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Journal of the European Ceramic Society 36 (2016) 38233832

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Journal of the European Ceramic Society

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jeurceramsoc

Full-ceramic brake systems for high performance friction applications

Nico Langhof a, , Michael Rabenstein b , Jens Rosenlcher c , Reinhard Hackenschmidt d ,
Walter Krenkel a , Frank Rieg d
Ceramic Materials Engineering, University of Bayreuth, Ludwig-Thoma-Str. 36b, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany
Center for High Temperature Materials and Design (HTL), Bayreuth, Fraunhofer ISC, Germany
Audi AG, Ingolstadt, Germany
Engineering Design and CAD, University of Bayreuth, Universittsstrae 30, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are promising materials for friction applications. Typically, C/SiC rotors
Received 27 January 2016 are combined with organic pads (Low Met). Within this work, two types of CMC brake pads were studied,
Received in revised form 22 April 2016 C/SiC SF as well as C/SiC SF 11Coke with 11 vol.% coke as ller, accompanied with the Low Met reference
Accepted 24 April 2016
pads. Small brake pads (400 mm2 ) were applied on a lab-scale and larger pads (12,000 mm2 ) on a full-
Available online 2 May 2016
scale inertia dynamometer. In both cases, the corresponding rotor was a C/SiC disc with a SiC-rich friction
layer. Sliding speeds up to 42.6 m/s and braking pressures up to 8 MPa were applied. The smaller CMC
pads show lower wear and higher coefcient of frictions (COF), compared to the reference. This frictional
behavior was conrmed on the full-scale dynamometer with mean COFs up to 0.45. However, the wear
C/SiC of the large C/SiC pads was somewhat higher on the full-scale dynamometer.
Ceramic brakes 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction automotive manufactures, like Porsche AG, Daimler AG and Audi

AG, introduced the ceramic brake discs to their sedan cars [911].
In order to overcome the thermal and mechanical limits of con- Nowadays, the counterparts of C/SiC friction materials are
ventional organic- or metallic-based braking materials, ceramic still organic based materials, steel or grey cast iron. In order to
matrix composites are promising candidates. C-ber reinforced achieve higher power intensities, lower system masses and higher
carboncomposites (C/C) are state of the art in aircraft brake sys- area related energies, ceramic counterparts resp. full-ceramic fric-
tems and in formula one race cars. The ber reinforcement enables tion systems are in the focus of current researches, e.g. [1222].
a suitable damage tolerance and favorable mechanical strengths. There are several favorable properties of such full-ceramic brakes
Low densities (<2 g/cm3 ) make them very suitable for light weight compared to conventional brakes. Their lower weight shows the
applications. However, C/C is not a lifetime material, because of its potential for more efcient lightweight cars. Furthermore, by the
insufcient oxidation resistance, the low COFs in humid conditions application of full-ceramic friction materials, there are no health
and at temperatures below 200 C [15]. Therefore, researchers and environmental problems expected, which can be caused, if
from the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) in Stuttgart developed conventional brake pads were applied, that contains heavy metal
C-ber reinforced SiC (C/SiC resp. C/C-SiC) for brake applications particles.
in the early 1990s [1,69]. This technology is a real spin off from Carbon short ber bundles are the most cost efcient raw
thermal protection systems of space craft to terrestrial applica- material for C/SiC, but only few works dealing with this type of
tions and the composites can be efciently manufactured by the reinforcement [6,15,23,24]. In the eld of aircraft brakes, self-
liquid silicon inltration process (LSI). The ceramic material was mated C/SiC materials, which are based on 3D-reinforced C-ber
evaluated for high performance emergency brakes in elevators and preforms, were studied [16,21,2530]. These CMC are developed
conveying systems and also for service brakes in passenger cars by less cost effective methods, e.g. by chemical vapor inltration
and high speed trains [11]. At the beginning of this century, several (CVI), followed by slurry inltration, PIP (Polymer Inltration and
Pyrolysis) and/or the LSI process. Results at speeds up to 25 m/s
and low braking pressures (1 MPa) show their promising tribo-
logical behavior [16,20,21,25,26,29,30]. Nevertheless, studies on
Corresponding author.
full-scale dynamometers, where high area related energies and
E-mail address: nico.langhof@uni-bayreuth.de (N. Langhof).

0955-2219/ 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
3824 N. Langhof et al. / Journal of the European Ceramic Society 36 (2016) 38233832

Table 1
The constituents of the brake pads [42].

Disc material Pads materials

C/SiC Low Met C/SiC SF C/SiC SF 11Coke

Low Met reference C-short bers LSI C-short bers with coke

Amorphous C-bers Metallic components (bers and particles from steel, brass, bronze, copper) Amorphous C-bers Amorphous C-bers
Amorphous C-matrix Amorphous C-matrix Amoprhous C-matrix
SiC SiC Coke
Silicon Fillers (Barite, rubber, etc.) Silicon SiC
Unknown Abrasives (alumina, silica) Porosity Silicon
Porosity Lubricants (graphite, suldes) Porosity
Binder (phenolic resin)

Table 2
Test matrix on the lab-scale test rig.

Speed Series (p = 2.44 N/mm2 )

Rotating Speed in m/s Braking Time in s Cycles Friction energy in MJ Power intensity in W/mm2

3.4 2.7 113 2 8.3

17.4 2.7 22 2 42.5
42.6 2.7 9 2 104

Pressure Series (vrot = 17.4 m/s)

Pressure in N/mm2 Braking Time in s Cycles Friction energy in MJ Power intensity in W/mm2

0.54 12 22 2 9.4
2.44 2.7 22 2 42.5

power intensities (W/mm2 ) can be realized, are rarely found in lit- coke was mixed with the phenolic powder and C-ber bundles
erature [28,31]. Very few works are dealing with high speeds above subsequently.
25 m/s [21,28,31,32]. Further investigations show the inuences of Three types of pad materials were studied:
silicon, silicon alloys and additives on the tribological properties.
The COFs decrease at higher speeds above 20 m/s and the wear rates
increases signicantly [17,18,21,3133,35,39,40]. SiO2 , derived by (1) C/SiC SF ceramics comprising C-short bers without ller, SiC,
the oxidation of Si and SiC, can be found on the frictional surfaces Si and amorphous carbon
above 400 C [20,21,28,32,41]. (2) C/SiC SF 11Coke ceramics of (1) with additional 11 vol.% coke
Within the current study, the tribological behavior of C-short within the CFRP green body
ber reinforced ceramics on a lab-scale and a full-scale test rig are (3) Low Met reference commercial available mixture of metallic
investigated. The chosen pad-on-disc setup consists of a harder, bers mainly consisting of particles (steel, bronze, brass, cop-
which means a SiC-rich friction layer bearing C/SiC brake rotor per), solid lubricants (graphite, coke), hard particles (alumina,
(diameter 380 mm), on softer less SiC- resp. coke containing C/SiC silica) and phenolic resin acting as binder
brake pads. In order to enhance the tribological behavior of the
C/SiC materials, coke as a solid lubricant was added. Lower stiff- The ceramic materials were manufactured by the liquid silicon
nesses, obtained in mechanical tests, show the softening effect inltration process. The three step process consists of:
of coke and the potential for a further improvement of the prop-
erties of the C-ber reinforced ceramic brake pads, compared to
conventional friction materials like Low Mets or Semi Mets. 1. Green body manufacturing (mixing bers, llers and resin; warm
The ceramic materials were studied at sliding speeds up to pressing up to 250 C) CFRP
42.6 m/s and braking pressures up to 8 MPa. Furthermore, the fric- 2. Pyrolysis (transformation of the phenolic matrix into amorphous
tion and wear mechanisms were discussed and summarized in a carbon at temperatures above 900 C under inert condi-
preliminary model. tions) porous C/C preform
3. Liquid silicon inltration (driven by capillary forces and the
good wetting behavior of Si on carbon at temperatures above
2. Materials and methods 1420 C) C/SiC ceramic

2.1. Ceramic pads

The silicon for this process was supplied by Elkem AS (Silgrain
All C/SiC pad materials are reinforced by 6 mm C-short ber HQ, >99.7 wt.% Si). The components of the ceramic pads are sum-
bundles, which were supplied by Toho Tenax Europe GmbH. High marized in (Table 1).
tensile bers with 12,000 bers per bundle (HT-12k) were selected During the machining process of the ceramics, the material was
and mixed together with 50 vol.% of a powdered novolac resin, cut and the surface was grinded to a reproducible average surface
which is fabricated by the Hexion Company. The ller petrol coke roughness of Sa = 1.3 m. 10 mm thick ceramic pads with a fric-
(TIMREX PC 40 by TIMCAL) is acting as a solid lubricant and has a tional surface of 400 mm2 were prepared (20 20 mm2 ), as well as
grain size <80 m. Petrol coke can be regarded as graphite with a larger curved shape parts with 12,000 mm2 . Representative images
minor distorted crystal structure. The applied amount of 11 vol.% of the ceramic pads are shown in Figs. 1 and 3 .
N. Langhof et al. / Journal of the European Ceramic Society 36 (2016) 38233832 3825

Fig. 1. Initial friction surfaces of C/SiC pads with 6 mm carbon short bers (400 mm2 ).

Table 3
Overview of the AK-Master test (SAE J2522); The sliding speed is calculated, regarding to the mean friction radius of the pads (r = 0.152 m).

No. AK-Master Sections Conditions

1 Green Effectivness 30 bar; 30 stops, 10 3.7 m/s

2 Burnish 1542 bar, 62 stops; 10 3.7 m/s
3 Characteristic Check 30 bar, 6 stops; 10 3.7 m/s
4 Speed-Pressure Sensitivity 2080 bar, 8 stops; 5.1 0 m/s, 100 C
5 Speed-Pressure Sensitivity 2080 bar, 8 stops; 10 5.1 m/s, 100 C
6 Speed-Pressure Sensitivity 2080 bar, 8 stops; 15.1 10 m/s, 100 C
7 Speed-Pressure Sensitivity 2080 bar, 8 stops; 20.1 16.3 m/s, 100 C
8 Speed-Pressure Sensitivity 2080 bar, 8 stops; 24.6 21.4 m/s, 100 C
9 Characteristic Check 30 bar, 6 stops; 10 3.7 m/s
10 Cold Braking 30 bar, 11.1 0 m/s
11 Motorway Braking 60 % decelaration, 2 stops: 12.3 0 m/s; 28.3 0 m/s
12 Characteristic Check 30 bar, 18 stops; 10 3.7 m/s
13 1st Fading 40% decelaration, 15 stops; 12.3 0.6 m/s
14 1st Recovery 30 bar, 18 stops; 10 3.7 m/s
15 Pressure Sensitivity 2080 bar, 8 stops; 10 3.7 m/s, 100 C
16 Temperature Sensitivity 30 bar, 9 stops; 10 3.7 m/s, increasing Temp.
17 Pressure Sensitivity 2080 bar, 8 stops; 10 3.7 m/s, 500 C
18 Characteristic Check 30 bar, 18 stops; 10 3.7 m/s
19 2nd Fading 40% decelaration, 15 stops; 12.3 0.6 m/s
20 Characteristic Check 30 bar, 18 stops; 10 3.7 m/s

the frictional surfaces. Additionally, the surface roughness of the

frictional surfaces was measured by the confocal microscopy (ISO
25178-2:2012). In order to compare the stiffness of the differ-
ent full-ceramic pads, their compressive strengths were measured
according to DIN EN 658-2.
The tribological tests were conducted on a self-
designed dynamometer (45 kW, FNmax = 3000 N;
vmax = 2500 rpm; Mmax = 250 Nm, without inertia masses resp.
y wheels (Fig. 2) The test setup is illustrated in Fig. 2 [33].
The conditions during braking are summarized in Table 2. The
Fig. 2. Lab-scale dynamometer [33]. dependency of the frictional properties on the speed and pressure
were investigated within the speed resp. pressure series. The COF
2.2. Ceramic rotors and the temperatures on the surface of the rotor and on the back-
sides of the ceramic pads are recorded continuously.
Internal ventilated C/SiC rotors were selected as the counter- All wear rates based on measurements after each series and
parts during all tribological studies, fabricated by Brembo SGL reveal the wear coefcient k in mm3 /Nm (wear volume wv in mm3 ;
Carbon Ceramic Brakes Company. The ceramic rotors were newly normal force F; sliding distance s [34]).
grounded before each test. Currently, these brake discs are available k = F s (1)
for several passenger cars (diameter 380 mm, thickness 38 mm). Several braking cycles were conducted within each part of the
The rotor consists of a SiC-rich friction layer and C-ber rich core, regarded series, e.g. 113 stops at 3.4 m/s with a braking pressure
which ensures the mechanical strength and the damage tolerance. of 2.44 N/mm2 . Between each two braking cycles, a break of 2 s
The outer SiC-rich friction layer contains about 70 vol.% SiC; 15 vol.% was introduced realize similar test conditions compared to the AK-
C-bers and 15 vol.% Si to enable a favorable tribological perfor- Master (see below). The friction energy was kept constant at 2 MJ
mance as well as a high oxidation and wear resistance [33]. for all test cycles. Thus, the braking time was change in dependence
on the rotation speed.
Ceramic brake pads with a surface area of 12,000 mm2 were pre-
2.3. Methods
pared for the tests on the full-scale inertia dynamometer. The pad
geometry is illustrated in Fig. 3. The mass of a car can be simulated
The bulk density and the open porosity were determined by
by y wheels (108.3 kgm2 ) and different stopping conditions can
the Archimedes method according to DIN EN 1389:2003. Opti-
be realized. The corresponding test procedure is called AK-Master
cal microscopy (Zeiss Axiotech), 3D optical confocal microscopy
test, a test for the characterization of the tribological behavior of
(Keyence VR-3000), scanning electron microscopy (JEOL JSM-6400)
friction materials Table 3.
and EDX-analysis were applied to study the microstructure and
3826 N. Langhof et al. / Journal of the European Ceramic Society 36 (2016) 38233832

Table 4
Bulk density, open porosity and the composition of the applied pads, ns = not specied.

Bulk Density [g/cm3 ] Open Porosity [%] Composition of the C/SiC bulk material in vol.%

Disc material
C/SiC 2.45 ns Friction layer: 70% SiC; 15% C; 15% Si

Pad materials
Low Met 4.50 25.0 see Ref. [42]
C/SiC SF 2.00 1.0 64% C-bers and C-matrix; 23% SiC; 13% Si
C/SiC SF 11Coke 1.94 2.1 73% C-bers; C-matrix and coke; 18.5% SiC; 8.5% Si

Fig. 3. (a) Geometry of the C/SiC ceramic brake pad (frictional surface = 12000 mm2 ); (b) experimental setup (brake disc and calliper) in the full-scale inertia dynamometer
(Audi AG).

Fig. 4. Microstructure of the ceramic pads (cross sections) before braking (optical microscope images); (a) C/SiC SF; (b) C/SiC SF 11Coke.

Fig. 5. Speed and pressure series on the lab-scale test rig; (a) Dependence of COF on the speed at constant pressure; (b) Dependence of COF on the pressure at constant

The AK-Master test contains high and low speed braking sec- temperature of the friction material can be measured constantly
tions as well as different braking pressures. The COFs and the during braking, similar to the lab-scale test rig. After the whole test,
N. Langhof et al. / Journal of the European Ceramic Society 36 (2016) 38233832 3827

Fig. 7. AK-Master test for Low Met reference on the ceramic disc; dotted lines: max.
and min. COF , straight line: mean value; highlighted: Section 8 and 11 (for detailed
test conditions, see Table 3).

Fig. 6. Wear rates after the pressure series (v = 17.4 m/s, p = 0.54 resp. 2.44 N/mm2 )
resp. the speed series (p = 2.44 N/mm2 ; v = 3.4; 17.4 and 42.6 m/s) for all brake pairs,
determined after each series, the speed resp. the pressure series.

the amount of wear can be determined by analyzing the thickness

changes in mm.

Fig. 8. AK-Master test for C/SiC SF on the ceramic disc; dotted lines: max. and min.
3. Results and discussion
COF , straight line: mean value; highlighted: Section 8 and 11 (for detailed test
conditions, see Table 3).
A summary of the bulk densities and open porosities of the pad
materials are given in Table 4. The bulk density of C/SiC SF 11Coke
decreases from 2.00 g/cm3 to 1.94 g/cm3 and the porosity increases
slightly from 1 to 2.1% referred to C/SiC SF.
This is probably due to the fact, that these samples contains less
SiC and Si, but more carbon compared to C/SiC SF. Additionally,
the coke particles are akes and less compacted, compared to the
amorphous carbon matrix.
Besides of the coke ller, the lower Si-content of the C/SiC SF
11Coke material is very important to understand the tribological
behavior later on. Due to the addition of the coke ller, less phenolic Fig. 9. AK-Master test for C/SiC SF 11Coke materials on the ceramic disc; dotted
matrix was added in the CFRP body and less shrinkage occurred lines: max. and min. COF , straight line: mean value; highlighted: Section 8 and 11
during the pyrolysis. The C/C of C/C-SiC SF shows 20% open porosity, (for detailed test conditions, see Table 3).
the C/C-preform of C/C-SiC SF 11Coke only 9%. Due to the lower
porosity, fewer amounts of Si can be inltrated and transformed v = 3.4; 17.4 and 42.6 m/s). C/SiC SF shows the highest wear rates
into SiC during the nal liquid silicon inltration process (Fig. 4). with 13 105 mm3 /J and C/SiC SF 11Coke the lowest wear with
1.0 105 mm3 /J. Due to the addition of coke, the ceramic pads
3.1. COF and wear rates of the lab-scale dynamometer samples becomes softer. It show 25% less stiffness compared to C/SiC SF.
Furthermore, coke particles are less brittle and more exible than
The results of the full-ceramic brakes on the lab-scale the other phases within the ceramic pads. Therefore, the real con-
dynamometer are shown in Fig. 5a and b. Ceramic pads with the tact and the COF increases simultaneously with a decreasing wear
dimensions of 20 20 10 mm3 (length x width x thickness) were rate.
tested on the ventilated C/SiC rotors (diameter = 380 mm).
The COF of both C/SiC materials show similar values between 3.2. COFs and wear on a full-scale inertia
0.2 and 0.7 (Fig. 5). During the friction test at 3.4 m/s, COFs between dynamometerAK-Master test
0.63 and 0.64 were measured for both ceramic pads. The uctua-
tions of the COFs for these test conditions are between 0.44 and The tribological behaviors of the full-ceramic materials as well
0.84. Only slight deviations between 0.40 and 0.44 were observed as the Low Met reference were studied during the AK-Master tests.
for the reference material. COFs were measured continuously, as well as the temperatures of
With increasing friction speed from 3.4 m/s to 42.6 m/s, the COF the friction materials. The amount of wear was determined after
of the ceramic pads decrease from about 0.60.24 for C/SiC SF resp. the tests by measuring the thickness changes. The results, obtained
0.28 for C/SiC SF 11Coke (Fig. 5a). The reference material shows a in the AK-Master tests, show the consistent COF between 0.28 and
stable COF. The COF of the ceramic materials are almost constant 0.44 for the reference Low Met material on the ceramic rotor (Fig. 7).
between 0.4 and 0.44 at 17.4 m/s and different pressures (Fig. 5b). Immediately, within the rst AK-Master section the full-ceramic
Low COFs between 0.2 and 0.3 were determined for the Low Mets couples show one favorable property. The COF for this green effec-
under these loads. tiveness cycle is remarkably higher (0.45) compared to the Low
The wear rates were determined after the whole pressure Met pads (0.3). The mean COF of the C/SiC SF material (0.39) is on
resp. speed series. All wear rates after the pressure series the same level compared to the state of the art Low Met mate-
(v = 17.4 m/s, p = 0.54 resp. 2.44 N/mm2 ) are low and between rial (Figs. 7 and 8). For the C/SiC 11Coke material, the mean COF
1.5 and 2.0 105 mm3 /J (Fig. 6). The lowest wear rate of increases signicantly up to 0.45 (Fig. 9). The behavior is more bal-
1.5 105 mm3 /J was measured for C/SiC SF 11Coke. The differ- anced compared to C/SiC SF and on a higher COF level, independent
ences are more pronounced after the speed series (p = 2.44 N/mm2 ; of the conditions within the AK-Master test sections. Furthermore,
3828 N. Langhof et al. / Journal of the European Ceramic Society 36 (2016) 38233832

different, which are ve for the small pads and about 24 for the
larger pads. That mean, that the small pads exhibit more particles
close to the outer surface, which can be abraded or sheared off
more easily in comparison to the larger ceramic materials. Hence,
porous materials, like the Low Met reference degrade more and
show higher wear rates on the lab-scale test rig. The reliability of
the obtained results on a lab-scale test rig, rises with an increasing
of the thermomechanical stability of the selected friction materials.

3.4. Friction and wear mechanisms in the full-ceramic brake


In order to summarize and visualize the observed wear and fric-

tion mechanisms, the preliminary approach [31], can be extended
signicantly (Fig. 11). Due to the examination of the frictional
surfaces, the cross sections, the surface roughnesses and the
temperatures, we can identify several key mechanisms for the
full-ceramic brake systems. The focus was on the formation of a 3rd-
Fig. 10. Wear of the Low Met and both ceramic pads.
body (friction layer resp. contact plateaus), which can be formed
between the ceramic disc (1st-body) and the ceramic brake materi-
no thermal fading occurs during the regarding AK-Master sessions, als (2nd-body). In general, the 3rd-body is required to enable stable
which shows the favorable thermal stability of the full-ceramic and high COFs in brake systems.
brakes, compared with the organic binder containing Low Met pads. Following remarks, regarding the friction and wear mechanisms
Despite of this behavior, the consistency of the COF within each of the full-ceramic brakes systems can be made:
test block is important. The deviations of the coefcient of friction
for C/SiC SF and C/SiC SF 11Coke are visible in the high speed and No wear was detectable for the hard resp. SiC-rich C/SiC rotors.
high pressure Sections 8 and 11 (Figs. 8 and 9). Within these parts A 3rd-body was found on the surface of C/SiC SF and C/SiC SF
of the AK-Master test, braking pressures up to 8 MPa and sliding 11Coke (Fig. 12).
speeds up to 24.6 m/s were applied, accompanied with the high- The 3rd-body covers a larger surface for the C/SiC SF 11Coke
est temperatures during the AK-Master test (Table 5) The COF of material.
the full-ceramic brake systems, depends on the pressure between Due to the presence of free silicon in the full-ceramic friction
Section 5 and 8, where the speed and the pressure are gradually couple, an adhesion-abrasion mechanism can destroy the local
increased (Table 3). The second lowest COFs for the full-ceramic 3rd-body, which can be observed by deep grooves on the C/SiC
brake systems can be found in the motorway Section 11 at the SF material and the generation of high wear rates (Figs. 12 and 14).
highest driving speed 28.3 m/s. The presence of coke and fewer silicon changes the observed wear
In contrast to the studies on the lab-scale dynamometer, the mechanisms for the C/SiC SF 11Coke pads.
amount of wear of both ceramic materials is higher compared to The lower Si-content in C/SiC SF 11Coke prevents formation of
the reference Low Met (Fig. 10). The wear decreases signicantly adhesive-abrasive wear spots/peaks and deep grooves and gen-
due to the addition of coke, but it is still 1/3 above the wear of the erated a higher contact area and COF.
Low Met pads. The reason for this observation might be found in The material gets softer as a bulk (lower stiffness) and the sur-
the different thermomechanical loads during the AK-Master test face is able to trap wear particles due to coke as a friction modier.
compared with the lab-scale tests. This topic will be discussed in More exible coke particles are able to increase the real contact
the following part of this paper. area during braking, accompanied with higher COFs, lower wear
In summary, it was found, that the average COF of the C/SiC SF rates and less COF uctuations.
11Coke is signicantly higher compared to the reference materials,
due to the addition of 11 vol.% coke. Furthermore, the soft-hard 3.5. Abrasion
approach is supported by the measured compressive stiffness of the
C/SiC SF 11Coke material, which is about 25% lower, compared to Several hard and rough Si-SiC peaks on the disc surface (Fig. 13)
the C/SiC SF. The soft coke particles enable an easier adaption on are responsible for the deep grooves on the surface of the C/SiC
the surface roughness of the rotor counterpart. That means higher SF materials (Figs. 12a and 14a). The deep grooves are no longer
real contact areas and COFs, accompanied with less wear and less detectable, if coke is added to the pad material (Figs. 12b and 14b).
COF variations within the AK-Master test. The low content of silicon in the C/SiC SF 11Coke material prevents
the formation of the roughness peaks on the corresponding C/SiC
3.3. Lab-scale vs. full-scale dynamometer rotor. Hence, the lack of abrasive wear causes much lower wear
rates for C/SiC SF 11Coke compared to C/SiC SF.
The above investigated ceramic friction materials and the refer- The surface roughness of both ceramic pads are shown and ana-
ence Low Mets are compared in Table 5 with their results gained lysed by confocal microscopy in Fig. 14 resp. Table 6 It can be
from the lab-scale and the full-scale inertia dynamometer. In gen- concluded, that the maximum roughness of both materials is sim-
eral, the COFs are similar. The temperatures on the lab-scale rig ilar, but the C/SiC SF 11Coke material shows spots resp. plateaus
are partially lower due to the smaller brake pads and lower brake with signicantly lower roughnesses (Table 6). Due to these many
pressures, which results in a lower friction power. Therefore, the contact plateaus the wear resistance of C/SiC SF 11Coke is higher
different temperatures, the extents of expectable oxidation and compared to C/SiC SF.
loads are most probable responsible for the higher wear rates of Furthermore, for the dense C/SiC SF material without coke, there
the ceramic materials on the full-scale dynamometer. are no possibilities to prevent a three body abrasion accord-
Additionally, the sample shapes and sizes (400 mm2 and ing to Ref. [34], which means the abrasion, which is caused by
12,000 mm2 ), the friction surface to circumference ratio are hard SiC wear particles between both frictional surfaces. Hence,
N. Langhof et al. / Journal of the European Ceramic Society 36 (2016) 38233832 3829

Fig. 11. Model which sums up the observed friction and wear mechanisms for the full-ceramic brake systems, C/SiC SF and C/SiC SF 11Coke.

Fig. 12. Frictional surfaces (SEM images, topography contrast); (a) C/SiC SF with partially deep grooves due to abrasion; (b) C/SiC SF 11Coke; SD = sliding direction.

Fig. 13. Frictional surface of the C/SiC rotor after braking on the lab-scale rig (counterpart: C/SiC SF); SD = sliding direction (Fig. 5a); (a) top view; back scattered SEM image;
(b) cross section (optical microscope) [33].

Fig. 14. Surface roughness/topography; areas denoted measured in Table 6 (a) C/SiC SF; (b) C/SiC SF 11Coke.
3830 N. Langhof et al. / Journal of the European Ceramic Society 36 (2016) 38233832

Table 5
Detailed comparison of the tribological tests on the lab-scale and the full-scale test rig; TDisc measured on the surface, TPads measured on the backside.

Lab-scale test rig Full-scale inertia dynamometer

Pad type COF Wear rate k in 105 mm3 /J TMaxDisc in C TMaxPads in C COF Wear in mm TMaxDisc in C TMaxPads in C

Low Met Reference 0.200.42 4.4 530 140 0.280.44 0.58 800 300
C/SiC SF 0.240.63 7.4 380 610 0.270.58 1.48 850 500
C/SiC SF 11Coke 0.280.64 1.3 440 370 0.310.49 0.8 800 450

Table 6
Surface and prole roughness according to the areas in (Fig. 14), Sa resp. Ra = average roughness, Sp resp. Rp = max. peak height, Sv resp. Rv = max. valley depth.

Surface roughness and (StDev) in m C/SiC SF resp. C/SiC SF 11Coke as received (n = 5)

Sa = 1.3 (0.1) Sp = 7.1 (0.9) Sv = 10.3 (3.3)

C/SiC SF braked (n = 3) C/SiC SF 11Coke braked (n = 3)

e.g. Sa Sp Sv e.g. Sa Sp Sv
Area 1 3.3 11.7 16.6 Area 1 3.1 10.1 32.3

Area 2 3.5 18.8 18.5 Area 2 1.4 5.8 18.7

Area 3 4.8 14.6 28.3 Area 3 1 3.1 4.8

Mean 3.9 15 21.1 Mean 1.8 6.3 18.6

Prole (line) roughness in m after braking

C/SiC SF braked (n = 4) C/SiC SF 11Coke braked (n = 4)

e.g. Ra Rp Rv e.g. Ra Rp Rv
Line 1 5.1 9.9 13.3 Line 1 1.8 3.9 5.8
Line 2 5.1 10.1 13.9 Line 2 1.3 4 3.5
Line 3 5.7 10.8 14.3 Line 3 1.8 6.4 4.6
Line 4 5.9 12.6 15.1 Line 4 1.8 4.1 7.9
Mean 5.5 10.9 14.2 Mean 1.7 4.6 5.5

deep grooves evolve and the potential contact area, which could resp. teared of 3rd-body from the surface of the C/SiC SF material
enhances the friction forces, decreases. The coke containing mate- (Fig. 15a). Additionally, at 3.4 m/s the stick-slip effect was observed
rial has the ability to avoid theses abrasion mechanisms, by with the C/SiC SF materials. Noises, vibrations and harshnesses
trapping these particles inside of the soft coke akes. (NVH) occurred by the frequently transition between static and
dynamic friction at 3.4 m/s.
Low silicon contents and the solid lubricant coke on the fric-
3.6. Adhesion tion surfaces prevent the predominance of the adhesion-abrasion
mechanism, the evolution of harshness peaks on the rotor and NVH
In conjunction with the abrasion, the adhesion has to be issues for the C/SiC SF 11Coke materials. We assume that only small
discussed. Adhesion between the C/SiC rotor and C/SiC SF pad spots temporarily evolve for C/SiC SF 11Coke. They are immediately
accompanied by material transfer occurred due to the free silicon abraded by the SiC of the opposing rotor. Furthermore, the author
on both frictional surfaces. Silicon welds together during friction has already conrmed that, no transfer resp. adhesion-abrasion
and can incorporate hard SiC wear particles (Fig. 13b). Speeds occurred, when silicon from the pad is extracted [33].
above 20 m/s and temperatures above 400 C enable this observed Signicantly more smooth and polished contact plateaus resp.
phenomenon, because of the brittle to ductile transition of silicon 3rd-bodies can be detected on the surface of C/SiC SF 11Coke
[33,3638] and a presumably incorporation of the SiC wear debris. (Fig. 15b).
Furthermore, the new evolved welding contacts start to transfer
Si from the C/SiC SF pads to the C/SiC rotor, where the silicon is
3.7. Oxidation
bonded stronger and the peaks continuously grow the longer a
brake test last. Due to the higher SiSiC content, the thermal con-
The oxidation of carbon starts at about 400 C in air. Further-
ductivity of the rotor is signicantly higher (>20 W/mK) compared
more, the formation of SiO2 from the oxidation of Si and SiC is
to the pads (<10 W/mK). Therefore, after the brittle to ductile tran-
possible due the signicantly higher temperature on contact area
sition, the Si within the C/SiC SF pads gets softer and is transferable
of the frictional surfaces, which cant be determined during braking
more easily than from the colder opposite direction. The silicon
[20,21,28,32,41]. The EDX analysis conrms the presence of oxygen
from the rotor is derived from the SiSiC friction layer. This friction
(Fig. 16). It is hard to detect, whether SiO2 occurs as a lubrication
layer is formed during the siliconization and its microstructure is
lm or in local spots on the tribological surfaces of C/SiC SF and
similar to a monolithic SiSiC ceramic with only few C-bers. On
C/SiC SF 11Coke. Further measurements are required, to conrm or
the one hand, the silicon matrix with this friction layer is homoge-
disconrm the statements in the literature.
nously distributed over the whole surface of the friction layer. On
the other hand, silicon in the pads is not so well distributed and can
be found in spots or small cracks resp. aggregates in the dimension 3.8. Fatigue
of 1050 m width surrounded by SiC and mainly carbon. There-
fore, it is more realistic to assume, that silicon is transferred from The ceramic materials can be damaged partially by the cyclic
the pads towards the rotor. Lower forces are required to pull the thermomechanical loadings during braking. This wear mechanism
silicon out of the pads, compared to the silicon from the rotor. This is detectable by some cracks evolved after braking within the
unfavorable mechanism, is the reason for the partially removed microstructure (Fig. 17). CMC are C-ber reinforced and much less
N. Langhof et al. / Journal of the European Ceramic Society 36 (2016) 38233832 3831

Fig. 15. Frictional surfaces (SEM images, topography contrast); (a) C/SiC SF with partially removed friction layer due to adhesion; (b) C/SiC SF 11Coke; SD = sliding direction.

Fig. 16. EDX-analysis of the C/SiC disc surface indicate the presence of oxygen, besides of Si and C.

Fig. 17. Cross sections (optical microscope) after braking; (a) C/SiC SF; (b) C/SiC SF 11Coke.

brittle than monolithic ceramics. Nevertheless, the strain to failure and the rotor, adhesive-abrasive wear were observed and are cru-
at room temperature is below 1% and the fracture toughness of Si, cial for the C/C-SiC SF materials.
C and SiC is below 5 MPam1/2 at room temperature as well [43]. Due to the addition of coke (C/SiC SF 11Coke) as a solid lubricant
Fatigues damages are also detected in a previous work [31] and the stiffness of the material decreases to 25%. Soft and exible
could be another factor in the explanation of the higher wear of coke particles within C/SiC SF 11Coke increase the real contact
the ceramic materials compared to the Low Met reference on the area, accompanied with higher COFs, lower wear rates and less
full-scale dynamometer. COF uctuations. The average COFs rises from 0.39 up to 0.45 (AK-
Master) and the wear rate drops from 7.4 105 mm3 /J down to
4. Summary and conclusions 1.3 105 mm3 /J for the lab-scale tests and during the AK-Master
from 1.48 to 0.8 mm thickness loss.
All brake pads within this study were tested on a full-scale CMC In order to make some conclusions we have to point out some
brake rotor at conditions, which are relevant for automotive appli- statements after this study.
A lab-scale and a full-scale test rig were applied to study the
tribological behavior of these full-ceramic brake systems.
C/C-SiC SF materials show COFs between 0.24 and 0.63 and the The studied full-ceramic brake systems are promising materials
highest wear rates (7.4 105 mm3 /J) on the lab-scale and on the for high braking pressures and especially for speeds up to about
full-scale test rig. Due to the residual silicon within the brake pads 20 m/s.
3832 N. Langhof et al. / Journal of the European Ceramic Society 36 (2016) 38233832

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