Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Nutrients

What is the right amount of a vitamin or mineral to get each day? To help you, below are
recommended intake levels for selected nutrients based on RDAs (Recommended Dietary
Allowances) from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences. In
cases where no RDA is established, the IOM has developed AIs (Adequate Intake) levels,
which are shown.

Is it possible to get too much of nutrient? Yes. For this reason, ULs (Upper Tolerable
Intake Levels) are also set by the IOM and are provided below. There is an increased risk of
an adverse event when exceeding the UL - although sometimes these risks are acceptable
when the nutrient is used in medical treatment.

Why do DV (Daily Value) figures on food and supplement labels not coincide with the
RDAs and AIs? The DVs are set by the FDA, while the RDAs are set by the IOM (as
mentioned above). From 1968 until July 2015, the DVs often did not necessarily reflect the
latest intake recommendations from the IOM, nor did they carefully distinguish needs by age
and gender. In July 2016, the FDA updated many of the DVs, more closely reflecting the
RDAs and adding DVs specifically for infants, children 1 to 3 years of age, and
pregnant/lactating women. The DVs are shown in green at the bottom of each table below.

ConsumerLab.com has full reports on each of these nutrients which include


independent tests and reviews of brands of vitamin and supplement products. You can
access these ConsumerLab.com (CL) reports using the links below. Also, see our reports on
Multivitamins, and reports on other nutrients and popular supplements.

Click on a Nutrient
B Vitamins Minerals Minerals
Vitamins B Vitamins Minerals
(cont'd) (cont'd) (cont'd)
Vitamin A Biotin Riboflavin Calcium Iron Potassium
Vitamin C Choline Thiamin Chromium Magnesium Selenium
Vitamin D Folate Vitamin B-6 Copper Molybdenum Zinc
Vitamin E Niacin Vitamin B-12 Fluoride Manganese
Vitamin K Pantothenic Acid Iodine Phosphorus

Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Common


Nutrients
Vitamin A Folate Vitamin C Vitamin D Calcium Iron
(Vitamin B-
See Report 9) See Report See Report See Report See Report
Age See Report

RDA Uppe RDA Uppe RD Uppe RDA Uppe RD Uppe RD Uppe


1 3 5
r r A r r A r A r
Limit Limit Limit Limit Limit Limit
2 4

1,00 2,000 150 300 15 400 600 2,500 700 2,500 7 mg 40


1-3
0 IU IU mcg mcg mg mg IU IU mg mg mg

1,30 3,000 200 400 25 650 600 3,000 1,00 2,500 10 40


4-8
0 IU IU mcg mcg mg mg IU IU 0 mg mg mg mg

2,00 5,666 300 600 45 1,200 600 4,000 1,30 3,000 8 mg 40


9 - 13
0 IU IU mcg mcg mg mg IU IU 0 mg mg mg
1,00 9,333 400 800 75 1,800 600 4,000 1,30 3,000 11 45
0 IU IU mcg mcg mg mg IU IU 0 mg mg mg mg
(m) (m)
65 15
mg mg
(f) (f)
14 - 18 80 27
mg mg
(preg (preg
) )
115 10
mg mg
(lact) (lact)

3,00 10,00 400 1,000 90 2,000 600 4,000 1,00 2,500 8 mg 45


0 IU 0 IU mcg mcg (m) mg IU IU 0 mg mg (m) mg
(m) 600 75 (51- (to (to 50 18
2,30 mcg mg 70 50 years mg
0 IU (preg (f) years years ) (f 19
(f) )/ 85 ) ) 2,000 to 50
500 mg 800 1,20 mg years
mcg (preg IU 0 mg (51+ )
(lact) ) (71+ (51+ years 8 mg
Adult 120 years years ) (f
(lact) ) ) 51+
years
)
27
mg
(preg
)
9 mg
(lact)

DV:

0 - 12 500 mcg 80 mcg 50 mg 10 mcg5 260 mg 11 mg


mo. (RAE)6 (DFE)7 (400 IU)

300 mcg 150 mcg 15 mg 15 mcg5 700 mg 7 mg


1 -3
(RAE)6 (DFE)7 (600 IU)

Preg/La 1,300 mcg 600 mcg 120 mg 15 mcg5 1,300 mg 27 mg


ct (RAE)6 (DFE)7 (600 IU)

4& 900 mcg 400 mcg 90 mg 20 mcg5 1,300 mg 18 mg


Older (RAE)6 (DFE)7 (800 IU)
Sources: Dietary Reference Intakes Tables and Application from Institute of Medicine of the
National Academy of Sciences, November 30 2010 (Figures for infants also available.); Daily
Values from FDA Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels
2016.
Abbreviations: f - female; lact - lactating (breast feeding) female; m - male; preg - pregnant
female; mg - milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg - microgram (1,000 micrograms = 1
milligram)
Notes:
1
Figures for vitamin A may also be expressed in mcg rather than IU (International Units). The
mcg equivalent of one IU of vitamin A depends on the form, such as retinol, retinyl acetate, or
retinyl palmitate. Most labels show value in IU (International Units).
2
UL for vitamin A applies only to retinol forms, not beta-carotene.
3
Folate from supplements and fortified foods is absorbed twice as well as from regular food. If
using supplements or fortified foods as your source, then only half the listed amount is
required.
4
UL for folate applies only to supplements and fortified foods, not regular foods.
5
Figures may also be expressed in IU (International Units). (1 mcg =40 IU) but labels are now
required to show values as mcg.
6
RAE = Retinol activity equivalents; 1 microgram RAE = 1 microgram retinol, 2 microgram
supplemental - carotene, 12 micrograms -carotene, or 24 micrograms -carotene, or 24
micrograms -cryptoxanthin (FDA 2016)
7
DFE = Dietary Folate Equivalents; 1 DFE = 1mcg naturally-occurring folate = 0.6 mcg folic
acid.

Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Additional


Nutrients (Continued)
Vitamin E Vitamin K Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6

See Report See Report See Report See Report See Report See Report

Age RDA1 Uppe Ade- Uppe RD Uppe RD Uppe RD Uppe RD Uppe


S= r quate r A r A r A r A r
Synthet Limi Intak Limi Limi Limi Limi Limi
ic t2 e3 t4 t5 t6 t t
N=
Natural

13 IU 220 30 NE 0.5 NE 0.5 NE 6 mg 10 0.5 30


(S) IU mcg mg mg mg mg mg
9 IU (S)
1-3
(N) 300
IU
(N)

16 IU 330 55 NE 0.6 NE 0.6 NE 8 mg 15 0.6 40


(S) IU mcg mg mg mg mg mg
10 IU (S)
4-8
(N) 450
IU
(N)

24 IU 660 60 NE 0.9 NE 0.9 NE 12 20 1.0 60


(S) IU mcg mg mg mg mg mg mg
16 IU (S)
9 - 13
(N) 900
IU
(N)

33 IU 880 75 NE 1.2 NE 1.3 NE 16 30 1.3 80


(S) IU mcg mg mg mg mg mg mg
22 IU (S) (m) (m) (m) (m)
14 - 18
(N) 1,200 1 1 mg 14 1.2
IU mg (f) mg mg
(N) (f) (f) (f)

Adult 33 IU 1,100 120 NE 1.2 NE 1.3 NE 16 35 1.3 100


(S) IU mcg mg mg mg mg mg mg
22 IU (S) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m
(N) 1,500 90 1.1 1.1 14 19 to
IU mcg mg mg mg 50
(N) (f) (f) (f) (f) year
1.4 1.4 18 s)
mg mg mg 1.7
(pre (pre (pre mg
g g) g) (m
and 1.6 17 51+
lact) mg mg year
(lact (lact s)
) ) 1.3
mg
(f 19
to 50
year
s)
1.5
mg
(f
51+
year
s)
1.9
mg
(pre
g)
2.0
mg
(lact
)

DV:

0 - 12 5 mg7 2.5 mcg 0.3 mg 0.4 mg 4 mg (NE)9 0.3 mg


mo. (7.5 IU)8

6 mg7 30 mcg 0.5 mg 0.5 mg 6 mg (NE)9 0.5 mg


1-3
(9 IU)8

Preg/La 19 mg7 90 mcg 1.4 mg 1.6 mg 18 mg (NE)9 2.0 mg


ct (28.5 IU)8

4& 15 mg7 120 mcg 1.2 mg 1.3 mg 16 mg (NE)9 1.7 mg


Older (22.5 IU)8
Sources: Dietary Reference Intakes Tables and Application from Institute of Medicine of the
National Academy of Sciences, November 30 2010 (Figures for infants also available.); Daily
Values from FDA Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels
2016.
Abbreviations: NE - not established; f - female; lact - lactating (breast feeding) female; m -
male; preg - pregnant female; mg - milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg - microgram
(1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram)
Notes:
1
Vitamin E amounts may also be expressed in milligrams (mg). For those amounts, see the
Vitamin E Report.
2
The ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from
supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.
3
RDA not established for vitamin K. Figures based on AI.
4
ULs are not established for vitamin K.
5
ULs are not established for thiamin.
6
ULs are not established for riboflavin.
7
1 mg -tocopherol (label claim) = 1 mg -tocopherol = 1 mg RRR- -tocopherol = 2 mg all
rac--tocopherol (FDA 2016)
8
(As -tocopherol) 1 mg -tocopherol = 1.5 IU
9
NE = Niacin equivalents, 1 mg NE = 1 mg niacin = 60 milligrams tryptophan. (FDA 2016)
Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Additional
Nutrients (Continued)
Vitamin B-12 Pantothenic Biotin Choline Chromium Copper
Acid
See Report See Report See Report
Age See Report

RDA Upp Ade- Upp Ade- Upp Ade- Upp Ade- Upp RD Upp
er quate er quate er quate er quate er A er
Limi Intak Limi Intak Limi Intak Limi Intak Limi Limi
t2 e3 t4 e5 t6 e7 t e8 t9 t

0.9 NE 2 mg NE 8 mcg NE 200 1g 11 NE 340 1,00


1-3 mcg mg mcg mcg 0
mcg

1.2 NE 3 mg NE 12 NE 250 1g 15 NE 440 3,00


4-8 mcg mcg mg mcg mcg 0
mcg

1.8 NE 4 mg NE 20 NE 375 2g 25 NE 700 5,00


mcg mcg mg mcg mcg 0
(m) mcg
9 - 13
21
mcg
(f)

2.4 NE 5 mg NE 25 NE 550 3g 35 NE 890 8,00


mcg mcg mg mcg mcg 0
(m) (m) 1,00 mcg
400 24 0
mg mcg mcg
(f) (f) (pre
14 - 18
29 g)
mcg 1,30
(preg) 0
44 mcg
mcg (lact
(lact) )

Adult 2.4 NE 5 mg NE 30 NE 550 3.5 g 35 NE 900 10,0


mcg1 6 mg mcg mg mcg mcg 00
2.6 (preg) 35 (m) (m 19 1,00 mcg
mcg 7 mg mcg 425 to 50 0
(preg) (lact) (lact) mg years) mcg
2.8 (f) 25 (pre
mcg(la 450 mcg g)
ct) mg (f 19 1,30
(preg) to 50 0
550 years) mcg
mg 30 (lact
(lact) mcg )
(m
50+
years)
20
mcg
(f
50+
years)
30
mcg
(preg)
45
mcg
(lact)

DV:

0 - 12 0.5 mcg 1.8 mg 6 mcg 150 mg 5.5 mcg 0.2 mg


mo.

1-3 0.9 mcg 2 mg 8 mcg 200 mg 11 mcg 0.3 mg

Preg/L 2.8 mcg 7 mg 35 mcg 550 mg 45 mcg 1.3 mg


act

4& 2.4 mcg 5 mg 30 mcg 550 mg 35 mcg 0.9 mg


Older
Sources: Dietary Reference Intakes Tables and Application from Institute of Medicine of the
National Academy of Sciences, November 30 2010 (Figures for infants also available.); Daily
Values from FDA Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels
2016.
Abbreviations: NE - not established; f - female; lact - lactating (breast feeding) female; m -
male; preg - pregnant female; mg - milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg - microgram
(1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram)
Notes:
1
Because 10% to 30% of older people may malabsorb food bound vitamin B-12, it is
advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods with
vitamin B12 or a supplement containing vitamin B12.
2
ULs are not established for vitamin B-12.
3
RDA not established for pantothenic acid
4
ULs are not established for pantothenic acid.
5
RDA not established for biotin
6
ULs not established for biotin.
7
RDA not established for choline. Choline is technically not a vitamin, but is often listed with B
vitamins.
8
RDA not established for chromium.
9
ULs not established for chromium.

Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Additional


Nutrients (Continued)
Fluoride Iodine Magnesium Manganese Molybdenu Phosphorus
m
See Report
Age
Ade- Uppe RD Uppe RD Uppe Ade- Uppe RD Uppe RD Uppe
quate r A r A r quate r A r A r
Intak Limi Limi Limi Intak Limi Limi Limit
e1 t t t2 e3 t t

0.7 1.3 90 200 80 65 1.2 2 mg 17 300 460 3g


1-3
mg mg mcg mcg mg mg mg mcg mcg mg

1 mg 2.2 90 300 130 110 1.5 3 mg 22 600 500 3g


4-8
mg mcg mcg mg mg mg mcg mcg mg

9 - 13 2 mg 10 120 600 240 350 1.9 6 mg 34 1,100 1,25 4g


mg mcg mcg mg mg mg mcg mcg 0
(m) mg
1.6
mg (f)

3 mg 10 150 900 410 350 2.2 9 mg 43 1,700 1,25 4 g


mg mcg mcg mg mg mg mcg mcg 0 3.5 g
(m) (m) mg (preg
360 1.6 )
mg mg (f) 4g
(f) (lact)
14 - 18 400
mg
(preg
)
360
mg
(lact)

Adult 4 mg 10 150 1,100 400 350 2.3 11 45 2,000 700 4 g


(m) mg mcg mcg mg mg mg mg mcg mcg mg (19 to
3 mg 220 (m (m) 50 70
(f) mcg 19 to 1.8 mcg years
(preg 30 mg (f) (pre )
) years 2 mg g 3g
290 ) (preg) and (70+
mcg 420 2.6 lact) years
(lact) mg mg )
(m (lact)
30+
years
)
310
mg
(f 19
to 30
years
)
350
mg
(preg
19 to
30
years
)
310
mg
(lact
19 to
30
years
)
320
mg
(f
30+
years
)
360
mg
(preg
30+
years
)
320
mg
(lact
30+
years
)

DV:

0 - 12 130 mcg 75 mg 0.6 mg 3 mcg 275 mg


mo.

1-3 90 mcg 80 mg 1.2 mg 17 mcg 460 mg

Preg/La 290 mcg 400 mg 2.6 mg 50 mcg 1,250 mg


ct

4& 150 mcg 420 mg 2.3 mg 45 mcg 1,250 mg


Older
Sources: Dietary Reference Intakes Tables and Application from Institute of Medicine of the
National Academy of Sciences, November 30 2010 (Figures for infants also available.); Daily
Values from FDA Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels
2016.
Abbreviations: f - female; lact - lactating (breast feeding) female; m - male; preg - pregnant
female; mg - milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg - microgram (1,000 micrograms = 1
milligram)
Notes:
1
RDA not established for fluoride
2
The UL's for magnesium represent intake from a pharmacologic agent only and do not
include intake from food and water.
3
RDA not established for manganese.

Recommended Daily Intakes and Upper Limits for Additional


Nutrients (Continued)
Potassium Selenium Zinc

Age See Report See Report See Report

Adequate Upper RDA Upper RDA Upper


Intake1 Limit2 Limit Limit

1-3 3.0 g NE 20 mcg 90 mcg 3 mg 7 mg

4-8 3.8 g NE 30 mcg 150 mcg 5 mg 12 mg

9 - 13 4.5 g NE 40 mcg 280 mcg 8 mg 23 mg

4.7 g NE 55 mcg 400 mcg 11 mg (m) 34 mg


9 mg (f)
12 mg
14 - 18
(preg)
13 mg
(lact)

Adult 4.7 g NE 55 mcg 400 mcg 11 mg (m) 40 mg


5.1 g (lact) 60 mcg 8 mg (f)
(preg) 11 mg
70 mcg (preg)
(lact) 12 mg
(lact)

DV:

0 - 12 mo. 700 mg 20 mcg 3 mg

1-3 3,000 mg 20 mcg 3 mg

Preg/Lact 5,100 mg 70 mcg 13 mg

4 & Older 4,700 mg 55 mcg 11 mg


Sources: Dietary Reference Intakes Tables and Application from Institute of Medicine of the
National Academy of Sciences, November 30 2010 (Figures for infants also available.); Daily
Values from FDA Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels
2016.
Abbreviations: NE - not established; f - female; lact - lactating (breast feeding) female; m -
male; preg - pregnant female; mg - milligram (1,000 milligrams = 1 gram); mcg - microgram
(1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram)
Notes:
1
RDA not established for potassium.
2
ULs are not established for potassium