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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 5, ISSUE 09, SEPTEMBER 2016 ISSN 2277-8616

Establishment Of The Shortest Route A


Prototype For Facilitation In Road Network
Sumaira Yousuf Khan, Nasir uddin Khan, Mushtaq Hussain, Farhan Mazhar, Abdul Mannan
Abstract: Calculating the shortest path between two locations in a road network is a significant problem in network analysis. Roads play a pivotal role in
day to day activities of masses live in places and areas. They travel for various purposes that are, to study, to work, to shop and to supply their goods
and the like, from one place to another place. Even in this modern era, roads remain one of the mediums used most frequently for travel and
transportation. Being ignorant of the shortest routes people sometimes have to travel long distances, consume extra precious time, money and bare
undesirable mental stress. Karachi is the second most populated and the seventh biggest city of the world. It is the central place of Pakistan, which is
famous for industry, banking, trade and economic activity, and there are places which frequently visit by the inhabitants for their miscellaneous
requirements. Federal Board of Revenue (FBR) is one of the departments that deal with taxation and revenue generation in the country. A common man
residing near or distant areas often visit FBR to settle their business / property and tax related issues. In order to facilitate the masses, an effort is being
made to develop a prototype based on Dijkstras Algorithm (DA) to establish a shortest route, that will help individuals in navigation and subsequently
alleviate difficulties faced by them in travelling/ road networks.

Index Terms: Dijkstras Algorithm (DA), Shortest Route, Optimal path, Network Design

1. Introduction Correspondingly, the shortest path problem is transformed into


Calculating the shortest path between two locations in a road the fastest path, quickest way and the lowest cost problem and
network is a vital issue that finds a wide range of applications so on [3]. There are several other algorithms that can be
in the fields of electric navigation, telecommunication, pipe utilized to find the shortest route and shortest distance
network designs, electricity, communication, urban planning, between two locations in a network. The DA is the theoretical
transportation planning, route guidance and so on [1,2]. The foundation to solve shortest path problem and is considered as
shortest route issue is a substantial problem in network the grandmother of all label setting algorithms [4, 5]. This
optimization, which sees the track between two nodes graphical search algorithm was published in 1959 and
(vertices) in a graph, in a manner that the amount of the invented by Edsger Dijkstra, a Dutch computer scientist in
weights of its constituent edges is minimized. It not only refers 1956. It gives solution of the single source shortest path
to the shortest distance in the general geographical problem with non-negative edges, path costs, creating a
significance, but also extends to other measures like time, shortest path tree for a graph. This algorithm is rather useful in
cost, safety and the capacity and so on. routing and other web related protocols. For a given source
vertex in the graph, the DA determines the path with minimum
cost (i.e. The shortest path) between that vertex and every
other vertex. It can likewise be applied for finding costs of the
shortest paths from a single source vertex to a single
destination vertex in a network by stopping the algorithm when
the shortest course to the destination vertex has been
obtained [7]. In literature, DA is considered as a classical and
antiquated algorithm for the shortest route problem (SRP). On
the basis of literature, it is generally accepted that different
variants of DA have been developed and a number of many
other efficient algorithm is implemented to solve one-to-one
______________________________ shortest path problem. It is simple, easy to understand and
implement, and highly efficient algorithm [13,14]. DA has been
Sumaira Yousuf Khan, Research fellow, Department of widely used in industrial transportation, emergency navigation
Mathematics, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. and navigation planning, waste management, logistic
Senior Lecturer, Department of Mathematics and distribution and so on [9,10]. However, the most common
Statistics, College of Computer Science and applications of this algorithm are solving the mathematical
Information Systems, Institute of Business (graph) problems and finding the shortest route in personal
Management, Karachi, Pakistan. navigation to perform the analysis. Balstrom (2000) listed
E-mail: sumairayousuf.khan@gmail.com some of the applications of the same routine e.g. looking for
Nasir uddin Khan, PhD (Mathematics), Department of the nearest hospital, restaurant, jungle trekking on the
Mathematics, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. mountains/hills, a petrol station, shopping place, identifying
Mushtaq Hussain, PhD (Mathematics), Department of the emergency exit doors for any disaster in a building [11]. In
Mathematics, University of Karachi, Director Research this paper, we applied DA in real road network to find an
Program , Preston University, Karachi, Pakistan optimal route between two nodes to achieve desired
Syed Farhan Mazhar , MS (Software Engineering and objectives. For a consistency of the study, we focused on two
Intelligent Systems), University of Alberta, Edmonton, different areas of the city i.e. Nagan Chowrnagi (NC) as a
Canada source or starting node and FBR (located at tower) as a
destination node. The first chosen area is one of the densely
Abdul Mannan, MSc (Mathematics), Department of
populated areas of Karachi, Pakistan. A large number of
Mathematics, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
middle and lower-middle class resides there and its adjoining
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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 5, ISSUE 09, SEPTEMBER 2016 ISSN 2277-8616

areas. On the other hand, the second chosen area is a Detail of the nodes is listed in table 3.1
business hub, which includes many national and international
offices like FBR. It is the supreme federal agency of Pakistan, List of Nodes Location of Nodes
which audits, enforces and collects revenue for the Node 1 Nagan Chowrangi (NC) - Source
Government of Pakistan and also conducts audits of taxpayers Node 2 KDA Chowrangi (KDAC)
[6].Therefore, a large number of people visit FBR regularly for Node 3 Sohrab Gothi (SG)
different purposes such as employee to work, people to
resolve their tax related issues, students and researchers to Node 4 Karimabad (KB)
gather information and to collect data used in their research Node 5 Nipa Chowrngi (NPC)
and so on. In this regard an effort has been made to find out Node 6 Nazimabad No. 4 (NZ)
the optimal path from NC to FBR by using DA. The remaining Node 7 Hassan Square (HS)
of the manuscript is arranged as; following the introduction Node 8 Mazar-e- Quaid (MZ)
section two discusses the methodology. In section 3 we Node 9 Financial Trade Center (FTC)
describe the problem. Then, in section 4 we consider the DA Node 10 Karsaz (KZ)
for obtaining the shortest route of a given network. Next, in Node 11 Federal Board of Revenue (FBR)
section 5 and 6, the analysis of the results and conclusion are - Destination
discussed.
Table 3.1 : Detail of Nodes
2. METHODOLOGY
DA is considered an appropriate in finding the optimal path 4. Solution of the Problem
between two nodes in a network. As such, it is used in this According to the DA we start with iteration I.
study to achieve the desired objectives. Iteration 1: Assign node 1 as PERL [0,-] i.e. the starting node.
Iteration 2: Nodes 2 and 3 are successors of node 1. Thus,
The description of the DA is as follows. the status of labeled nodes is
Let be the shortest distance from source node 1 to node i,
and the length of arc (i, j) is defined as (0). Then the Node Label Status
algorithm labels an immediate successor of node j as [ , i] = 1 [0 , - ] PER
2 [6 , 1] TEM
[ + , i], 0. 3 [4.4 , 1] TEM
The starting node is labeled as [0, -], which indicates the node
Between the two TEMLs [6, 1] and [4.4, 1], node 3 has the
has no predecessor. There are two types of labeling nodes in
minimum distance ( . Thus, node 3 is assigned
DA: temporary (TEM) and permanent (PER). If the shortest
route to a node can be determined, then the status of the as PER.
temporary label (TEML) is modified, and converted to PER.
Step I: Initialize by assigning a permanent label (PERL) [0, -] Iteration 3: Nodes 4 and 5 are successors of node 3, and the
to source node (node 1). Set i = 1, detail of labeled nodes is
Step II: (a) Calculate the TEMLs [ + , i], for every node j
that can be approached from node i, provided j is not PERL. If Node Label Status
node j is already assigned [ , k] through another node k and 1 [0 , - ] PER
if + , < , then node j is labeled as [ + , i] instead 2 [6 , 1] TEM
of [ , k]. 3 [4.4 , 1] PER
(b) If PERLs are assigned to all the nodes, stop. Or else, 4 [10, 3] TEM
choose the label [ , s] having the shortest distance (= ) 5 [10.7 , 3] TEM
among all the TEMLs. Set i = r and go to step I [8].
Since min {6, 10, 10.7} = 6. Thus, the status of TEML [6, 1] at
3. Problem Formulation node 2 is changed to PER ( ).
The given network provides routes with their distances in Iteration 4: Nodes 4 and 6 are successors of node 2, so the
Kilometers [12] between area 1 (node 1) and ten other areas status of labeled nodes is
(nodes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11). The selected nodes are
those areas of Karachi, Pakistan which is traversed more Node Label Status
frequently. So, we consider this road network to implement the
DA to obtain the shortest path from node 1 to node 11. 1 [0 , - ] PER
2 [6 , 1] PER
6
6 7

4.5
4.5
3 [4.4 , 1] PER
3.4
6.6 5.1
10 4 [9.2, 2] TEM
1
6
2
3.2
4 15.6 5 [10.7 , 3] TEM
5.7

9
6 [10.5 , 2] TEM
8 11
4.4 5.6

3
6.3
5
14.3
8.3
Node 4s TEML [10, 3] in iteration 3 is modified to [9.2, 2] in
9 iteration 4 indicating that a smaller distance has been
Fig 3.1: Network Diagram determined through node 2. Since min {9.2, 10.7, 10.5} = 9.2
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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 5, ISSUE 09, SEPTEMBER 2016 ISSN 2277-8616

the status of TEML [9.2, 2] at node 4 is converted to PER 7 [12.6 , 4] PER


( ). 8 [17.1 , 6] TEM
9 [25 , 10] TEM
Iteration 5: Node 7 is a successor of node 4 and the status of 10 [17.1 , 7] TEM
labeled nodes is
Since min {17.1, 25, 17.1} = 17.1 so the status of TEML [17.1,
Node Label Status 7] at node 10 is converted to PER ( ).
1 [0 , - ] PER
2 [6 , 1] PER Iteration 9: Node 11 is the successor of node 10. So the
3 [4.4 , 1] PER status of labeled nodes updated
4 [9.2, 2] PER
5 [10.7 , 3] TEM Node Label Status
6 [10.5 , 2] TEM 1 [0 , - ] PER
7 [12.6 , 4] TEM 2 [6 , 1] P ER
3 [4.4 , 1] P ER
Since min {10.7, 10.5, 12.6} = 10.5 the status of node 6 is 4 [9.2, 2] PER
converted to PER ( ). 5 [10.7 , 3] PER
6 [10.5 , 2] PER
Iteration 6: Nodes 7 and 8 are the successors of node 6, so 7 [12.6 , 4] PER
the status of labeled nodes is changed as 8 [17.1 , 6] TEM
9 [25 , 10] TEM
Node Label Status 10 [17.1 , 7] PER
1 [0 , - ] PER 11 [32.7 , 10] TEM
2 [6 , 1] PER
3 [4.4 , 1] PER Since min {17.1, 25, 32.7} = 17.1 the status of node 8 is
4 [9.2, 2] PER converted to PER ( ).
5 [10.7 , 3] TEM
6 [10.5 , 2] PER
7 [12.6 , 4] TEM
8 [17.1 , 6] TEM
Iteration 10: Node 11 is the successor of node 8. Thus, the
detail of labeled nodes is
Since min {10.7, 12.6, 17.1} = 10.7 the status of TEML [10.7,
3] at node 5 is converted to PER ( ).
Node Label Status
1 [0 , - ] PER
Iteration 7: Nodes 7 and 9 are the successors of node 5, and
then the detail of labeled nodes is 2 [6 , 1] PER
3 [4.4 , 1] PER
Node Label Status 4 [9.2, 2] PER
1 [0 , - ] PER 5 [10.7 , 3] PER
2 [6 , 1] PER 6 [10.5 , 2] PER
3 [4.4 , 1] PER 7 [12.6 , 4] PER
4 [9.2, 2] PER 8 [17.1 , 6] PER
5 [10.7 , 3] PER 9 [25 , 10] TEM
6 [10.5 , 2] PER 10 [17.1 , 7] PER
7 [12.6 , 4] TEM 11 [26.1 , 8] TEM
8 [17.1 , 6] TEM
9 [25 , 5] TEM Node 11s TEML [32.7, 10] in iteration 9 is modified to [26.1, 8]
in iteration 10 indicating that a smaller distance has been
obtained through node 8. Between [25, 10] and [26.1, 8], node
Since min {12.6, 17.1, 25} = 12.6 the status of node 7 is
9 has the smallest distance.Thus, the status of node 9 is
converted to PER ( ).
changed to PER ( ).
Iteration 8: Nodes 8 and 10 are the successors of node 7.
Iteration 11: Now node11 is the only TEML left.
Thus the detail of labeled nodes is modified
Node Label Status
Node Label Status
1 [0 , - ] PER
1 [0 , - ] PER
2 [6 , 1] PER
2 [6 , 1] PER
3 [4.4 , 1] PER
3 [4.4 , 1] PER
4 [9.2, 2] PER
4 [9.2, 2] PER
5 [10.7 , 3] PER
5 [10.7 , 3] PER
6 [10.5 , 2] PER
6 [10.5 , 2] PER
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7 [12.6 , 4] PER models in optimization and their applications in practice (Vol. 36).
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11 [26.1 , 10] TEM path algorithm for huge data. Chinese academy of surveying
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So its status is converted to PER ( ). Because it
[4] Jahan, S., & Hasan, M. S. (2011). A comparative study on
does not lead to any other node . algorithms for shortest-route problems and some
extensions. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
Iteration 12: IJBAS-IJENS, 11, 167-177.

Node Label Status [5] Dijkstra, E. W. (1959). A note on two problems in connexion with
1 [0 , - ] PER graphs.Numerische mathematik, 1(1), 269-271.
2 [6 , 1] PER
3 [4.4 , 1] PER [6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Board_of_Revenue_(Pakis
4 [9.2, 2] PER tan)
5 [10.7 , 3] PER
6 [10.5 , 2] PER [7] Magzhan, K., & Jani, H. M. (2013). A review and evaluations of
7 [12.6 , 4] PER shortest path algorithms. International journal of scientific &
8 [17.1 , 6] PER technology research,2(6).
9 [25 , 10] PER
10 [17.1 , 7] PER [8] Taha, H. A. (1982). Operations Research: An Introduction (For
11 [26.1 , 10] PER VTU). Pearson Education India, p 219-222

Therefore, the shortest route of the discussed road network is [9] Gogoncea, V., Murariu, G., & Georgescu, L. (2010). The Use of
Dijkstra's Algorithm in Waste Management Problem. Annals of
(11) [26 .1 , 8] (8) [17.1 , 6] (6) [10.5 , 2 ] Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Mathematics, Physics
Theoretical Mechanics, 196-200.
(2) [6 ,1 ] (1)
[10] Xiao-Yan, L., & Yan-Li, C. (2010, August). Application of Dijkstra
5. EMPIRICAL RESULTS Algorithm in Logistics Distribution Lines. In Third International
With the help of DA, the shortest route/optimal path has been Symposium on Computer Science and Computational
calculated from node 1 (NC) to node 11 (FBR) and the Technology (ISCSCT10), Jiaozuo, PR China (pp. 048-050).
required route is 1 2 6 8 11 with a total length of [11] Balstrm, T. (2000). Identifying least cost routes in mountainous
26.1 Km. Thus, the masses residing in NC and its surrounding terrain. In2000 Esri User Conference Proc.(cd-rom Titel). ESRI.
areas may follow this route NC KDAC NZ MQ FBR.
The route so established will be extremely valuable and [12] https://www.google.com/maps/@37.0625,-95.677068,4z
address all the difficulties being faced by the people while
travelling to their desired destinations and spend substantial [13] Dreyfus, S. E. (1969). An appraisal of some shortest-path
money which is a burden on the pockets of financially hard- algorithms.Operations research, 17(3), 395-412.
pressed people.
[14] Cherkassky, B. V., Goldberg, A. V., & Radzik, T. (1996). Shortest
paths algorithms: Theory and experimental
6. CONCLUSION evaluation. Mathematical programming, 73(2), 129-174.
In this study, we considered a real application of the classical
Dijkstras Algorithm for searching for an optimal path, i.e. the
shortest route between two important places of the mega city
Karachi, Pakistan, has been established. This practice of
identifying the shortest path for transportation purpose in the
fast developing environment is also considered essential, as it
minimizes transportation cost, reduce time and distance. It
further gives reliability and flexibility in movement, particularly
in natural calamities, disasters, accidents and enable ones to
make the right decision for the best route in certain
conditions.

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