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Design of Reinforced Concrete

Course Coordinator: Prof. A.R. Dar
Course Instructor: Dr. Asif H. Shah
5th Sem Civil Engg.

New lecture starts from slide 164

Course Content
Civil Engineering Structures
Concrete Structures
Structural Design
Engineering Systems
Different Engineering Systems
Structural Elements
Structural Elements


Structural Analysis versus Structural Design
Introduction to Reinforced Concrete (RC) Design

Reinforced concrete design encompasses both the art and science of

engineering. This course will present the theory of reinforced concrete as a
direct application of the laws of statics and mechanics of materials. RC design
involves around the designing of different structural and non structural
elements of any structural system like buildings, bridges, roads etc.

Elements of a reinforced concrete building

Elements of a reinforced concrete building
Elements of a reinforced concrete bridge
Problem Definition

Service Functions
Design It
Economy Right the
Location First Time
Surface & Subsurface Conditions
Environmental Impact etc

Material Availability
Zoning Requirements
Construction Expertise ...
The Design Process
The design process involves a number of stages. Any
structure to be built develops as a consequence of an
idea. The owner who wants to build the structure
studies and develops the conceptual design of the
The feasibility studies are carried out to decide
whether the project is possible to construct/develop.
The feasibility studies involve economical
considerations, environmental implications,
geopolitical issues etc.
Once the project gets through the feasibility stage of
the design process the functional design of the
structures is developed. This involves the architectural
design component. The outcome of this stage is the
architectural drawings.

The structural design component involves proposing

the appropriate dimensions of different structural
members on basis of the laws of mechanics and ones
artistic judgements. The outcome of this stage is the
dimensions of the structural members in the form of
structural drawings
General Design Procedures
Geometric/Architectural Design

Altern. 1 Altern. 2 Altern. 3 . Altern. n

Design It
Right the
First Time
Final Layout
Elevations etc
General Design Procedures
Preliminary Structural Design

Altern. 1 Altern. 2 Altern. 3 . Altern. n

Prliminary Design: Location and arrangement of load bearing elements, columns,
beams, footings etc., Sizing of structural elements for safety and serviceability
Architectural Constraints - Simplicity & Duplication - Fabrication & Construction Procedures
Economy: Add preliminary $ value to each design

Select Alternative for Final Design

General Design Procedures

Sizing of Members
Design of Details
Design Drawings* (Blueprints)
Bill of Materials
Total Cost

*Design Drawings Complete and Easy to Read

AISC: Detailing for Steel Construction

Engineering for Steel Construction
Preliminary/Final Design
Define External Loads

Estimate/Assume Initial Size of Structural Elements

Calculate Self Weigth

Structural Analysis

Select New Sizes Check Design (Codes & Specs)

NO Functional

Structural Design




The structural engineer is a member of a team that works together to design a building, bridge,
or other structure. In the case of a building an architect generally provides the overall layout,
and mechanical, electrical, and structural engineers design individual systems within the

Objectives of structural Design

The structure should satisfy four major criteria:
1. Appropriateness. The arrangement of spaces, spans, ceiling heights, access and traffic flow
must compliment the intended use. The structure should fit its environment and be
aesthetically pleasing.
2. Economy. The overall cost of the structure should not exceed the clients budget. Frequently,
teamwork in design will lead to overall economies.
3. Structural adequacy. Structural adequacy involves two major aspects.
(a) A structure must be strong enough to support all anticipated loadings safely.
(b) A structure must nit deflect, tilt, vibrate, or crack in a manner that impairs its usefulness.
4. Maintainability. A structure should be designed so as to require a minimum amount of simple
maintenance procedures.
Assignment No.1
1. Discuss briefly the important concepts in Mechanics of Materials/ Strength
of Materials which form the basis for structural design
2. Discuss briefly the important concepts of Structural analysis.
3. Explain the concept of load path ( load transfer mechanism) of three typical
civil engineering systems.

Last date for submission for Assignment No.1 : 7/11/2016.

Submissions to be mailed on: aasifdce.nit@gmail.com

Next Lecture:
Design philosophies
Concrete and steel as building materials
Before we start this lecture, I would like to answer the concerns raised by some of the students via
email/telephone. I got a number of phone calls and emails regarding the assignment and the books
to be referred for this course. Following books and codes can be referred to for this course.
1. Reinforced Concrete Design, S. Pillai, Devdas Menon, Tata Mcgraw Hill Education Private Limited.
2. Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures (IS:456-2000), N. Krishna Raju, CBS Publisher.
3. Reinforced Concrete : Limit State Design, Ashok K. Jain, Nem Chand & Brothers.
4. Fundamentals Of Reinforced Concrete Design, M. L Gambhir, Phi Learning.
5. Design of Concrete Structures, David Darwin, Charles W. Dolan, Arthur H. Nilson, McGraw-
Hill Science/Engineering/Math
6. Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics and Design ,James G. MacGregor, F. Michael Bartlett, Pearson
Education Canada.
7. Reinforced Concrete Structures, Robert Park, Thomas Paulay, Wiley
1. IS 456 : 2000 Indian Standard PLAIN AND REINFORCED CONCRETE, BIS, New Delhi
2. IS 875(Parts 1-5): 1987- Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and
3. SP 16:1980- Explanatory Handbook on IS 456:1978
4. ACI 318, 2011, ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, American Concrete Institute, USA
5. IS 1893:2002- Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures.

The students can also refer to the book Structures by Daniel Schodeck for an overview on the behavior
of different structural elements under different loadings
What is Concrete?

Concrete is one of the most commonly used

building materials.
Concrete is a composite material made from
several readily available constituents
(aggregates, sand, cement, water).
Concrete is a versatile material that can
easily be mixed to meet a variety of special
needs and formed to virtually any shape.

Ability to be cast
Fire resistant
Energy efficient
On-site fabrication
Low tensile strength
Low ductility
Volume instability
Low strength to weight ratio

Fine Agg.
Coarse Agg.

Setting Time
Unit Weight

It is desirable that freshly mixed concrete be

relatively easy to transport, place, compact
and finish without harmful segregation.
A concrete mix satisfying these conditions is
said to be workable.
Factors Affecting Workability

Method and duration of transportation

Quantity and characteristics of cementing
Aggregate grading, shape and surface texture
Quantity and characteristics of chemical
Amount of water
Amount of entrained air
Concrete & ambient air temperature

Workability is the most

important property of freshly
mixed concrete.
There is no single test method
that can simultaneously
measure all the properties
involved in workability.
It is determined to a large
extent by measuring the
consistency of the mix.

Consistency is the fluidity or degree of wetness

of concrete.
It is generally dependent on the shear
resistance of the mass.
It is a major factor in indicating the workability
of freshly mixed concrete.

Test methods for measuring consistency are:

Flow test measures the amount of flow

Kelly-Ball test measures the amount of
Slump test (Most widely used test!)
Slump Test is related with the ease with
which concrete flows during placement (TS
2871, ASTM C 143)
10 cm

30 cm

20 cm
The slump cone is filled in 3 layers. Every
layer is evenly rodded 25 times.

Measure the slump by determining the vertical difference

between the top of the mold and the displaced original center
of the top surface of the specimen.

Segregation refers to a separation of the components of

fresh concrete, resulting in a non-uniform mix

The primary causes of

segregation are differences Sp.Gr. Size
in specific gravity and size
of constituents of concrete. Cement 3-3.15 5-80 mm
Moreover, improper mixing, C.Agg. 2.4-2.8 5-40 mm
improper placing and
improper consolidation also F.Agg. 2.4-2.8 < 5 mm
lead to segregation.

Some of the factors affecting segregation:

Larger maximum particle size (25mm) and proportion of
the larger particles.
High specific gravity of coarse aggregate.
Decrease in the amount of fine particles.
Particle shape and texture.
Water/cement ratio.

Bleeding is the tendency of water to rise to the

surface of freshly placed concrete.

It is caused by the
inability of solid
constituents of the
mix to hold all of
the mixing water as
they settle down.
A special case of

Undesirable effects of bleeding are:

With the movement of water towards the top, the top

portion becomes weak & porous (high w/c). Thus the
resistance of concrete to freezing-thawing decreases.

Water rising to the surface carry fine particles of cement

which weaken the top portion and form laitance. This
portion is not resistant to abrasion.

Water may accumulate under the coarse agg. and

reinforcement. These large voids under the particles may
lead to weak zones and reduce the bond between paste
and agg. or paste and reinforcement.

The tendency of concrete to bleeding depends

largely on properties of cement. It is
decreased by:
Increasing the fineness of cement
Increasing the rate of hydration (C3S, C3A and
Adding pozzolans
Reducing water content
The principal properties of hardened concrete
which are of practical importance can be listed
1. Strength
2. Permeability & durability
3. Shrinkage & creep deformations
4. Response to temperature variations
Of these compressive strength is the most
important property of concrete. Because;
Of the abovementioned hardened properties
compressive strength is one of the most
important property that is often required,
simply because;
1. Concrete is used for compressive loads
2. Compressive strength is easily obtained
3. It is a good measure of all the other properties.
What Affects
Concrete Strength

Factors Affecting Strength

Effect of materials and mix proportions

Production methods
Testing parameters
The strength of a concrete specimen prepared,
cured and tested under specified conditions at a
given age depends on:
1. w/c ratio
2. Degree of compaction

Compressive Strength is determined by loading

properly prepared and cured cubic, cylindrical
or prismatic specimens under compression.

Cubic: 15x15x15 cm
Cubic specimens are crushed after rotating
them 90 to decrease the amount of friction
caused by the rough finishing.
Cylinder: h/D=2 with h=15
To decrease the amount of friction, capping of
the rough casting surface is performed.

Cubic specimens Cylindrical specimens

without capping with capping

Bonded sulphur capping Unbonded neoprene pads


Due to applied compression load a fairly uniform

tensile stress is induced over nearly 2/3 of the
diameter of the cylinder perpendicular to the
direction of load application.
2P P: applied compressive load
st =
D: diameter of specimen
Splitting Tensile
Strength l: length of specimen

The advantage of the splitting test over the

direct tensile test is the same molds are used
for compressive & tensile strength

The test is simple to perform and gives

uniform results than other tension tests.

The flexural tensile strength at failure or the

modulus of rupture is determined by loading a
prismatic concrete beam specimen.
The results
obtained are useful
because concrete
is subjected to
flexural loads more
often than it is
subjected to
tensile loads.

c 12

Mc (Pl/4) (d/2) 3 Pl
= = =
I bd3/12 2 bd2

P/2 P/2

(Pl/6) (d/2) Pl
= =
bd3/12 bd2
Factors Affecting the Strength of

1) Factors depended on the 2. Factors independent of

test type: test type:
Size of specimen Type of cement
Size of specimen in relation
with size of agg. Type of agg.
Support condition af Degree of compaction
specimen Mix proportions
Moisture condition of Type of curing
specimen Type of stress situation
Type of loading adopted
Rate of loading
Type of test machine

- relationship for
ult concrete is
nonlinear. However,
specially for
ult specimens with
h/D=2, it can be
ult assumed as linear
upto 40-50% of ult

Due to the nonlinearity

of the - diagram, E is
the defined by:
1. Initial Tangent Method
2. Tangent Method
3. Secant Method
Characteristic Strength
Characteristic strength is defined as the strength of material
below which not more than 5 percent of the test results are
expected to fall.

Strength of concrete varies for the same concrete mix, which give
different compressive strength in laboratory tests.

Variability in strength evidently depends on degree of quality


Variability in strength is measured in terms of either the

Standard Deviation or the Coefficient of Variation (COV),
which is the ratio of standard deviation to mean strength(fcm).
Characteristic Strength
Characteristic Strength
It is well established that the probability distribution of concrete
strength (for a given mix ) is approximately Normal.

Coefficient of variation is generally in the range of 0.01 to 0.02.

Due to significant variability in strength, it is necessary to ensure

that the designer has a reasonable assurance of a certain
minimum strength of concrete.

Characteristic strength provides minimum guaranteed strength.

Idealized Normal Distribution
Accordingly, the mean strength of concrete, fcm (as obtained from
28 days tests) has to be significantly greater than the 5 percentile
characteristic strength, f ck that is specified by the designer.

x x 2

f x x

i i

Normal Probability Curve
1 2
1 2 x x
The probability function, y exp
2 2

where e 2.71828

Let z

1 1 2
Then the probability function is y exp z
2 2
Normal Probability Curve
Strength of materials upon which design is based on that
strength is assumed to be normal.
Characteristic value is defined as that value below which it is
unlikely that more than 5% of the results will fall.

f ck f m 1.64

f ck = Characteristic Strength
f m = Standard Deviation
The relationship between f ck and f m accounts for variations in
results of test specimens and with the method, and control of
manufacture, quality of construction and type of materials
Characteristic Loads
Loads on structures can also be assessed stastically.
Characteristic Load = Mean Load 1.64 (standard deviation).
In most cases, it is the maximum loading on a structural member
that is critical and the upper, positive value given by the above
But the lower, minimum value may apply when considering the
stability of the behaviour of continuous members.
Characteristic Load
Importance of Codes
Impotance of Design Codes
Importance of Codes

National building codes have been formulated in different countries to lay down
guidelines for the design and construction of structures. The codes have evolved
from the collective wisdom of expert structural engineers, gained over the years.
These codes are periodically revised to bring them in line with current research,
and often, current trends.
The codes serve at least four distinct functions. Firstly, they ensure adequate
structural safety, by specifying certain essential minimum requirements for design.
Secondly, they render the task of the designer relatively simple; often, the results
of sophisticated analyses are made available in the form of a simple formula or
chart. Thirdly, the codes ensure a measure of consistency among different
designers. Finally they have some legal validity, in that they protect the structural
designer from any liability due to structural failures that are caused by inadequate
supervision and/or faulty material and construction
Design Philosophies
Over the years, various design philosophies have evolved in different parts of the
world, with regard to reinforced concrete design. A design philosophy is built up
on a few fundamental premises (assumptions), and is reflective of a way of
The earliest codified design philosophy is the working stress method of design
which is based on the assumption that the material behaves in a linear elastic
manner, and that adequate safety can be ensured by suitable restricting the
stresses in the material induced by the expected working loads on the structure.
In ultimate load theory, resistance of beam to pure bending is determined
either by ultimate strength of concrete or by yield point stress of steel, and
then the resistance can be divided by proper safety factor to determine the
bending resistance that can be relied upon under working conditions.
1. At any cross-section, plane section before bending remains
plane after bending.

2. Structural materials behave in linear elastic manner.

3. Permissible stresses are well below the strength of material.

4. Modulus of elasticity of concrete is constant.

5. Ratio of modulus of elasticity of steel to concrete, m
3 cbc
6. Perfect bond exists between steel and surrounding concrete..

7. All tensile stresses are taken by steel alone and none by

Sections of members of structures are designed assuming straight
line stress-strain relationships ensuring that at service loads the
stresses in steel and concrete do not exceed the allowable working

Allowable stresses are taken as fixed proportions of the ultimate

or yield strength of materials.
BM and SF on statically indeterminate structures are calculated
assuming linear elastic response.
c c

kd kd

d d(1-k/3)

Ast s st/m

(b) (c)

(a) Section (b) Strain diagram (c) Stress variation

Cracking Moment
When the stress in extreme tension fiber reaches its modulus of
rupture, fcr, the beam section cracks.
M cr fcr

fcr = Modulus of rupture

Mcr = Cracking moment
It = Second moment of area of transformed concrete section
with reference to NA.

byc3 byt3
It m 1 Ast ys

3 3
Cracking Moment
In the uncracked stage, the applied BM is less than the
cracking moment Mcr and the maximum tensile stress, fct
in concrete is less than its flexural tensile strength fcr.
As the applied moment on beam section increases
beyond linear elastic cracked phase, concrete strains
and stresses enter nonlinear range.
What is Limit State?

A limit state is a state of impending failure, beyond

which a structure ceases to perform its intended
function satisfactorily, in terms of either safety or

Safety: implies that the likelihood of (partial or total) collapse of

structure is acceptably low not only under (normal loads) service
loads but also under overloads.

Serviceability: satisfactory performance of structure under service

loads without discomfort to user due to excessive deflections,
cracking, vibration etc.

Other considerations such as durability, impermeability, acoustic

and thermal insulation etc.
Limit State Design
Limit States
Purpose: to achieve acceptable probability that a structure will not
become unfit for its intended use i.e. that it will not reach a limit
Thus, a structure ceases to be fit for use will constitute a limit state
and the design aims to avoid any such condition being reached
during the expected life of the structure.
Two principle types of limit state are;

i. Ultimate Limit State

ii. Serviceability Limit State

Limit State Design
Ultimate Limit State

This requires that the structure must be able to withstand, with an

adequate factor of safety against collapse, the loads for which it is

Limit state of Collapse: flexure, shear, compression, torsion,

bearing, etc.

Possibility of buckling or overturning must also be taken into

account, as must the possibility of accidental damage as caused, for
example, by an internal explosion.
Serviceability Limit States
Most important serviceability limit states are
Deflection: appearance or efficiency of any part of the structure
must not be adversely affected by deflections.

Cracking: local damage due to cracking and spalling must not

affect the appearance, efficiency or durability of structure.

Durability: this must be considered in terms of the proposed life

of the structure and its conditions of exposure.
Serviceability Limit States
Other limit states include
Excessive vibration: which may cause discomfort or alarm as well
as damage.

Fatigue: must be considered if cyclic loading is likely.

Fire resistance: this must be considered in terms of resistance to

collapse, flame penetration and heat transfer.

Special circumstances: any special requirements of the structure

which are not covered by any of the more common limit states,
such as earthquake resistance, must be taken into account.
Assumptions for Design in Flexure
1. At any cross-section, sections which are plane prior to
bending remain plane after bending. Or strain varies
linearly with distance from neutral axis i.e. plane
sections remain plane in bending.
2. The maximum strain in concrete at the outermost fiber
is 0.0035.
3. Stress-strain relationship in concrete could be either
rectangular, parabolic or combination of rectangular
and parabolic curves which should be agreeable with
the experimental results.
Assumptions for Design in Flexure
4. The stresses in steel bars used for reinforcement are
derived from the representative stress-strain curve for
the type of steel used.
5. Perfect bond between reinforced steel and adjoining
6. Tensile strength of concrete is neglected.
7. Minimum strain in steel reinforcement should not be
less than ((0.87fy/Es) + 0.002).
What is partial safety factor?

In Limit State Design, the load actually used for each

limit state is called the Design Load for that limit
Design Load is the product of the characteristic load
and the relevant partial safety factor for loads
Design load = f x (characteristic load)
Why do we use partial safety factors?

Partial safety factor is intended to cover those variations

in loading in design or in construction which are likely
to occur after the designer and the constructor have
each exercised carefully their skill and knowledge.

Also takes into account nature of limit state in question.

Partial Factors of Safety

Other possible variations such as constructional

tolerances are allowed for by partial factors of safety
applied to the strength of materials and to loadings.

Lack of adequate data, however, makes this

unrealistic and in practice the values adopted are
based on experience and simplified calculations.
Partial factors of safety for loads (f)
Errors and inaccuracies may be due to a number of causes:
Design assumptions and inaccuracy of calculation.
Possible unusual load increases.
Unforeseen stress redistributions.
Constructional inaccuracies
These are taken into account by applying a particular factor of
safety (f) on the loadings, so that
Design load = characteristic load x partial factor of safety (f)
This factor should also take into account the importance of the
limit state under consideration and reflect to some extent the
accuracy with which different type of loading can be predicted,
and the probability of particular load combinations occurring.
Partial Factor of Safety for loads

Limit State of Collapse Limit State of Serviceability

DL + LL 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 --

1.5 or
DL + WL or EL - 1.5 1.0 --- 1.0

DL + LL + WL/EL 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8

What is Design Strength?

In design calculations Design Strength for a given

material and limit state is obtained by dividing the
characteristic strength by the partial safety factor for
strength, appropriate to that material and that limit

When assessing the strength of a structure or structural

member for the limit state of collapse, the partial safety
factor should be taken as 1.5 for concrete and 1.15 for
Partial Factors of Safety for Materials(m)
The strength of material in an actual member will differ
from that measured in a carefully prepared test specimen
and it is particularly true for concrete where placing,
compaction and curing are so important to the strength.
Steel, on the other hand, is a relatively consistent material
requiring a small partial factor of safety.

The severity of the limit state being considered. Thus, higher

values are taken for the ultimate limit state than for the
serviceability limit state.
Curve fck

0.67 fck

0.67 fck/m

0.002 0.0035
Stress-Strain Curve for Concrete in Flexural Compression
0.0035 0.446 fck

Ast s 0.87
(a) (b)

Strain diagram and Stress blocks:

(a) Section; (b) Strain diagram; (c) Stress block
0.42 xu

0.36 fck xu

Stress Block Parameters

Limit State Design-
Statistical Concepts

If an event occurs in m occasions in a total of n

Probability of an event to happen = n

Probability of an event not to occur = 1 n
Frequency Distribution
Results of 100 cylinder splitting tensile tests on concrete are given
in Table1.

Numbers in Table are Characteristic Values of Variate

Characteristic values can be studied more conveniently if they are

rearranged in the ascending order of magnitude

Characteristic values are divided into class intervals

No. of values falling in each interval represents the frequency in

that interval.
Frequency Distribution
Frequency distribution (of tensile strengths) is Histogram.

The principle of histogram is that the area (not the

ordinate) of each rectangle represents the proportion of
observations falling in that intervals

If the number of observations increased and the class

interval reduced, histogram resembles a smooth curve

If the number of observations is infinite, histogram becomes

a smooth curve known as Normal Distribution Curve
Characteristics of Distribution

Mean = x1 x2 x3 xn x i
n n

If numbers x1 , x2 xi and frequencies f1 , f 2 , fi

respectively are given, mean may be calculated as

f1 x1 f 2 x2 fi xi fi xi
f1 f 2 fi n
Standard Deviation
x x

Standard deviation=
x x =Deviation of a number from the mean.

x x 2

= root mean square of the deviation from the mean.


COV = Ratio of standard deviation to mean, as percentage.

If the values of the individual samples are known along with

their frequency, the standard deviation can be estimated by

f x x
i i

Normal Distribution
Normal Distribution Curve
Normal distribution curve is defined by
1 2
1 2 x x
y exp
2 2

= Standard Deviation

e = Exponential = 2.71828 (base of the natural logo)

x = Mean of the variable.
Let x be expressed in terms of another variable z as below

xx x x z

z is the deviation from the mean expressed in multiple of the
standard deviation. The normal distribution form is

1 1
y exp z 2
2 2
Assignment No.2
1. Discuss different important properties of Concrete
2. Discuss steel as a reinforcing material.
3. Explain the Stress-Strain behavior of Concrete. Discuss the idealized curve.
4. Make a gist of IS-456 from clause 1 to Clause 21.

Last date for submission for Assignment No.2 : 22/11/2016.

Submissions to be mailed on: aasifdce.nit@gmail.com

Next Lecture:
Design of Beams
Lecture 5

Compression Failure of Singly Reinforced Beam

To assess the true behavior of section, stress-strain curve for

concrete should be assumed.

Strain is proportional to distance from neutral axis.

Shape of stress-strain curve indicates shape of compressive stress

block at various stages of loading.
Stress-Strain Distribution in Compressed Concrete

When total compressive force in concrete multiplied by lever arm

is maximum, section of beam reduces maximum moment of
In case, cross-sectional area of steel reinforcement bars is large
as HYSD bars are used.

Compressive strength of concrete will be exhausted prior to steel

bars start yielding. Depth of neutral axis increases considerably.

Compressive force increases and crushing will take place

Crushing failure is sudden, which is an explosive nature and

occurs without warning.
Tension Failure of Singly Reinforced Beams

In case, cross-sectional area of steel reinforcement is small at some

value of load; steel bars will attain their yield point.

Tensile force in steel bars remains constant at 0.87Astfy even with

increasing loading.

A small additional load causes large plastic elongation of steel. At that

stress, steel bars yield and stretch to a large amount.

Tension cracks are widened; which propagate upwards with the

simultaneous significant deflections of beam.

At this stage stress distribution in concrete becomes non-linear. The

mean stress in concrete increases. In order to maintain equilibrium
between internal forces, then depth of neutral axis reduces.
Balanced Beam Section

Beam section is called Balanced Section in case, area of steel

reinforcement in the section is such that the maximum compressive
strain in bending in concrete attains cu simultaneously as the strain
in steel reaches, sy1.
A singly reinforced rectangular beam section of breadth, b and effective
depth, d.
As per limit state of collapse, cu = 0.0035. Therefore, a balanced
section, is defined for design purposes as one in which the steel stress
reaches the design strength simultaneously as the concrete reaches the
strain 0.0035.
Under Reinforced Beam Section
A beam section is called Under Reinforced in case the area of steel
reinforcement provided in the beam section is such that the steel ratio is
less than that for balanced section, pb.
As bending moment increases, the strain in steel s reaches its limiting
value, sy , while strain in concrete, c remains still below its ultimate
value (0.0035).
In an under reinforced beam, steel yields prior to crushing of concrete
in compression. Since, crushing of concrete does not occur, (collapse of
beam does not occur), until strain in concrete at extreme fibre in
compression attains, cu.
Beam section continues to resist increasing applied moment and the
neutral axis shifts upwards.
Lever arm increases somewhat while the total compressive force in
concrete remains unaltered.
Over-Reinforced Beam Section

A beam section is called over-reinforced if the area of steel

reinforcement in the beam sections is such that the ratio of steel, p is
more than that for of the balanced section, pb.

Strain in concrete in compression reaches the ultimate strain, cu =

0.0035 prior to strain in steel reaches

In over-reinforced beam failure initiates in the concrete.

In crushing failure of concrete, deflection of beam remains small and

there is no extensive cracking.

Sudden failure without warning.

Design of Singly Reinforced Beams
Design of singly reinforced rectangular beams deals with the selection
grade of concrete mix,
quality of steel,
shape, sizes and proportions of beams

M20 and M25 grades of concrete mix are very commonly used for the

Mild steel bars, Fe 250 or high yield strength deformed steel bars Fe415
or Fe500 are used as tension reinforcement.

Material strengths for concrete and steel are known.

Design of Singly Reinforced Beams
Following are the usual steps in the design of singly reinforced beams.
i. Step-1. The effective span is needed to determine maximum moment
and maximum shear force.
For simply supported spans.
i. Effective span = clear span + effective depth
ii.ls = centre to centre of supports.
iii. width of supports at two ends of beams may be assumed as 300
mm or 600mm.
for Cantilever beam
i. Effective span = clear projection +
ii. Step-2. Loads acting on the beam are given. The max. moment and
max. shear forces should be calculated. Then, factored loads are
Side Face Reinforcement

When the overall depth of beam becomes more than 750mm, side face
reinforcement shall be provided along the two faces of the beam section,
to take into consideration the crack width limitation and lateral
buckling of the web in beam.

Side face reinforcement shall not be less than 0.1 percent of web area
and shall be distributed equally in two faces at a spacing not exceeding
300mm or web thickness whichever is less.
Spacing of Reinforcement
In order to ensure proper placement of concrete around the main
reinforcement bars and to achieve full surface contact between the bars
and concrete, it is necessary to maintain a certain minimum distance
between adjacent bars
Clear horizontal distance between two adjacent parallel main
reinforcing bars shall not be less than maximum of the following
i. diameter of the bar (for equal diameter)
ii. diameter of larger bar (unequal bars)
iii. 5 mm more than the nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate.
Clear vertical distance shall not be less than
a. 15mm
b. two-thirds of max-size of aggregate
c. maximum diameter of main bar.
Effective Span
Effective span of a member is computed as follows:-
1. Simply supported beam or slab: effective span of a simply supported
member is taken as lesser of the following:-
a. l = Lc + d
b. l = l (l = centre to centre distance between supports)
Where Lc = clear span
d = effective depth of beam or slab
Effective Span
2. Continuous beam or slab; effective span of a continuous beam or slab
is calculated as follows:-
a. If the width of support is less than or equal to Lc/12, the effective span
is taken as lesser of the following:-
i. l = Lc + d,
ii. Centre to centre distance between supports.
b. If width of support is greater than Lc/12 or 600mm, whichever is less, the
effective span is taken as follows:-
i. For end span with one end fixed and the other continuous or for intermediate
i. l = Lc
ii. For end span with one end free and the other continuous: the effective span is
the lesser of
i. l = Lc + 0.5d
ii. l = Lc + 0.5ts

ts = is the width of the discontinuous support

Guidelines for Design of Beams
The minimum percentage of tension steel used in beams should be
around 0.3 percent.

Usually, the depth of singly reinforced beams is so arranged that the

percentage of steel required is only around 75 percent of the balanced.

At least two bars should be used as tension steel, and not more than six
bars should be used in one layer in a beam.

The diameter of hanger bars should not be less than 10mm and that of
main reinforcement in tension 12mm. The usual diameters of bars
chosen for beams are 10,12,16,20,22,25 and 32mm.

When using different sized bars in one layer, place the largest diameter
bars near the beam faces. The areas of steel should be symmetrical
above the centre line of the beam.
Guidelines for Design of Beams

The depth of the beam should satisfy the deflection requirements w.r.t
L/d ratios. In addition, for economy, the ratio of overall depth to width
should be between 1.5 and 2.0.

In T-beams the depth of slab is usually taken as about 20 percent of the

overall depth of the beam.

For main bars, choose one size if possible. In any case, limit the main
bars to two sizes and that too without much variation in diameter
between the two.

Usual widths of beams adopted in mm are ; 150, 200, 230, 250, 275 and

Beam width should be equal to or less than the dimension of the column
in to which it frames.
Lecture- 6


Doubly Reinforced Beams
1. When beam depth is restricted and the moment the beam has to
carry is greater than the moment capacity of the beam in concrete
2. When B.M at the section can change sign.
3. When compression steel can substantially improve the ductility of
beams and its use is therefore advisable in members when larger
amount of tension steel becomes necessary for its strength.
4. Compression steel is always used in structures in earthquake
regions to increase their ductility.
5. Compression reinforcement will also aid significantly in reducing
the long-term deflections of beams.
Doubly Reinforced Beams

A doubly reinforced concrete beam is reinforced in both

compression and tension faces.

1. When depth of beam is restricted, strength available from a

singly reinforced beam is inadequate.

2. At a support of a continuous beam, the bending moment changes

sign, such a situation may also arise in design of a ring beam.
Doubly Reinforced Beams
1. Analysis of a doubly reinforced section involves determination of
moment of resistance with given beam width, depth, area of
tension and compression steels and their covers.

2. In doubly reinforced concrete beams the compressive force

consists of two parts; both in concrete and steel in compression.

3. Stress in steel at the limit state of collapse may be equal to yield

stress or less depending on position of the neutral axis.
Doubly Reinforced Concrete Beam
Steel Beam Theory
Design Steps
1. Determine the limiting moment of resistance Mum for the given
cross-section using the equation for a singly reinforced beam
Mu,lim = 0.87fy.Ast,1 [d - 0.42xu,m] = 0.36 fck.b.xu.m [d - 0.42xu,m ]
2. If the factored moment Mu exceeds Mlim, a doubly reinforced
section is required (Mu - Mlim) = Mu2
Additional area of tension steel Ast2 is obtained by considering
the equilibrium of force of compression in comp. steel and force
of tension T2 in the additional tension steel
sc Asc cc Asc = 0.87fy Ast2
sc Asc = 0.87 fy Ast2
Asc = compression steel.
cc = Comp. stress in conc at the level of comp. steel = 0.446fck.
1. When beam section is shallow in depth, and the flexural
strength obtained using balanced steel is insufficient i.e. the
factored moment is more than the limiting ultimate moment of
resistance of the beam section. Additional steel enhances the
moment capacity.
2. Steel bars in compression enhances ductility of beam at ultimate
3. Compression steel reinforcement reduces deflection as moment
of inertia of the beam section also increases.
4. Long-term deflections of beam are reduced by compression
5. Curvature due to shrinkage of concrete are also reduced.
6. Doubly reinforced beams are also used in reversal of external
Lecture- 7


Design of Flanged Beams
In reinforced concrete construction, slab is supported over beams.

Simple concrete slabs of moderate depth and weight are limited to spans
of 3m to 5m

If it is desired for long spans without excessive weight and material, slab
is built monolithically with RC beams and beams are considered as
flanged beams.

At the interior portions of floor, slab with beam acts as a T-beam and at
an end the portion acts as an L-beam.

Shear reinforcement of beams and bent bars extend into slab and
Complete construction is cast integrally. A part of slab acts with upper
part in bending compressive stresses.
Flanged Beams
Effective Width of Flange
Theoretically width of flange is supposed to act as top flange of

Elements of flange midway between webs of two adjacent beams

are less highly stressed in longitudinal compression than those
elements directly over webs of beams.

An effective width of flange, bf is used in the design of flanged

beam and is treated to be uniformly stressed at the maximum
value, which is smaller than actual width of flange.

Effective width of flange primarily depends on span of the beam,

breadth of web, bw and thickness of flange, Df.
Effective Width of Flange
IS: 456-2000 recommends for effective width of flanges of T-
and L-beams.
For symmetrical T-beams
bf = [(l0\6) + bw + 6Df]
For beams with slab on one side only
bf = [(l0\12) + bw + 3Df]
For isolated T-beams
bf = [(l0\((l0\b)+4)) + bw]
For Isolated L-beams
bf = [(0.5l0\((l0\b)+4)) + bw]
Effective Width of Flange
Calculated effective flange width, bf shall be not greater than the
breadth of web plus half the sum of clear distances to the adjacent
beams on either side

bf < 0.5 [l1 + l2] + bw

bf < 0.5 [l2 + L3] + bw

Location of Neutral Axis
Depending upon proportions of cross-section, area of steel
reinforcement in tension, strength of materials
1. Neutral axis of a T-beam in one case may lie in the flange i.e.
depth of NA, xu is less than or equal to thickness of flange or depth
of slab, Df (Neutral axis lies within flange (xu < Df))

2. NA may lie in web i.e. depth of neutral axis, xu is more than

thickness of slab, Df.

Stress diagram consists of a rectangular portion of depth 0.43xu

and a parabolic portion of depth 0.57xu.
Stress Block
in T-Beam
When NA of T-section lies outside flange, it lies in web of T-beam.
However, there are two possibilities depending upon whether
depth of flange Df is less than or equal to 0.43xu or Df is more
than 0.43 xu.
Comparison of Df with 0.43xu (i.e. 3/7xu) is more rational as
0.43xu is actual depth of rectangular portion of stress block.

In IS:456-2000, if (Df/d) is less than 0.2, the flange of T-beam is

considered as small.

i. Df is less than 0.43xu

Total area in compression consists of sum of compressive force

in concrete in web of width, bw, Cw, cu and compressive force in
concrete in the flange excluding web, Cf, cu.

i. Df > 0.43 xu or (Df > 0.2d)

i. Depth of flange Df is more than 0.43xu, some portion is subjected

to uniform stress equal to 0.446fck (0.43xu) and remaining portion
is subjected to parabolic stress.

i. To obtain compressive force in portion of flange, concept of

modified thickness of flange equal to

yf = (0.15xu + 0.65Df)

is recommended by IS456-2000.

i. Average stress is assumed to be 0.446fck

Moment of Resistance
I. A singly reinforced slab 120mm thick is supported by T-beam spaced at
3.5m c/c has an effective depth, d= 550mm, width, bw = 400mm. The beam is
provided with steel reinforcement consisting of 5 bars of 20mm diameter in
one layer, d = 50mm. le = 3.7m. Use M20 grade concrete and Fe415 steel.
Determine the depth of neutral axis and the moment of resistance of the
beam, MR?

II. Calculate the moment of resistance of a T-beam for M20 and Fe415, Df = 120
mm, bf = 750mm, bw = 250mm, d = 50mm, D = 500mm

III.T-beam floor, Df = 150mm, bw = 250mm spacing = 3.5m c/c, le = 8.0m. LL =

6.5 kN/m. Design an intermediate beam using M20 and Fe415 steel.

IV.T-beam d = 750mm, bf= 1400mm, Df = 100mm, bw = 300mm, Ast = ? M=

100kN-m. Use M20 and Fe 415 HYSD bars.
1. A single reinforced rectangular beam is 400mm wide. The effective
depth of the beam section is 560mm and its effective cover is 40mm. The
steel reinforcement consists of 4 MS 18mm diameter bars in the beam
section. The grade of concrete is M20. Locate the neutral axis of the
beam section.
2. In example 1, the bending moment at a transverse section of beam is 105
kN-m. Determine the strains at the extreme fibre of concrete in
compression and steel bars provided as reinforcement in tension. Also
determine the stress in steel bars.
3. In example 2, the strain in concrete at the extreme fibre in compression
cu is 0.00069 and the tensile stress in bending in steel is 199.55 N/mm2.
Determine the depth of neutral axis and the moment of resistance of the
beam section.
4. Determine the moment of resistance of a section 300mm wide and
450mm deep up to the centre of reinforcement. If it is reinforced with (i)
4-12mm fe415 grade bars, (ii) 6-18mm fe415 grade bars.
5. A rectangular beam section is 200mm wide and 400mm deep up to the centre
of reinforcement. Determine the reinforcement required at the bottom if it
has to resist a factored moment of 40kN-m. Use M20 grade concrete and
fe415 grade steel.

6. A rectangular beam section is 250mm wide and 500mm deep up to the centre
of tension steel which consists of 4-22mm dia. bars. Find the position of the
neutral axis, lever arm, forces of compression and tension and safe moment
of resistance if concrete is M20 grade and steel is Fe500 grade.

7. A rectangular beam is 200mm wide and 450 mm overall depth with an

effective cover of 40mm. Find the reinforcement required if it has to resist a
moment of 35 kN.m. Assume M20 concrete and Fe250 grade steel.
9. A reinforced concrete beam of rectangular section 300 mm wide 650 mm deep is
reinforced with 4 bars of 25 mm diameter at an effective depth of 600 mm. Calculate the
neutral axis depth and estimate the safe moment of resistance of the section adopting
M25 grade concrete and Fe415 HYSD bars.

10. A reinforced concrete beam of rectangular section 350 mm wide 750 mm overall depth
is reinforced with 3 bars of 20 mm diameter at an effective depth of 700 mm. Adopting
M30 grade concrete and FE500 grade steel reinforcement, calculate the safe moment of
resistance of the section. If the beam spans over 5 m, estimate the safe permissible live
load on the beam.

11. A reinforced concrete beam of rectangular section having a width of 400 mm and overall
depth 850 mm is reinforced with 4 bars of 25 mm diameter both on the compression and
tension sides at an effective cover of 50 mm. Using M20 grade concrete and Fe415
HYSD bars, compute (a) the actual neutral axis; (b) the critical neutral axis; and (c) the
safe moment of resistance of the section.

12. A reinforced concrete rectangular section 300 mm wide 600 mm overall depth is
reinforced with 4 bars of 25 diameter at an effective cover of 50 mm on the tension side.
Assuming M20 grade concrete and FE415 HYSD bars, determine the allowable bending
moment and the stresses in steel and concrete corresponding to this moment.
Assignment No.3
1. Solve all the examples on slides 160-162
2. Explain the need of doubly reinforced sections.
3. Make a gist of codal provisions pertaining to flexural design.

Last date for submission for Assignment No.3 : 03/12/2016.

Submissions to be mailed on: aasifdce.nit@gmail.com

Next Lecture:
Deflection of Beams
Shear design of Beams

Deflection of structure or part thereof shall not adversely affect
the appearance or efficiency of structure or finishes or partitions.

Deflection shall generally be limited to the following:

i. Final deflection due to all loads including the effects of
temperature, creep and shrinkage and measured from as-cast level
of supports of floors, roofs and all other horizontal members
should not normally exceed span/250.

ii.Deflection including effects of temperature, creep and shrinkage

occurring after erection of partitions and application of finishes
should not normally exceed (span/350) or 20mm whichever is less.
Factors influencing limits on deflection in flexural members

Aesthetic/psychological discomfort

Crack width limitation

Effect on attached structural and non structural elements

Ponding in (roof) slabs

Limits on deflections of flexural members

i. Final deflection due to all loads including temperature effect,

long term effects of creep and shrinkage after construction of
structural members and before the construction of partitions and
finishes should be less than Span

ii. Deflections due to various loads acting on the structural members

including temperature effect, long-term effects of creep and
shrinkage that occur after the construction of partitions and
finishes should be less than Span or 20 mm
Short-Term Deflections
Short-term deflections due to the applied service loads are
generally based on the assumptions of linear elastic behavior,
and for this purpose, reinforced concrete is treated as a
homogenous material.
W = total load on the span EI
M = maximum moment
Kw and Km constants depend on the load distribution conditions of end
restraint and variation in the flexural rigidity EI.
For the purpose of calculating shortterm deflections in reinforced concrete
flexural members elastic theory may be used of.
Flexural rigidity is to be considered in the calculation.
Short-Term Deflections
Modulus of elasticity of concrete depends on:
Concrete quality,
Stress level and
Rate or duration of applied load.
Short-term loading upto service load levels, IS:456-2000 specifies the
modulus of elasticity as Ec=5000fck.
Second moment of area, I, to be considered in the deflection
calculations is influenced by
Percentage reinforcement
Extent of flexural cracking,
which in turn depends on the applied bending moment and the
modulus of rupture, fcr, of concrete.
Flexural rigidity, EI is obtainable as the slope(secant modulus)
of the moment-curvature relationship.
i. EIT Based on uncracked transformed section
ii. EIgr Based on gross uncracked transformed section ignoring steel
iii. EIeff Based on effective section
iv. EIcr Based on cracked transformed section
EIT - True EI for M < Mcr (EIT - constant)
EIeff - True EI for M > Mcr (EIeff depends on the load level)

EIT > EIgr > EIeff > EIcr

IS: 456-2000 specifies, I cr
I eff
M z x b
1.2 cr 1 w
Icr Ieff Igr M d d b
Icr = Moment of inertia of the cracked section
Mcr = Cracking moment I
M cr f cr gr

fcr = Modulus of rupture of concrete
Igr = Moment of inertia of the gross section about the centroidal axis, neglecting the
yt = Distance from centroidal axis of gross section, neglecting reinforcement to
extreme fiber in tension.
M = Maximum moment under service load
Z = lever arm
x = Depth of neutral axis
D = Effective depth
bw= Breadth of web and,
b = Breadth of compression face
For continuous beams, deflections shall be calculated using the
values of Icr, Igr and Mcr, modified by the following equation:

X e k1
X1 X 2 1 k X
1 0
k1 = coefficient
X= value of Icr, Igr, or Mcr as appropriate
Xe= modified value of X
X1 and X2= values of X at the supports 1 and 2
Xo= value of X at mid-span.

Values of k1

k2 0.5 or less 1.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
k1 0 1.0 0.03 0.08 0.16 0.30 0.50 0.73 0.91 0.97

M 1 M 2
M1 ,M2 = support moments k 2
MF1, MF2 = fixed end moment M F1 M F 2
Deflections due to shrinkage
Deflections due to shrinkage cs may be computed from the equation:
cs k3csl 2
k3 = constant depending upon the support conditions
= 0.5, for cantilever
= 0.125, for simply supported members
= 0.086, for members continuous at one end
= 0.063, for fully continues members
cs= shrinkage curvature K 4 cs

( Pt Pc )
K 4 0.72 for
1.0 0.25 ( Pt Pc ) 1.0
100 Ast 100 Asc
( Pt Pc ) Pt ; Pc
0.65 1.0 for ( Pt Pc ) 1.0 bd bd
D = total depth of the section
l= length of the span.
Deflections due to creep
Creep deflections due to permanent loads is given by,

cc(perm) i,cc(perm) i,(perm)

i,cc(perm)= initial plus creep deflections due to permanent loads obtained
using an elastic analysis with effective modulus of elasticity.
i,(perm)= Short-term deflections due to permanent load using Ec=5000fck
Effective modulus of elasticity is, EC
[1 ]

Age at loading Creep coefficient,

7 days 2.2
28 days 1.6
1 year 1.1
Control of Deflections
For control of deflection two methods are usually described in
codes of practice

I. As per the empirical method, the span-to-effective depth ratios of

members should not be more than those specified in the codes

II. In theoretical method, calculating the actual deflection and

checking it with the allowable deflection in the codes of practice
Control of Deflections
Empirical procedure for control of deflection is to control the span-
to-effective depth ratio.
Deflection of beams or slabs depend on
1. Span-to-effective depth ratio
2. Type of support
3. Percentage of tension reinforcement or the stress level at service loads
if more than the necessary steel is provided at the section.
4. Percentage of compression reinforcement
5. Type of beam (whether it is flanged or rectangular)
Vertical deflection limits may generally be assumed to be satisfied
provided that the span-to-depth ratios are not greater than the
values obtained
Basic Span-to-depth Ratios
a. Basic values of span-to-effective depth ratios for spans up to or
less than 10m are

1. Cantilever 7
2. Simply supported 20
3. Fixed or Continuous 26
b. For spans above 10m, values in (a) may be multiplied by
(10/span in meters), except for cantilever.

For cantilever beams, the actual deflections should be

calculated and the requirement for limit state of deflection be
1. Depending on the area and the stress in steel reinforcement in
tension, the values in (a) or (b) shall be modified by multiplying
with the modification factor obtained as per Fig. 4.
Factor F1 can be calculated

F1 2.0
0.225 0.00322 f s 0.625 log 10 pt
2. Depending on the area of compression reinforcement, the value
of span-to-depth ratio is further modified by multiplying with the
modification factor obtained as per Fig. 5.
Factor F2 can be calculated

1.6 pc
F2 1.5
pc 0.275
3. For flanged beam, values of (a) or (b) be modified as per Fig. 6
and the reinforcement percentage for use in Fig.4 and 5 should be
based on area of section equal to bfd.
Factor F3 can be calculated

2 bw
F3 0.8 0.3 0.8
7 b f

Final Span-to-Effective Depth Ratio
The final allowable span-to-effective depth ratio

Basic RatioF1 F2 F3
The ratio (L/d) obtained should be as follows

(obtained) F1 F2 F3
d d Basic
Slenderness Limits for Beam to Ensure Lateral Stability
A simply supported or continuous beam shall be so proportioned that
clear distance between the lateral restraints does not exceed 60b or
250b 2
d whichever is less.

d = effective depth of the beam and

b = breadth of compression face midway between the lateral restraints.

For a cantilever, the clear distance from the free end of the cantilever
to the lateral restraint shall not exceed 25b or
whichever is less.
Lecture 9-11
Design for shear
Bending Stresses in Beams

Beam subjected to pure bending moment

Stresses developed in beam under pure bending moment

Deflection of Beam under Pure BM

6-Dec-16 188
Deflected Shape of Beam

Neutral Surface/Axis

Sectional View of Beam

6-Dec-16 9
Shear Stress in Beams-General Loading

Bending and Shear Stresses

Equilibrium of Forces
Vertical Shear Force
Bending Moment
6-Dec-16 9
Horizontal Shear Stress

Shear stresses develop on horizontal planes

Deflection of Beam with Planks

Beams with and without Planks

6-Dec-16 19
Horizontal Shear in Wooden Beams

Failure of wooden beam due to delamination of fibers

6-Dec-16 3
Definition of Shear Span

a a

V = +P

V = -P


Basic Definition of Shear span, a

Principal Stress Trajectories

Diagonal Tension

Diagonal Crack


6-Dec-16 19
Cracking in RC Beams

Direction of potential cracks in a simple beam.

6-Dec-16 19
Types of Cracks
Type and formation of cracks depend on span-to-depth ratio of
beam and loading.
For simply supported beam under uniformly distributed load,
three types of cracks are identified.
1.Flexural cracks: form at the bottom near mid span and propagate
2.Web shear cracks: form near neutral axis close to support and
propagate inclined to the beam axis.
3.Flexure shear cracks: These cracks form at bottom due to flexure
and propagate due to both flexure and shear.
Formation of cracks for a beam with large span-to-depth ratio and uniformly
distributed loading is shown.

a)Initiation of flexural cracks

b) Growth of flexural cracks and formation of flexure shear and web shear
c) Cracks before failure
Fig. 7 Formation of cracks in a reinforced concrete beam
Components of Shear Resistance
1. Components of shear resistance at a flexure shear crack are shown in the
following figure.

Fig. 8 Internal forces at a flexure shear crack

The notations in the previous figure are as follows.
Vcz = Shear carried by uncracked concrete
Va = Shear resistance due to aggregate interlock
Vd = Shear resistance due to dowel action
Vs = Shear carried by stirrups
Magnitude and relative value of each component change with increasing load.
Modes of Failure
For beams with low span-to-depth ratio or inadequate shear
reinforcement, the failure may be due to shear.
Failure due to shear is sudden as compared to failure due to
Five modes of failure due to shear are identified.
1. Diagonal tension failure
2. Shear compression failure
3. Shear tension failure
4. Web crushing failure
5. Arch rib failure
Mode of failure depends on span-to-depth ratio, loading, cross-
section of beam, amount and anchorage of reinforcement.
6-Dec-16 202
Diagonal tension failure: inclined crack propagates rapidly due
to inadequate shear reinforcement.

Fig. 9 Diagonal tension failure.

Shear compression failure: crushing of concrete near the
compression flange above the tip of the inclined crack.

Fig. 10 Shear compression failure

Shear tension failure: inadequate anchorage of longitudinal bars,
diagonal cracks propagate horizontally along the bars.

Fig. 11 Shear tension failure

Web crushing failure: concrete in the web crushes due to

inadequate web thickness.

Fig. 12 Web crushing failure

Arch rib failure: in deep beams, web may buckle and
subsequently crush. There can be anchorage failure or failure of
the bearing.

Fig. 13 Arch rib failure

Design for shear is to avoid shear failure; beam should fail in

flexure at its ultimate flexural strength.
Design involves not only design of the stirrups, but also limiting
average shear stress in concrete, providing adequate thickness of
web and adequate development length of longitudinal bars.
Shear in Reinforced Concrete Members
Behavior of RC members under Shear (including combined
loads with other loads) is very complex
1. Non-homogeneity of materials
2. Presence of Cracks and Reinforcement
3. Nonlinearity in Material Response

Current design (Code) procedures,

i. Based on results of extensive tests on small size members with
simplifying assumptions
ii. No unified and universally accepted method for prediction of shear
strength of beams without web reinforcement

6-Dec-16 20
Shear Transfer Mechanisms

vcz = Shear in compression zone (20-40%)

va = Aggregate Interlock forces (35-50%)
vd = Dowel action from longitudinal bars (15-25%)
Total Resistance = (vcz + vay +vd ) (For Beams without stirrups)
6-Dec-16 207
Factors Influencing Shear Strength

1. Strength of Concrete (fc)

2. Percentage of Flexural (Tensile) Reinforcement (t)
3. Shear Span-to-Depth Ratio (a/d)
4. Depth of Member (d)
5. Size of Aggregate (da) ?????

6-Dec-16 208
Shear Strength with Compressive Strength of Concrete

Ultimate Strength
Diagonal Cracking Strength
Shear Strength


Qualitative variation of ultimate and Diagonal cracking strength with

Compressive Strength of Concreet

6-Dec-16 9
Shear Strength with Tension Reinforcement

Ultimate Strength
Diagonal Cracking Strength
Shear Strength

%Tens. Steel

Qualitative variation of ultimate and Diagonal cracking strength with

% Tension Steel

6-Dec-16 21
Shear Strength vs. Shear Span-to-Depth Ratio

Diagonal Cracking Strength

Ultimate Strength
Shear Strength


Qualitative variation of ultimate and Diagonal cracking strength with

a/d ratio

6-Dec-16 1
Failure Mechanism of RC Elements at different a/d Ratio

6-Dec-16 212
Failure Mechanisms
Deep Beams (a/d < 1)
Arch action


Tension tie (yielding/Fracture)

Arch Rib Failure

Anchorage Failure

Bearing Failure
Short Beams (1 < a/d < 2.5) W

Loss of Bond due to Crack

V Shear Tension Failure

Crushing of Concrete

V Shear Compression Failure

6-Dec-16 4
Slender Beams (2.5 < a/d < 6)

d b

h g

V Diagonal Tension Failure

6-Dec-16 215
Does beam depth effect the strength?

A phenomenon related to change in strength with member size,

decrease in strength with increase in member size

Size effect in real structures:

i) material heterogeneity and

ii) discontinuities (flaws) to flow of stress either in the form of

a. micro cracking before application of any load

b. load induced micro cracking or

c. macro cracking

6-Dec-16 216
Size effect in shear is more serious due to

failure mode highly brittle - small deflections and lack of ductility

shear strength related to tensile strength of concrete

Sudden failure of Wilkins Air force depot warehouse in Shelby, Ohio (1955)

Catastrophic failure of structures leading to loss of human lives and property

due to Hyogo-Ken Nambu Earth Quake in 1995

6-Dec-16 21
Wilkins Air Force Depot in Shelby, Ohio (1955)

Collapse of Superstructure - Hyogo-Ken Nambu EQ (1995)

Diagonal Cracking and Ultimate Strength
Ultimate Strength: load corresponding to the total and
complete failure due to shear and diagonal tension

Diagonal Cracking Strength: load corresponding to formation

of first fully developed inclined crack
a. An inclined crack is considered to be fully developed when it has
progressed sufficiently towards both the mid span and the support
while intersecting the tensile reinforcement

Diagonal Cracking and Ultimate Strength

How is it measured in the laboratory?

1. Normally, visual methods are deployed to measure the diagonal
cracking loads in the laboratory
2. load at the onset of formation of first diagonal crack
3. when the diagonal crack crosses the mid height of the beam

The design provisions in most of the codes

1) are based on diagonal tension cracking and

2) by using a suitable multiplication factor, strength of short

or deep beams is obtained
3) Need to be re-examined

Owing to complex nature of stress distribution, Code Provisions

for prediction of shear strength are Empirical in Nature for
Beams without Web Reinforcement

Prediction of Shear Strength
ACI - 2002
vc 0.16 f c 17.2 u 0.3 f ' c MPa (6)

vc 0.17 f ' c MPa 6 (a)
Mu Vu d

vc 3.5 - 2.5

0.16 f c 17.2
MPa (7)
Vu d Mu

0.5 f ' c (ACI - 1999)

Mu Vud

where 3.5 - 2.5 2.5 and 1.0
Vu d Mu

6-Dec-16 223
BS 8110 - 1997

1/ 3
0.79 100 As 400 f cu
1/ 4 1/ 3

vc MPa (8)
m bv d d 25

100 As 400
Where 3.0, 1.0, m 1.25 and f cu 40.0 MPa
bv d d

For Short Beams

vc (Eqn.8) for a d 2.0

6-Dec-16 224
Prediction of Shear Strength
IS 456-2000
0.85 0.8fck ( (1 5 1)
vcr MPa (9)
0.62 f ck
Where 0.8 fck = Cylinder strength in terms of cube strength and
0.85 reduction factor = 1/m ~ 1/1.2

and 1.0

For Short Beams vcr (Eqn.9)

Design of Beams for Shear

Nominal Shear stress Vu


vu = shear force due to design loads
b = breadth of the member which for flanged sections shall be
taken as the breadth of web bw and
d = effective depth

6-Dec-16 226
Shear Strength of RC beams
Calculate the nominal shear stress and compare with the shear
strength of RC beams from Table 19 of IS 456-2000.

If the nominal shear stress v exceeds the shear strength c of RC

beams without shear reinforcement, then the beam needs to be
designed for shear reinforcement.

When v is less than c obtained from Table 19, minimum shear

reinforcement is provided which is given by

Asv 0.4

bsv fy
Asv f y
6-Dec-16 227
6-Dec-16 228
Prediction of Shear Strength
IS 456-2000
0.85 0.8fck ( (1 5 1)
c MPa 0.62 f ck

Where 0.8 fck = Cylinder strength in terms of cube strength and

0.85 reduction factor = 1/m ~ 1/1.2

and 1.0
For Short Beams 2
vcr (Eqn.9)

Design of Shear Reinforcement
I. When the shear stress is greater than shear strength given in
Table 19 (IS 456), shear reinforcement shall be provided in any of
the following forms
a. Vertical stirrups
b. Bent-up bars along with stirrups and
c. Inclined stirrups

Shear reinforcement shall be provided to carry a shear force equal to

V c bd

6-Dec-16 230
Forms of Shear Reinforcement

6-Dec-16 231
Forms of Shear Reinforcement

For vertical stirrups Asv. f sv

vs d

For single bar or single group of parallel bars all bent up at the
same cross-section
Vs sv . Asv . sin

= angle between the inclined stirrup or bent up bar and the axis
of the member not less than 450

Truss Analogy

6-Dec-16 233
Truss Analogy
1.Action of vertical and inclined (stirrups) shear reinforcement may
be described by the analogous truss action.

2.In a simple truss, the upper and lower chords are in compression
and tension respectively; the diagonal members, called web
members, are alternately in compression and tension.

3.Shear strength of RC beam may be increased by use of shear

reinforcement similar in action to tensile web members in a truss.

4.Shear reinforcement must be anchored in compression zone of

concrete and is usually hooped around longitudinal tension

6-Dec-16 234
Design of Stirrups

Asv = total area of legs of shear links

sv = spacing of links
Number of links crossing 450 diagonal crack N

Total strength of vertical stirrups d

Vs 0.87 f y ASV
Spacing of stirrups required= sv

0.87 f y Asv
v c bd sv
0.87 f y Asv
sv b v c
6-Dec-16 235
Design of Bent-up Bars

Horizontal length over which the bar is effective can be taken as equal to d(cot +
cot ), where = direction of shear compression, = angle at which the bars bent
Let sv = spacing of bent bars. Then the number of effective bars in this region are

cot cot d d '

The maximum shear carried by bent up bars =
cot cot d d '
Vs Asv 0.87 f y sin sv

Asv 0.87 f y
cos sin d ; 450 ; (d d ' ) d
6-Dec-16 236
Enhanced Shear Near Supports

Section near the supports can be assumed to have enhanced

shear strength.

Shear failure at sections of beams and cantilevers without shear

reinforcement normally takes place on a plane making an angle
300 with the horizontal.

Enhance shear capacity at sections near supports as would be

done in design of brackets, ribs, corbels etc.

6-Dec-16 237
Critical Sections for shear in beams which are
supported on members in compression, and tension


(a) Beams with compression at end region

(b) Face of support in compression

(c ) Face of support in tension

Beams of Varying Depth
Beams with varying depth are encountered in RC.

Beam depth is varied according to the variation of bending

moment and shear force.
1. Case (a): Bending moment increases numerically in the direction
in which effective depth increases.

2. Case (b). Bending moment decreases numerically in the direction

in which effective depth increases.

6-Dec-16 239
Case (a) Case (b)

M = H Jd

S.S. Beam


6-Dec-16 240
Effective shear force for determining the shear stress

V Vw tan for case(a)

V Vw tan for case(b)

6-Dec-16 24
Design of Stirrups at Steel Cut-off Points
When flexural reinforcement in beams is terminated in
tension region, at that section it should satisfy
a) shear at cut-off point does not exceed two-thirds of combined
strength of concrete and steel. s 1.5 c

b) Additional stirrups should be provided along each terminated

direction over a distance from the cut-off point equal to
three-fourth effective depth, equal to A' 0.4 b s

d Area of cut off bars

Spacing of stirrups
Total area of bars

6-Dec-16 242
Minimum Shear Reinforcement
1. Restrains the growth of inclined cracking.
2. Ductility is increased and gives warning before failure.

3. In an unreinforced web, such reinforcement is of great value if

a member is subjected to an unexpected tensile force or an

4. A minimum area of shear reinforcement is required whenever

the total factored shear force Vu is greater than one-half the
shear strength provided by concrete kVc.

5. Need to increase minimum shear reinforcement as concrete

strength increases to prevent sudden shear failure by inclined
6-Dec-16 243
Deep Beams

Depth much greater than normal, in relation to their span, while

thickness is much smaller than either span or depth.

Main loads and reactions act in plane of member to achieve a

state of plane stress in concrete

Members with span-to-depth ratio of about 5 or less, or with

shear span, a, less than about twice depth are called deep beams.

6-Dec-16 4
h (a). loads applied along the compression edge

(b). loads suspended along the tension edge

a a

(c). loads distributed through depth

Fig. Placements of loads on deep beams.

Deep Beams
Examples of Deep Beams found in:
Column offsets,
Walls of rectangular tanks and bins,
Floor diaphragms
Shear walls,
in folded plate roof structures

Behavior of deep beams is significantly different from that of the

normal beams, requires special consideration in analysis, design,
and detailing of reinforcement.

6-Dec-16 24
Deep Beams
Deep Beams (a/d < 1)

Arch action


Tension tie (yielding/Fracture)

Arch Rib Failure

Anchorage Failure

Bearing Failure

6-Dec-16 7
Failure in Deep Beams

6-Dec-16 249
6-Dec-16 250
1.A simply supported beam of cross section of width 200mm and overall depth
400mm is provided with 3- 16 mm diameter HYSD bars in tension. Cover to
the reinforcement is 40mm. The span of the beam is 5.0m. The beam is
subjected to a uniformly distributed dead load of 10 kN/m and a live load of 15
kN/m. Half of the imposed load is permanent. Calculate the total long-term
deflection at the mid-span. fck=40 N/mm2, fy=415 N/mm2, =2.5=creep
coefficient, cs=0.0003
2.A simply supported beam rectangular in cross section, 450mmX750mm, spanning 10m
is subjected to a dead load of 24 kN/m and an imposed load of 34.5 KN/m. The
characteristic concrete and steel strengths are fck=40 N/mm2 and fy=460 N/mm2
respectively, Es= 200 kN/m2 and Ec=5000fck. (Ast= (3)- 40mm dia bars).
i. Determine the mid-span service-load concrete strains at the level of the tension
reinforcements at the tension face (i.e. the soffit) of the beam, and at 250 mm below the
neutral axis.
ii.If, due to creep of concrete, the value of Ec becomes half of the short-term value,
calculate the strain due to the long-term service loads.
1.A beam 200mm wide and 400mm overall depth is reinforced with 2 nos of
20mm diameter bars is acted on by a load, part of which is permanent. The
bending moment due to the total loading is50 kN-m and the bending moment,
Mp due to the permanent load is 36 kN-m. Assuming the section as a partially
cracked section, determine, the long-term curvature of the beam under
permanent load, if fck=0.55 N/mm2 appropriate to long-term loading, the
instantaneous curvature under the total load and the permanent loads, if
fck=1.0 N/mm2 for short-term loading and the difference between the
instantaneous curvature under the total and permanent load. Given that
Ec=5000fck, Es=200 kN/m2, =2.5, fck=40 N/mm2 and fy=460 N/mm2.
Assignment No.4
1. Solve all the examples on slides 251-252
2. Under what conditions is the traditional method of shear design
inappropriate? Describe the Truss Analogy of shear transfer mechanism.
3. Make a gist of codal provisions pertaining to Shear Design and control of

Last date for submission for Assignment No.4 : 13/12/2016.

Submissions to be mailed on: aasifdce.nit@gmail.com

Next Lecture:
Design of columns