasted (in shorter cables)
accept no energy / power loss / wasted (in shorter cables)
accept energy is lost when transmitted through cables
do not accept electricity for energy
1
[7]

## M20. (a) (i) kinetic

do not accept movement
1

## (ii) thermal sound

accept heat for thermal
do not accept noise for sound
both answers required in either order
1

## (b) transferred to surroundings / surrounding molecules / atmosphere

it escapes is insufficient

or
accept warms the surroundings
accept a correct description for surroundings eg to the washing
machine
do not accept transformed into heat on its own
1

## (c) (i) 3 (.0 p)

allow 1 mark for correct substitution of correct values ie 0.2 x 15
allow 1 mark for calculating cost at 40C (16.5p)
or
cost at 30C (13.5p)
2

## less electricity needed

ignore answers in terms of the washing machine releasing less
energy
an answer in terms of the washing machine releasing CO2 negates
mark
do not accept less energy is produced

## less fuel is burned

accept a correctly named fuel
do not accept less fuel is needed
2
[7]

Page 50 of 60
M21. (a) (matt) black is a good emitter of infrared / radiation
accept heat for infrared / radiation
ignore reference to good absorber
attracts heat negates this marking point
1

## to give maximum (rate of) energy transfer (to surroundings)

accept temperature (of coolant) falls fast(er)
accept black emits more radiation for 1 mark
black emits most radiation / black is the best emitter of radiation for
2 marks
1

## (b) the fins increase the surface area

accept heat for energy
1

## so increasing the (rate of) energy transfer

or
so more fins greater (rate of) energy transfer
1

## (c) 114 000

allow 1 mark for correct temperature change, ie 15 (C)
or
allow 2 marks for correct substitution, ie 2 3 800 15
answers of 851 200 or 737 200 gain 2 marks
or
substitution 2 3800 112 or 2 3800 97 gains 1 mark
an answer of 114 kJ gains 3 marks
3

1

## less (input) energy is wasted

accept some of the energy that would have been wasted is
(usefully) used

or

## more (input) energy is usefully used

accept heat for energy
1
[9]

Page 51 of 60
E2. (a) There was widespread confusion about what efficiency is, exemplified by statements
such as appliance thats the least useful. The lowest level of acceptable response the
bulb with lots of energy wasted gained one mark. To gain two marks, students should
have made it clear that efficiency is about proportion or percentage, rather than simple
comparative statements about the amount of energy lost. Many students stated that it was
the bulb that loses the most energy, which is incorrect because out of the three bulbs, the
halogen bulb wastes the most energy as it has the highest energy input. Some students
said it was not good for the environment or it caused pollution.

(b) A quarter of students were able to gain at least one mark and it was clear that many
students are unfamiliar with the use of Sankey diagrams to calculate efficiency and used
incorrect values in their calculations. Many answers were more than 100% because they
had not used the equation from the sheet correctly. Students would benefit from being
taught how to organise calculations logically.

(c) Few students read the question properly and did not answer in terms of the effect on the
surroundings. Only a third of students gained credit for this question.

(d) Most incorrect answers focussed on the efficiency of the LED bulb rather than the fact that
the energy input was only 2 J compared with 40 J and 50 J for the other two bulbs. As
three bulbs were being compared an absolute comparator was needed - lowest energy
input, rather than less or low.

(e) (i) Many students ignored the instruction, Use only the information in the table to
statement about efficiency. Only a few students followed the instruction and gained
one mark for filament bulb, but the correct reason was rarely given. Once again an
absolute comparator was needed to compare three bulbs.

(ii) Again, many students ignored the instruction, leading to the use of the Sankey
diagrams to answer the question. Many incorrectly stated that, the LED bulbs last a
long time, which makes no comparison with the other two bulbs. The filament bulb
lasting 1000 hours may also be considered a long time, but an absolute comparator
was needed for the mark to be awarded.

E3. (a) This question was generally well answered. Some students just wrote a list of the
forms of energy involved which did not gain full marks because there was no indication of
the energy transfers involved. Others seemed to be confused as to which forms of energy
were useful and which were wasted. Some mentioned light energy, but this could only be
credited if a correct explanation was given. References to electricity or noise as forms of
energy were incorrect.

(b) A large proportion of the responses simply restated the question. Many incorrectly said no
energy is wasted. Several answers referred to safety, such as to prevent the hairdryer
blowing up.

Page 52 of 60
E4. (a) (i) Many students did not realise that sensor 2 was gradually being heated by the hot
metal plate, and gave an answer of 20 C instead of 80 C.

(ii) Some students who selected the correct material also gained the 2nd mark for stating
that it stayed the coolest. A comparative answer was needed. Some said C,
because it was the lowest, but had not mentioned temperature, so it was not clear
what was the lowest. Most students gave material A as the answer so could not gain
any marks. They had not understood the investigation.

(iii) Students who selected the correct material often did not go on to gain the 2nd mark
because their answer was not comparative. They had to say that the cup was the
worst insulator or the temperature was the highest. It had a high temperature did not
gain credit. Many answers demonstrated that the term U-value is not understood. A
surprising number of students opted for material B, which could not have had the
highest or lowest value for anything, as it was the middle line on the graph.

(b) If the question states You must include calculations in your answer, full marks cannot be
gained without them. Most students calculated the amount saved over 10 years, but only a
few went on to calculate the net savings. Net savings for all three insulation methods were
needed for full marks. Some students calculated payback times, which gained some
credit. Most students gained at least 1 mark for a correct conclusion. It was evident that
cost effectiveness is not a topic that many schools have covered with weaker students, or
that it is too difficult for them. It was disappointing that most students were unable to set
down clearly what they were trying to do. Calculations were there but it was not easy to
follow what they were trying to do with them. Setting out an answer in a logical format
would be helpful to both students and examiners.

E5. (a) The majority of students knew that decreased efficiency means a greater proportion of
the energy is wasted. The most common distractor was that the energy input is
decreased.

(b) Students tended to write long responses, but they were not precise enough to gain many
marks. The most common mark gained was for saying metal is a good conductor. Most
students did not distinguish between the colour and the material, writing statements such
as Black metal surfaces are good conductors, although the benefit of the doubt was
given to statements like this. Unfortunately students rarely stated that black is a good
emitter or good absorber of infrared radiation. They also omitted to explain that the energy
would be absorbed from the laptop computer. Marks gained relating to the mesh were
usually in relation to increased airflow rather than to a large surface area. Vague
comments were made about the fans, with most saying that they blew cold air, or blew the
heat away, both of which were insufficient. The idea of hot air being replaced with cooler
air was required. A very small number of students gained full marks and demonstrated a
very good understanding of the physical processes involved.

(c) A wide range of styles of Sankey diagrams were drawn. Most students managed to plot
the width of the bars correctly, but often the wasted energy was drawn incorrectly and
shown to come off the useful energy arrow. Often the labels were incomplete or not
attempted. Useful energy was sometimes labelled as used or transferred energy, which
was insufficient, or the arrows were just labelled with the figures. The question confused
some students who had not seen a Sankey diagram before.

Page 53 of 60
E7. Paper 2 Option P

Some credit was given for completing the sankey diagram, if (a) > (b) > (c) or if (a) + (b) + (c) =
80 joules. Most candidates, therefore, gained at least one mark.

Paper 4 Option Q

Many candidates were able to identify the values. Weaker candidates were able to gain one
mark by getting the correct order of size.

E8. Part (a) was handled well by most candidates, though neatness and accuracy could have
been better. Few candidates were able to explain to where the wasted energy had been
transferred except into the air, and hence the answer given to (b)(ii) was usually 20% rather
than 40%.

E9. (a) This item was generally well answered though a significant minority of candidates
failed to make the sum of the outputs equal the input.

(b) Most, but by no means all, of the candidates understood the concept of efficiency (no
doubt successfully cued in many cases by the deliberate way in which the question was
formulated). Some, however, failed to take account of the words printed in bold and gave
20% as their answer, and so gained only partial credit.

(c) Many candidates were able to convey, via some form of words, the principle of the
conservation of energy. Rather fewer drew attention to the inevitable degrading/dissipation
of energy during energy transfers. Fewer still made reference to both these ideas.

E10. (a) This part was generally well done but weaker candidates gave insulation or double
glazing indiscriminately.

(b) This was less well answered, with most being in terms of using less energy or lasting
longer.

## E11. Each part of the question produced many correct answers.

Page 54 of 60
E12. (a) (i) This was answered correctly by the majority of candidates.

(ii) Most answers involved one of three responses: no transfer of energy; transfer of
energy from outside to inside; and the correct response that the energy transfer
would reduce. Some candidates answered in terms of the air itself being transferred.

(b) (i) The majority of candidates realised that electricity was needed, many specifying that
it was needed to operate the pump.

(ii) This question was not well answered. Many candidates did not respond to the
instruction to answer in terms of cost effectiveness. Of those who answered in
terms of cost, many gained a mark for saying that money would be saved on the
original method of heating the house, but only a minority compared this saving to the
cost of running the heat exchanger.

E13. (a) Most candidates knew how to answer this, but a significant number failed to realise
that their answer of 1500 was pence, not pounds.

(b) This proved to be a difficult question for many candidates, a significant number not
attempting it. Of those who made an attempt, quite a few realised that there was a saving
of 3 years, but did not link the pay-back time to their previous answer.

(c) Most candidates opted for the yes answer, gaining some credit for stating that less
electricity would be used by the new freezer, but often failing to describe how this would
benefit the environment. Of those who chose the no option some credit was usually
gained for the ideas that the appliance would need to be disposed of.

E14. (a) (i) This calculation was correctly done by most candidates. Of those who did not
score full marks, some gained credit for calculating the useful energy as 480 J, but
were then unable to complete the calculation correctly. Others arrived at the correct
numerical answer, but added an incorrect unit such as J or J/s.

(ii) A wide range of responses was seen. A number of answers had the energy changing
into light/sound and therefore being used by the person watching the television.
There were indications that many candidates had not read the question carefully
enough to appreciate that it referred to the useful energy and what happens to it
eventually.

(b) (i) Just under half of the candidates gained full marks. The most common incorrect
answer was 1750 showing no conversion from watts to kilowatts. Many candidates
did not read the question carefully and instead of referring to the compact stereo,
chose another item or all of the items together.

(ii) The candidates that answered correctly in part (b)(i) generally scored this mark.
Many candidates scored the mark for error carried forward mostly from an answer of
1750. A significant but small number of candidates made errors on converting pence
to pounds or multiplied by 0.12 but forgot to put in sign. Some candidates who had
failed to do the correct conversion in part (b)(i) arrived at a cost of 210 for leaving a
small electrical item on standby for about a week!

Page 55 of 60
(c) This was very well answered by many candidates. A common mistake seen was that the
electrical appliance itself was giving off heat, which contributed to global warming, or more
bizarrely, was giving off carbon dioxide.

## E15. Foundation Tier

(a) Most candidates could substitute the correct numbers into the equation, although some
erroneously put in a figure of 8 hours instead of 5. The most common mistake was to fail
to convert 1800 watts into 1.8 kilowatts, thus arriving at an answer of 9000 instead of 9.

(b) Many candidates chose the ceramic heater, perhaps because it appeared to have the
largest number attached to it.

(c) Most candidates were able to score at least one mark on this question, although very few
scored all three marks. The most common mistake was simply to pick a feature from the
illustration and copy it down. These candidates failed to realise that (i) it should be a
feature not possessed by either of the other two, and (ii) that they should explain why this

Higher Tier

(a) A large number of candidates scored at least 1 of the 2 marks, common mistakes were a
failure to convert from W to kW, or wrongly converting by dividing by 100. A surprising
number of answers used the time as 8 hours, presumably because of the 8-hour timer. It
would appear that many candidates do not read the questions thoroughly.

(b) This was well answered on the whole, although it appeared that some candidates just
looked for the highest number, regardless of units.

(c) Many marks were lost by candidates not comparing each heater with the other two, again
an example of not reading the question thoroughly. Good answers explained why the
feature would be an advantage rather than just picking out a statement from the lists given.

## E16. Foundation Tier

(a) (i) Few candidates obtained any marks for completing the table.

(ii) It was surprising to find that very few candidates understand what is meant by the
term vacuum. The majority of candidates believed that a vacuum contains air, and
that this is what prevents the loss of heat.

Page 56 of 60
(b) (i) This question was very poorly answered. Most candidates failed to read the labels on
the diagram correctly, and thought that they were being asked about the lower
surface of the reflecting hood rather than the top surface. Consequently their
answers all referred to heat being reflected down onto the people sitting below. Even
those candidates who did understand that they were required to answer about the
top surface, failed to realise that it was the emissive properties of the surface that
were important, not the absorbing or reflective properties.

(ii) It was clear that, at some centres, candidates had not come across Sankey
diagrams: these candidates often simply copied the diagram of the patio heater and
added labels showing the energy flow.

(iii) Very few candidates could relate this question to conservation of energy.

Higher Tier

(a) (i) Few candidates gained 2 marks, although many candidates correctly linked the
silvered surfaces to reducing radiation for one mark only.

(ii) Even at Higher Tier it was surprising how many candidates did not know what a
vacuum is. Many candidates gave answers in terms of the vacuum containing air, a
poor conductor. Few candidates showed a good understanding of the role of
particles in conduction and convection.

(b) (i) The majority of candidates scored no marks. Most answers referred to the underside
of the hood reflecting heat down to the patio. Those candidates who picked up that
the question was asking about the top surface sometimes scored one mark for
saying that shiny surfaces were poor emitters of radiation, but most candidates were
still concerned about reflection and often not even of heat but of light.

(ii) Many candidates attempted to draw a Sankey diagram and gained some credit.
However the standard of the diagrams drawn tended to be poor not using a ruler to
draw straight lines and both outputs being similar in magnitude.

(iii) Many candidates quoted the law of conservation of energy. However candidates
should appreciate that an answer which merely re-states the question (energy input
always equals energy output) will not gain credit.

Page 57 of 60
E17. (a) (i) Kinetic energy was correctly identified by most candidates.

(ii) Most candidates correctly stated that sound and thermal / heat were the two forms of
wasted energy.

(b) This was poorly answered, with only just over a quarter of candidates realising that the
energy was transferred to the surroundings.

(c) Most candidates were able to earn 1 mark here for stating that the more efficient machine
would waste less energy. Very few candidates answered in terms of the proportion of the
input energy that was wasted was less.

(d) (i) Few candidates were able to score both marks here. Many of the weaker candidates
had difficulty in placing the decimal point correctly. Another common mistake was to
calculate the cost for either 40 C or for 30 C, but not work out the difference.

(ii) Few correct answers. Many candidates thought that washing machines produced
carbon dioxide directly.

E18. (a) Most students stated that matt black surfaces were good absorbers of radiation, but
failed to go on to state that they were also good emitters of radiation. Many of the weaker
students tried to explain the reason in terms of conduction or convection, even though the
term radiation was used in the stem of the question. There is still a common
misconception that black attracts heat.

(b) Although most students could select the correct equation to use, many put the numbers in
the wrong way round - possibly because they could not cope with the larger number being
on the bottom of the fraction. Of those who did the arithmetic correctly, some added a
spurious unit or, if they were expressing the efficiency as a percentage, simply left the

(c) Only a third of students gave a correct response of light or sound as a way in which
energy is wasted from the stove. Some students seemed to have interpreted the word
way differently, and stated that some energy is lost when the door is opened.

(d) Just over a third of students scored at least one mark in this question, usually for stating
that wood is a renewable resource. A common misconception was that the wood burning
stove would not give off any gases that contribute to global warming.

(e) Nearly half of the students were able to calculate a correct value for the energy, but few
scored all three marks because they either omitted the unit or wrote down an incorrect
unit.

Page 58 of 60
E19. (a) Very few students appreciated that the waste energy from the power station would
cause an increase in temperature of the surroundings. Of those who were thinking along
these lines they often stated that the waste energy from the power station would cause
global warming. Many students thought that the waste would be in the form of gases and
were therefore talking about pollution of the environment.

(b) The best students were able to correctly calculate the efficiency of the CHP station.
However, some of these failed to gain maximum marks because either they neglected to
insert the % sign after the number 80 or they quoted the efficiency as 0.8 but then put a %
sign or a unit after the number.

(c) About half of the students gained one of the two marks on this question.

(d) (i) Very few students knew that the National Grid comprises cables and transformers;
the majority thought that it comprised cables and pylons.

(ii) Few students could provide an adequate reason for the increased efficiency.
Responses such as the electricity doesn't have to travel far, it's quicker/cheaper
and the use of electricity rather than energy meant that many scored no marks.

E20. (a) (i) Nearly all students responded correctly with kinetic energy.

(ii) The majority of answers correctly identified the two forms of wasted energy.

(b) Just over half of responses gained credit. Insufficient responses included it is
wasted (given in the question) or it turns into heat (answered in the previous part).

(c) (i) Fewer than half of the students gained both marks for this question, although some
were able to gain one mark for calculating the cost at 40C or 30C.

(ii) More than half of the responses failed to gain credit, many answers indicating that
the washing machine itself gave off carbon dioxide. Of those students who had the
correct idea, many failed to answer the question as to why reducing the amount of
energy used reduces the amount of carbon dioxide.

E21. (a) Many students are unable to distinguish between a hot object emitting infrared
radiation, and a cold object absorbing it. However, by stating that matt black objects are
good emitters and absorbers, many were able to achieve one mark.

(b) This question was answered well, with over half of the responses correctly stating a
relationship between the number of fins and the rate of energy transfer; of these
responses, about half also referred to the increased surface area.

(c) The majority of students were able to substitute the correct numbers into the correct
equation and perform the calculation. Common mistakes were converting the 2 kg mass
to grams, and not calculating the difference between 97 and 112 correctly.

(d) Some very pleasing answers were seen, students clearly expressing that energy which
would have been wasted had now been converted into useful energy.

Page 59 of 60
Page 60 of 60