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UNIT 2

LESSON 9

DESIGN FOR STRENGTH

INTRODUCTION
Design of any machine member involves a proper balance between the stress induced
in the member and strength of the member. The obvious cause of a structural failure
is the fact that the stresses imposed on the member by service loads are greater than
its strength. Hence a proper understanding of strength becomes essential for
producing a rational design. In this chapter we shall study the various factors that
affect the stress induced in a member, strength of a member and means for achieving
a proper balance between the two.

DEFINITIONS
Stress-It may be defined as the internal resistance offered by the material to the
externally applied forces expressed per unit area. This stress can be either normal or
shear.

Static Stress- A stress which is applied to a structure very gradually, increasing from
zero to their final value and then either do not change their magnitude, direction or
point of application with time at all or change them very slightly, so that acceleration
occurring in this case can be neglected.

Dynamic Stress- A stress which changes with time. It is generally either of the
eversible or alternating type.

Strength- The strength of a material may be defined as the maximum resistance,


which a material can offer to the externally applied forces, expressed per unit area.

True Stress- This is based upon the instantaneous area of cross-section

Proportional Limit- The greatest stress that a material can sustain without deviating
from the law of stress strain proportionality.

Elastic Limit- The least stress that will cause permanent set.

Yield Stress- The lowest stress at which strain increases without increase in stress. If
there is a decrease in the stress after yielding, a distinction is made between upper and
lower yield Points. The upper yield point is the stress at which the stress-strain
diagram first becomes horizontal and the lower yield point is somewhat lower and
almost constant stress under which the metal continues to deform.
Proof Stress- It is the stress at which the non-proportional elongation amounts to a
specified percentage of the original gauge length. It is usually specified by 0.2 percent
of original gauge length and is indicated by Rp0.2

Allowable (Working) Stress- It is the maximum stress calculated for the expected
conditions of service so that the member will have a proper margin of security against
failure or damage.

Damaging Stress- The least unit stress of a given kind and for a given material and
condition of service that will render a member unfit for service before the end of its
normal life. It may do this by producing excessive set, by causing creep to occur at an
excessive rate, or by causing fatigue cracking, excessive strain hardening, or rupture.

Failure Stress- It is the stress at which the plastic deformation (yielding) becomes
sufficiently large to destroy the engineering usefulness of the part even though no
fracture (separation) has occurred.

Ultimate Strength- It is the maximum stress, based upon the original area of cross-
section, to which the material can be subjected to in a simple tensile test,

Elastic Ratio- It is the ratio of the elastic limit to the ultimate strength.

Factor of Safety- It is the ratio of the failure stress to the allowable stress. It is used to
take into account the unknown and uncertainties involved in design.

Margin of Safety- It is the percentage by which the ultimate strength of a member


exceeds the design stress as specified by a factor of safety.

Brittle Fracture- The tensile failure with negligible plastic deformation of an


ordinarily ductile material.

Factor of Utilization- The ratio of the allowable stress to the ultimate strength. For
cases in which stress is proportional to load, the factor of utilization is the reciprocal
of the factor of safety.

Strain Energy- The mechanical energy stored up in a stressed material when the stress
is within the elastic limit is called strain energy. The strain energy is equal to the
work done by the external forces in producing the stress and is recoverable
Resilience- The strain energy stored per unit volume is called resilience.
Proof Resilience- The maximum strain energy that can be stored in a material per unit
volume is called proof resilience.

Toughness- The ability of a material to absorb energy and deform plastically before
fracture.

Brittleness- A tendency to fracture without appreciable deformation.


Sudden Load- A load applied to a member instantaneously is called a sudden load. A
sudden load is equivalent to twice the gradually applied load.

Impact (shock) Load- A load applied to a member in such a way that the load falls
freely through some height before striking the member.

Fatigue- The reduced tendency of the material to offer resistance to the applied
stresses is called fatigue. This phenomenon leads to fracture under repeated or
fluctuating cyclic stresses below the tensile strength of the material.

Fatigue Life- The number of cycles of stress that can be sustained by a material prior
to failure of a specified nature for a stated stress condition.

Fatigue or Endurance Limit- The maximum stress below which a material can
presumably endure or withstand an infinite number of cycles of stress.

Fatigue or Endurance Ratio- The ratio of the fatigue limit to the tensile strength.

Fatigue Strength- The limiting stress below which a material will withstand a
specified number of cycles of stress without fracture.

Corrosion Fatigue-The fatigue aggravated by corrosion.

Overstressing- A stress above the original endurance limit of the material is termed
an over-stress. The process of damaging the fatigue properties of a material by
cycling for a time at a stress above the fatigue limit is called overstressing.

Under stressing- The process of improving fatigue properties by operation at stresses


under the endurance limit is called under stressing.

Cycle Ratio-The ratio of the number of cycles of the applied stress to a structure to
the number of cycles to failure at the same stress is called cycle ratio.

Damage Ratio- An indication of the "used up" life of the material subjected to a
number of stress reversals at stress range above the fatigue limit is called damage
ratio. It is usually reckoned by the ratio of the difference between the fatigue life of
the material at a particular stress level and the number of cycles actually endured. to
the fatigue life.

Damage Line- A line indicating the approximate number of times that a given
overstress ran be applied to the material without causing damage, in the sense of
lowering the original endurance limit.
Creep- It may be defined as the slow and progressive deformation of a material with
time under a constant stress.

Creep Strength- It may be defined as the highest stress that a material can withstand
for a specified length of time without excessive deformation.

Creep Rupture Strength- It may be defined as the highest stress that a material can
withstand for a specific length of time without rupture.

Creep Limit-The maximum stress which a metal or an alloy can withstand


indefinitely without deforming faster than at a specified strain rate, which is generally
taken as 0.2 percent strain after 45 hours: or 0.001 percent elongation between the
25th and 35th hour.
Stiffness (Rigidity)- It may be defined as the load per unit deflection.

Equivalent Bending Moment- A bending moment that, acting alone, would produce
in a shaft a normal stress of the same magnitude as the maximum normal stress
produced by a given bending moment and a given twisting moment acting
simultaneously.

Equivalent Twisting Moment- A twisting moment that, acting alone, would produce
in a shaft a shear stress of the same magnitude as the shear stress produced by a
given-twisting moment and a given bending moment acting simultaneously.

Modulus of Rupture in Bending- It may be defined as the nominal surface stress


corresponding to the maximum bending moment

Modulus of Rupture in Torsion- .It may be defined as the nominal surface stress
corresponding to the maximum torque.

Column- A bar or a member of a structure inclined at 900 to the horizontal and


carrying an axial compressive load.

Strut- A bar or a member of a structure in any position and carrying an axial


compressive load.

Slenderness Ratio- The ratio of the length of the column to the least radius of
gyration.

Buckling Load- The minimum axial load at which the column tends to have lateral
displacement is called the buckling, crippling or critical load.

Equivalent Length- The length of the column that gives the same buckling load as
given by a column having both ends hinged.