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OBJECTIVES

To assess the extent of e resources usage and thereby barriers among students.
To analyse the mediating effect of streams and gender over the usage of e resources

Hypotheses
The streams of students will determine the usage of e resources.
The gender of students will determine the usage of e resources.

H1 The gender of students will determine the usage of e resources.

Table 1 Purpose of using e resources

Gender Total Researc Learnin General Projec Entertainm


(190 h/Semin g Informati ts ent
) ar/confer materi on
ence al
Male 103 88.3% 87.4% 93.2% 96.1% 83.5%
54.2
%
Female 87 87.4% 71.3% 89.7% 88.5% 77.0%
45.2
%
No. of 83.5% 76% 87% 88% 173
Response
s

Interpretation and Discussion


Table 1 reveals the gender wise responses of students regarding the five purposes of e-resources
usage namely, Research/seminar/conference, Learning material, Collection of general
information, Class assignments/projects and Entertainment.

1. Research/seminar/conference:

It can be observed from table 1 that 88.3% male students use e-resources in research work
whereas 87.4% female students use e-resources in research work. The percentage difference
between male and female students shows a marginal difference of 1.1% in their usage.

2. Learning material:

87.4% male students use e resources for accessing learning material in comparison to 71.3%
female students. The percentage difference between male and female shows that usage of e
resources for learning material is higher in males than in females.

3. General Information:

93.2% male students use e resources for collecting general information in the field of their
discipline in comparison to 89.7% females students. The percentage difference between males
and females show that the usage of e resources for general information is higher in males than in
females.

4. Projects:

96.1% male students use e resources for completing their project work in comparison to 88.5%
females students. The percentage difference between males and females show that the usage of e
resources for project
5. Entertainment:
83.5% male students use e resources for entertainment in comparison to 77.0% females students.
The percentage difference between males and females show that the usage of e resources for
entertainment is higher in males than in females.

The data shows that the male students make more use of e resources in all the five categories in
comparison to females. The top usage of e resources by male and female is for the purpose of
completing classroom assignment and project work, collecting general information in the field if
their discipline and research work.

H2: The streams of students will determine the usage of e resources


Table 1.1 Purpose of using e resources

Streams Total Researc Learnin General Projec Entertainm


(190 h/Semin g Informati ts ent
) ar/confer materi on
ence al
Arts 131 88.5% 77.9% 91.6% 93.9% 82.4%
68.9
%
Sciences 59 86.4% 84.7% 91.5% 89.8% 76.3%
31.1
No. of 190 152 174 176 153
Response
s

Interpretation and Discussion

The table no. 2 reveals the stream wise percentage responses of students regarding the five
purposes of e resources usage namely, Research/seminar/conference, Learning material,
Collection of general information, Class assignments/projects and Entertainment.

1. Research/seminar/conference:

88.5% art students use e resources in research work in comparison to 86.4% science students.
The percentage difference between Arts and sciences students shows a marginal difference of 2
% in their usage.

2. Learning material:

77.9% Arts students use e resources for accessing learning material in comparison to 84.7
Sciences students. The percentage difference between Arts and Sciences shows that usage of e
resources for learning material is higher in science students than in art students.
3. General Information:

91.6% arts students use e resources for collecting general information in the field of their
discipline in comparison to 91.5% sciences students. There is no difference among the art and
science stream students in the usage of e resources for general information.

4. Projects:

93.9% art students use e resources for completing their project work and classroom assignment
in comparison to 89.8% sciences students. The percentage difference between art and science
students show that the usage of e resources in preparing projects and classroom assignments is
higher in arts students than science students.

5. Entertainment:
82.4% arts students use e resources for entertainment in comparison to 76.3% sciences students.
The percentage difference between art and science show that the usage of e resources for
entertainment is higher in arts students than in science students.

The data shows that the maximum use of e resources is made for the purpose of entertainment,
project work and research work by both arts and science students. It is also revealed that
approximately 80% of the students use e resources for all the academic purposes and
entertainmnet. It shows that majority of the students pursuing post graduation and research have
ICT skills and are aware of the use of e resources in academics.

H1 The gender of students will determine the usage of e resources.

Table 2.1 Barriers in using e resources

Gender Total Lack of ICT Lack of No Internet Insufficient Low


(190) Skills Time facility e-resources Internet
outside Speed
campus

Male 103 37.9% 53.4% 60.2% 57.3% 59.2%


54.2
%
Female 87 35.6% 41.4% 54.0% 51.7% 62.1%
45.2
No. of 70 91 109 104 115
Response
s

Interpretation and Discussion

The table no. 2.1 reveals the gender wise percentage responses of students regarding the five
barriers in using e resources namely, difficulty in finding relevant information / lack of ICT
skills, lack of time, internet facility not available outside the campus, insufficient e-resources
and low speed of the internet.

1. Difficulty in finding relevant information / lack of ICT skills

37.9% male students agree that they face difficulty in finding relevant information & lack of
ICT skills in comparison to 35.6% female students. The percentage difference between male
and female students shows a marginal difference of 2% in their lack of ICT skills.

2. Lack of time:

53.4% male students agree that they are not able to access e resources due to lack of time in
comparison to 41.4% female students. The percentage difference between male and female
shows that male students considers lack of time is a big barrier for male students ion
comparison to girls.

3. Internet facility not available outside the campus


60.2% male students agree that inability to access internet facility outside the institution campus
acts as a barrier in e resources usage for academic purpose in comparison to 41.4% female
students. The percentage difference between male and female students show that the
unavailability to access internet facility outside campus is a big barrier in e resources usage for
male students in comparison to female students.

4. Insufficient e-resources:

57.3% male students considers insufficiency of e resources as a barrier in e resources usage


for academic purpose in comparison to 51.7% females students. The percentage difference
between males and females shows that number of males considering insufficient e resources as
a barrier is more than females.
5. low speed:
59.2% male students considers low internet speed as a barrier in comparison to 62.1% females
students. The percentage difference between males and females show that number of male
considering low internet speed as a barrier is more in comparison to females.

The data shows that the male students make more face the challenges using of e resources in all
the five categories in comparison to females. The top usage of barriers in e resources by male
and female is for the purpose of completing classroom study & accessing the e-resources.

H2: The streams of students will determine the usage of e resources

Table 2.2 Barriers in using e resources.

Streams Total Lack of ICT Lack of No Internet Insufficient Low


(190) Skills Time facility e-resources Internet
outside Speed
campus

Arts 131 41.2% 41.2% 56.5% 55.0% 64.1%


68.9%

Science 59 27.1% 62.7% 59.3% 54.2% 52.5%


31.1

No. of 190 70 91 109 115


Responses

Interpretation and Discussion

The table no. 2.1 reveals the stream wise percentage responses of students regarding the five
barriers of using in e resources usage namely, difficulty in finding relevant information / lack of
ICT skills, lack of time, internet facility not available outside the campus, insufficient e-
resources and low speed of the internet.

1. Difficulty in finding relevant information / lack of ICT skills


41.2% of arts students face the challenges using in e-resources i.e. difficulty in relevant
information & lack of ICT comparison to 27.1% of sciences students. The percentage difference
between arts and sciences students shows a marginal difference of 14% in their usage.

2. Lack of time:

41.2% of arts students agree that they are not able to access e resources due to lack of time in
comparison to 62.7% sciences students. The percentage difference between male and female
shows that sciences students considers lack of time is a big barrier while using e-resources in
comparison to arts students. The percentage difference between arts and sciences students
shows a marginal difference of 21.5% in their usage.

3. Internet facility not available outside the campus


56.5% of arts students agree that inability to access internet facility outside the institution
campus acts as a barrier in e resources usage for academic purpose in comparison to 59.3% of
science students. The percentage difference between arts and science students show that the
unavailability to access internet facility outside campus is a big barrier in e resources usage for
science students in comparison to arts students. The percentage difference between arts and
sciences students shows a marginal difference of 3.8% in their usage.

4. Insufficient e-resources:

55.0% arts students considers insufficiency of e resources as a barrier in e-resources usage for
academic purpose in comparison to 54.2% sciences students. The percentage difference
between arts and sciences students shows the marginal difference of .08% in their usage.

5. Low speed:
64.1% arts students considers low internet speed as a barrier in comparison to 52.5% sciences
students. The percentage difference between arts and sciences students show that number of arts
students considering low internet speed as a barrier is more in comparison to sciences. The
percentage difference between arts and sciences students shows the marginal difference of
11.6% in their usage.

H1 The gender of students will determine the usage of e resources.


Table 3.1 types of e-resources used for research and classroom assignments:

Male Total Daily Several Once a Several Seldom Never


(190) times a week week times a
months

E-book 103 21.4 35.9 11.7 11.7 11.7 8.7


54.2 %
%
E-thesis & 103 11.7 24.3 13.6 18.4 19.4 12.6
dissertation 54.2
s %
Digital 103 15.7 21.6 13.7 19.6 16.7 12.7
library 54.2
%
Educational 103 42.2 32.4 7.8 4.9 11.8 1.0
websites 54.2
%
Open 103 23.5 9.8 10.8 13.7 10.8
education 54.2 31.4
resources %
Search 103 61.2 17.5 3.9 4.9 7.8 4.9
engines 54.2
%

Female Total Daily Several Once a Several Seldom Never


(87) times a week week times a
months

E-book 87 16.1% 3.4% 18.4% 25.3% 24.1%


(100 12.6
%) %
E-thesis & 87 16.1 19.5% 8.0% 16.1% 20.7% 19.5%
dissertation 100% %
s

Digital 87 10.3 14.9% 12.6% 13.8% 24.1% 24.1%


library 100% %
Educational 87 29.9 24.1% 12.6% 9.2% 12.6% 11.5%
websites 100% %
Open 87 29.9 16.1% 9.2% 10.3% 17.2% 17.2%
education 100% %
resources

Search 87 57.5 19.5% 3.4% 3.4% 8.0% 8.0%


engines 100% %

Interpretation and Discussion

The table no. 3.1 reveals the gender wise percentage responses of students regarding the six type
of e-resources used for research and classroom assignments. The e-resources usage namely,e-
books, e-thesis and dissertations, e-database/ shodh sindhu/ national science digital library,
educational websites, open education resources and search engines/ google.

1. E-book:

35.9% of male students using e-resources several times a week for completing class room
assignments and research work but the percentage of female students is lower which is
(16.1%). The percentage difference between male and female students shows a marginal
difference of 19.1% in their usage of e-resources for class assignments & research.

2. E-thesis :
As per the usage of E-thesis is concerned, 24.3% male students uses E-thesis for research and
classroom assignments but the percentage of female students is lower in comparison to male
students which is 19.5%. The percentage difference between male and female students shows a
marginal difference of 4.8% in their usage of e-thesis.

3. E-database/ e-shodhsindhu/ national science digital library:

As per the usage of E-database is concerned, 21.6% male students are using the of E-database /
e-shodhsindhu/ national science digital library several times a week for research & class room
assignments but the percentage of usage of female students is lower which is 14.9% female.
The percentage difference of 7.3 % between male and female show that the usage e-database/ e-
shodhsindhu for research and class room assignments is higher in male than in female.

4. Educational websites:
As per the usage of Educational websites is concerned, 42.2% male students are using
Educational websites on daily basis for completing their research and class assignments. But the
percentage of female students is lower which 29.9% is. The percentage difference of 13.7%
between male and female students shows that the usage of educational websites for class
assignments is higher in males than females.

5. Open education resources:


As per the usage of Open education resources is concerned, the table shows that 31.4% of male
students are using the open education resources for research and class assignments. Along with
this the percentage of female students is lower which 29.9% is. The percentage difference of
2.5% between male and female students shows that the usage of open education resources is
higher in male than in female students.
6. Search engines/ google :

The table shows that the 61.2% daily male students using search engines in class room
assignments and research work comparison to 57.5% female students. The percentage
difference between male and female students shows a marginal difference of 3.5 % in their
usage of e-resources for class assignments & research.

H2: The streams of students will determine the usage of e resources :

Table 3.2. types of e-resources used for research and classroom assignments:

Arts Total Daily Several Once a Several Seldom Never


(190) times a week times a
week months
E-book Arts 131 21.4 29.0% 9.9% 11.5% 17.6% 10.7%
%
Scie
nces
E-thesis & 13.7% 27.5% 14.5% 17.6% 16.8%$ 9.9%
dissertation
s
Digital 15.4% 12.3% 68.9% 13.8% 20.0% 13.8%
library
Educationa 40.8% 29.2% 10.0% 13.8% 20.0% 3.1%
l websites

Open 33.8% 24.6% 12.3% 10.0% 12.3% 6.9%


education
resources
Search 60.3% 19.1% 3.1% 4.6% 9.2% 3.8%
engines

Sciences Total Daily Several Once a Several Seldom Never


(190) times a week times a
week months
E-book 59 8.5 % 22.0% 3.4% 20.3% 18.6% 27.1%
31.1
%
E-thesis & 59 13.6% 10.2% 3.4% 27.1% 16.9 28.8%
dissertation 31.9
s %
Digital 59 8.5% 6.8% 10.2% 23.7% 20.0% 30.5%
library 31.1
%
Educationa 59 27.1% 27.1% 10.2% 23.7% 20.3% 11.9%
l websites 31.1
%
Open 59 23.7% 10.2 % 3.4% 11.9% 22.0% 28.8%
education 31.1
resources %
Search 57.6% 16.9% 5.1% 3.4% 5.1% 11.9%
engines

Interpretation and Discussion

The table no. 3.2 reveals the stream wise percentage of responses of students regarding the six
categories type of e-resources used for research and classroom assignments e resources usage
namely,e-books, e-thesis and dissertations, e-database/ shodh sindhu/ national science digital
library, educational websites, open education resources, search engines/ google.

1. E-book:

29.0% arts students using e-resources several times a week for completing class room
assignments and research work but the percentage of sciences students is lower which (16.1%)
is. The percentage difference between arts and sciences students shows a marginal difference of
13% in their usage of e-resources for class assignments & research.

2. E-thesis :

As per the usage of E-thesis is concerned, 27.5% arts students uses E-thesis for research and
classroom assignments but the percentage of sciences students is lower in comparison to arts
students which is 10.2%. The percentage difference between arts and sciences students shows a
marginal difference of 17.3% in their usage of e-thesis.
3. E-database/ e-shodhsindhu/ national science digital library :

68.9% once a week arts students using of e resources in several times a week for research &
class room assignments in the field of their discipline in comparison to 10.2% sciences students.
The percentage difference between arts and sciences show that the usage e-database/ e-
shodhsindhu for research and class room assignments is higher in arts then in sciences.

4. Educational websites:

40.8% arts students daily using educational websites for completing their research and class
assignments in comparison to 27.1% sciences students. The percentage difference between arts
and sciences show that the usage educational websites for class assignments.
Differences between arts and sciences students 13.7%.
5. Open education resources:

33.8% arts students daily use of open education resources for research and class assignments in
comparison to 23.7% sciences students. The percentage difference between male and female
show that the usage open education resources is higher in male than in female students.
difference between arts and sciences students 10 %.

6. Search engines/ google :

60.3% daily arts students using search engines in class room assignments and research work
comparison to 57.6% sciences students. The percentage difference between arts and sciences
students shows a marginal difference of 2.3 % in their usage of e-resources for class
assignments & research.
H1 The gender of students will determine the usage of e resources.

Table 4.1 frequently social networking media is used to assist in academics :

male Total Daily Several Once a few times a Seldom Never


times a week months
week
Facebook 103 70.9 16.5% 5.8% 1.9% 3.9% 1.0%
54.2% %
You tube 103 78.6 13.6% 1.9% 1.9% 2.9% 1.0%
54.2% %
Skype 103 9.7% 7.8% 6.8% 15.5% 32.0% 28.2%
54.2%
Instant 103 28.2 16.5% 7.8% 6.8% 24.3 % 16.5%
messaging 54.2% %
Linkedin 103 20.4 12.6% 10.7% 4.9% 30.1% 21.4%
54.2% %
Whats app 103 84.5 5.8% 1.9% 1.0% 3.9% 2.9%
54.2% %

Female Total Daily Several Once a few times a Seldom Never


(190) times a week months
week

Facebook 87% 32.2% 14.9% 4.6% 8.0% 19.5% 20.7%


You tube 55.2% 20.7% 5.7% 8.0% 6.9% 3.4%
Skype 3.4% 10.3% 3.4% 9.2% 37.9% 35.6%
Instant 14.9% 24.1% 8.0% 1.1% 29.9% 21.8%
messaging
Linkedin 4.6% 9.2% 9.2% 5.7% 29.9% 41.4%
Whats app 81.6% 8.0% 2.3% 4.6% 3.4% 0.0%

Interpretation and Discussion

Table no. 4.1shows that tha reveals the gender wise percentage of responses of students
regarding the six categories type of e-resources as a social networking media used for
academics usage namely, facebook, you tube, skype, instant messaging, linkedin, whatsapp.

1. facebook:

Table shows that the 70.9% of the male students using facebook daily in academics . it can be
interpreted from the above table that Majority of male students used the facebook daily in
academics in comparision to female students which is only 32.2% of students. The percentage
difference between male and female students shows a marginal difference of 38.7% in their
usage of facebook for academics .

2.You tube
78.6% of the male students using you tube daily in academics . it can be interpreted from the
above table that Majority of male students used the facebook daily in academics in comparision
to female students which is only 55.2% of students. The percentage difference between male
and female students shows a marginal difference of 23.4% in their usage of facebook for
academics .

3. Skype :

15.5% of the male students using skype few times a months in academics purpose. It can be
interpreted form the above table that majority of male students using the skype for academics
comparison to 9.2% female students. The percentage difference between male and female
shows that using skype in academics is higher in male than in female students. The percentage
difference between male and female students shows a marginal difference of 6.3% in their
usage of skype.

4. Instant messaging :

28.2% male students daily use of instant messaging for academics in comparison to 14.9%
female students. The percentage difference between male and female show that the usage
instant messaging is higher in male than in female students. difference between male and female
students 14.7 %.

5 linkedin :
20.4% daily male students use of linkedin for academics comparison to 4.6% female students.
The percentage difference between male and female students shows a marginal difference of 16
% in their usage of linkedin in academics.

6. Whatsapp :

84.5% male students used whatsapp daily in academics comparison to 81.6% female students.
The percentage difference between male and female shows that usage whatsapp in academics is
higher in male than in female students. The percentage difference between male and female
students shows a marginal difference of 3.1% in their usage of whatsapp.

H2: The streams of students will determine the usage of e resources :

Table 4.2: frequently social networking media is used to assist in academics :

Arts Total Daily Several Once a few times a Seldom Never


times a week months
week
Facebook 131 55.0 13.0% 3.8% 5.3% 11.5% 11.5%
You tube 68.7% 13.0% 4.6% 5.3% 5.3% 3.1%
Skype 6.9% 9.9% 6.9% 12.2% 37.4% 26.7%
Instant 17.6 20.6% 10.7% 6.1% 28.2% 16.8%
messaging %
Linkedin 14.5 15.3% 10.7% 4.6% 26.0% 29.0%
%
Whats app 83.2% 6.8% 2.1% 2.6% 3.7% 1.6%

Sciences Total Daily Several Once a few times a Seldom Never


(190) times a week months
week
Facebook 59 49.2% 22.0% 8.5% 3.4% 10.2% 6.8%
You tube 66.1% 25.4% 1.7% 3.4% 3.4% 0.0%
Skype 6.8% 6.8% 1.7% 13.6% 28.8% 42.4%
Instant 32.2% 18.6% 1.7% 0.0% 23.7% 23.7%
messaging
Linkedin 10.2% 1.7% 8.5% 6.8% 39.0% 33.9%
Whats app 84.7% 8.5% 0.0% 1.7% 3.4% 1.7%

Interpretation and Discussion

The table no. 4.1 reveals the stream wise percentage of responses of students regarding the six
categories type of e-resources as a social networking media used for academics usage namely,
facebook, you tube, skype, instant messaging, linkedin, whatsapp.

1. facebook

55.0% of the arts students use facebook daily in academics . it can be interpreted from the above
table that Majority of arts students used the facebook daily in academics in comparision to
sciences students which is only 49.2% of students. The percentage difference between arts and
sciences students shows a marginal difference of 6% in their usage of facebook for academics .

2.You tube

68.7% of the arts students use you tube daily in academics . it can be interpreted from the
above table that Majority of arts students used the facebook daily in academics in comparision
to sciences students which is only 66.1% of students. The percentage difference between arts
and sciences students shows a marginal difference of 2.6% in their usage of facebook for
academics .

3. Skype :

12.2% of the arts students used skype few times a months in academics. it can be interpreted
form the above table that majority of 13.6 sciences students used the skype for academics
comparison to arts students. The percentage difference between arts and sciences students
shows a marginal difference of 1.4% in their usage of skype.

4. Instant messaging :

17.6% arts students daily use of instant messaging for academics in comparison to 32.2%
sciences students.it can be majority of sciences students camparison to arts stydents. The
percentage difference between arts and sciences show that the usage instant messaging is higher
in sciences than in arts students. Difference between arts and sciences students 15.4 %.

5 linkedin :
15.3% several times a week arts students use of linkedin for academic comparison to 18.6%
sciences students. The percentage difference between arts and sciences students shows a
marginal difference of 3.3% in their usage of linkedin in academics. sciences stream show that
the usage linkedin is higher in sciences than in arts.

6. Whatsapp :

83.2% arts students using whatsapp daily in academic purpose comparison to 84.7% sciences
students. The percentage difference between arts and sciences shows that usage whatsapp in
academics is higher in sciences than in arts students. The percentage difference between arts
and sciences students shows a marginal difference of 1.5% in their usage of whatsapp.