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Unit 34 Assignment 1

Holly Redshaw

Flip book
Cell animation
Drawn on film
Bitmap graphics
Vector graphics
Flip Book

Flickbooks are lot of pieces of paper put together, with animations on each
page, it would have a start picture then on the next one it would be slightly
different then the next and then the next and when you flicked the pages it
would move smoothly. Flickbooks are often illustrated for children as the
drawing are very simplistic.
Cell Animation

Hand drawn (cel) animation that makes the pictures look hand drawn. This is
the traditional way to create animation. The early stages of cel animation
was actually hand drawn but now a days it is done on the computer but made
to look hand drawn.

Also known as Raster images. Raster images are made up of rows and columns
of pixels which shows pixels when you zoom in on the graphic. There are lot
of different types of raster images;
Lossy a lossy file when under the file format of .jpg can lose a lot of its
resolution when it is saved/downloaded/uploaded.
Lossless a lossless file when under the file format of zip, the image is broken
down into smaller parts so it can save the resolution of the picture. This
allows the user to recreate the picture exactly how it was before with no data
This can be in the format of GIF, JPEG, BMP, TIFF and PSD.

Vector images are a lot more flexible because they are easily resized and
stretched. This is because they are not made up of organised dots. They are
made up or points on curves and angled. It can be made up of any sort of
shape or size, such as a square, a triangle, or even a 3D shape. Vector-based
images are not made up of a specific number of dots so they can be scaled to
a larger size and not lose any image quality.
Can be in the file formats of EPS and FLA.

Adobe Animate (formerly Adobe Flas)) is a multimedia authoring and

computer animation program developed by Adobe Systems.
Animate can be used to design vector graphics and animation, and publish the
same for television programs, online video, websites, web applications, rich
internet applications, and video games. The program also offers support for
raster graphics, rich text, audio and video embedding, and ActionScript
scripting. Animations may be published for HTML5, WebGL, Scalable Vector
Graphics (SVG) animation and spritesheets, and legacy Flash Player (SWF) and
Adobe AIR formats.

Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe

Systems for macOS and Windows.
Photoshop was created in 1988 by Thomas and John Knoll. Since then, it has
become the de facto industry standard in raster graphics editing, such that
the word "photoshop" has become a verb as in "to Photoshop an image,"
"photoshopping" and "photoshop contest", though Adobe discourages such
use.[7] It can edit and compose raster images in multiple layers and supports
masks, alpha compositing and several color models including RGB, CMYK,
CIELAB, spot color and duotone. Photoshop has vast support for graphic file
formats but also uses its own PSD and PSB file formats which support all the
aforementioned features. In addition to raster graphics, it has limited
abilities to edit or render text, vector graphics (especially through clipping
path), 3D graphics and video. Photoshop's featureset can be expanded by
Photoshop plug-ins, programs developed and distributed independently of
Photoshop that can run inside it and offer new or enhanced features.

Joseph Plateau (phenakitoscope)

William Horner (zoetrope)
Emile Raynaud (praxinoscope)
Edward Muybridge (photography)
Edison (kinetoscope)
Lumiere Brothers
Joseph Plateau
The phenakitoscope (also known as the spindle viewer) was created in 1829.
Joseph Plateau is a Belgian physicist and this was created by himself with his
The phenakistoscope uses the persistence of motion principle to create an
illusion of motion. It consists of two disks which are on the same axis. The top
disc has slots in it and the bottom has images which are slightly different to
the one next to it. You then spin the discs and it look as if the images are
moving. E.g. it might look like someone is dancing.
William Horner
The zoetrope was made by William Horner in 1834.
A zoetrope is a cylinder with slits cut vertically in. on the inside is a band with
a sequence of images . To make this work as an animation, you simply spin
the cylinder and watch through the slits, this will make the images blur
together to make up a moving image.
Emile Reynaud
The praxinoscope by Emile Reynaud in 1877.
The praxinoscope is an adapted zoetrope, Using the drum design. He added a
prism of mirrors to the middle so that when the cylinder span the mirror
flashed the image, which made the image clearer than the zoetrope. Also
gives movement without loss of luminosity.
Eadweard Muybridge
In 1872, the former governor of California, Leland Stanford, a businessman
and race-horse owner, hired Muybridge for some photographic studies. He had
taken a position on a popularly debated question of the day whether all
four feet of a horse were off the ground at the same time while trotting. In
1872, Muybridge began experimenting with an array of 12 cameras
photographing a galloping horse in a sequence of shots. His initial efforts
seemed to prove that Stanford was right, but he didnt have the process
perfected. The same question had arisen about the actions of horses during a
gallop. The human eye could not break down the action at the quick gaits of
the trot and gallop. Up until this time, most artists painted horses at a trot
with one foot always on the ground; and at a full gallop with the front legs
extended forward and the hind legs extended to the rear, and all feet off the
ground. Stanford sided with the assertion of "unsupported transit" in the trot
and gallop, and decided to have it proven scientifically. Stanford sought out
Muybridge and hired him to settle the question.
Edison (kinetoscope)

An encounter with the work and ideas of photographic pioneer Eadweard

Muybridge appears to have spurred Edison to pursue the development of a
motion picture system. On February 25, 1888, in Orange, New Jersey,
Muybridge gave a lecture that may have included a demonstration of his
zoopraxiscope, a device that projected sequential images drawn around the
edge of a glass disc, producing the illusion of motion.
The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exhibition device. The Kinetoscope
was designed for films to be viewed by one individual at a time through a
peephole viewer window at the top of the device. The Kinetoscope was not a
movie projector, but introduced the basic approach that would become the
standard for all cinematic projection before the advent of video, by creating
the illusion of movement by conveying a strip of perforated film bearing
sequential images over a light source with a high-speed shutter.
Lumiere Brothers

The Lumire brothers, Auguste Marie Louis and Nicolous Louis Jean [lwi ] (5
October 1864, Besanon, France 6 June 1948, Bandol), were among the first
filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in
contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous
viewing by multiple parties.
The Lumires presented the first newsreel, a film of the French Photographic
Society Conference, and the first documentaries, four films about the Lyon
fire department. Beginning in 1896 they sent a trained crew of innovative
cameraman-projectionists to cities throughout the world to show films and
shoot new material.

Walt Disney
Hannah Barbera
Warner Bros
Norman Mclaren
Lin Lye
Walt Disney

Walt Disney was an American motion-picture and television producer and

showman, famous as a pioneer of cartoon films and as the creator of
Disney worked at the Kansas City Film Ad Company, where he made
commercials based on cutout animation. Around this time, Disney began
experimenting with a camera, doing hand-drawn cel animation, and decided
to open his own animation business. From the ad company, he recruited Fred
Harman as his first employee.
Their first deal was with New York distributor Margaret Winkler, to distribute
their Alice cartoons. They also invented a character called Oswald the Lucky
Rabbit, and contracted the shorts at $1,500 each.
He then moved on to make billions with his characters in Mickey Mouse and at
Disney Land.
Hanna Barbera
Hanna-Barbera Productions, Inc. was an American animation studio that
dominated American television animation for three decades in the mid-to-late
20th century, founded in 1957 by former Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer animation
directors William Hanna and Joseph Barbera (creators of Tom and Jerry) and
live-action director George Sidney in partnership with Screen Gems, television
arm of Columbia Pictures.
Hanna-Barbera is known for creating a wide variety of popular animated
characters and for over 30 years, the studio produced smash hit cartoon
shows, including Yogi Bear, The Flintstones, The Jetsons, Wacky Races,
Scooby-Doo and The Smurfs.
Barbera merged with Time Warner in 1996 and the studio became a subsidiary
of Warner Bros. Animation, into which Hanna-Barbera was absorbed after
Hanna died in 2001. Cartoon Network Studios continued the projects for the
channel's output. Barbera went on to work for Warner Bros. Animation until
his death in 2006.
Warner Bros

Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. is an American entertainment company, film

studio and film distributor that is a division of Time Warner and is
headquartered in Burbank, California. It is one of the "Big Six" major American
film studios.
Warner Bros. is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America
19251935: Sound, colour, style
19301935: Pre-code realistic period
Warner's cartoon unit had its roots in the independent Harman and Ising
studio. From 1930 to 1933, Disney alumni Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising
produced musical cartoons for Leon Schlesinger, who sold them to Warner.
Harman and Ising introduced their character Bosko in the first Looney Tunes
cartoon, Sinkin' in the Bathtub, and created a sister series, Merrie Melodies,
in 1931
Norman Mclaren

Norman McLaren was a Scottish/Canadian animator, director and producer

known for his work for the National Film Board of Canada (NFB). He was a
pioneer in a number of areas of animation and filmmaking, including hand-
drawn animation, drawn-on-film animation, visual music, abstract film,
pixilation and graphical sound.
In 1968, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada and promoted to
Companion in 1973. In 1977, he received an honorary doctorate from
Concordia University. In 1982, he was the first anglophone to receive the Prix
Albert-Tessier, given to persons for an outstanding career in Qubec cinema.
In 1986, he received a Lifetime Achievement Award at the World Festival of
Animated Film - Animafest Zagreb.
In 2009, McLaren's works were added to UNESCO's Memory of the World
Programme, listing the most significant documentary heritage collections in
the world, joining such works as the Gutenberg Bible and The Wizard of Oz.
Len Lye

Leonard Charles Huia "Len" Lye was a Christchurch, New Zealand-born artist
known primarily for his experimental films and kinetic sculpture.
The Len Lye Collection and Archive consists of all non-film works in Lyes
possession at the time of his death in 1980, as well as several items that have
been given to or otherwise acquired by the Foundation since. This body of
work is extended by Len Lye works in the Govett-Brewster Art Gallery. The
New Zealand Film Archive is the repository of Lyes film prints that are owned
by the Len Lye Foundation, and viewing prints are also in the Collection at the
Govett-Brewster. The Len Lye Centre a dedicated gallery for the Len Lye
collection connected to the Govett-Brewster was opened on 25 July 2015.
This is the first gallery in New Zealand to be dedicated to a single artist.
Contempory Work

Monty Python
Yellow Submarine
A Scanner Darkly
Monty Python

Monty Python (sometimes known as The Pythons) were a British surreal

comedy group who created their sketch comedy show Monty Python's Flying
Circus, which first aired on the BBC in 1969. Forty-five episodes were made
over four series. The Python phenomenon developed from the television
series into something larger in scope and impact, including touring stage
shows, films, numerous albums, several books, and a stage musical. The
Pythons' influence on comedy has been compared to the Beatles' influence on
music. The Orlando Sentinel referred to their sketch show as "not only one of
the more enduring icons of 1970s British popular culture, but also an
important moment in the evolution of television comedy.
Following their television work, they began making films, which include Holy
Grail (1975), Life of Brian (1979) and The Meaning of Life (1983).
Yellow Submarine

Yellow Submarine is a 1968 British animated musical fantasy comedy film

inspired by the music of the Beatles, directed by animation producer George
Dunning, and produced by United Artists and King Features Syndicate. Initial
press reports stated that the Beatles themselves would provide their own
character voices; however, aside from composing and performing the songs,
the real Beatles participated only in the closing scene of the film, while their
cartoon counterparts were voiced by other actors.
The film received a widely positive reception from critics and audiences
alike. It is also credited with bringing more interest in animation as a serious
art form. Time commented that it "turned into a smash hit, delighting
adolescents and aesthetes alike.
A Scanner Darkly

A Scanner Darkly is a 2006 American animated science-fiction thriller film

directed by Richard Linklater, based on the novel of the same name by Philip
K. Dick. The film tells the story of identity and deception in a near-future
dystopia constantly under intrusive high-tech police surveillance in the midst
of a drug addiction epidemic. The film was shot digitally and then animated
using interpolated rotoscope, an animation technique in which animators
trace over the original footage frame by frame, for use in live-action and
animated films, giving the finished result a distinctive animated look. It was
distributed by Warner Independent Pictures.
The film was written and directed by Richard Linklater and stars Keanu
Reeves, Robert Downey, Jr., Woody Harrelson, and Winona Ryder. Steven
Soderbergh and George Clooney are among the executive producers. A
Scanner Darkly had a limited release in July 2006, and then a wider release
later that month. The film was screened at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival and
the 2006 Seattle International Film Festival, and nominated for the Hugo
Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, Long Form in 2007.

Persepolis is a 2007 French animated biographical film based on Marjane

Satrapi's autobiographical graphic novel of the same name. The film was
written and directed by Satrapi with Vincent Paronnaud. The story follows a
young girl as she comes of age against the backdrop of the Iranian Revolution.
The title is a reference to the historic city of Persepolis.
The film was co-winner of the Jury Prize at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival
and was released in France and Belgium on 27 June. In her acceptance
speech, Satrapi said "Although this film is universal, I wish to dedicate the
prize to all Iranians.The film was also nominated for the Academy Award for
Best Animated Feature, but lost to Ratatouille.
Genres and Forms

Children's Television
Music Videos
Computer Games
Mobile Phones

Film or movie, a series of still images that create the illusion of a moving
image Film industry, the technological and commercial institutions of
Filmmaking, the process of making a film.
Movie theatre, a building in which films are shown.
The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and
commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., film production companies, film
studios, cinematography, film production, screenwriting, pre-production, post
production, film festivals, distribution; and actors, film directors and other
film crew personnel.

Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that

employs an openly sponsored, nonpersonal message to promote or sell a
product, service or idea.465 Sponsors of advertising are often businesses who
wish to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from
public relations in that an advertiser usually pays for and has control over the
message. It is differentiated from personal selling in that the message is
nonpersonal, i.e., not directed to a particular individual. 661,672 Advertising
is communicated through various mass media, including old media such as
newspapers, magazines, Television, Radio, outdoor advertising or direct mail;
or new media such as search results, blogs, websites or text messages. The
actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an
advertisement or "ad".
Children's Television

Children's television series are television programs designed for and marketed
to children, normally broadcast programming scheduled for broadcast during
the morning and afternoon when children are awake. They can sometimes run
during the early evening, allowing younger children to watch them after
school. The purpose of the shows is mainly to entertain and sometimes to
Children's television is nearly as old as television itself, with early examples
including shows such as Play School, Captain Tugg, The Magic Roundabout,
Howdy Doody, Ivor the Engine, Clangers, Noggin the Nog, Flower Pot Men,
Captain Kangaroo, Sesame Street, The Electric Company, and Mister Rogers'
Neighborhood. In the United States, early children's television was often a
marketing branch of a larger corporate product, such as Disney, and it rarely
contained any educational elements (for instance, The Magic Clown, a
popular early children's program, was primarily an advertisement for
Bonomo's Turkish taffy product).
Music Videos

A music video is a short film integrating a song and imagery, produced for
promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are primarily made and
used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings.
There are also cases where songs are used in tie in marketing campaigns that
allow them to become more than just a song. Tie ins and merchandising could
be used in toys or marketing campaigns for food and other products. Although
the origins of music videos date back to musical short films that first
appeared in the 1920s, they came into prominence in the 1980s when MTV
based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these works were
described by various terms including "illustrated song", "filmed insert",
"promotional (promo) film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song
video", "song clip" or "film clip".
Computer Games

PC games, also known as computer games or personal computer games, are

video games played on a personal computer rather than a dedicated video
game console or arcade machine. Their defining characteristics include a lack
of any centralized controlling authority, a greater degree of user control over
the video-gaming hardware and software used and a generally greater
capacity in input, processing, and output.
Home computer games became popular following the video game crash of
1983 leading to the era of the "bedroom coder". In the 1990s, PC games lost
mass-market traction to console games before enjoying a resurgence in the
mid-2000s through digital distribution.
Mobile Phones

A mobile phone is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over
a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service
area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching
systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public
switched telephone network (PSTN). Most modern mobile telephone services
use a cellular network architecture, and, therefore, mobile telephones are
often also called cellular telephones or cell phones. In addition to telephony,
2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text
messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications
(infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, gaming, and digital photography.
Mobile phones which offer these and more general computing capabilities are
referred to as smartphones.

A website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content,

typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least
one web server. A website may be accessible via a public Internet Protocol (IP)
network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network (LAN), by
referencing a uniform resource locator (URL) that identifies the site.
Websites have many functions and can be used in various fashions; a website
can be a personal website, a commercial website for a company, a
government website or a non-profit organization website. Websites can be the
work of an individual, a business or other organization, and are typically
dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and
social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible
websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites,
such as a company's website for its employees, are typically a part of an