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AISI 4340 Alloy Steel (UNS G43400)


Topics Covered

Introduction
Chemical Composition
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Thermal Properties
Other Designations
Fabrication and Heat Treatment
Machinability
Forming
Welding
Heat Treatment
Forging
Cold Working
Annealing
Tempering
Hardening
Applications

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Chemical Composition

The following table shows the chemical composition of AISI 4340 alloy steel.

Element Content (%)

Iron, Fe 95.195 - 96.33


Nickel, Ni 1.65 - 2.00
C hromium, C r 0.700 - 0.900
Manganese, Mn 0.600 - 0.800
C arbon, C 0.370 - 0.430
Molybdenum, Mo 0.200 - 0.300

Silicon, Si 0.150 - 0.300


Sulfur, S 0.0400
Phosphorous, P 0.0350

Physical Properties

The physical properties of AISI 4340 alloy steel are given in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial


Density 7.85 g/cm3 0.284 lb/in
Melting point 1427C 2600F

Mechanical Properties

Insights From Industry The mechanical properties of annealed AISI 4340 alloy steel are displayed in the following table.
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Elastic modulus
GPa 30458 ksi

0.27-
Poisson's ratio 0.27-0.30
0.30
Elongation at break 22% 22%
Reduction of area 50% 50%
Hardness, Brinell 217 217

Hardness, Knoop (converted from Brinell hardness) 240 240


Hardness, Rockwell B (converted from Brinell hardness) 95 95
Hardness, Rockwell C (converted from Brinell hardness. Value below normal HRC
17 17
range, for comparison purposes only)
Hardness, Vickers (converted from Brinell hardness) 228 228
Machinability (annealed and cold drawn. Based on 100 machinability for AISI 1212
50 50
steel.)

Thermal Properties

The following table outlines the thermal properties of AISI 4340 alloy steel.
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AMS 6415 ASTM A322 (4340) ASTM A646 (4340-7) MIL S-5000

Fabrication and Heat Treatment

Machinability

AISI 4340 alloy steel can be machined using all conventional techniques. Machining process can
be performed in the annealed or normalized and tempered conditions.

Forming

AISI 4340 alloy steel has good ductility and formability in the annealed condition. It can be bent
or formed by pressing or spinning in the annealed state.

Welding

AISI 4340 alloy steel can be welded using fusion or resistance welding methods. Preheat and
post heat weld procedures are followed while welding this steel by established methods.

Heat Treatment

AISI 4340 alloy steel is heat treated at 830C (1525F) followed by quenching in oil.

Forging

AISI 4340 alloy steel is forged at 427 to 1233C (1800 to 2250F).

Cold Working

AISI 4340 alloy steel can be cold worked using all conventional methods in the annealed
condition. It has high ductility.

Annealing

AISI 4340 alloy steel is annealed at 844C (1550F) followed by cooling the furnace.

Tempering

AISI 4340 alloy steel should be in the heat treated or normalized and heat treated condition
before tempering. Tempering temperatures depend upon the desired strength level.
Hardening

AISI 4340 alloy steel can be hardened by cold working or heat treatment.

Applications

AISI 4340 alloy steel is mainly used in power transmission gears and shafts, aircraft landing
gear, and other structural parts.

Date Added: Sep 7, 2012 | Updated: Jul 11, 2013

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