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JIOS

Comparison in Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets between Biofix and Conventional Bonding Systems
10.5005/jp-journals-10021-1297
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Comparison in Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic


Brackets between Biofix and Conventional Bonding
Systems: An in vitro Study
1
Ajith Rajasekharan Pillai, 2Anil Gangadharan, 3Satheesh Kumar, 4Jithin Gangadharan

ABSTRACT Received on: 26/5/14

Background and objectives: The aim of the study was to Accepted after revision: 30/5/14
evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with three
bonding systems under laboratory conditions and to compare
resin tag penetration after debonding. INTRODUCTION
Materials and methods: The study was done on 60 extracted
human premolar teeth, divided into three groups of 20 teeth each. Orthodontics typically involves the use of braces for aligning
Each group was bonded with three different types of bonding teeth. Bonding of orthodontic brackets to the tooth has been
systems namely, the single component bonding systemBiofix, an important issue, since the introduction of bonding in
conventional light cured bonding systemTransbond XT and
orthodontics.1 Since then, many new bonding agents have
conventional chemical cured bonding systemUnite. The shear
bond strength of the bonding system in each group was tested been developed with its own merits and demerits.
using Instron testing machine. After debonding, the samples Among the factors which determine the success of fixed
were sectioned and viewed under scanning electron microscope appliance therapy, the capability of adhesive system to
to evaluate the resin tag penetration. The depth of penetration
resist failure to forces directed to bracket-adhesive-enamel
was measured with the measuring tool in the scanning electron
microscope and marked. junction is very important. Orthodontic adhesives should be
capable of enabling the bracket to stay bonded to the enamel
Results: The study revealed that the group bonded with Biofix
has got the enough bond strength as the conventional chemical
for the whole duration of treatment and to permitting easy
cured bonding system, Unite. The resin tag penetration into removal of brackets, when needed without damage to enamel
enamel was seen to be highest for Transbond XT, and for Biofix surface. It should provide a simple way of application,
and Unite it was comparable and less. convenient way of curing, and should have the potential for
Conclusion: The shear bond strength values for Biofix is above fluoride-release potential.2,3
the needed value to sustain normal oral and orthodontic forces Direct bonding of orthodontic attachments was probably
and the residual resin tag remained after debonding are also
the most significant development in clinical orthodontics in
less. Hence, the single component bonding system Biofix can
be considered as a good material of choice for normal clinical the second half of the 20th century.4 In 1955, Buonocore,5
bonding procedures. borrowing the techniques of industrial bonding, enhanced the
adhesion with phosphoric acid. Although, it is a controversy,
Keywords: Orthodontic brackets, Bonding, Composite resins,
Biofix, Shear bond strength, Resin tags. Newman1 independently claimed first direct bonding in the
early 1950s.
How to cite this article: Pillai AR, Gangadharan A, Kumar
S, Gangadharan J. Comparison in Shear Bond Strength of
In 1962, bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (BIS-GMA)
Orthodontic Brackets between Biofix and Conventional Bon- resins were introduced by Rafael Brown as dental adhesives
ding Systems: An in vitro Study. J Ind Orthod Soc 2014;48(4): and later applied in orthodontic practice.6
461-465. It was not until 1993 that the first commercial light cured
Source of support: Nil product came to the market (Transbond XT Light Cure, 3M
UNITEK). The same year, Watanabe and Nakabayashi7
Conflict of interest: None
developed a self-etching primeran aqueous solution of 2%
1
Reader, 2Head, 3Professor, 4Postgraduate Student phenyl-P in 30% HEMA (hydroxymethyl methacrylate)for
1-4 bonding to enamel and dentin simultaneously. This again
Department of Orthodontics, Azeezia College of Dental
Science, Kollam, Kerala, India helped in reducing the chair side time but the bond strength
Corresponding Author: Ajith Rajasekharan Pillai, Reader
was questionable. It has taken half a century for orthodontic
Department of Orthodontics, Azeezia College of Dental bonding procedures to evolve from acrylic to chemically
Science, Kollan, Kerala, India, Phone: 04743069350, e-mail: cured (2-phase, then 1) to light-cured to dual-cured (chemical
ajith_rpillai7@yahoo.co.in
light) to moisture-active to apcs.8

The Journal of Indian Orthodontic Society, October-December 2014;48(4):461-465 461


Ajith Rajasekharan Pillai et al

All these bonding systems use a primer for improving Group 1


the bond strength. In this study, the composite used is
In Group 1, biofix (biodinamica) adhesive composite was
Biofix for which the manufacturers claim that there is
placed under brackets and fixed to the labial surface of teeth
no need for applying the primer separately. Biofix light
as per manufacturers instructions.
cured is a single component bonding system for plastic,
metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets to be fixed on Group 2
dental enamel. Composition of the material is biphenyl a
In Group 2, Transbond XT light cure orthodontic primer
glicidilmethecrylate (34,78%), dimethacrylate urethane
was applied to the tooth surface. Transbond XT light cure
ethylene, inorganic filler (41, 52%), titanium dioxide, sodium
orthodontic adhesive.
fluoride and catalyst.
Both Groups 1 and 2 were light cured with a visible
The bonding procedure and mechanism of action is
light-curing unit Ortholux Luminous Curing Light for
similar like other light cure adhesives.
40 seconds, 10 seconds per side of bracket. All the 20 samples
The manufacturer suggests 10 seconds curing for
were prepared in the same method.
ceramic brackets and 20 seconds for metal brackets which
again helps in reducing chairside time. The composite and Group 3
primer are combined together reducing a step in chair side
and thereby reducing the time and cost needed for bonding. In Group 3, conventional self-cure Unite composite
adhesive (3M) material was bonded as per manufacturers
Coupling the two in one step may affect the bond strength
instructions.
either advantageously or adversely. This study proposes to
After bonding, all samples were stored in distilled water
evaluate the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets
at room temperature for 24 hours.
bonded with three different adhesive systems and to evaluate
A universal testing machine (Instron 3365) was used
the resin penetration during bonding, thereby evaluating the
for the shear bond test at a cross head speed of 5 mm per
efficiency of the new bonding system.
minute. In the upper jig of the instron machine, a metal string
was attached, which hang down and transferred the force
MATERIALS AND METHODS to the bracket. The load at bracket failure was recorded by
a personal computer connected to the testing machine. The
Sixty non-carious human maxillary and mandibular
shear bond strength values were calculated in megapascals
premolars, extracted for orthodontic purposes, were used
(MPa) by dividing the debonding force by the area of the
for this study.
bracket base.
Teeth were divided into three groups and assigned at
After debonding, the teeth were sectioned and examined
random into three sets of 20 teeth corresponding to the
under scanning electron microscope) to evaluate the resin
number of adhesives tested. The groups were as follows:
penetration into enamel.
Group 1: Biofix (Biodinamica)
The specimens were sputter coated with gold palladium
Group 2: Transbond XT (3M)
and observed in a scanning electron microscope (XL30,
Group 3: Unite (3M)
Philips, Eindhoven, The Netherlands) operated at 10 kV at
Each tooth was mounted vertically in a selfcure acrylic
magnifications of 500 times. The enamel-composite resin
block. Teeth were positioned with their long axis of the
interface was examined for resin penetration into the enamel
crown being parallel to the direction of the shear force to
surface. The depth of penetration was measured with the
be applied in testing machine.
measuring tool in the SEM and marked.
All samples were stored in deionized water at 37C for
The average depth of resin penetration was noted and
48 hours. Before bonding, all the required prophylaxis was done.
compared with the other groups.
Bondable stainless steel 0.022 slot PEA (Roth prescription)
premolar brackets (American Orthodontics, USA) were STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
used. The average bracket base area was determined to be
Statistical analysis was done using SPSS IBM version 20
8.686 mm2 (as prescribed by the manufacturer).
(Chicago, USA) systems. All statistical tests were performed
at a p < 0.05 level of significance.
Etching
All samples are etched with 37% orthophosphoric acid gel RESULTS
(IvoclarVivadent) for 30 seconds,9-11 followed by thorough The shear bond strength of bonded brackets with conventional
washing with abundant water spray. light cured bonding systemTransbond XT is more than

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Comparison in Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets between Biofix and Conventional Bonding Systems

single component bonding systemBiofix, and conventional Therefore, resin tags are formed into microporosities of
chemical cured bonding systemUnite. But comparison conditioned enamel that after adequate polymerization,
between groups Biofix and Unite shows no significant provide a resistant, long-lasting bond by micromechanical
difference in shear bond strength. interlocking with this tissue.23
The resin penetration was found to be highest for The bonded brackets should be able to withstand forces
Transbond XT, and when comparing between Biofix and generated by treatment mechanics and occlusion, and it
Unite, the depth of penetration was found to be almost equal. should allow easy debonding without damage to the enamel.
It was also reported that a maximum tensile bond strength of
DISCUSSION 5.9 to 7.9 MPa would be adequate to resist treatment forces
Achieving effective and lasting shear bonding between but in vitro tensile strength level of 4.9 MPa have proved
enamel, adhesive and orthodontic brackets is essential clinically acceptable.24
in day to day orthodontic practice. The efficacy of direct In 1975, Reynolds24 reported that shear bond strengths in
bonding in achieving a mechanical bond requires a dry the range of 5.9 to 7.8 MPa were needed to sustain normal
environment. Any contamination during bonding procedure oral and orthodontic forces. The mean bond strengths in
compromises the bond strength completely and is considered this study were in an acceptable range, between 9 and
the most common reason for bond failure.12-14 One way to 12 MPa (Table 1).
overcome this problem is by reducing the chair side time In this study, an in vitro bond strength characterization
and do the bonding faster. This reduces the probability of was chosen due to the relative simplicity, increased reliability
contamination. of simulating debonding techniques and mode of load
Conventional adhesive system uses three different agents application by shear force. Shear bond strength was tested,
(enamel conditioner, primer solution and adhesive system). because most masticatory forces are of a shearing nature.
The reduction in the number of steps for bonding procedures The test result shows that the shear bond strength values
reduces the probability of contamination during bonding and of Biofix and Unite are comparable. The mean SBS value
reduces the chair side time for orthodontic treatment. To obtained for Transbond XT and Unite were in accordance
simplify orthodontic bonding and to save chair time, newer with the previous studies.25-30
materials have been manufactured. Although, the shear bond strength values of different
The introduction of self etching primers reduced the adhesive systems were varying in the current study, they are
clinical bonding steps and chair time, because they combine still in the clinically acceptable range. The single component
the etching and priming steps. According to studies, the bonding system Biofix, and the conventional chemical cure
shear bond strength value of self-etch primers was found adhesive Unite are comparable in the study. Even though
to be significantly lower but acceptable. The conventional Biofix is a light cure bonding system and Unite is a self
multi-step adhesives showed the highest bond strength. cure one, the shear bond strength values were in comparable
The self-etching primers simplified bonding procedures but range. In some previous studies,31,32 the shear bond strength
caused an undesirable decrease in bond strength.15,16 values of self cure and light cure adhesives were also found
Much confusion and uncertainty surrounds the use of to be in same range. But visible light-cured composites
sealants and primers in orthodontic bonding. Research may have some clinical advantages over the chemically
has been devoted to determining the exact function of the cured composites. They allow more working time which is
intermediate resin in acid etch procedure. The findings useful in precise bracket placement, which is having much
are divergent. Some investigators conclude that an inter importance in the PEA system, including their relative ease
mediate resin is necessary to achieve proper bond strength: of use, improved bracket placement possibilities, and faster
some indicate that intermediate resin is necessary to improve setting of the composite.
resistance to microleakage: others feel intermediate resin In orthodontics, brackets and attachments are bonded for
is necessary for both reasons, still others do not think that a limited time. The requirements of sufficient bond strength,
intermediate resin is necessary at all.17,18 ease of debonding, and limited risk of permanent damage to
Acid etching causes demineralisation of the surface the enamel surface are thus critical in orthodontics.
enamel. It removes approximately 10 m of enamel surface
and creates a morphologically porous layer (5 to 50 m
Table 1: Shear bond strength values
deep).19-22 The surface free energy is increased, and as a
Biofix 9.3050 MPa (SD0.94798)
result, the low-viscosity fluid resin contacts the surface and
Transbond XT 11.2135 MPa (SD1.42512)
is attracted to the interior of these microporosities created
Unite 9.8985 MPa (SD1.59862)
by conditioning through capillarity (capillary attraction).
The Journal of Indian Orthodontic Society, October-December 2014;48(4):461-465 463
Ajith Rajasekharan Pillai et al

The scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the material.35,36 In the current study, the resin tag penetration
deboned enamel-adhesive interface after sectioning showed is more with Transbond XT (10-20 m). Regular debonding
the results as in the Table 2. with clean up rarely removes more than about 5 m and
Resin tag penetration was comparable between Biofix there is a risk that resin tags will persist in the enamel after
and Unite (Fig. 1), but in Transbond XT (Fig. 2) group, it debonding.37 Although, the shear bond strength is high, the
was found to be greater. The depth of resin tags formed amount of residual resin tag remaining after debonding is
is determined by pattern of acid etching, viscosity of the also more for Transbond XT. Since, there is no correlation
composite material, particle size, etc.33-35 between resin tag and the shear bond strength, the residual
Several authors noted that there is apparently no resin entrapped after debonding and clean up can cause
correlation between resin tag length and bond strength of the problems in future. These resin tags might discolor with
time,38 and can lead to an esthetic problem to the patient later.
Table 2: Resin tag penetration during bonding The adhesives with enough bond strength and lower
Sample Resin penetration (m) resin penetration are thus good for both the clinician and
Biofix 3-9 m the patient. The single component bonding system Biofix
Transbond XT 10-20 m has only a resin penetration of 3 to 9 m compared to the
Unite 3-8 m conventional light cured composites. Hence, the material
can be removed by the normal debonding with clean up to
a better extent.
By avoiding the contamination and performing the
bonding fast and accurately could be a good solution for
the current scenario. By using the new composite system
Biofix, the chairside time can be reduced and will also be
cost effective. The current study is in accordance with the
manufacturers claim, that by using Biofix we can have
sufficient bond strength, reduce the chair side time and cost
by avoiding the primer application step.

CONCLUSION
The shear bond strength of the single component bonding
systemBiofix was comparable to the conventional
chemical cured bonding systemUnite.
The resin tag penetration into enamel for Biofix was
found to be less than the conventional light cured
composite. Hence, the residual resin after debonding on
the enamel surface will be less.
Fig. 1: Resin tag penetration comparison
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The Journal of Indian Orthodontic Society, October-December 2014;48(4):461-465 465