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AISI 4340 Alloy Steel (UNS G43400)

Topics Covered

Chemical Composition
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Thermal Properties
Other Designations
Fabrication and Heat Treatment
Heat Treatment
Cold Working

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Chemical Composition

The following table shows the chemical composition of AISI 4340 alloy steel.

Element Content (%)

Iron, Fe 95.195 - 96.33

Nickel, Ni 1.65 - 2.00
C hromium, C r 0.700 - 0.900
Manganese, Mn 0.600 - 0.800
C arbon, C 0.370 - 0.430
Molybdenum, Mo 0.200 - 0.300

Silicon, Si 0.150 - 0.300

Sulfur, S 0.0400
Phosphorous, P 0.0350

Physical Properties

The physical properties of AISI 4340 alloy steel are given in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial

Density 7.85 g/cm3 0.284 lb/in
Melting point 1427C 2600F

Mechanical Properties

Insights From Industry The mechanical properties of annealed AISI 4340 alloy steel are displayed in the following table.
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190-210 27557-
Elastic modulus
GPa 30458 ksi

Poisson's ratio 0.27-0.30
Elongation at break 22% 22%
Reduction of area 50% 50%
Hardness, Brinell 217 217

Hardness, Knoop (converted from Brinell hardness) 240 240

Hardness, Rockwell B (converted from Brinell hardness) 95 95
Hardness, Rockwell C (converted from Brinell hardness. Value below normal HRC
17 17
range, for comparison purposes only)
Hardness, Vickers (converted from Brinell hardness) 228 228
Machinability (annealed and cold drawn. Based on 100 machinability for AISI 1212
50 50

Thermal Properties

The following table outlines the thermal properties of AISI 4340 alloy steel.
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Fabrication and Heat Treatment


AISI 4340 alloy steel can be machined using all conventional techniques. Machining process can
be performed in the annealed or normalized and tempered conditions.


AISI 4340 alloy steel has good ductility and formability in the annealed condition. It can be bent
or formed by pressing or spinning in the annealed state.


AISI 4340 alloy steel can be welded using fusion or resistance welding methods. Preheat and
post heat weld procedures are followed while welding this steel by established methods.

Heat Treatment

AISI 4340 alloy steel is heat treated at 830C (1525F) followed by quenching in oil.


AISI 4340 alloy steel is forged at 427 to 1233C (1800 to 2250F).

Cold Working

AISI 4340 alloy steel can be cold worked using all conventional methods in the annealed
condition. It has high ductility.


AISI 4340 alloy steel is annealed at 844C (1550F) followed by cooling the furnace.


AISI 4340 alloy steel should be in the heat treated or normalized and heat treated condition
before tempering. Tempering temperatures depend upon the desired strength level.

AISI 4340 alloy steel can be hardened by cold working or heat treatment.


AISI 4340 alloy steel is mainly used in power transmission gears and shafts, aircraft landing
gear, and other structural parts.

Date Added: Sep 7, 2012 | Updated: Jul 11, 2013

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