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Introduction of TQM is concerned

with changes in the culture and

management style. It requires a great
deal of commitment and planning.
More than 80% initiatives on TOM
will fail if they do not have the
backing of the Top Management
Team. TQM cannot changes an
organization overnight and it cannot
address the neglect of years
The leadership issue is critical for a
successful TQM drive.
TQM consider supplier as part of the
organization processes.
TQM strives towards the
achievement of the Quality in
everything one does.
It encompasses all departments and
all functions in the company.
It aims at standardizing and
improving all process in the
There are no quick fixes
There are no one Quality Management
Technique and /or tool which is panacea
for all quality ills and is more important
than another.
There are no short-cuts
There are no ready-made packages,
which can be plugged into guarantee
It requires patience, tenacity and
considerable commitment from people
at every level on the organization
Improving organizational
Fewer defects
Reduced rework and scrap
Lower inventory level
Reduced lead time
Higher flexibility
Increased employee satisfaction.
The most effective strategic plan would
be so well implemented that every task
performed by every employee would
support one or more corporate
The connections would be traceable and
the employees would understand the
Planning process are only half over,
when the plan is complete. The
second half is turning plans into
This involngs identifying the steps
necessary to achieve the objectives at
a corporate, division, department,
work unit, team and individual level.
Deployment translate corporate guals
and objectives into actions and
develop evaluation process for
management to monitor performance
and assist those units that are having
For most managers, making the plan
work is more difficult than
formulating the plan.
The real key to success is in implementing
the short term action plans.
To implement customer value, grand and
generic strategies, managers specify annual
plans, and resources for each system,
process, or function, the coordinate policies
and structure the organization and its
process to implement these plans.
Top managements responsibility is
to see that strategy is consistent
across the omn the resources are
allocated appropriately and that all
systems focus on improving customer
Top management policy measures
(End) (means)
Division management
policy (End) Measures
Middle management
Measures (Means) Policy
Lower management
measures (Means) Policy
As shown above, policy deployment
develops the short- term action plans
(means) at each level to be consistent
with the overall strategy by linking these
plans to the measures dewed from the
polices established with the managers.
One systems-oriented process model for
developing goal consensus throughout the
organization is hushing planning (also
called policy deployment)
Policy deployment process places more
emphasis on process than on outcome.
It is called management by policy or
management by planning (MBP), in
contrast to management by objectives
Policy deployment has no direct link with
personal practices such as promotion or
Housing planning places grant emphasis
on individual autonomy and self
management at the managerial level.
In an autocratic organization, the boss
sets the target.
In a participative organization, the boss
and sub-ordinates sit down together and
come to some agreement as to what the
targets kill be.
In housing planning , the sub ordinates sit
down by hiaonself and decides what he
thinks the target ought to be, and then
gets to gather with others in the
organization to align those targets.
Housing focuses on the individual
developing his own ideas of what needs
to be dong and then integrates them.
Goals are measured by the individual
manager who sets them for himself.
Develop a five-year plan for the company
Determine an annual policy in support of
the five year plan
Deploy the policy throughout the
organization through participative
Implement the policy
Audit the process and plans monthly.
Conduct annual audits by top
The process is recursive, and the
results of the annual top management
audit form a partial basis for the
policy development phase for the
next year.
Daily management include cost controls
employee morale, selling or
manufacturing a product , maintaining or
slightly improving a product or process ,
or some other annual repetitive task.
Daily management plan addresses the
issue and focuses on keeping the house
in order
There is little higher-management-level
involvement in preparing this plan, but all
levels of management, should have one.
The final plan should have both hushing
and daily management plans.
Daily management plan addresses the
day-to day taks.
Obviously we need both hushing plan as
well as daily plan for directing
management focus, accosting appropriate
resources, and setting priorities.
In an organization quality begins and
ends with customer
Customer is king in any business
Customer needs to be treated with
Quality warrants customer focus
A customer who knows not what he
wants and knows not that he knows
not what he wants they are
insignificant customer be gentle .
A customer who knows not what he
wants and knows that he knows not
what he wants . They are humble
customers : Teaching and TRG will
make them knowledgeable.
A customer who knows what he
wants and knows not that he knows
what he wants. They are sleeping
customers. To aware them attractive,
stunning advise are reqd. Tough to
A customer who knows what he
wants and knows that he knows what
he wants. They me masters of
themselves; they will be demanding
type; largely . Fall in this category.
Treat all customers equally ethical way.
Concentrate of vital few : productivity
& roi
There has been an opinion that quality
companies more not always the profit
making companies reason: Treat all
customers equally.
Concept of synergy
Group is defined as a number of people
gathered together to complete an
Team is defined as a number of people
gathered together with common vision
and dedication, with mutual
understanding and help among
themselves and work independently to
complete an assignment.
Independent work
Focus on self
Members are told what to do
Climate of distrust prevails
Communication flow not congenial
Depends on external trg
Exercising of auth cont.
Often face unsolved conflicts
Members do not participate in decision making
Fire fighting will be the order of the day,
Net is equal to sum total.
Inter dependent wire
Focus on goal
Members cont volute
Trust openness
Two way communication
Motivated to learn
Mutual understanding
Conflicts solved auto
All participate decision
Harmony prevails with systematic procedure
Net is greater than sum total
1. Personal
2. Professional
3. Social
1-2. In-effective teams
2 3 Short lived teams
3-1 Un productive teams
1-2-3 Effective synergic teams
Factors that influence togetherness:
Physical proximity
Social / personal homogeneity
Role clarity
Common work area
Personality type
Prevailing culture
Leaders interest/ intention
Ego ; *selfishness; *blaming culture
Ineffective leader; * heterogeneity
Personal : non egoistic ; integrity,
Unselfish ; patience
SOCIAL: Mutual acceptance; mutual
trust; understanding others; standing
above social barriers.
Professional Knowledge; skill; problem
solving ability ; conflict magt ; adopting
Success criteria for teams: Group
decision making ; free flow of common;
harmonious culture; skilled members;
intrinsic motivation; creative problem
solving; synergic effect.
Metrics : Improvement in net outcome;
interdependency level of members;
morale of members; fervency of
meetings; communication flow.
CPM & PERT are being used by planners
for years.
By adding quality tool box , this
technique can be extended to general
managers and other non-technical
The benefits of an activity net work
diagrams are:
A realistic timetable determined by
the users
Team members understand their role
in the overall plan.
Bottlenecks can be discovered and
corrective action taken, and
Members focus on the critical items
For this tool to work, the task times
must be correct or reasonably close.
Although these seven managements
tools can be used individually, they
are most effective when used as a
system to implement an improvement
Procedure for constructing
prioritization matrix:
Construct an L-shaped matrix
combining the options, which are the
lowest level of detail of the tree
diagram with the criteria.
Determine the implementation
criteria. Use brainstorming.
Prioritize the criteria. Each team
member weights the criteria so the
total weights equal 1.00 and the
results are totaled for the entire team.
Rank order the options in terms of
importance by each criterion, average
results and round to the nearest whole

Computer the option importance score

under each criterion by multiplying the
rank by the criteria weights.

The options with the highest total are

those that should be implemented first.
A clear statement of the problem or
process must be specified.
A team can be established to
recommend steps required to solve
the problem or implement the plan.
The product produced by this
group would be a tree diagram with
activities and recommendations for
timing the activities.
The purpose of an interrelationship digraph is
to take a central idea and impart logical or
sequential links among related categories.
It shows that every idea can be logically linked
with more than one idea at a time and allows
for lateral rather than linear thinking.
This technique often is used after affinity
diagram has brought out issues and problems
into clearer focus.
Flip charts lists developed in the
affinity diagram can be duplicated
and used in this technique.
New cards or lists of specific items
must be added frequently as the issue
becomes more focused.
Kawakita Jiro, a Japanese anthropologist ,
developed this method in the 1960s.
The technique requires that a group of six
to eight people meet to consider a broad
issue, such as identifying the elements of
poor quality cost for their organization.
Basically this technique is for gathering
and organizing a large number of ideas,
opinions and facts relating to a broad
problem or subject area.
Responses can be recorded on a flop
Once many ideas have been generated ,
they can be grouped according to their
affinity or relationship to each other.
This technique helps managers focus on
the key issues and their elements rather
than an unorganized collection of
The Affinity diagram is intended to be a
creative , rather than a logical process.
A tree diagram maps out the paths
and tasks that need to be
accomplished to complete a specific
project or to reach a specified goal.
A planner uses this technique to seek
answers to such questions as what are
all the factors that contribute to the
existence of the key problem?
This technique brings the issue and
problems disclosed by the affinity
diagram and the interrelationship digraph
down to the operational planning stage.
PDPC is a method for mapping out every
conceivable event and contingency that
can occur when moving from.
It is used to plan for each possible
chain of events that could occur when
a problem or goal is unfamiliar.
A PDPC takes each branch of a tree
diagram , anticipates possible
problems, and provide counter
measures that will prevent the
deviation from occurring or be in
place of the deviation does occur.
These tools prioritize issues, tasks,
characteristics and so forth, based on
weight age criteria using a combination
of tree and matrix diagram techniques.
Once prioritized effective decisions can
be made.
Prioritization matrixes are designed to
reduce the teams opinion rationally
before implementation planning occurs.
these are spread sheets that graphically
display relationship between
characteristics, functions and tasks in
such a way as to provide logical
connecting points between each item.

The matrix diagram allows individuals or

teams to identify analyze and rate the
relationship among two or more variable.
The house of quality is an example of one
of the many matrix diagrams now used
for planning and quality improvement.
There are at least five standard formats: L
shaped (2 variables) T shaped (3
Variables) Y-shaped (3 variables)
C-shaped (3 variables) and X-shaped (4
L-shaped formats are not commonly
ISO 9001-2000:
In December 2000, ISO , formally
introduced ISO 9001 2000, which made
already ISO certificates t 1994,
ISO 9001 2000 Quality Management
system replaced the ISO 9001-2000, ISO
9002-1994 and ISO 9003- 1994.
The 20 elements of ISO 9001-1994 have
been restructured within four major
clauses of ISO 9001-2000. They are
1. Management responsibility
2. Resource management
3. Process management
4. Measurement, Analysis and
The revised ISO system focuses more
on continuous improvement and
customer satisfaction that means
more emphasis on process.
Major area Activities to be surveyed
Management Philosophy , quality
policies , organization structure,
commitment to quality.
Design Organization, system in use,
caliber of specification, orientation to
modern technique , attention to reliability
, engineering change control,
development laboratories.
Manufacture Physical facilities,
Maintenance , special process, Process
capability , production capacity, caliber
of planning , lot identification and trace
Purchasing Specifications, vendor
relations, procedures.
Quality control Organization structure ,
availability of quality control and
reliability engineers, quality planning
audit of adherence to plan.
Inspection and test Laboratories,
special tests, instruments, measurement
Quality coordination Organization for
co-ordination, order analysis , control
over subcontractors, quality cost analysis
, corrective action loop, disposition of
non conforming product.
Data systems Facilities , procedures,
effective use reports.
Personnel Indoctrination attained, self
use of product, prestigious customers,
prestigious sub-customers.
1994 version emphasized only on product
quality requirements of customers, but
paid secant attention to the aspects of
customer satisfaction like adherence to
delivery schedule, minimization of
product cost and maximization of the
satisfaction of stake holders.
1994 version did not emphasize on
continuous improvement, and the
involvement of employees who carry
out day-in-day activities that convert
input to output.
Certification was considered to face
the auditor exercise rather than
considering it as an organizational
development activity to ensure
Product information
Schedule, contract, amendments (if
Feedback/complaint from customer.
The plan shall define and include the
Stages in design and development
Review, verification and validation
Inter-phases between different groups
involved in design and development.
Resource requirements including
people , along with their
responsibility and authority for
design and development.
The inputs for design and development
should cover the following.
Functional and performance requirements
Applicable statutory and regulatory
Information derived from previous
similar designs and
Other requirements essential for design
and development.
Leadership , commitment and the active
involvement at the top management are
essential for developing and maintaining
an effective QMS.
The Management commitment should be
visible through following actions.
Building vision, quality policy and
quality objectives.
Communicating and involving all
levels of employees in vision ,
quality policy an quality objectives.
Leading the organization by example
Organizing management reviews to
assess effectiveness and efficiency of
Thus clause embraces the first of
quality management principles,
which require management to ensure
that the customer needs and
expectations are determined and
converted into requirements
addressed within the QMS leading to
customer satisfaction.
An organizations Quality policy
should be an equal and consistent
part of the organizations overall
policies and strategies. The Quality
Policy among others, should address
the following.
These inputs are reviewed for
adequacy. Requirements are
complete, unambiguous and not in
conflict with each other.
The outputs of design and
development are provided in the form
of design sheets, drawings and
models that enable verification
against the design and development
input and are approved prior to
Design and development outputs
Most the input requirements for
design and development.
Provide appropriate information for
purchasing construction and for
service provision.
Contain or reference acceptance
criteria, and
Specify the characteristics of the
product that are essential for its safe
and proper use.
After each stages of design and
development, systematic reviews of
design and development are to be
performed in accordance with
planned arrangements in order to
Evaluate the ability of the results of
design and development to meet
Identify any problems and propose
necessary actions.
The documents, required by the
standard need to be maintained as
controlled documents includes the
Preparation and approval prior to use.
Review , up-date and re-approval
Identification of documents and its status (current or
obsolete) and holder (recipient).
Ensuring that only pertinent version are in use and
obsolete documents are withdrawn.
Identification and control of documents of external

Same control will also apply to the quality records.

These shall be maintained in safe custody, shall be
legible, identifiable and retrievable. A documented
procedure for control of quality records shall be
maintained, which shall also specify the retention
time and method of disposition of quality records.
It states that the range and extent of QMS
documentation will depend upon such factors
as size and type of an organization, the
complexity and interaction of the processes
and the level of training and skills of
The standard calls for documentation to cover
the following.
Documented procedures required by the
Documentation required by the
organization to ensure the effective
operation and control of the processes.
Relevant statutory and regulatory
Contractual requirements from the
customer and the other interest parties.
The organization shall develop a document
named as Quality Manual which among
others shall cover the following.

Scope of activities, products including their

specifications. Mention of , how the
requirements of standard are relevant in the
organization. Where any requirements of this
international cannot be applied due to nature of
an organization and its product this can be
considered for exclusion within clause-7.
Vision of the organization
Customer Orientation
Continual improvement
Empowerment of people
It is important for the Management of
organization to identify resources for
opening QMS based on the requirements
of standard. These any included.
Financial resources etc.
By for this is the most important
resources in the QMS
Involvement (ownership) of people; their
up-gradation (learning), taking initiatives
(Leadership) me some of the issues,
which should be visible in making QMS
effective efficient and continually
Quality is important for the development
of country s economy
Our ultimate objective is to make, made
in India label a symbol of quality.
The first requirement to make made in
India label a symbol of quality is the
spread of awareness of quality,
particularly the TQM, and then making
Indian Companies more competitive in
the world market.
For any movement, it is essential that
people feel an urgent need for it. Here
people should understand the need for
competitiveness and also understand how
quality initiatives would lead to improved
The reputation of Indian trade and
industry must be such that people may
feel at ease while dealing with them.
International market operators must feel,
if I am dealing with an Indian, I have
nothing to fear.
This is not a just a matter of quality. It
involves a high level of honesty and
integrity. It means one has to be true to
ones word.
In a country in which people laid down their
lives for keeping their words, this should have
been only natural. Unfortunately, there have
been instances by saying one thing and doing
Instances of sending good samples by the
Indian vendors for approval and supplying
inferior have been too frequent.
The bad reputation earned by such an ethical
behavior of a few Indians has to be erased
from the minds of those who matter.
This is not an easy task. Building a good
reputation takes a long time, destroying it is easy.
Howsoever difficult it is, it has to be done.
This needs an attitude of saying what one does and
doing what one has said.
It requires transparency in ones dealings and strict
adherence to agreed term of the contract and
agreed standards of quality at all costs.
If this is done deal after deal, day after day,
month after month, year after year, there is no
reason why reputation of the country as a reliable
supplier of quality products and services cannot be
We must remember that the reputation of
Japan in 1940s was even worse than the
current reputation of India.
If they could totally transform, we too
should be able to do it.
The problem of low volume, old
technology and resulting poor
appearances and finish of the products
afflicts many industries in the country.
High inflation in India has forced most
industries to find ways and means to contain
costs to keep the level of price.
We have failed to see our customer as some
one who pays for our products or services.
The pro-labour policies of the Government are
responsible to great extent for the attitude of
the employees.
Poor infrastructural services also have an
impact on the quality of products. However its
impact on the countrys image is much greater.
While services are constantly
improving everywhere in the world,
they are deteriorating in India.
Even worse is our getting used to
such poor services. Unless the
customer demands it, he will not get
quality products and services.
Tolerance of poor quality leads to
still poorer quality.
Even worse than these poor services is
the desire on the part of most Indians to
make a quick unjustified profit.
The intense desire to become rich quickly
without making commensurate effort is at
the root of many of our ills.
Thousands of people in every city in this
country are engaged in non-productive
activity of cheating innocent citizens.
The desire to get rich without effort has
created a totally wrong culture in the country.
It is considered smart to make money
without effort and stupid to work hard for
an honest income.
Instead of creating wealth, everyone is
working for its redistribution for ones own
A worker wants more wages for less work; a
Manager wants higher salary , more
perquisites, bigger office, thicker carpet,
bigger car and more leisure.
Each one is trying for a bigger slice of the
small cake.
Hardly anyone wants to do the difficult of
making the bigger cake.
The desire to acquire more than ones fair
share is also at the root of corruption and
nepotism so prevalent in the country.
To improve our balance of payment situation,
we need to keep a tight control on the out flow
(debt servicing, Repatriation of profits) and
cost of imports and try to increase the in flow
(by export).
Export is an area in which every one
in the country should strive.
It should be the high priority for all
of us.
Any one working in any industry can
consider how he can make the
product more acceptable in the
international market.
Rest can think how he can do his job
better resulting in improvement.
All this will go towards improving the image of the
country a producer of quality goods and services,
which will help our export effort.
We need to work hard. We need to develop a sense of
unity, fiscal discipline, maturity and political will to
improve the balance of payment situation.
International market place is a highly competitive
To succeed in such a competitive business
environment company has to achieve world-class
What really differentiates a world-class company
from an average company is the quality of service it
provides to it s customers.
World class competitiveness is a need of the day
for the Indian Industries.
According to A.Y. Feigunbaum Quality Control is
an effective system for integrating the quality
development, quality maintenance and quality
improvement efforts of the various groups in
organization, so as to enable production of goods
and services at the most economical levels which
allow fall customers satisfaction.
According to Alford and Beauty Quality control
may be defined as that industrial management
technique or group of techniques by means of
which products of uniform acceptable quality are
Bethal, Atwater and stact man defined as,
Quality control refers to the systematic
control of that variables encountered in a
manufacturing process which affect the
excellence of the end product. Such variables
result from the application of materials, men,
machines and manufacturing conditions.
TQC has been described as a management
frame woke to ensure continuing excellence.
This management frame wok was suggested to
include the following statements for action
1. TQC is business philosophy which groups
together manufacturing, engineering,
marketing and sales amongst others, linked
together by a two-way flow of information.
2. TQC is considered as a min-set to approve
only criteria leading to better than acceptable
quality via the use of continuous
3. TQC provides reliability and consistency in
the delivered product/ services as a check and
balance system. The current standards present
the opportunity for achievements of new and
higher targets (standards)
TQC involves every member of a business
organization from the top executive to the
person on the lowest rung of the organizational
hierarchy in solving quality, cost and
production problems.
TQC concept is referred to as company wide
quality control CWQC In Japan
The emphasis o CWQC is on total control of
qualities organizations wide and looks at the
process of serving customers chain (both
internally and externally)
TQC has been described as statistical
control of quality applied to the total
operation of an organization,
including all steps of planning,
design, production, service,
marketing, finance and
administration so as to produce
dependable goods and services at a
low cost suited to the market.
As per the definition provided by ISO, Quality
control means, all those operational
techniques and activities that are used to fulfill
requirements for quality. The objective of
Quality Control is:
To ensure true expression/ correct translation
of stated and implied needs of the customer
(both internal and external ) in the form of
standards specifying quantitative and
qualitative measurable characteristics.
To monitor the process for realization of
the product at various stages of its
operation and eliminating causes of
unsatisfactory performance at all stages
of quality loop in order to achieve
economic effectiveness.
Note: Quality loop is a conceptual model of
interacting activities that influence
quality at the various stages:
Inspection of product/service package to
determine conformance to customer
To provide a feed back of data for
bringing about improvements wherever
Quality Assurance: As per the definition
provided by ISO, Quality Assurance
means, all the planned and systematic
activities, implemented within the
organization for quality management, to
provide adequate confidence that a
product or service will satisfy given
requirements for quality.
Quality Assurance is a preventive activity.
Quality Assurance has to be systematically
planned in advance.
Quality Assurance includes identification and
planning of the checks, inspection and control of
process as a part of quality control.
Quality Assurance also means establishment of a
quality system, which can demonstrate, if required,
the capability of the organization to satisfy the
requirements of the customer.
Quality Assurance provides confidence internally
to the management and eternally to the customer.
Quality planning.
Quality management may be defined as
A systematic way of guaranteeing that
organized activities happen in the way
they are PLANNED. The emphasis in
Good things only happen when planned:
Bad things happen on their own.
You only get out what you put in it but
unless you are careful, you may not even
get that.
Planning reduces the need for precision in
Planning concerns more than the actual
production process.
Part of the planning process is ensuring the
employee knows exactly what is required.
Check lists and the like are useful in helping
staff to adhere to standards.
Short cuts to quality planning are in any case
Quality planning is usually encapsulated in a
quality manual.
Quality planning begins with a
statement of the organizations
quality policy.
Example: R X W Health care aim
shall be achieved by commitment to
research and staff development.
CWQC is a system of activities to assure that
quality products and services required by
customers are economically designed produced
and supplied while respecting the principle of
customer orientation and the overall public
well being.
CWQC activities involve market research,
research and development, design, purchasing,
production, inspection and sales, as well as all
other related activities inside and outside the
CWQC aims to accomplish business
objectives by involving every one in the
company and making them to understand both
statistical concepts and methods and
application of all aspects of quality assurance
through repeating the cycle of rational
planning, implementation, and evaluation and
CWQC is an extension of companys business
planning to include quality planning.
In CWQC the sequencing of quality planning
is as follows;
1. Establish broad business goals
2. Determine the deeds needed to meet the goals
3. Organize and assign or clear responsibility for
meeting goals
4. Provide the resources needed to meet those
5. Provide the needed training
6. Establish the means to evaluate actual
performance against goals
7. Establish a process for periodic review of
performance against goals
8. Establish a reward system which relates,
rewards to performance
CWQC requires special organization
design, skills, tools and training
The most important facet of CWQC is
the top management involvement in
quality control
The application of CWQC has not only
contributed the betterment of quality but
also resulted in improvement
performance in many organizations.
The advocates of quality can be
extended to all business process of
the organization beyond the
manufacturing department, thus
leading to total quality management.
In the present context of liberalization
and globalization of economy, Indian
companies face a lot of challenges.
The quality consciousness among
consumers have grown up.
The expectations of consumers of quality
performance have become exceedingly
The Indian industries are facing severed
competition and the governments economic
policy made them to realize that the secret of
survival is quality.
The business units in India are ever
increasingly forced to achieve world-class
manufacturing capabilities in order to
compete, and in many cases, to service in the
Quality has now acquired new dimensions and
search for quality function is on.
A Survey conducted by NPC (Singh
1991) revealed that quality
improvement was considered vital to
strengthen the competitiveness of
Indian business and industry.
One of the means to achieve world
class manufacturing capability is
through the practices of TQM.
Quality is fitness for use -Juran
Quality means conformance to
requirements -Crosby
A predictable degree of uniformity and
dependability at Low cost and suited to
the market.- Deming
Quality means best for the actual use and
price - Feignbaum
Quality consists of the capacity to satisfy the
wants -Edwards
Quality simply is a collection of attributes to
Quality is the totality of features and
characteristics which bear upon its ability
and satisfy stated or implied need -BSI
Quality is satisfactory conformance to
specifications a design such that product
gives customer satisfaction, dependable
service - Parry
Quality is neither mind nor matter, but a third
entity independent of two even though quality
cannot be defined, you know if what it is. -
The loss imparted to society from the time the
product is shipped - Taguchi
If the customer believes that a product is of
poor quality the product is in fact of poor
quality Taylor
Quality of what you do and quality of how
you do it what -> features; How-> carefulness
& efficiency Schulter
Doing right things and doing things right -
Doing what you have agreed with the
customer and knowing you have not done
what was agreed before the customer is
affected A. Brown
The total composite of products and service
characteristics of marketing, engineering,
manufacturing and maintenance through
which the product and service in use will
meet the expectations of the customer. -
The totality of features x characteristics
(attributes of a product or service that bear up
on its ability to satisfy a given need. - NTPC
Quality is the degree to which a specific
product conforms to a design or specification
II. L. Gilmore.
Quality is more than making a good product
II. Takeuchi & J.A. Quelch
Quality is the degree of excellence at an
acceptable price and the control of variability
at an acceptable cost. R.A.Broh
Quality of a product depends on how
well it fits patterns of consumer
preferences. - A.A.Kurhn and R.L.Dry
Even Though quality cannot be
defined. You know what it is. R.M.
Consistent conformance to customers
expectations - John Gilbert
Products and services that meet or
exceed Sarvsingsoin customers
Performances : A products primary operating
Features : The bells and whisties of a
Reliability : The probability of a products
surviving over a specified
period of time under stated conditions
of use.
Conformance : The degree to which
physical and
characteristics of a
product match pre- established
standards .
Durability : The amount of use one
gets from a product
bordure it physically deteriorates
or until replacement is preferable.
Serviceability : The ability or repair a product
quickly and easily.
Aesthetics : How a product looks, feels,
sounds, tastes or smells.
Perceived :Subjective assessments
resulting from image, advertising
Quality Or brand names
In addition to the product
Responsiveness Competence
Courtesy Creditability
Security Access
Communication Understanding the
Total quality management is an integrative
philosophy of management for continuously
improving the quality of products and
processes to achieve customer satisfaction
TQM means a set of quality principles and
values: to build an organizational structure that
supports effective quality improvement
initiatives, and to develop and implement a
comprehensive set to quality concepts, tools
and practices (Harerh Guruani, 1999)
TQM is an effective system of integrating the quality
development, quality maintenance and quality
improvement efforts of various groups in an
organization so a s enable production and service at
the most economical level which allow for full
customer satisfaction (Feignbaum, 1980.)
Total Quality Management refers to a comprehensive
approach to management which involves
implementing strategies and organizational systems
that continuously improve quality, reduce cost and
ensure the consistent, on time delivery of products
and services in order to provide superior value to the
customer (Bounds, et.al,1994)
A comprehensive way of working throughout the
organization which allows all employees as
individuals and as teams to add value and satisfy
the needs of the customer.
A business-wide customer driven strategy of
change which move us progressively to an
environment where a steady and continuous
improvement of everything we do is a way of life
Identifying and satisfying the needs of the
customer starting with the external customer and
working backwards so that quality at each stage is
defined in terms of next customer in the process.
Being both effective (delivering the right
products to the right segments of the market)
and effective (doing so at the most
economical levels possible).



Total : Every one is involved.

Quality : Meeting customers (agreed )
requirements at lowest cost, fist time, every
Management: It is owned and led by the
management team, top down (keylly et al.,
TQM is a total operational philosophy which
covers every aspect of everything we do.
(Jeanes, 1990)
TQM means, Continuously improving
processes and performance involving people to
delight customers, (Binney 1992)
TQM is a proven, systematic approach to the
planning and management of activiites
Munre-Faure and Murro-Faure
TQM is way of managing to improve the
effectiveness, flexibility and competitiveness of a
business as a whole. It applies just as much to
service industries as it does to manufacturing. It
involves whole companies getting organised in
every department, every activity and every single
person at every level. (John Oakland).
A comprehensive approach to improving
competitiveness and flexibility through planning,
organising and understanding each activity, and
involving everyone at each level. TQM ensures
that the management adopt a strategic overview of
quality and focus on prevention rather than
inspection (Oakland, 1993).
A positive attempt by the
organisation concerned to improve
structural, infrastructural , additional,
behavioural and methodological
ways of delivering to the end
customer, with emphasis on
Consistency, improvement in quality,
competitive enhancements, all with
the aim of satisfying or delighting the
end customer (Zairietal ,1994)
TQM is the process which seeks to meet and
satisfy customers requirements throughout the
whole chain of internal and external customers
and suppliers (David M.1992)
TQM means exactly what it says Zero
effects in products leaving the factory and in
the services offered. It means quality in every
aspect of the company is operation. (Cullen
and Hollium, 1987)
TQM is a process of individual and
organisation development, the purpose of
which is to increase the level of satisfaction of
all those concerned with the organisation:
Customers, suppliers shareholders and
employees. (Pike R.J and Barnes R.J. 1988)
TQM is defined as management
philosophy and company practices that
aim to hamess the human and material
resources of an organisation in the most
effective way to achieve the objectives of
the organisation. (BS 5750 :part 1,1992)
A process designed to focus on customer
expectations, preventing problems,
building commitment to quality in the
workforce and promoting open decision
making . (John, Gilbert 1992)
1.5 What is TQM?
By Total we mean
All areas and functions in an
All activities
All employees
All time ie. Always
By Quality we mean
Product or service that totally satisfy the
customers needs and expectations in
every respect on a continuous basis.
By Management we implied:
Quality does not happen on its own. It
requires to be planned and managed.
Quality is a management functions,
though everybody in an organisation is
responsible for it. It therefore needs a
systematic approach.
TQM is a people intensive activity
therefore, it requires suitable management
strategies like.
- visible upper management commitment.
- leadership to demonstrate initiatives for
- System to create more quality leaders.
System for removal of any road blocks or
barriers to quality (NTPC)
TQM is intended to achieve business excellence:
The overall way of working that results in
balanced stakeholder (customer, employees,
society, share holders) satisfaction and so
increasing the probability of long term success
as a business (Raisbeck 1998)
Business excellence is defined and achieved
through 4 Ps.
Excellent people, who establish
Excellent partnership (with suppliers, customers
and society) in order to achieve.
Excellent Processes (Key business processes and
management process) to produce.
Excellent products, which are able to delight the
M.Zairi 1997)
TQM is a management philosophy to guide a process
of change.
TQM ensures that quality be recognized as a corporate
strategic priority , along with financial and other
TQM starts at the top.
TQM calls for planning.
TQM requires organization-wide involvement.
TQM calls for everyone to be skilled and
TQM promotes team work
TQM is about achieving results by process based
TQM focuses on the customer
TQM recognizes internal customer-suppliers
TQM considers suppliers as part of the
organizations processes.
TQM seeks disciplined approach in continuous
improvement efforts.
TQM aims to install a prevention not an
inspection ethic
TQM emphasizes the importance of
TQM reduces total cost of meeting customer
1.7 BENEFITS OF TQM : (pirates, 1994)
Improvement of profitability by increased operational
Cultural and Behavioral change
Prevention of waste
Improvement of customer satisfaction
Maintaining or increasing market share.
The achievement of product and business excellence.
Releasing the organizations people potential
Improvement of product of service quality, product safety
and reliability.
Minimization of loss to the individual , the company and the
Associated improvements in operational safety, occupational
health and the environment.
Encouragement of each individuals personal improvement,
innovation and creativity
Dr. W. Edwards Deming
Joseph M. Juran
Philip B. Crosby
Kaory Ishikaua
William. E. Conway
TQM Defined:

TQM refers to a comprehensive

approach to Management strategies and
organizational system that continuously
improve quality, reduce cost and ensure
consistent on-time delivery in order to
provide superior value to the customer.
If we break up the TQM and define each
word, it will be like this:
Total : Made up of the whole
Quality : Degree of Excellence a
product or service provided
Management: Act, art or manner of
handling , controlling , directing etc.,
Therefore, TQM is the best art of
managing the whole to achieve
TQM requires six concepts
A committed and involved Management to provide
long-tem top-to-bottom organizational support.
An unwavering process on the customer, both
internally and externally.
Effective involvement and utilization of the entire
work force.
Continuous improvement of the business and
production process.
Treating suppliers as partners.
Establish performance measures for the processes.