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Diagnostic Model Ivancevich

Ivancevich (1999) discloses the context of the exercise as an attempt to develop human
resources in an organization that complements the overall concept of 'Diagnostics Model for
the Development of Human Resources' he built. Training that is placed in the development of
human resources is an important element other than business development, career planning,
and disiplin.Tanggapan Ivancevich was described as in the table below:

EFFECT OF EXTERNAL EFFECT OF INTERNAL


ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT
- strategy
- police & law - goals
- trade unions - cultural organizations
- the economic situation in & - working conditions
overseas - work group
- the location of the organization - experience and methods
leadership

Acquisition of Human Tribute to Human Resources


Resources
- performance evaluation
- jobs created - damages (compensation)
- resource planning - analysis and design work
man - the recruitment of workers
- analysis and design work - election workers
- the recruitment of workers
- election workers

Human resource development Protection & Human


Resources Assessment
- exercise
- development - safety, health and comfort
- career planning - Rating
- disciplinary
- election workers

Safeguard the interests of employees and revenue

The final result expected

Social responsibility and Quality products High quality service and


ethics are met high and competitive competitive
Thayer and McGhee Model
It involves the followingtypes of analysis:
1.Organisational analysis:
It involves a detailed analysis of the following:
Organization structure
Goals and Objectives (short and long term goals)
Human resources and future plans (manpower inventory,productivity ratio, cost)
Understanding culture (peoples attitude)

2.Task analysis:
Every job has an expected standard of performance. Standard must be maintained.
Knowledge of the task helps in understanding what skills, knowledge and attitudes an
employee should have. Task analysis involves reviewing the job description and specification
to identify the activities performed in a particular job and the knowledge, attitude, skills,
habit (KASH) needed to perform them. Task analysis is a more detailed process than job
analysis.

3.Person analysis:
It is necessary to perform a person analysis in addition to organisation and task analysis.
Person analysis involves determining which employees require training and, equally
important, which do not. In this regard, person analysis is important for several reasons.
Firstly, it helps organisation to avoid the mistakes sending all employees into training when
some do not need it. Person analysis also helps managers determine the areas in which they
are deficient.

Training needs analysis


Training needs analysis covers three issue.

Current state Desired state


Organizations current results Desired results, standards
Existing knowledge and skill Knowledge and skill needed
Individual performance Required standards
The difference between the two columns is the training gap. Training programmes are
designed to improve individual performance, thereby improving the performance of the
organisation.

When you give skills training to someone use this simple five-step approach:
1.Prepare the trainee - take care to relax them as lots ofpeople find learning new things
stressful
2.Explainthe job/task, skill, project, etc - discuss the method and why; explain standards and
why; explain necessary tools, equipment or systems
3.Provide a demonstration- step-by-step - the more complex, the more steps - people cannot
absorb a whole complicated task all in one go - break it down always show the correct way
- accentuate the positive seek feedback and check understanding
4.Have the trainee practice the job- we all learn best by actually doing it - (I hear and I
forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand - Confucius)
5.Monitor progress- give positive feedback - encourage, coach and adapt according to the
pace of development Creating and using progress charts are helpful, and are essential for
anything complex - if you cant measure it you cant manage it. Its essential to use other
training tools too for planning, measuring, assessing, recording and following up on the
persons training.

Mager And Pipe Performance Analysis Model


In 1970, Robert Mager and Peter Pipe developed a model to aid in the analysis of
performance. The model is designed to help troubleshoot performance problems rather than
provide a comprehensive analysis perspective (Rothwell, Hohne, King, 2007). It is simplistic
and designed like a flowchart with decision points to guide you through the analysis. This
simplicity makes the Mager and Pipe model extremely powerful (Rothwell, Hohne, King,
2007). It easily goes through a systematic process to address a performance problem.

The model begins with the discovery of a problem. The problem needs to be measureable and
observable so as to expose a performance gap. Furthermore, the problem/gap needs to be
clearly described so that a proper solution can be implemented. Someone once wisely said,
A problem well stated is a problem half solved (Allan, Reynolds, p.83, 1983).Once a
problem/gap is recognized the HPT practitioner can go through a series of questions to find
the right solution to the performance gap or problem (Rothwell, Hohne, King, 2007).
The first and perhaps most important question is whether the performance problem is worth
solving. If so, you can then proceed to answer further questions on the flowchart such as
whether there are clear expectations, adequate resources, is poor performance rewarded,
etc Interestingly, the last step on the flowchart is to implement training. As the flowchart
shows, training should be one of the last interventions an HPT practitioner should consider as
it is usually the most expensive. Cheaper alternatives, such as clarifying expectations or
simplifying a task, can achieve the desired corrective to the problem/gap.

Due to its simplicity, the Mager and Pipe model is an extremely useful model to use when
attempting to address performance problems. It provides a HPT practitioner, A framework
for systematic problem solving which minimizes costly misjudgments and serves to guide
both manager and employee toward successful resolution of performance problems. (Allan,
Reynolds, p. 88, 1983)

References
Ivancevich, J.M. (1998). Human Resource Management. New York: Irwin McGraw- Hill
Allan, A., & Reynolds, KJ (1983). Performance Issues: Model for Analysis and Solutions.
Journal of Academic Librarianship, 9 (1), 83-88.
Rothwell, WJ, Hohne, CK, & King, SB (2007). Human Performance Improvement (2nd ed.).
New York, New York: Taylor & Francis