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Structures

Course Coordinator: Prof. A.R. Dar

Course Instructor: Dr. Asif H. Shah

5th Sem Civil Engg.

Course Content

Civil Engineering Structures

Concrete Structures

Structural Design

Engineering Systems

Different Engineering Systems

Contd.

Structural Elements

Structural Elements

Beams

Axial

Members

Columns

Structural Analysis versus Structural Design

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete (RC) Design

engineering. This course will present the theory of reinforced concrete as a

direct application of the laws of statics and mechanics of materials. RC design

involves around the designing of different structural and non structural

elements of any structural system like buildings, bridges, roads etc.

Elements of a reinforced concrete building

Elements of a reinforced concrete bridge

GENERAL DESIGN PROCEDURES

Problem Definition

Service Functions

Design It

Economy Right the

Location First Time

Surface & Subsurface Conditions

Infrastructure

Environmental Impact etc

Constraints

Material Availability

Zoning Requirements

Construction Expertise ...

The Design Process

The design process involves a number of stages. Any

structure to be built develops as a consequence of an

idea. The owner who wants to build the structure

studies and develops the conceptual design of the

project.

The feasibility studies are carried out to decide

whether the project is possible to construct/develop.

The feasibility studies involve economical

considerations, environmental implications,

geopolitical issues etc.

Once the project gets through the feasibility stage of

the design process the functional design of the

structures is developed. This involves the architectural

design component. The outcome of this stage is the

architectural drawings.

the appropriate dimensions of different structural

members on basis of the laws of mechanics and ones

artistic judgements. The outcome of this stage is the

dimensions of the structural members in the form of

structural drawings

General Design Procedures

Geometric/Architectural Design

Economy

Design It

Right the

First Time

Final Layout

Floorplans

Elevations etc

Alternate

Use

General Design Procedures

Preliminary Structural Design

Prliminary Design: Location and arrangement of load bearing elements, columns,

beams, footings etc., Sizing of structural elements for safety and serviceability

Architectural Constraints - Simplicity & Duplication - Fabrication & Construction Procedures

Economy: Add preliminary $ value to each design

General Design Procedures

FINAL DESIGN

Sizing of Members

Design of Details

Design Drawings* (Blueprints)

Bill of Materials

Total Cost

Engineering for Steel Construction

Preliminary/Final Design

Define External Loads

Structural Analysis

Safe

NO Functional

Economic

YES

O.K.

Structural Design

Safety

Seviceability

Economy

Practicality

The structural engineer is a member of a team that works together to design a building, bridge,

or other structure. In the case of a building an architect generally provides the overall layout,

and mechanical, electrical, and structural engineers design individual systems within the

building.

The structure should satisfy four major criteria:

1. Appropriateness. The arrangement of spaces, spans, ceiling heights, access and traffic flow

must compliment the intended use. The structure should fit its environment and be

aesthetically pleasing.

2. Economy. The overall cost of the structure should not exceed the clients budget. Frequently,

teamwork in design will lead to overall economies.

3. Structural adequacy. Structural adequacy involves two major aspects.

(a) A structure must be strong enough to support all anticipated loadings safely.

(b) A structure must nit deflect, tilt, vibrate, or crack in a manner that impairs its usefulness.

4. Maintainability. A structure should be designed so as to require a minimum amount of simple

maintenance procedures.

Assignment No.1

1. Discuss briefly the important concepts in Mechanics of Materials/ Strength

of Materials which form the basis for structural design

2. Discuss briefly the important concepts of Structural analysis.

3. Explain the concept of load path ( load transfer mechanism) of three typical

civil engineering systems.

Submissions to be mailed on: aasifdce.nit@gmail.com

Next Lecture:

Design philosophies

Concrete and steel as building materials

Lecture-2

Before we start this lecture, I would like to answer the concerns raised by some of the students via

email/telephone. I got a number of phone calls and emails regarding the assignment and the books

to be referred for this course. Following books and codes can be referred to for this course.

Books

1. Reinforced Concrete Design, S. Pillai, Devdas Menon, Tata Mcgraw Hill Education Private Limited.

2. Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures (IS:456-2000), N. Krishna Raju, CBS Publisher.

3. Reinforced Concrete : Limit State Design, Ashok K. Jain, Nem Chand & Brothers.

4. Fundamentals Of Reinforced Concrete Design, M. L Gambhir, Phi Learning.

5. Design of Concrete Structures, David Darwin, Charles W. Dolan, Arthur H. Nilson, McGraw-

Hill Science/Engineering/Math

6. Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics and Design ,James G. MacGregor, F. Michael Bartlett, Pearson

Education Canada.

7. Reinforced Concrete Structures, Robert Park, Thomas Paulay, Wiley

CODES

1. IS 456 : 2000 Indian Standard PLAIN AND REINFORCED CONCRETE, BIS, New Delhi

2. IS 875(Parts 1-5): 1987- Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and

structures.

3. SP 16:1980- Explanatory Handbook on IS 456:1978

4. ACI 318, 2011, ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, American Concrete Institute, USA

5. IS 1893:2002- Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures.

The students can also refer to the book Structures by Daniel Schodeck for an overview on the behavior

of different structural elements under different loadings

CONCRETE

What is Concrete?

building materials.

Concrete is a composite material made from

several readily available constituents

(aggregates, sand, cement, water).

Concrete is a versatile material that can

easily be mixed to meet a variety of special

needs and formed to virtually any shape.

Advantages

Ability to be cast

Economical

Durable

Fire resistant

Energy efficient

On-site fabrication

Disadvantages

Low tensile strength

Low ductility

Volume instability

Low strength to weight ratio

Constituents

Cement

Water

Fine Agg.

Coarse Agg.

Admixtures

PROPERTIES OF FRESH CONCRETE

Workability

Consistency

Segregation

Bleeding

Setting Time

Unit Weight

Uniformity

WORKABILITY

relatively easy to transport, place, compact

and finish without harmful segregation.

A concrete mix satisfying these conditions is

said to be workable.

Factors Affecting Workability

Quantity and characteristics of cementing

materials

Aggregate grading, shape and surface texture

Quantity and characteristics of chemical

admixtures

Amount of water

Amount of entrained air

Concrete & ambient air temperature

WORKABILITY

important property of freshly

mixed concrete.

There is no single test method

that can simultaneously

measure all the properties

involved in workability.

It is determined to a large

extent by measuring the

consistency of the mix.

CONSISTENCY

of concrete.

It is generally dependent on the shear

resistance of the mass.

It is a major factor in indicating the workability

of freshly mixed concrete.

CONSISTENCY

Kelly-Ball test measures the amount of

penetration

Slump test (Most widely used test!)

Slump Test is related with the ease with

which concrete flows during placement (TS

2871, ASTM C 143)

10 cm

30 cm

20 cm

The slump cone is filled in 3 layers. Every

layer is evenly rodded 25 times.

between the top of the mold and the displaced original center

of the top surface of the specimen.

SEGREGATION

fresh concrete, resulting in a non-uniform mix

segregation are differences Sp.Gr. Size

in specific gravity and size

of constituents of concrete. Cement 3-3.15 5-80 mm

Moreover, improper mixing, C.Agg. 2.4-2.8 5-40 mm

improper placing and

improper consolidation also F.Agg. 2.4-2.8 < 5 mm

lead to segregation.

SEGREGATION

Larger maximum particle size (25mm) and proportion of

the larger particles.

High specific gravity of coarse aggregate.

Decrease in the amount of fine particles.

Particle shape and texture.

Water/cement ratio.

BLEEDING

surface of freshly placed concrete.

It is caused by the

inability of solid

constituents of the

mix to hold all of

the mixing water as

they settle down.

A special case of

segregation.

BLEEDING

portion becomes weak & porous (high w/c). Thus the

resistance of concrete to freezing-thawing decreases.

which weaken the top portion and form laitance. This

portion is not resistant to abrasion.

reinforcement. These large voids under the particles may

lead to weak zones and reduce the bond between paste

and agg. or paste and reinforcement.

BLEEDING

largely on properties of cement. It is

decreased by:

Increasing the fineness of cement

Increasing the rate of hydration (C3S, C3A and

alkalies)

Adding pozzolans

Reducing water content

PROPERTIES OF

HARDENED CONCRETE

The principal properties of hardened concrete

which are of practical importance can be listed

as:

1. Strength

2. Permeability & durability

3. Shrinkage & creep deformations

4. Response to temperature variations

Of these compressive strength is the most

important property of concrete. Because;

PROPERTIES OF

HARDENED CONCRETE

Of the abovementioned hardened properties

compressive strength is one of the most

important property that is often required,

simply because;

1. Concrete is used for compressive loads

2. Compressive strength is easily obtained

3. It is a good measure of all the other properties.

What Affects

Concrete Strength

What

Doesnt?

Factors Affecting Strength

Production methods

Testing parameters

STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

The strength of a concrete specimen prepared,

cured and tested under specified conditions at a

given age depends on:

1. w/c ratio

2. Degree of compaction

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

properly prepared and cured cubic, cylindrical

or prismatic specimens under compression.

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

Cubic: 15x15x15 cm

Cubic specimens are crushed after rotating

them 90 to decrease the amount of friction

caused by the rough finishing.

Cylinder: h/D=2 with h=15

To decrease the amount of friction, capping of

the rough casting surface is performed.

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

without capping with capping

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

DIRECT TENSILE STRENGTH

SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH

tensile stress is induced over nearly 2/3 of the

diameter of the cylinder perpendicular to the

direction of load application.

2P P: applied compressive load

st =

Dl

D: diameter of specimen

Splitting Tensile

Strength l: length of specimen

direct tensile test is the same molds are used

for compressive & tensile strength

determination.

uniform results than other tension tests.

FLEXURAL STRENGTH

modulus of rupture is determined by loading a

prismatic concrete beam specimen.

The results

obtained are useful

because concrete

is subjected to

flexural loads more

often than it is

subjected to

tensile loads.

P

d

bd3

I=

c 12

b

M=Pl/4

Mc (Pl/4) (d/2) 3 Pl

= = =

I bd3/12 2 bd2

P/2 P/2

(Pl/6) (d/2) Pl

= =

bd3/12 bd2

M=Pl/6

Factors Affecting the Strength of

Concrete

test type: test type:

Size of specimen Type of cement

Size of specimen in relation

with size of agg. Type of agg.

Support condition af Degree of compaction

specimen Mix proportions

Moisture condition of Type of curing

specimen Type of stress situation

Type of loading adopted

Rate of loading

Type of test machine

STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONS IN CONCRETE

- relationship for

ult concrete is

nonlinear. However,

specially for

(40-50%)

cylindrical

ult specimens with

h/D=2, it can be

ult assumed as linear

upto 40-50% of ult

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY OF CONCRETE

of the - diagram, E is

the defined by:

1. Initial Tangent Method

2. Tangent Method

3. Secant Method

Lecture-3

Characteristic Strength

Characteristic strength is defined as the strength of material

below which not more than 5 percent of the test results are

expected to fall.

Strength of concrete varies for the same concrete mix, which give

different compressive strength in laboratory tests.

control.

Standard Deviation or the Coefficient of Variation (COV),

which is the ratio of standard deviation to mean strength(fcm).

Characteristic Strength

Characteristic Strength

It is well established that the probability distribution of concrete

strength (for a given mix ) is approximately Normal.

that the designer has a reasonable assurance of a certain

minimum strength of concrete.

Idealized Normal Distribution

Accordingly, the mean strength of concrete, fcm (as obtained from

28 days tests) has to be significantly greater than the 5 percentile

characteristic strength, f ck that is specified by the designer.

x x 2

f x x

2

i i

COV S

x

Normal Probability Curve

1 2

1 2 x x

The probability function, y exp

2 2

where e 2.71828

xx

Let z

1 1 2

Then the probability function is y exp z

2 2

Normal Probability Curve

Strength of materials upon which design is based on that

strength is assumed to be normal.

Characteristic value is defined as that value below which it is

unlikely that more than 5% of the results will fall.

f ck f m 1.64

f ck = Characteristic Strength

f m = Standard Deviation

The relationship between f ck and f m accounts for variations in

results of test specimens and with the method, and control of

manufacture, quality of construction and type of materials

Characteristic Loads

Loads on structures can also be assessed stastically.

Characteristic Load = Mean Load 1.64 (standard deviation).

In most cases, it is the maximum loading on a structural member

that is critical and the upper, positive value given by the above

expression.

But the lower, minimum value may apply when considering the

stability of the behaviour of continuous members.

Characteristic Load

Lecture-4

Importance of Codes

Impotance of Design Codes

Importance of Codes

National building codes have been formulated in different countries to lay down

guidelines for the design and construction of structures. The codes have evolved

from the collective wisdom of expert structural engineers, gained over the years.

These codes are periodically revised to bring them in line with current research,

and often, current trends.

The codes serve at least four distinct functions. Firstly, they ensure adequate

structural safety, by specifying certain essential minimum requirements for design.

Secondly, they render the task of the designer relatively simple; often, the results

of sophisticated analyses are made available in the form of a simple formula or

chart. Thirdly, the codes ensure a measure of consistency among different

designers. Finally they have some legal validity, in that they protect the structural

designer from any liability due to structural failures that are caused by inadequate

supervision and/or faulty material and construction

Design Philosophies

Over the years, various design philosophies have evolved in different parts of the

world, with regard to reinforced concrete design. A design philosophy is built up

on a few fundamental premises (assumptions), and is reflective of a way of

thinking.

The earliest codified design philosophy is the working stress method of design

which is based on the assumption that the material behaves in a linear elastic

manner, and that adequate safety can be ensured by suitable restricting the

stresses in the material induced by the expected working loads on the structure.

In ultimate load theory, resistance of beam to pure bending is determined

either by ultimate strength of concrete or by yield point stress of steel, and

then the resistance can be divided by proper safety factor to determine the

bending resistance that can be relied upon under working conditions.

WORKING STRESS METHOD

Assumptions

1. At any cross-section, plane section before bending remains

plane after bending.

280

5. Ratio of modulus of elasticity of steel to concrete, m

3 cbc

6. Perfect bond exists between steel and surrounding concrete..

concrete

WORKING STRESS DESIGN

Sections of members of structures are designed assuming straight

line stress-strain relationships ensuring that at service loads the

stresses in steel and concrete do not exceed the allowable working

stresses.

or yield strength of materials.

BM and SF on statically indeterminate structures are calculated

assuming linear elastic response.

WORKING STRESS METHOD

b

c c

kd/3

kd kd

d d(1-k/3)

Ast s st/m

(b) (c)

(a)

Cracking Moment

When the stress in extreme tension fiber reaches its modulus of

rupture, fcr, the beam section cracks.

It

M cr fcr

yt

Mcr = Cracking moment

It = Second moment of area of transformed concrete section

with reference to NA.

byc3 byt3

It m 1 Ast ys

2

3 3

Cracking Moment

In the uncracked stage, the applied BM is less than the

cracking moment Mcr and the maximum tensile stress, fct

in concrete is less than its flexural tensile strength fcr.

As the applied moment on beam section increases

beyond linear elastic cracked phase, concrete strains

and stresses enter nonlinear range.

LIMIT STATE DESIGN

What is Limit State?

which a structure ceases to perform its intended

function satisfactorily, in terms of either safety or

serviceability.

DESIGN CONCEPTS

structure is acceptably low not only under (normal loads) service

loads but also under overloads.

loads without discomfort to user due to excessive deflections,

cracking, vibration etc.

and thermal insulation etc.

Limit State Design

Limit States

Purpose: to achieve acceptable probability that a structure will not

become unfit for its intended use i.e. that it will not reach a limit

state.

Thus, a structure ceases to be fit for use will constitute a limit state

and the design aims to avoid any such condition being reached

during the expected life of the structure.

Two principle types of limit state are;

Limit State Design

Ultimate Limit State

adequate factor of safety against collapse, the loads for which it is

designed.

bearing, etc.

account, as must the possibility of accidental damage as caused, for

example, by an internal explosion.

Serviceability Limit States

Most important serviceability limit states are

Deflection: appearance or efficiency of any part of the structure

must not be adversely affected by deflections.

affect the appearance, efficiency or durability of structure.

of the structure and its conditions of exposure.

Serviceability Limit States

Other limit states include

Excessive vibration: which may cause discomfort or alarm as well

as damage.

collapse, flame penetration and heat transfer.

which are not covered by any of the more common limit states,

such as earthquake resistance, must be taken into account.

Assumptions for Design in Flexure

1. At any cross-section, sections which are plane prior to

bending remain plane after bending. Or strain varies

linearly with distance from neutral axis i.e. plane

sections remain plane in bending.

2. The maximum strain in concrete at the outermost fiber

is 0.0035.

3. Stress-strain relationship in concrete could be either

rectangular, parabolic or combination of rectangular

and parabolic curves which should be agreeable with

the experimental results.

Assumptions for Design in Flexure

4. The stresses in steel bars used for reinforcement are

derived from the representative stress-strain curve for

the type of steel used.

5. Perfect bond between reinforced steel and adjoining

concrete.

6. Tensile strength of concrete is neglected.

7. Minimum strain in steel reinforcement should not be

less than ((0.87fy/Es) + 0.002).

What is partial safety factor?

limit state is called the Design Load for that limit

state

Design Load is the product of the characteristic load

and the relevant partial safety factor for loads

Design load = f x (characteristic load)

Why do we use partial safety factors?

in loading in design or in construction which are likely

to occur after the designer and the constructor have

each exercised carefully their skill and knowledge.

Partial Factors of Safety

tolerances are allowed for by partial factors of safety

applied to the strength of materials and to loadings.

unrealistic and in practice the values adopted are

based on experience and simplified calculations.

Partial factors of safety for loads (f)

Errors and inaccuracies may be due to a number of causes:

Design assumptions and inaccuracy of calculation.

Possible unusual load increases.

Unforeseen stress redistributions.

Constructional inaccuracies

These are taken into account by applying a particular factor of

safety (f) on the loadings, so that

Design load = characteristic load x partial factor of safety (f)

This factor should also take into account the importance of the

limit state under consideration and reflect to some extent the

accuracy with which different type of loading can be predicted,

and the probability of particular load combinations occurring.

Partial Factor of Safety for loads

Load

Limit State of Collapse Limit State of Serviceability

Combination

DL LL WL/EL DL LL WL/EL

1.5 or

DL + WL or EL - 1.5 1.0 --- 1.0

0.9*

What is Design Strength?

material and limit state is obtained by dividing the

characteristic strength by the partial safety factor for

strength, appropriate to that material and that limit

state.

member for the limit state of collapse, the partial safety

factor should be taken as 1.5 for concrete and 1.15 for

steel

Partial Factors of Safety for Materials(m)

The strength of material in an actual member will differ

from that measured in a carefully prepared test specimen

and it is particularly true for concrete where placing,

compaction and curing are so important to the strength.

Steel, on the other hand, is a relatively consistent material

requiring a small partial factor of safety.

values are taken for the ultimate limit state than for the

serviceability limit state.

Parabolic

Curve fck

0.67 fck

Stress

0.67 fck/m

0.002 0.0035

Strain

Stress-Strain Curve for Concrete in Flexural Compression

b

0.0035 0.446 fck

cu

xu

xu

d

Ast s 0.87

fy

(a) (b)

(a) Section; (b) Strain diagram; (c) Stress block

0.42 xu

xu

0.36 fck xu

Limit State Design-

Statistical Concepts

Probability

occasions.

m

Probability of an event to happen = n

m

Probability of an event not to occur = 1 n

Frequency Distribution

Results of 100 cylinder splitting tensile tests on concrete are given

in Table1.

rearranged in the ascending order of magnitude

that interval.

Frequency Distribution

Frequency distribution (of tensile strengths) is Histogram.

ordinate) of each rectangle represents the proportion of

observations falling in that intervals

interval reduced, histogram resembles a smooth curve

a smooth curve known as Normal Distribution Curve

Characteristics of Distribution

Mean = x1 x2 x3 xn x i

x

n n

f1 x1 f 2 x2 fi xi fi xi

x

f1 f 2 fi n

Standard Deviation

x x

2

Standard deviation=

n

x x =Deviation of a number from the mean.

x x 2

n

their frequency, the standard deviation can be estimated by

f x x

i i

2

n

Normal Distribution

Normal Distribution Curve

Normal distribution curve is defined by

1 2

1 2 x x

y exp

2 2

= Standard Deviation

x = Mean of the variable.

Let x be expressed in terms of another variable z as below

z

xx x x z

z is the deviation from the mean expressed in multiple of the

standard deviation. The normal distribution form is

1 1

y exp z 2

2 2

Assignment No.2

1. Discuss different important properties of Concrete

2. Discuss steel as a reinforcing material.

3. Explain the Stress-Strain behavior of Concrete. Discuss the idealized curve.

4. Make a gist of IS-456 from clause 1 to Clause 21.

Submissions to be mailed on: aasifdce.nit@gmail.com

Next Lecture:

Design of Beams

Lecture 5

TYPES OF SECTIONS

Compression Failure of Singly Reinforced Beam

concrete should be assumed.

block at various stages of loading.

Stress-Strain Distribution in Compressed Concrete

is maximum, section of beam reduces maximum moment of

resistance.

In case, cross-sectional area of steel reinforcement bars is large

as HYSD bars are used.

bars start yielding. Depth of neutral axis increases considerably.

occurs without warning.

Tension Failure of Singly Reinforced Beams

value of load; steel bars will attain their yield point.

increasing loading.

stress, steel bars yield and stretch to a large amount.

simultaneous significant deflections of beam.

mean stress in concrete increases. In order to maintain equilibrium

between internal forces, then depth of neutral axis reduces.

Balanced Beam Section

reinforcement in the section is such that the maximum compressive

strain in bending in concrete attains cu simultaneously as the strain

in steel reaches, sy1.

A singly reinforced rectangular beam section of breadth, b and effective

depth, d.

As per limit state of collapse, cu = 0.0035. Therefore, a balanced

section, is defined for design purposes as one in which the steel stress

reaches the design strength simultaneously as the concrete reaches the

strain 0.0035.

Under Reinforced Beam Section

A beam section is called Under Reinforced in case the area of steel

reinforcement provided in the beam section is such that the steel ratio is

less than that for balanced section, pb.

As bending moment increases, the strain in steel s reaches its limiting

value, sy , while strain in concrete, c remains still below its ultimate

value (0.0035).

In an under reinforced beam, steel yields prior to crushing of concrete

in compression. Since, crushing of concrete does not occur, (collapse of

beam does not occur), until strain in concrete at extreme fibre in

compression attains, cu.

Beam section continues to resist increasing applied moment and the

neutral axis shifts upwards.

Lever arm increases somewhat while the total compressive force in

concrete remains unaltered.

Over-Reinforced Beam Section

reinforcement in the beam sections is such that the ratio of steel, p is

more than that for of the balanced section, pb.

0.0035 prior to strain in steel reaches

there is no extensive cracking.

Design of Singly Reinforced Beams

Design of singly reinforced rectangular beams deals with the selection

of

grade of concrete mix,

quality of steel,

shape, sizes and proportions of beams

M20 and M25 grades of concrete mix are very commonly used for the

beams.

Mild steel bars, Fe 250 or high yield strength deformed steel bars Fe415

or Fe500 are used as tension reinforcement.

Design of Singly Reinforced Beams

Following are the usual steps in the design of singly reinforced beams.

i. Step-1. The effective span is needed to determine maximum moment

and maximum shear force.

For simply supported spans.

i. Effective span = clear span + effective depth

ii.ls = centre to centre of supports.

iii. width of supports at two ends of beams may be assumed as 300

mm or 600mm.

for Cantilever beam

i. Effective span = clear projection +

ii. Step-2. Loads acting on the beam are given. The max. moment and

max. shear forces should be calculated. Then, factored loads are

calculated.

Side Face Reinforcement

When the overall depth of beam becomes more than 750mm, side face

reinforcement shall be provided along the two faces of the beam section,

to take into consideration the crack width limitation and lateral

buckling of the web in beam.

Side face reinforcement shall not be less than 0.1 percent of web area

and shall be distributed equally in two faces at a spacing not exceeding

300mm or web thickness whichever is less.

Spacing of Reinforcement

In order to ensure proper placement of concrete around the main

reinforcement bars and to achieve full surface contact between the bars

and concrete, it is necessary to maintain a certain minimum distance

between adjacent bars

Clear horizontal distance between two adjacent parallel main

reinforcing bars shall not be less than maximum of the following

i. diameter of the bar (for equal diameter)

ii. diameter of larger bar (unequal bars)

iii. 5 mm more than the nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate.

Clear vertical distance shall not be less than

a. 15mm

b. two-thirds of max-size of aggregate

c. maximum diameter of main bar.

Effective Span

Effective span of a member is computed as follows:-

1. Simply supported beam or slab: effective span of a simply supported

member is taken as lesser of the following:-

a. l = Lc + d

b. l = l (l = centre to centre distance between supports)

Where Lc = clear span

d = effective depth of beam or slab

Effective Span

2. Continuous beam or slab; effective span of a continuous beam or slab

is calculated as follows:-

a. If the width of support is less than or equal to Lc/12, the effective span

is taken as lesser of the following:-

i. l = Lc + d,

ii. Centre to centre distance between supports.

b. If width of support is greater than Lc/12 or 600mm, whichever is less, the

effective span is taken as follows:-

i. For end span with one end fixed and the other continuous or for intermediate

span;

i. l = Lc

ii. For end span with one end free and the other continuous: the effective span is

the lesser of

i. l = Lc + 0.5d

ii. l = Lc + 0.5ts

Guidelines for Design of Beams

The minimum percentage of tension steel used in beams should be

around 0.3 percent.

percentage of steel required is only around 75 percent of the balanced.

At least two bars should be used as tension steel, and not more than six

bars should be used in one layer in a beam.

The diameter of hanger bars should not be less than 10mm and that of

main reinforcement in tension 12mm. The usual diameters of bars

chosen for beams are 10,12,16,20,22,25 and 32mm.

When using different sized bars in one layer, place the largest diameter

bars near the beam faces. The areas of steel should be symmetrical

above the centre line of the beam.

Guidelines for Design of Beams

The depth of the beam should satisfy the deflection requirements w.r.t

L/d ratios. In addition, for economy, the ratio of overall depth to width

should be between 1.5 and 2.0.

overall depth of the beam.

For main bars, choose one size if possible. In any case, limit the main

bars to two sizes and that too without much variation in diameter

between the two.

Usual widths of beams adopted in mm are ; 150, 200, 230, 250, 275 and

300mm.

Beam width should be equal to or less than the dimension of the column

in to which it frames.

Lecture- 6

Doubly Reinforced Beams

1. When beam depth is restricted and the moment the beam has to

carry is greater than the moment capacity of the beam in concrete

failure.

2. When B.M at the section can change sign.

3. When compression steel can substantially improve the ductility of

beams and its use is therefore advisable in members when larger

amount of tension steel becomes necessary for its strength.

4. Compression steel is always used in structures in earthquake

regions to increase their ductility.

5. Compression reinforcement will also aid significantly in reducing

the long-term deflections of beams.

Doubly Reinforced Beams

compression and tension faces.

singly reinforced beam is inadequate.

sign, such a situation may also arise in design of a ring beam.

Doubly Reinforced Beams

1. Analysis of a doubly reinforced section involves determination of

moment of resistance with given beam width, depth, area of

tension and compression steels and their covers.

consists of two parts; both in concrete and steel in compression.

stress or less depending on position of the neutral axis.

Doubly Reinforced Concrete Beam

Steel Beam Theory

Design Steps

1. Determine the limiting moment of resistance Mum for the given

cross-section using the equation for a singly reinforced beam

Mu,lim = 0.87fy.Ast,1 [d - 0.42xu,m] = 0.36 fck.b.xu.m [d - 0.42xu,m ]

2. If the factored moment Mu exceeds Mlim, a doubly reinforced

section is required (Mu - Mlim) = Mu2

Additional area of tension steel Ast2 is obtained by considering

the equilibrium of force of compression in comp. steel and force

of tension T2 in the additional tension steel

sc Asc cc Asc = 0.87fy Ast2

sc Asc = 0.87 fy Ast2

Asc = compression steel.

cc = Comp. stress in conc at the level of comp. steel = 0.446fck.

Reasons

1. When beam section is shallow in depth, and the flexural

strength obtained using balanced steel is insufficient i.e. the

factored moment is more than the limiting ultimate moment of

resistance of the beam section. Additional steel enhances the

moment capacity.

2. Steel bars in compression enhances ductility of beam at ultimate

strength.

3. Compression steel reinforcement reduces deflection as moment

of inertia of the beam section also increases.

4. Long-term deflections of beam are reduced by compression

steel.

5. Curvature due to shrinkage of concrete are also reduced.

6. Doubly reinforced beams are also used in reversal of external

loading.

Lecture- 7

Design of Flanged Beams

In reinforced concrete construction, slab is supported over beams.

Simple concrete slabs of moderate depth and weight are limited to spans

of 3m to 5m

If it is desired for long spans without excessive weight and material, slab

is built monolithically with RC beams and beams are considered as

flanged beams.

At the interior portions of floor, slab with beam acts as a T-beam and at

an end the portion acts as an L-beam.

Shear reinforcement of beams and bent bars extend into slab and

Complete construction is cast integrally. A part of slab acts with upper

part in bending compressive stresses.

Flanged Beams

T-Beam

Effective Width of Flange

Theoretically width of flange is supposed to act as top flange of

beam.

are less highly stressed in longitudinal compression than those

elements directly over webs of beams.

beam and is treated to be uniformly stressed at the maximum

value, which is smaller than actual width of flange.

breadth of web, bw and thickness of flange, Df.

Effective Width of Flange

IS: 456-2000 recommends for effective width of flanges of T-

and L-beams.

For symmetrical T-beams

bf = [(l0\6) + bw + 6Df]

For beams with slab on one side only

bf = [(l0\12) + bw + 3Df]

For isolated T-beams

bf = [(l0\((l0\b)+4)) + bw]

For Isolated L-beams

bf = [(0.5l0\((l0\b)+4)) + bw]

Effective Width of Flange

Calculated effective flange width, bf shall be not greater than the

breadth of web plus half the sum of clear distances to the adjacent

beams on either side

Location of Neutral Axis

Depending upon proportions of cross-section, area of steel

reinforcement in tension, strength of materials

1. Neutral axis of a T-beam in one case may lie in the flange i.e.

depth of NA, xu is less than or equal to thickness of flange or depth

of slab, Df (Neutral axis lies within flange (xu < Df))

thickness of slab, Df.

and a parabolic portion of depth 0.57xu.

Stress Block

in T-Beam

(2) NEUTRAL AXIS LIES OUT SIDE FLANGE [i.e. xu > Df]

When NA of T-section lies outside flange, it lies in web of T-beam.

However, there are two possibilities depending upon whether

depth of flange Df is less than or equal to 0.43xu or Df is more

than 0.43 xu.

Comparison of Df with 0.43xu (i.e. 3/7xu) is more rational as

0.43xu is actual depth of rectangular portion of stress block.

considered as small.

in concrete in web of width, bw, Cw, cu and compressive force in

concrete in the flange excluding web, Cf, cu.

(2) NEUTRAL AXIS LIES OUT SIDE FLANGE [i.e. xu > Df]

to uniform stress equal to 0.446fck (0.43xu) and remaining portion

is subjected to parabolic stress.

modified thickness of flange equal to

yf = (0.15xu + 0.65Df)

is recommended by IS456-2000.

Moment of Resistance

I. A singly reinforced slab 120mm thick is supported by T-beam spaced at

3.5m c/c has an effective depth, d= 550mm, width, bw = 400mm. The beam is

provided with steel reinforcement consisting of 5 bars of 20mm diameter in

one layer, d = 50mm. le = 3.7m. Use M20 grade concrete and Fe415 steel.

Determine the depth of neutral axis and the moment of resistance of the

beam, MR?

II. Calculate the moment of resistance of a T-beam for M20 and Fe415, Df = 120

mm, bf = 750mm, bw = 250mm, d = 50mm, D = 500mm

6.5 kN/m. Design an intermediate beam using M20 and Fe415 steel.

100kN-m. Use M20 and Fe 415 HYSD bars.

Examples

1. A single reinforced rectangular beam is 400mm wide. The effective

depth of the beam section is 560mm and its effective cover is 40mm. The

steel reinforcement consists of 4 MS 18mm diameter bars in the beam

section. The grade of concrete is M20. Locate the neutral axis of the

beam section.

2. In example 1, the bending moment at a transverse section of beam is 105

kN-m. Determine the strains at the extreme fibre of concrete in

compression and steel bars provided as reinforcement in tension. Also

determine the stress in steel bars.

3. In example 2, the strain in concrete at the extreme fibre in compression

cu is 0.00069 and the tensile stress in bending in steel is 199.55 N/mm2.

Determine the depth of neutral axis and the moment of resistance of the

beam section.

4. Determine the moment of resistance of a section 300mm wide and

450mm deep up to the centre of reinforcement. If it is reinforced with (i)

4-12mm fe415 grade bars, (ii) 6-18mm fe415 grade bars.

Examples

5. A rectangular beam section is 200mm wide and 400mm deep up to the centre

of reinforcement. Determine the reinforcement required at the bottom if it

has to resist a factored moment of 40kN-m. Use M20 grade concrete and

fe415 grade steel.

6. A rectangular beam section is 250mm wide and 500mm deep up to the centre

of tension steel which consists of 4-22mm dia. bars. Find the position of the

neutral axis, lever arm, forces of compression and tension and safe moment

of resistance if concrete is M20 grade and steel is Fe500 grade.

effective cover of 40mm. Find the reinforcement required if it has to resist a

moment of 35 kN.m. Assume M20 concrete and Fe250 grade steel.

9. A reinforced concrete beam of rectangular section 300 mm wide 650 mm deep is

reinforced with 4 bars of 25 mm diameter at an effective depth of 600 mm. Calculate the

neutral axis depth and estimate the safe moment of resistance of the section adopting

M25 grade concrete and Fe415 HYSD bars.

10. A reinforced concrete beam of rectangular section 350 mm wide 750 mm overall depth

is reinforced with 3 bars of 20 mm diameter at an effective depth of 700 mm. Adopting

M30 grade concrete and FE500 grade steel reinforcement, calculate the safe moment of

resistance of the section. If the beam spans over 5 m, estimate the safe permissible live

load on the beam.

11. A reinforced concrete beam of rectangular section having a width of 400 mm and overall

depth 850 mm is reinforced with 4 bars of 25 mm diameter both on the compression and

tension sides at an effective cover of 50 mm. Using M20 grade concrete and Fe415

HYSD bars, compute (a) the actual neutral axis; (b) the critical neutral axis; and (c) the

safe moment of resistance of the section.

12. A reinforced concrete rectangular section 300 mm wide 600 mm overall depth is

reinforced with 4 bars of 25 diameter at an effective cover of 50 mm on the tension side.

Assuming M20 grade concrete and FE415 HYSD bars, determine the allowable bending

moment and the stresses in steel and concrete corresponding to this moment.

Assignment No.3

1. Solve all the examples on slides 160-162

2. Explain the need of doubly reinforced sections.

3. Make a gist of codal provisions pertaining to flexural design.

Submissions to be mailed on: aasifdce.nit@gmail.com

Next Lecture:

Deflection of Beams

Shear design of Beams

Lecture-8

DEFLECTIONS OF BEAMS

Deflections

Deflection of structure or part thereof shall not adversely affect

the appearance or efficiency of structure or finishes or partitions.

i. Final deflection due to all loads including the effects of

temperature, creep and shrinkage and measured from as-cast level

of supports of floors, roofs and all other horizontal members

should not normally exceed span/250.

occurring after erection of partitions and application of finishes

should not normally exceed (span/350) or 20mm whichever is less.

Factors influencing limits on deflection in flexural members

Aesthetic/psychological discomfort

Limits on deflections of flexural members

long term effects of creep and shrinkage after construction of

structural members and before the construction of partitions and

finishes should be less than Span

250

including temperature effect, long-term effects of creep and

shrinkage that occur after the construction of partitions and

finishes should be less than Span or 20 mm

350

Short-Term Deflections

Short-term deflections due to the applied service loads are

generally based on the assumptions of linear elastic behavior,

and for this purpose, reinforced concrete is treated as a

homogenous material.

WL3

kw

EI

Where

ML2

km

W = total load on the span EI

M = maximum moment

Kw and Km constants depend on the load distribution conditions of end

restraint and variation in the flexural rigidity EI.

For the purpose of calculating shortterm deflections in reinforced concrete

flexural members elastic theory may be used of.

Flexural rigidity is to be considered in the calculation.

Short-Term Deflections

Modulus of elasticity of concrete depends on:

Concrete quality,

Age

Stress level and

Rate or duration of applied load.

Short-term loading upto service load levels, IS:456-2000 specifies the

modulus of elasticity as Ec=5000fck.

Second moment of area, I, to be considered in the deflection

calculations is influenced by

Percentage reinforcement

Extent of flexural cracking,

which in turn depends on the applied bending moment and the

modulus of rupture, fcr, of concrete.

Flexural rigidity, EI is obtainable as the slope(secant modulus)

of the moment-curvature relationship.

i. EIT Based on uncracked transformed section

ii. EIgr Based on gross uncracked transformed section ignoring steel

iii. EIeff Based on effective section

iv. EIcr Based on cracked transformed section

EIT - True EI for M < Mcr (EIT - constant)

EIeff - True EI for M > Mcr (EIeff depends on the load level)

IS: 456-2000 specifies, I cr

I eff

M z x b

1.2 cr 1 w

Icr Ieff Igr M d d b

Icr = Moment of inertia of the cracked section

Mcr = Cracking moment I

M cr f cr gr

yt

fcr = Modulus of rupture of concrete

Igr = Moment of inertia of the gross section about the centroidal axis, neglecting the

reinforcement.

yt = Distance from centroidal axis of gross section, neglecting reinforcement to

extreme fiber in tension.

M = Maximum moment under service load

Z = lever arm

x = Depth of neutral axis

D = Effective depth

bw= Breadth of web and,

b = Breadth of compression face

For continuous beams, deflections shall be calculated using the

values of Icr, Igr and Mcr, modified by the following equation:

X e k1

X1 X 2 1 k X

1 0

2

k1 = coefficient

X= value of Icr, Igr, or Mcr as appropriate

Xe= modified value of X

X1 and X2= values of X at the supports 1 and 2

Xo= value of X at mid-span.

Values of k1

k2 0.5 or less 1.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3

k1 0 1.0 0.03 0.08 0.16 0.30 0.50 0.73 0.91 0.97

M 1 M 2

M1 ,M2 = support moments k 2

MF1, MF2 = fixed end moment M F1 M F 2

Deflections due to shrinkage

Deflections due to shrinkage cs may be computed from the equation:

cs k3csl 2

k3 = constant depending upon the support conditions

= 0.5, for cantilever

= 0.125, for simply supported members

= 0.086, for members continuous at one end

= 0.063, for fully continues members

cs= shrinkage curvature K 4 cs

D

( Pt Pc )

K 4 0.72 for

1.0 0.25 ( Pt Pc ) 1.0

Pt

100 Ast 100 Asc

( Pt Pc ) Pt ; Pc

0.65 1.0 for ( Pt Pc ) 1.0 bd bd

Pt

D = total depth of the section

l= length of the span.

Deflections due to creep

Creep deflections due to permanent loads is given by,

where,

i,cc(perm)= initial plus creep deflections due to permanent loads obtained

using an elastic analysis with effective modulus of elasticity.

i,(perm)= Short-term deflections due to permanent load using Ec=5000fck

Effective modulus of elasticity is, EC

Ece

[1 ]

7 days 2.2

28 days 1.6

1 year 1.1

Control of Deflections

For control of deflection two methods are usually described in

codes of practice

members should not be more than those specified in the codes

checking it with the allowable deflection in the codes of practice

Control of Deflections

Empirical procedure for control of deflection is to control the span-

to-effective depth ratio.

Deflection of beams or slabs depend on

1. Span-to-effective depth ratio

2. Type of support

3. Percentage of tension reinforcement or the stress level at service loads

if more than the necessary steel is provided at the section.

4. Percentage of compression reinforcement

5. Type of beam (whether it is flanged or rectangular)

Vertical deflection limits may generally be assumed to be satisfied

provided that the span-to-depth ratios are not greater than the

values obtained

Basic Span-to-depth Ratios

a. Basic values of span-to-effective depth ratios for spans up to or

less than 10m are

1. Cantilever 7

2. Simply supported 20

3. Fixed or Continuous 26

b. For spans above 10m, values in (a) may be multiplied by

(10/span in meters), except for cantilever.

calculated and the requirement for limit state of deflection be

checked.

1. Depending on the area and the stress in steel reinforcement in

tension, the values in (a) or (b) shall be modified by multiplying

with the modification factor obtained as per Fig. 4.

Factor F1 can be calculated

1

F1 2.0

0.225 0.00322 f s 0.625 log 10 pt

2. Depending on the area of compression reinforcement, the value

of span-to-depth ratio is further modified by multiplying with the

modification factor obtained as per Fig. 5.

Factor F2 can be calculated

1.6 pc

F2 1.5

pc 0.275

3. For flanged beam, values of (a) or (b) be modified as per Fig. 6

and the reinforcement percentage for use in Fig.4 and 5 should be

based on area of section equal to bfd.

Factor F3 can be calculated

2 bw

F3 0.8 0.3 0.8

7 b f

Final Span-to-Effective Depth Ratio

The final allowable span-to-effective depth ratio

Basic RatioF1 F2 F3

L

d

The ratio (L/d) obtained should be as follows

L

L

(obtained) F1 F2 F3

d d Basic

Slenderness Limits for Beam to Ensure Lateral Stability

A simply supported or continuous beam shall be so proportioned that

clear distance between the lateral restraints does not exceed 60b or

250b 2

d whichever is less.

Where

For a cantilever, the clear distance from the free end of the cantilever

2

100b

to the lateral restraint shall not exceed 25b or

d

whichever is less.

Lecture 9-11

Design for shear

Bending Stresses in Beams

Deflection of Beam under Pure BM

6-Dec-16 188

Deflected Shape of Beam

Neutral Surface/Axis

18

6-Dec-16 9

Shear Stress in Beams-General Loading

Equilibrium of Forces

Vertical Shear Force

Bending Moment

1

6-Dec-16 9

Horizontal Shear Stress

1

6-Dec-16

9

1

Deflection of Beam with Planks

6-Dec-16 19

2

Horizontal Shear in Wooden Beams

19

6-Dec-16 3

Definition of Shear Span

P P

a a

V = +P

V = -P

M=Va

194

6-Dec-16

Principal Stress Trajectories

Diagonal Tension

V V

V

Diagonal Crack

V

V

V

V V

6-Dec-16 19

5

Cracking in RC Beams

6-Dec-16 19

6

Types of Cracks

Type and formation of cracks depend on span-to-depth ratio of

beam and loading.

For simply supported beam under uniformly distributed load,

three types of cracks are identified.

1.Flexural cracks: form at the bottom near mid span and propagate

upwards.

2.Web shear cracks: form near neutral axis close to support and

propagate inclined to the beam axis.

3.Flexure shear cracks: These cracks form at bottom due to flexure

and propagate due to both flexure and shear.

Formation of cracks for a beam with large span-to-depth ratio and uniformly

distributed loading is shown.

b) Growth of flexural cracks and formation of flexure shear and web shear

cracks.

c) Cracks before failure

Fig. 7 Formation of cracks in a reinforced concrete beam

Components of Shear Resistance

1. Components of shear resistance at a flexure shear crack are shown in the

following figure.

The notations in the previous figure are as follows.

Vcz = Shear carried by uncracked concrete

Va = Shear resistance due to aggregate interlock

Vd = Shear resistance due to dowel action

Vs = Shear carried by stirrups

Magnitude and relative value of each component change with increasing load.

Modes of Failure

For beams with low span-to-depth ratio or inadequate shear

reinforcement, the failure may be due to shear.

Failure due to shear is sudden as compared to failure due to

flexure.

Five modes of failure due to shear are identified.

1. Diagonal tension failure

2. Shear compression failure

3. Shear tension failure

4. Web crushing failure

5. Arch rib failure

Mode of failure depends on span-to-depth ratio, loading, cross-

section of beam, amount and anchorage of reinforcement.

6-Dec-16 202

Diagonal tension failure: inclined crack propagates rapidly due

to inadequate shear reinforcement.

Shear compression failure: crushing of concrete near the

compression flange above the tip of the inclined crack.

Shear tension failure: inadequate anchorage of longitudinal bars,

diagonal cracks propagate horizontally along the bars.

inadequate web thickness.

Arch rib failure: in deep beams, web may buckle and

subsequently crush. There can be anchorage failure or failure of

the bearing.

flexure at its ultimate flexural strength.

Design involves not only design of the stirrups, but also limiting

average shear stress in concrete, providing adequate thickness of

web and adequate development length of longitudinal bars.

Shear in Reinforced Concrete Members

Behavior of RC members under Shear (including combined

loads with other loads) is very complex

1. Non-homogeneity of materials

2. Presence of Cracks and Reinforcement

3. Nonlinearity in Material Response

i. Based on results of extensive tests on small size members with

simplifying assumptions

ii. No unified and universally accepted method for prediction of shear

strength of beams without web reinforcement

6-Dec-16 20

6

Shear Transfer Mechanisms

va = Aggregate Interlock forces (35-50%)

vd = Dowel action from longitudinal bars (15-25%)

Total Resistance = (vcz + vay +vd ) (For Beams without stirrups)

6-Dec-16 207

Factors Influencing Shear Strength

2. Percentage of Flexural (Tensile) Reinforcement (t)

3. Shear Span-to-Depth Ratio (a/d)

4. Depth of Member (d)

5. Size of Aggregate (da) ?????

6-Dec-16 208

Shear Strength with Compressive Strength of Concrete

Ultimate Strength

Diagonal Cracking Strength

Shear Strength

f'c

Compressive Strength of Concreet

20

6-Dec-16 9

Shear Strength with Tension Reinforcement

Ultimate Strength

Diagonal Cracking Strength

Shear Strength

%Tens. Steel

% Tension Steel

6-Dec-16 21

0

Shear Strength vs. Shear Span-to-Depth Ratio

Ultimate Strength

Shear Strength

a/d

a/d ratio

21

6-Dec-16 1

Failure Mechanism of RC Elements at different a/d Ratio

6-Dec-16 212

Failure Mechanisms

Deep Beams (a/d < 1)

Arch action

Compression

Chord

Anchorage Failure

Bearing Failure

21

6-Dec-16

3

Short Beams (1 < a/d < 2.5) W

V Shear Tension Failure

W

Crushing of Concrete

21

6-Dec-16 4

Slender Beams (2.5 < a/d < 6)

W

C

a

e

j

c

d b

h g

a

6-Dec-16 215

Does beam depth effect the strength?

decrease in strength with increase in member size

i) material heterogeneity and

a. micro cracking before application of any load

c. macro cracking

6-Dec-16 216

Size effect in shear is more serious due to

Evidence

Sudden failure of Wilkins Air force depot warehouse in Shelby, Ohio (1955)

due to Hyogo-Ken Nambu Earth Quake in 1995

6-Dec-16 21

7

Wilkins Air Force Depot in Shelby, Ohio (1955)

21

6-Dec-16

8

Collapse of Superstructure - Hyogo-Ken Nambu EQ (1995)

21

6-Dec-16

9

Diagonal Cracking and Ultimate Strength

Ultimate Strength: load corresponding to the total and

complete failure due to shear and diagonal tension

of first fully developed inclined crack

a. An inclined crack is considered to be fully developed when it has

progressed sufficiently towards both the mid span and the support

while intersecting the tensile reinforcement

22

6-Dec-16

0

Diagonal Cracking and Ultimate Strength

1. Normally, visual methods are deployed to measure the diagonal

cracking loads in the laboratory

2. load at the onset of formation of first diagonal crack

3. when the diagonal crack crosses the mid height of the beam

22

6-Dec-16

1

The design provisions in most of the codes

or deep beams is obtained

3) Need to be re-examined

for prediction of shear strength are Empirical in Nature for

Beams without Web Reinforcement

22

6-Dec-16

2

Prediction of Shear Strength

ACI - 2002

Vd

vc 0.16 f c 17.2 u 0.3 f ' c MPa (6)

'

Mu

vc 0.17 f ' c MPa 6 (a)

Simplified

Mu Vu d

vc 3.5 - 2.5

0.16 f c 17.2

'

MPa (7)

Vu d Mu

Mu Vud

where 3.5 - 2.5 2.5 and 1.0

Vu d Mu

6-Dec-16 223

BS 8110 - 1997

1/ 3

0.79 100 As 400 f cu

1/ 4 1/ 3

vc MPa (8)

m bv d d 25

100 As 400

Where 3.0, 1.0, m 1.25 and f cu 40.0 MPa

bv d d

2

vc (Eqn.8) for a d 2.0

a

d

6-Dec-16 224

Prediction of Shear Strength

IS 456-2000

0.85 0.8fck ( (1 5 1)

vcr MPa (9)

6

0.62 f ck

Where 0.8 fck = Cylinder strength in terms of cube strength and

0.85 reduction factor = 1/m ~ 1/1.2

0.8fck

and 1.0

6.89

2

For Short Beams vcr (Eqn.9)

a/d

22

6-Dec-16

5

Design of Beams for Shear

v

bd

Where

vu = shear force due to design loads

b = breadth of the member which for flanged sections shall be

taken as the breadth of web bw and

d = effective depth

6-Dec-16 226

Shear Strength of RC beams

Calculate the nominal shear stress and compare with the shear

strength of RC beams from Table 19 of IS 456-2000.

beams without shear reinforcement, then the beam needs to be

designed for shear reinforcement.

reinforcement is provided which is given by

Asv 0.4

bsv fy

Asv f y

sv

0.4b

6-Dec-16 227

6-Dec-16 228

Prediction of Shear Strength

IS 456-2000

0.85 0.8fck ( (1 5 1)

c MPa 0.62 f ck

6

0.85 reduction factor = 1/m ~ 1/1.2

0.8fck

and 1.0

6.89

For Short Beams 2

vcr (Eqn.9)

a/d

22

6-Dec-16

9

Design of Shear Reinforcement

I. When the shear stress is greater than shear strength given in

Table 19 (IS 456), shear reinforcement shall be provided in any of

the following forms

a. Vertical stirrups

b. Bent-up bars along with stirrups and

c. Inclined stirrups

V c bd

6-Dec-16 230

Forms of Shear Reinforcement

6-Dec-16 231

Forms of Shear Reinforcement

vs d

sv

For single bar or single group of parallel bars all bent up at the

same cross-section

Vs sv . Asv . sin

= angle between the inclined stirrup or bent up bar and the axis

of the member not less than 450

232

6-Dec-16

Truss Analogy

6-Dec-16 233

Truss Analogy

1.Action of vertical and inclined (stirrups) shear reinforcement may

be described by the analogous truss action.

2.In a simple truss, the upper and lower chords are in compression

and tension respectively; the diagonal members, called web

members, are alternately in compression and tension.

reinforcement similar in action to tensile web members in a truss.

concrete and is usually hooped around longitudinal tension

reinforcement.

6-Dec-16 234

Design of Stirrups

sv = spacing of links

d

Number of links crossing 450 diagonal crack N

sv

Vs 0.87 f y ASV

Spacing of stirrups required= sv

0.87 f y Asv

v c bd sv

d

0.87 f y Asv

sv b v c

6-Dec-16 235

Design of Bent-up Bars

Horizontal length over which the bar is effective can be taken as equal to d(cot +

cot ), where = direction of shear compression, = angle at which the bars bent

Let sv = spacing of bent bars. Then the number of effective bars in this region are

N

sv

The maximum shear carried by bent up bars =

cot cot d d '

Vs Asv 0.87 f y sin sv

Asv 0.87 f y

cos sin d ; 450 ; (d d ' ) d

sv

6-Dec-16 236

Enhanced Shear Near Supports

shear strength.

reinforcement normally takes place on a plane making an angle

300 with the horizontal.

done in design of brackets, ribs, corbels etc.

6-Dec-16 237

Critical Sections for shear in beams which are

supported on members in compression, and tension

30

av

d

(a) Beams with compression at end region

23

6-Dec-16

8

Beams of Varying Depth

Beams with varying depth are encountered in RC.

moment and shear force.

1. Case (a): Bending moment increases numerically in the direction

in which effective depth increases.

in which effective depth increases.

6-Dec-16 239

Case (a) Case (b)

V H

C

C

H V

M = H Jd

S.S. Beam

Cantilever

6-Dec-16 240

Effective shear force for determining the shear stress

M

V Vw tan for case(a)

d

M

V Vw tan for case(b)

d

6-Dec-16 24

1

Design of Stirrups at Steel Cut-off Points

When flexural reinforcement in beams is terminated in

tension region, at that section it should satisfy

a) shear at cut-off point does not exceed two-thirds of combined

strength of concrete and steel. s 1.5 c

direction over a distance from the cut-off point equal to

three-fourth effective depth, equal to A' 0.4 b s

su

fy

Spacing of stirrups

8

Total area of bars

6-Dec-16 242

Minimum Shear Reinforcement

1. Restrains the growth of inclined cracking.

2. Ductility is increased and gives warning before failure.

a member is subjected to an unexpected tensile force or an

overload.

the total factored shear force Vu is greater than one-half the

shear strength provided by concrete kVc.

strength increases to prevent sudden shear failure by inclined

cracking.

6-Dec-16 243

Deep Beams

thickness is much smaller than either span or depth.

state of plane stress in concrete

shear span, a, less than about twice depth are called deep beams.

24

6-Dec-16 4

h (a). loads applied along the compression edge

a a

245

6-Dec-16

Deep Beams

Examples of Deep Beams found in:

Column offsets,

Walls of rectangular tanks and bins,

Floor diaphragms

Shear walls,

in folded plate roof structures

normal beams, requires special consideration in analysis, design,

and detailing of reinforcement.

6-Dec-16 24

6

Deep Beams

Deep Beams (a/d < 1)

Arch action

Compression

Chord

Anchorage Failure

Bearing Failure

24

6-Dec-16 7

Failure in Deep Beams

24

6-Dec-16

8

6-Dec-16 249

6-Dec-16 250

1.A simply supported beam of cross section of width 200mm and overall depth

400mm is provided with 3- 16 mm diameter HYSD bars in tension. Cover to

the reinforcement is 40mm. The span of the beam is 5.0m. The beam is

subjected to a uniformly distributed dead load of 10 kN/m and a live load of 15

kN/m. Half of the imposed load is permanent. Calculate the total long-term

deflection at the mid-span. fck=40 N/mm2, fy=415 N/mm2, =2.5=creep

coefficient, cs=0.0003

2.A simply supported beam rectangular in cross section, 450mmX750mm, spanning 10m

is subjected to a dead load of 24 kN/m and an imposed load of 34.5 KN/m. The

characteristic concrete and steel strengths are fck=40 N/mm2 and fy=460 N/mm2

respectively, Es= 200 kN/m2 and Ec=5000fck. (Ast= (3)- 40mm dia bars).

i. Determine the mid-span service-load concrete strains at the level of the tension

reinforcements at the tension face (i.e. the soffit) of the beam, and at 250 mm below the

neutral axis.

ii.If, due to creep of concrete, the value of Ec becomes half of the short-term value,

calculate the strain due to the long-term service loads.

1.A beam 200mm wide and 400mm overall depth is reinforced with 2 nos of

20mm diameter bars is acted on by a load, part of which is permanent. The

bending moment due to the total loading is50 kN-m and the bending moment,

Mp due to the permanent load is 36 kN-m. Assuming the section as a partially

cracked section, determine, the long-term curvature of the beam under

permanent load, if fck=0.55 N/mm2 appropriate to long-term loading, the

instantaneous curvature under the total load and the permanent loads, if

fck=1.0 N/mm2 for short-term loading and the difference between the

instantaneous curvature under the total and permanent load. Given that

Ec=5000fck, Es=200 kN/m2, =2.5, fck=40 N/mm2 and fy=460 N/mm2.

Assignment No.4

1. Solve all the examples on slides 251-252

2. Under what conditions is the traditional method of shear design

inappropriate? Describe the Truss Analogy of shear transfer mechanism.

3. Make a gist of codal provisions pertaining to Shear Design and control of

delections

Submissions to be mailed on: aasifdce.nit@gmail.com

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