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Presentation on theme: "B Series Engine Training course" Presentation transcript:

1 B Series Engine Training course

2 General Engine Specifications
Cummins Global Brand
General Engine Specifications
Cylinder versions
Common Bore and Stroke 4.02 in [102 mm ] X 4.72 in [120 mm ]
6 Cyl Displacement 360 C.I.D. [5.9 liters]
6 Cyl Firing Order
Intake Valve Clearance in [0.254 mm]
Exhaust Valve Clearance in [0.508 mm]
The minimum cranking speed is 120 rpm.

3 General Engine Specifications continued

Compression Ratio B (in-line pump) 17.9:1
Crankshaft Rotation (viewed from the front of the engine) B Clockwise
Aspiration Turbocharged
B Yes Aspiration Charge Air Cooled
B Yes

4 B ratings-Automotive Applications
Engine Model
Rating power
Fuel pump
Peak torque
P7100 /PW2000/VE

5 B ratings-construction Applications continued

Engine Type
Rating Power KW/rpm
Max Torque
Pump Type
Governor Type
P( BY)

6 Cummins Global Brand

Cylinder Block Group

7 Cylinder block The cylinder block has an integral Oil cooler housing
Water pump housing
Oil pump housing
Coolant intake port
Internal water bypass

8 Main bearing
The thrust bearing is located in the number 4 main bearing journal for four cyli
nder engines, in the number 6 main bearing journal for six cylinder engines.
Oversize service main bearings are available for use with crankshafts that have
been machined undersize.
The main bearing caps are numbered to ensure that they are installed in the corr
ect saddle position. The main caps should be installed with the numbers toward t
he oil cooler side of the engine.

9 connecting rod bearings

For the fracture split connecting rod, The upper and lower connecting rod bearin
gs are made from different materials. Make certain that the correct part number
rod bearings are used in their respective location.
Oversize service rod bearings are available for use with crankshafts that have b
een machined undersized.
Connecting rod bearings are identified with a part number and size stamped on th
e back side.
a replaceable small end bushing and utilizes a slip fit piston pin.

10 Crankshaft and Crankshaft Gear

Eight counterweights design.
Main journals and connecting rod journals and the round corners are hardened.
Internal cross drillings used to lubricates connecting rod bearings.
A timing marker in crankshaft gear used to seek top dead center (TDC) for cylind
er number 1

11 Piston Cooling nozzles

utilizes saddle-jet piston cooling nozzles.
oil from the main bearings is directed to the nozzles and then sprayed onto the
The piston pins are splash lubricated by the piston cooling nozzle spray.

12 Piston high-swirl combustion bowl. cast-aluminum body.

three-ring grooves.
a Ni-resist insert with a keystone profile for the top piston ring.
a hard-anodized combustion surface.
FRONT and/or arrow marking on the top of the piston

13 Piston Rings & piston pin

The chromed keystone groove compression ring.
The plain rectangular intermediate ring.
Both of these rings are labeled to indicate the correct orientation.
The oil ring can be installed either way.
Piston pin is offset for noise reduction

14 Connecting Rod A fracture split connecting rod design.

The rod and cap are manufactured as a unit and then separated by a controlled fr
A matched mating face that has virtually no gap.
Care must be taken when handling the connecting rod or cap during service.
A replaceable small end bushing and utilizes a slip fit piston pin.

15 Piston and Connecting Rod Assembly

Align the front marking and/or arrow on the top of the piston so that it points to
wards the front of the engine.
The long end of the connecting rod (1) will be on the exhaust side of the engine

16 Camshaft & camshaft gear

Chilled iron castings Camshaft
through a linkage of pushrods and rockers, the cams operate the valves
Intake cam drive the intake valve
Exhaust cam drive the exhaust valve
Eccentric cam drives the lift pump
A timing marker on the camshaft gear

17 Front Crankshaft Seal Lip Seal

the rotating portion of the sealing occurs at the contact surface between the li
p of the seal and the crankshaft.
replace the front crankshaft seal with the same style seal as was previously ins

18 Rear Crankshaft Seal Lip Seal

the rotating portion of the sealing occurs at the contact surface between the li
p of the seal and the crankshaft.
the rear crankshaft seal is mounted in a rear seal carrier that bolts to the rea
r of the cylinder block

19 Crankcase Breather Tube

The crankcase breather is located on the tappet cover
Inspect the crankcase breather tube internally for obstructions or sludge buildu
p to prevent excess crankcase pressure buildup.

20 Vibration Damper
The vibration damper controls the twisting or torsional vibration of the cranksh
A vibration damper is engineered for use on a specific engine model.
It is not economical to repair a vibration damper in the field. Install a new or
rebuilt vibration damper if the inspection indicates that a damper is defective
The viscous vibration damper has a limited service life. The damper must be repl
aced if worn or damaged.
Viscous damper (A) for engines rated at speeds above 2500 rpm.
Rubber element damper (B) for engines rated at speeds below 2500 rpm.

21 Cylinder Head Gasket

Oversize cylinder head gaskets are available for resurfacing of the cylinder hea
d and cylinder block combustion decks to maintain correct:
Injector protrusion
Piston protrusion.
Never reuse the old head gasket. Always use a new head gasket to prevent leakage
22 Cummins Global Brand
Cylinder Head Group

23 Cylinder Head
The cylinder head is a 2 valve per cylinder design. one intake and one exhaust v
The cylinder head also includes an integral intake manifold, and integral thermo
stat housing.
The cylinder head has integrally cast valve guides, Valve seats.

24 Valves
The intake and exhaust valves look very similar but are machined at different se
at angles.
intake valve :30
exhaust valve:45
The easiest way to distinguish the intake from the exhaust valves is to look for
the dimple on the exhaust valve face.

25 Valve Seat The cylinder head has integrally cast valve seat.
The valve seats are hardened.
Can be repaired with valve seat inserts.
the size of Intake valve seat bore the size of exhaust valve seat bore

26 Valve Guides and Valve Stem Seals

The cylinder head has integrally cast valve guides
The valve guides can be repaired with valve guide inserts
Drive-On Seal

27 rocker lever assembly

Each cylinder of the engine has a separate rocker lever assembly.
The pedestal support has drillings to route the oil flow to the shaft and levers
The rocker levers are push rod actuated and use an adjusting screw to control th
e clearance between the rocker lever and valve stem.
Excessive valve lash can indicate a worn valve stem, push rod, valve tappet, or
rocker lever.

28 Overhead Set
Engine coolant temperature must be less than 60C [140F].
Four-Cylinder Engine Adjustment
Make sure the engine is at top dead center (TDC) for cylinder number 1.
Set number#1?#2?#3?#6 valves
rotate the crankshaft 360 degrees.
Set number#4?#5?#7?#8
Six-Cylinder Engine Adjustment
Set number#1?#2?#3?#6?#7?#10 valves
Set number#4?#5?#8?#9?#11?#12 valves

29 Cummins Global Brand

Cam Followers

30 Tappets and Push Rods Sliding tappet

The two main factors affecting the performance of engine valve trains are wear a
nd friction
the tappet is slightly offset from the cams and the cam is slightly conical to m
atch the domed tappet to facilitate tappet rotation for even wear and to reduce
Push Rods

31 Cummins Global Brand

Fuel System Group

32 specifications Automotive
Distributor-Type Fuel Injection Pumps B3.9 and B5.9 Engines Maximum In
let Restriction to the Fuel Transfer Pump Must Not Exceed mm Hg [4 in Hg]
Maximum Allowable Return Line Restriction mm Hg [20.4 in Hg] Maxim
um Allowable Pressure Drop across Fuel Filter kPa [5 psi] Maximum Inle
t Pressure to the Injection Pump Must Not Exceed kPa [10 psi]
In-Line-Type Fuel Injection Pumps B3.9 and B5.9 Engine Maximum Inlet R
estriction to the Fuel Transfer Pump Must Not Exceed mm Hg [4 in Hg] F
uel Transfer Pump Minimum Output Pressure kPa [25 psi] at Rated rpm Fu
el Filter Restriction (maximum pressure drop across filters) kPa [5 psi]
Fuel Pressure Gallery Pressure kPa [20 psi] at Rated rpm Fuel Retur
n Maximum Restriction mm Hg [20.4 in Hg]

33 Specifications continued
Industrial Applications
For performance and fuel rate values, refer to the Engine Data Sheet or the fuel
injection pump for the particular model involved.
Distributor-Type and In-Line-Type Fuel Injection Pumps Engine Idle Spe
ed to 1000 rpm Maximum Fuel Inlet Restriction to Lift Pump kPa [4 in H
g] Maximum Allowable Return Line Restriction kPa [20 in Hg]
Fuel Pressure Range at Fuel Filter Outlet (engine cranking) to 28 kPa [3 to 4 ps
i] Fuel Pressure Range at Fuel Filter Inlet (engine running at idle) t
o 48 kPa [5 to 7 psi] Maximum Pressure Drop across Fuel Filter kPa [5
psi] Fuel Drain Line Maximum Restriction kPa [10 psi] Fuel T
ransfer Pump Minimum Output Pressure (low flow) kPa [5.5 psi] Fuel Tra
nsfer Pump Minimum Output Pressure (high flow) kPa [25 psi] Minimum Fu
el Injection Pump Gallery Pressure (low flow fuel transfer pump) kPa [12 psi]
Minimum Fuel Injection Pump Gallery Pressure (high flow fuel transfer pu
mp) kPa [20 psi] Fuel Inlet Maximum Temperature C [158F]
Engine Minimum Cranking Speed rpm

34 Fuel Lift Pump

Measure the fuel lift pump inlet restriction with a vacuum gauge between the fue
l lift pump inlet and the supply line from the fuel tank.
Fuel Lift Pump Inlet Restriction - Clean Fuel Filter : max 2.5in hg 63.5KPa
Fuel Lift Pump Inlet Restriction - Dirty Fuel filter max 2.5in hg 63.5KPa
Diaphragm Style Piston Style

35 Fuel Lift Pump continued

Output Pressure Test (Diaphragm Style)
Operate the engine and measure the output pressure of the fuel lift pump using a
n in-line pressure gauge at the inlet to the injection pump.
The minimum pressure at high idle is 21 kPa [3 psi].
If the minimum pressure is not achieved, check for:
Dirty fuel filter
Faulty lift pump.

36 Fuel Lift Pump continued

Output Pressure Test (Piston Style)
Operate the engine, and measure the output pressure of the fuel lift pump with a
n in-line pressure gauge at the inlet to the injection pump.
Minimum pressure at high idle is 124 KPa [18 psi].
If the minimum pressure is not achieved, check for:
Dirty fuel filter
Faulty lift pump.

37 Fuel Filter & Fuel-Water Separator

Spin-On Type
Can be pre-filled with clean fuel
Drain the water and sediment from the separator daily.

38 vent
Controlled venting is provided at the injection pump through the fuel drain mani
fold. Small amounts of air introduced by changing the filters or injection pump
supply line will be vented automatically if the fuel filter is changed in accord
ance with the instructions.
manual bleeding will be required if one of the following conditions exists:
The fuel filter is not filled prior to installation
The fuel injection pump is replaced
The high-pressure fuel line connections are loosened, or the lines are replaced
It is an initial engine start-up or start-up after an extended period of no engi
ne operation.

39 Fuel Injection Pump


40 Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

Rotary distributor pumps perform the four basic functions of:
Producing the high fuel pressure required for injection
Metering the exact amount of fuel for each injection cycle
Distributing the high-pressure, metered fuel to each cylinder at the precise tim
Varying the timing relative to engine speed.
Distributor-Type Pump Governor
Balance between the governor flyweights and control lever position controls the
metering of the amount of fuel to be injected.
The fuel injection pump governor performance and setting can affect engine power
. Special equipment and qualified personnel are required to verify governor perf
ormance. If the seals are broken on the external Bosch VE adjustment screw, the f
uel rate can, perhaps, be out of adjustment.

41 Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

Manual Shutdown Levers
Some fuel injection pumps are equipped with mechanical shutdown levers. These le
vers are spring-loaded in the run position. Not all applications will use these
manual shutdown controls and there will be no cable or rod connected to the leve
NOTE: Partial actuation of the mechanical shutdown levers will affect fuel flow
and engine power.

42 Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

Electrical Shutoff Valves
Some fuel injection pumps are equipped with electrical shutoff valves. These sol
enoid-operated valves block the supply of fuel to the high-pressure pumping and
distribution components.
The Bosch VE shutoff valve is located at the top rear of the pump.

43 Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

Locate top dead center for cylinder Number 1 by barring the engine slowly, while
pushing in the top dead center pin.
The special washer on the injection pump must be removed so the lock screw can b
e tightened against the drive shaft.
Torque Value: 30nm
Pull the fuel injection pump drive gear loose from the pump drive shaft.
Remove the three mounting nuts and take off the fuel injection pump.

44 Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

Install the pump. Make sure the key does not fall into the gear housing.
Hand tighten the three mounting nuts. The pump must be free to move in the slots
Install the pump drive shaft nut and spring washer. The pump will rotate slightl
y because of gear helix and clearance. This is acceptable, provided the pump is
free to move on the flange slots and the crankshaft does not move.
Torque Value: 15 to 20 nm
If installing the original pump, rotate the pump to align the scribe marks.
Torque Value: 24 nm

45 Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

If installing a new or rebuilt pump without scribe marks, take up gear lash by r
otating the pump against the direction of drive rotation. Tighten the flange mou
nting nuts.
Torque Value: 24 nm
Permanently mark the injection pump flange to match the mark on the gear housing
Loosen the fuel pump lock timing screw and install the special washer that is wi
red to the fuel pump.
Tighten the fuel pump lock timing screw.
Torque Value: 13 nm
Disengage the timing pin before rotating the crankshaft.
Tighten the pump retaining nut.
Bosch VE (M nut) 98 nm
Bosch VE (M12 nut) 65 nm
Install the access cap.

46 Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

Idle speed adjust
Bosch VE Fuel Injection Pump Adjustment Screws
A - Idle Screw
B - High-Idle Screw
The high-speed adjustment screw on both fuel injection pumps provides the stop f
or full speed. The high-speed adjusting screws are sealed. Adjustment of this sc
rew must be performed only by an authorized fuel injection pump service center,
and then resealed.

47 Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

The high-speed adjusting screw can be used to derate engines.
Bosch RSV Governor
Idle speed adjustment for industrial engines requires the setting of both the lo
w-idle speed screw (1) and the bumper spring screw (2).
First, loosen the locknut; then, back out the bumper spring screw until there is
no change in engine speed.

48 Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary

Loosen the locknut, and adjust the idle speed screw to 40 to 50 rpm less than th
e desired speed. Turn the idle speed screw counterclockwise to decrease rpm and
clockwise to increase rpm.
Tighten the locknut.
Torque Value: 8 nm
Turn the bumper spring screw clockwise until the desired idle speed is obtained.

49 Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

The fuel injection pump performs the three basic functions of:
Metering the exact amount of fuel for each injection cycle
Producing the high fuel pressure required for injection
Delivering the high-pressure metered fuel to each cylinder at the precise time.

50 Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

pressure relief valve
The pressure relief valve arrangement on the Bosch P7100 fuel injection pump in t
he supply side of the fuel circuit creates a self-bleeding system for air introd
uced during replacement of the supply-side components.
Small amounts of air can be bled from the pump by operating the hand primer on t
he fuel transfer pump or by cranking the engine.

51 Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Locate top dead center for cylinder Number 1. Push the top dead center pin into
the hole in the camshaft gear while slowly barring the engine.
NOTE: Be certain to disengage the timing pin after locating top dead center.
Remove the fuel injection pump mounting bracket, if applicable.
Remove the gear cover access cap.
Remove the nut and washer from the fuel injection pump shaft.
Use fuel pump gear puller, Part Number or Part Number with M x 50 capscrews, gra
de 8.8 or equivalent. Pull the fuel injection pump drive gear loose from the sha
Remove the four mounting nuts.
Remove the fuel injection pump.

52 Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Make certain that the engine has cylinder Number 1 at top dead center.
Remove the access plug.

53 Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Remove the timing pin.
If the timing tooth is not aligned with the timing pin hole, rotate the fuel inj
ection pump shaft until the timing tooth aligns.

54 Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Reverse the position of the timing pin so the slot of the timing pin will fit ov
er the timing tooth in the pump.
Install and secure the timing pin with the access plug.
Use clean lubricating engine oil 15w-40 to lubricate the gear cover housing to m
ake certain that the fuel injection pump will slide into the gear cover housing

55 Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Make certain that the o-ring seals for the fill orifice and pilot are correctly
installed and are not damaged.
Install new pilot o-ring.
Slide the pump shaft through the drive gear and position the pump flange onto th
e mounting studs.
Push the pump forward until the mounting flange and o-ring are properly fitted i
nto the gear housing bore.

56 Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Install the mounting nuts.
Torque Value: 43 nm
Install the support bracket (if equipped).
Torque Value: 32 nm
Install the retaining nut and washer.
Torque Value: 10 to 15 nm
To prevent damage to the timing pins, do not exceed the torque value given. This
is not the final torque value for the retaining nut.

57 Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Disengage the engine timing pin.
Remove the access plug.
Add the following quantity of clean lubricating engine oil:
RSV 450 mL [0.48 qt]
RQV 750 mL [0.79 qt]
RQVK 750 mL [0.79 qt]

58 Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line

Remove the fuel injection pump timing pin plug, reverse the position of the timi
ng pin, and install the timing pin, plug, and sealing washer.
Torque Value: 27 nm
Tighten the fuel injection pump drive nut.
A Pump :85 nm
P7100 :195 nm
Install the gear cover access cap hand-tight.
59 Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line
Install the fuel injection pump mounting bracket capscrews.
Tighten all capscrews by hand for proper alignment.
Torque Value: 24 nm

60 Fuel Injection Pumps, In-Line


61 Fuel flow diagram Fuel from supply tank Prefilter or screen

Fuel lift pump
Fuel/water separator
Fuel filter
Low-pressure fuel line
Turbocharger boost control line
Bosch P7100 injection pump
Bosch rotary injection pump
Fuel drain manifold
High-pressure fuel line
Bosch 7-mm closed-nozzle, hole-type injectors
Fuel return to supply tank.

62 Fuel flow diagram

63 Lubrication Oil System Group
Cummins Global Brand
Lubrication Oil System Group

64 Flow diagram
65 Flow diagram
66 Flow diagram
67 Fill oil hole There are three locations available:
the top of the rocker lever cover.
a low position on the front gear cover
the left side of the block.

68 Oil pan The stamped steel oil pan

A front sump (1), rear sump (2), or center sump (3)

69 oil pump The gerotor type lubricating oil pump.

mounted at the front of the cylinder block
Gear driven by the crankshaft.

70 specifications
Lubricating Oil Pressure at Idle (minimum allowable) . 69 kPa [10 psi]
Lubricating Oil Pressure at Rated (minimum allowable) kPa [30 psi]
Regulating Valve Opening Pressure kPa [65 psi]
Lubricating Oil Capacity Standard Pan Only
B liters [10 qt] B liters [15 qt] L
ubricating Oil Capacity Total System - Liters [U.S. qt]
B liters [11.6 qt] B liters [17.3 qt]
Lubricating Oil Capacity Low to High B liter
[1 qt] B liters [2 qt]

71 Oil flow The suction tube delivers oil to the lubricating oil pump.
The pump then delivers the lubricating oil through an internal drilling to the o
il cooler cover and the pressure regulator. When the oil pressure exceeds the pr
essure regulator valve opening pressure , the valve opens, allowing some oil to
drain back to the oil sump
Oil also is directed to a cast-in passage in the oil cooler cover leading to the
oil cooler element.
From the outlet of the cooler, the oil continues through another cast passage in
the oil cooler cover to the oil filter, The oil flows up the center of the filt
er and into the filter head.

72 Oil flow
In the event of a plugged filter, the cooler cover incorporates a bypass valve t
o maintain oil flow. If the pressure drop across the oil filter exceeds specific
ation, the bypass valve opens, allowing unfiltered oil to lubricate the engine.
Once the oil is cooled and filtered, oil flow is divided, with a portion of the
oil flowing to the turbocharger and the rest passing through the cooler cover do
wn a cast passage to a cross drilling in the block.
One cross drilling between cylinder number one and cylinder number two carries t
he oil across the block to the main oil rifle, carries oil to the overhead ( lub
ricates the overhead and main bearings( lubricates the bearings)

73 Oil flow
The transfer drillings connected to the main oil rifle supplies oil to a groove
in the upper main bearing shells. Oil is then supplied to the cam bores through
short radial drillings.( lubricates camshaft main journals)
From the main bearings, oil enters the crankshaft and lubricates the connecting
rod bearings through internal cross drillings.
Oil from the main bearings is directed to saddle-jet piston cooling nozzles and
then sprayed onto the pistons.

74 Oil flow
The piston pins are splash lubricated by the piston cooling nozzle spray Oil
To the overhead is carried to the cylinder head deck by individual vertical dril
lings - one per cylinder - intersecting the main oil rifle. The oil then continu
es to flow vertically through drillings in the cylinder head.
From the drillings in the cylinder head, oil flows through a groove in the botto
m of the pedestal plate. The oil then flows around the rocker lever mounting cap
screws to the rocker shafts.
Oil flows through angle drillings in the capscrew bore in the shaft. At each end
of the shaft, a drilling allows oil to flow from the inside
Diameter of the shaft to the rocker lever bore.

75 Oil flow
A lubrication groove in each end of the shaft directs oil to two drillings provi
ding a path for oil flow; one drilling directs oil flow to the foot pad that con
tacts the crosshead. Oil from this drilling then travels down the crosshead and
lubricates the valve stems. The second drilling in the rocker lever directs oil
to the adjusting screw. Oil flow around the adjusting screw lubricates the push
rod sockets.
For a front gear train equipped engine, lubrication is received from oil splash
and oil carryover. The oil pump idler gear is pressure-lubricated. From here the
oil drains back to the pan for recirculation.

76 Cummins Global Brand

Cooling System

77 Coolant flow diagram Coolant inlet Pump impeller

Coolant flow past lubricating oil cooler
Coolant flow past cylinders
Coolant flow to cylinder head.

78 Coolant flow diagram Coolant flow from the cylinder head

Coolant flow to thermostat housing
Coolant flow past injector
Coolant bypass passage
Coolant flow to water pump inlet
Coolant bypass closed
Coolant flow back to radiator.

79 Water pump
Coolant is circulated by the integrally- mounted water pump.
The pump is belt driven
The pump installs in the integral volute in the engine block

80 Thermostat
The integral thermostat housing, located in the cylinder head
provides a location for mounting the vented thermostat vertically in the cooling
Depending on engine application and date of manufacturer the thermostat can be f
ound in either a vertical or horizontal position.

81 Threaded coolant heater bolted coolant heater

Depending on turbocharger mounting location, two optional block heater mounting
locations are available.
Threaded coolant heater
bolted coolant heater

82 Coolant flow Coolant flow begins at the water pump

The output from the water pump empties into the side of the oil cooler cavity of
the cylinder block. This provides the oil cooler with coolant at the lowest pos
sible temperature.
A small passage from the bottom of the oil cooler cavity allows some coolant to
return to the suction side of the water pump to ensure constant coolant flow aro
und all areas of the oil cooler core.

83 Coolant flow
The coolant then exits the oil cooler cavity and circulates into the block to co
ol the cylinders.
The head gasket is orificed to control coolant flow into the cylinder head.
When the engine is below operating temperature, the thermostat is closed, allowi
ng the coolant to pass the radiator and flow back to the water pump inlet throug
h internal drillings in the cylinder head and block.

84 Coolant flow
When operating temperature is reached, the thermostat opens, blocking the bypass
passage to the water pump and opening the outlet to the radiator.
The engine must never by operated without a thermostat. Without a thermostat, th
e coolant recirculates, by-passing the radiator, causing the engine to overheat.
The coolant flow to the air compressor. After cooling the air compressor the coo
lant returns to the engine by way of connection at the rear of the cylinder head

Coolant Capacity (engine only) B liters [11.1 qt]
Standard Modulating Thermostat Range Start to Open C [181F] Fu
lly Open C [203F]
Pressure Cap 104C [220F] Systems KPa [15 psi] 99C [210F] Systems
kPa [7 psi]
Minimum Recommended Operating Temperature C [160F] Minimum Recommended Pressure Ca
p kPa [7 psi] Maximum Recommended Pressure Cap kPa [15 psi]

86 Intake system
A filter minder, installed at the air cleaner, indicates the condition of the fi
lter and whether the restriction is excessive.
The intake manifold is integrated into the cylinder head
A grid heater is required for most applications. It is installed on the intake m
anifold cover and is designed to heat intake air in cold ambient conditions.
The charge air cooler mounted in front of the radiator reduces the temperature o
f the intake air.

87 Intake and exhaust system

88 Intake system flow
the intake air is drawn through the air cleaner into the compressor side of the
turbocharger ,After leaving the turbocharger, the hot intake air flows to the ch
arge air cooler by means of a large pipe, Once inside the charge air cooler, hea
t from the intake air is transferred to the outside air flowing around the fins
of the cooler, thus decreasing the temperature of the intake air. The cooled int
ake air leaves the charge air cooler and enters another large pipe which allows
the air to flow to the intake manifold , Air flow continues through the inlet po
rts creating a swirl pattern into the combustion chambers. After combustion, the
exhaust gases flow from the combustion chambers to the opposite side of the cyl
inder head.

89 exhaust system Two Piece exhaust manifold on 6 Cylinder Engines

Optional Turbocharger Mounting Locations
Exhaust Capscrews mounted with spacers to increase bolt stretch and eliminate exha
ust leaks

90 Exhaust flow
After combustion, the exhaust gases flow from the combustion chambers to the opp
osite side of the cylinder head , the exhaust gas pass through the exhaust manif
old , enter the turbo of the turbocharger, the exhaust energy is used by the tur
bocharger compressor wheel to pump intake air into the engine, from the outlet o
f the turbo, the exhaust gas flow to the silencer

91 specifications
Maximum Allowable Intake Restriction Clean Air Filter Element mm H2O [
10 in H2O] Dirty Air Filter Element mm H2O [25 in H2O
Maximum Allowable Exhaust Restriction at Rated Speed and Loaded 1991 t
o 1993 EPA Certified mm Hg [4.5 in Hg] 1994 to 1998 EPA Certified (wit
h oxidation catalyst) mm Hg

92 troubleshooting
Nearly all engine symptoms concerning the air system are related to Low Power co
mplaints, Black Smoke, or both.
One possible source of a low power or black smoke symptom is a restriction in th
e air cleaner.
If a problem is suspected with the air system, a boost pressure check verifies t
he problem since most air system problems reduce the boost pressure.
A leak test measures how well the Charge Air Cooler retains pressure in the cool
er core.
check the pressure drop across the Charge Air Cooler

93 troubleshooting
Confirm the efficiency of the Charge Air Cooler by measuring the difference betw
een ambient air temperature and intake air temperature in the intake manifold.
If the boost pressure is out of range, whether too high or too low, the waste ga
te may be malfunctioning and should be checked for proper operation
Back pressure in the exhaust system can also cause air