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CB503

VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING 3


TOPIC 2 : AIR FLOW DESIGN

NAZRIZAM BINTI AB. WAHAB


pnnazz@gmail.com
017-612 5556
PSA/ CB503/ PNNAZZ
AIR DISTRIBUTION AND
BALANCE
UNIT OBJECTIVES
After studying this unit, the reader should be able to

Describe propeller and centrifugal fans and blowers


Explain how to take air pressure measurements
Explain how to measure air quantities
List various types of air-measuring devices
Describe common types of motors and drive assemblies
Identify and describe various duct systems
Explain how air from the conditioned space returns to the air
handler
CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT
Air has to be conditioned in most cases for us
to be comfortable
Equipment includes cooling coil, heating device,
device to add humidity, and device to clean air
Forced air systems use the same room air over
and over again
Fresh air enters the structure by infiltration or
by mechanical means
Mechanical means to introduce
Return air from the ventilation
occupied space

Damper in
fresh air
duct
Supply duct

Air handler

Fresh air from outside the structure


CORRECT AIR QUANTITY
The forced air system delivers the
correct quantity of conditioned air
to the occupied space
Different spaces require different
air quantities
Same structure may have several
different cooling requirements
50 100 cfm
100 200 cfm 100
cfm cfm cfm
50 cfm

Living Room 100


9,000 btu (cooling) cfm 200 cfm
18,000 btu
(heating) 300 cfm
THE FORCED-AIR SYSTEM

Components that make up the forced-air


system
The blower
Air supply system
Return air system
Grilles and registers
Occupants should not be aware if the
system is on or off
Return air from the Supply
occupied space registers

Supply duct

Air handler (blower)


THE BLOWER
Provides the pressure difference to force the
air into the duct system, through the grilles
and registers, and into the room
Typically 400 cfm of air must be moved per
minute per ton of air conditioning
Pressure in the ductwork is measured in inches
of water column (in. W.C)
Air pressure in the ductwork is measured with
a water manometer
SYSTEM AIR PRESSURES
Duct system is pressurized by two
pressures
Static pressure air pressure in the duct
Velocity pressure pressure generated by the
velocity and weight of the air
Combined, these pressures are called
Total pressure
Static pressure plus velocity pressure
equals total pressure
Probe
located on Static pressure
the surface
Airflow of the duct

Duct
Probe located in
the duct, facing
into the Total pressure
direction of
airflow
Velocity pressure
Total
pressure

Static pressure

Velocity pressure = Total pressure Static pressure


AIR-MEASURING INSTRUMENTS FOR
DUCT SYSTEMS

Velometer Measures actual air velocity


(how fast the air is actually moving in the
duct)
Air volume in cfm can be calculated by
multiplying the air velocity by the cross-
sectional area of the duct in square feet
Pitot tube Used with special manometers
for checking duct pressure
PROPELLER FAN
Used in exhaust fan and condenser fan
application
Will handle large volumes of air at low
pressure differentials
Set into a housing called a venturi
The venturi forces airflow in a straight
line from one side of the fan to the other
Makes noise and is used where noise is not
a factor
Propeller fan
Venturi
SQUIRREL CAGE OR
CENTRIFUGAL FAN
Desirable for ductwork
Builds more pressure from the inlet to the
outlet
Has a forward curved blade and a cutoff to
shear the air spinning around the fan wheel
Very quiet when properly applied
Can be used in very large high-pressure systems
End View of Squirrel Cage
Centrifugal Blower Blower Wheel
CENTRIFUGAL BLOWER HOUSING
TYPES OF FAN DRIVES
Belt-drive blowers have two bearings on
the fan shaft and two bearing on the motor
Motor pulleys and fan motor pulleys can be
adjusted to change fan speeds
Direct-drive motors use no pulleys or belts
Direct-drive motors can be multi-speed
motors
Speeds can be changed by changing motor
wire leads
BLOWER Belt-driven
Assembly

BOTH THE DRIVE


AND DRIVEN
PULLEYS MUST BE
PERFECTLY
ALIGNED

MOTOR
DIRECT DRIVE MOTOR ASSEMBLY

THE MOTOR AND THE BLOWER TURN AT THE SAME


SPEED
THE SUPPLY DUCT SYSTEM
Distributes air to the terminal units,
registers, or diffusers in the
conditioned space
Duct systems
Plenum system
Extended plenum system
Reducing plenum system
Perimeter loop
THE PLENUM SYSTEM

Suited for a job where the room outlets


are all close to the unit
Supply diffusers are normally located on
the inside walls
Work better on fossil-fuel systems
Fossil-fuel supply air temperatures could
easily reach 130F
Plenum system

Supply plenum
Branch
ducts

Return
duct
THE EXTENDED PLENUM
SYSTEM
Can be applied to a long structure
This system takes the plenum closer
to the farthest point
Called the trunk duct system
Ducts called branches complete the
connection to the terminal units
THE EXTENDED PLENUM SYSTEM

50 100 cfm
100 200 cfm 100
cfm cfm cfm
50 cfm

Living Room 100


9,000 btu (cooling) cfm 200 cfm
18,000 btu
(heating) 300 cfm
THE REDUCING PLENUM
SYSTEM

Reduces the trunk duct size as


branch ducts are added
Has the advantage of saving material
and keeping the same pressure from
one end of the duct system to the
other
THE REDUCING EXTENDED PLENUM SYSTEM

50 100 cfm
100 200 cfm 100
cfm cfm cfm
50 cfm

Living Room 100


9,000 btu (cooling) cfm 200 cfm
18,000 btu
(heating) 300 cfm
THE PERIMETER LOOP SYSTEM

Well suited for installation in a concrete


floor in a colder climate
Warm air is in the whole loop when the
furnace fan is running
Keeps the slab at a more even
temperature
Provides the same pressure to all outlets
THE PERIMETER LOOP SYSTEM

50 100 cfm
100 200 cfm 100
cfm cfm cfm
50 cfm

Living Room 100


9,000 btu (cooling) cfm 200 cfm
18,000 btu
(heating) 300 cfm
DUCT MATERIALS

Ductwork must meet local codes


For years, galvanized sheet metal was
used exclusively
Other ductwork materials
Aluminum
Fiberglass ductboard
Spiral metal duct
Flexible duct
GALVANIZED STEEL DUCT

Gauge is the measurement of the


thickness of galvanized steel duct
The gauge size means how many pieces of
that material would need to be stacked
together to make a one-inch stack
Metal duct can be round, square, or
rectangular
JOINING SECTIONS OF GALVANIZED DUCT WITH
SLIPS AND DRIVES

Slip
Drive cleat
JOINING SECTIONS OF GALVANIZED DUCT WITH
SLIPS AND DRIVES

Slip
Ends of drives are
bent over to
secure
FIBERGLASS DUCT

Styles: Flat sheet or round prefabricated


cut
Duct is normally 1 in. thick with aluminum
foil backing
Special knives are used to make special
cuts to turn duct board into ductwork
All duct seams should be stapled and taped
SPIRAL METAL DUCT

Used more on large systems


Comes in rolls of flat narrow
metal
Runs can be made at the job site
Can be located within the
occupied space for a more
contemporary look
FLEXIBLE DUCT
Comes in sized up to about 24 in. in diameter
Some have a reinforced aluminum foil backing
Some come with vinyl or foil backing and
insulation on it
Keep duct runs as short as possible
Has more friction loss inside it than metal
duct
Flex duct should be stretched as tight as
possible
Floor Register

Return

Damper Supply

Flexible Duct
COMBINATION DUCT SYSTEMS
Metal trunk lines with round branch ducts
Metal trunk lines with flexible branch ducts
Ductboard trunk lines with round metal branch
ducts
Ductboard trunk lines with flexible branch ducts
Round metal duct with round metal branch ducts
Round metal trunk lines with flexible branch
ducts
DUCT AIR MOVEMENT
Branch ducts are fastened to the main trunk
by a takeoff-fitting
The takeoff encourages the air moving the
duct to enter the takeoff to the branch duct
Air moving in the duct has inertia, meaning it
wants to move in a straight line
Using turning vanes will improve the air-flow
around corners
Main supply duct

Takeoff fitting
BALANCING DAMPERS
Used to balance the air in various parts
of the system
Dampers should be located as close as
practical to the trunk line
The trunk is the place to balance airflow
Handles allow the dampers to be turned
at an angle to the airstream to slow the
air down
Branch duct
Balancing damper in
the closed position

Damper in the open position


DUCT INSULATION
A 15F temperature difference from the
inside of the duct to the outside of the
duct is considered the maximum
difference allowed before insulation is
necessary
Metal duct can be insulated on the outside
and on the inside
The insulation is joined by lapping it,
stapling it, and taping it
BLENDING THE CONDITIONED
AIR WITH ROOM AIR
When possible, air should be directed on the
walls
The diffuser spreads the air to the desired air
pattern
Cool air distributes better from the ceiling
Place diffusers next to the outside walls
How far the air will be blown from the diffuser
into the room depends on the air pressure
behind the diffuser and the style of the
diffuser blades
THE RETURN AIR DUCT SYSTEM

Individual return air system will give the most


positive return air
The return air duct is normally sized slightly
larger than the supply duct
Central return systems are usually
satisfactory for a one-level residence
A path must be provided for the air to return
to the central return
The return air grille should be around an elbow
from the furnace
Central Return
Supply plenum

Return plenum

One central return grill in the common


area
INDIVIDUAL RETURN AIR SYSTEM

R
SIZING DUCT FOR MOVING AIR

Friction loss in ductwork is due to the actual


rubbing action of the air against the side of the
duct and the turbulence of the air rubbing
against itself while moving down the duct
The smoother the ducts interior surface is, the
less friction there is
The slower the air is moving, the less friction
there will be
Each foot of duct offers a known resistance to
airflow
MEASURING AIR MOVEMENT FOR
BALANCING
Air balancing is accomplished by
measuring the air leaving each register
Measuring velocity of the duct in a cross
section of the duct
Determine the cfm by using the formula:
CFM = area in square feet x velocity in
feet per minute
Cross-sectional area =
1 ft x 1 ft = 12 x
12 = 144 square
inches =
1 foot
144 in2 / 144 in2 = 1ft2
Average
air 1 foot
velocity is
400 fpm
Air Volume (cfm) = 400 ft/min x 1ft2 = 400 cfm
Cross-sectional area =
18 x 18 = 324 in2
324 in2 / 144 in2 =
18 2.25ft2

Average
air 18
velocity is
400 fpm
Air Volume (cfm) = 400 ft/min x 2.25ft2 = 900 cfm
THE AIR FRICTION CHART
Used by system designers to size ductwork and
duct systems
Gives recommended duct sized and velocities for
optimum performance
Can be used to troubleshoot airflow problems
Pressure drops in duct fittings have equivalent
lengths
All lengths and equivalent lengths are added
together to achieve the total
RESIDENTIAL DUCT SYSTEM

Common duct problems


Excessively long flexible duct runs
Disconnected duct runs
Closed dampers
Collapsed flexible duct
Loose insulation in the duct
Blocked grills and/or registers
COMMERCIAL DUCT SYSTEMS

Each area has specifications regarding the


required amount of airflow
Certified testing and balancing company to
verify airflow
Flow hoods measure air volume at supply
registers
Total airflow can be measured at the main duct
Common problems include dirty filters,
partially closed dampers, and incorrect fan
rotation
SUMMARY

Forced air systems use the same air over and


over
Fresh air enters the structure by infiltration
Forced air systems deliver the correct quantity
of conditioned air to the occupied space
Different spaces require different air quantities
Forced air systems are made up of the blower,
supply duct system, return air system and supply
registers or grilles
SUMMARY
Typically, 400 cfm of air must be moved
per minute per ton of air conditioning
Pressure in the ductwork is measured in
inches of water column (in. W.C)
Static pressure plus velocity pressure
equals total pressure
Air volume in cfm can be calculated by
multiplying the air velocity by the cross-
sectional area of the duct in square feet
SUMMARY

Propeller fans are used in exhaust fan and


condenser fan applications and can handle large
volumes of air at low pressure differentials
Centrifugal blowers are used in duct systems
Motor drives can be direct or belt driven
assemblies
The supply duct system can be configured as a
plenum, extended plenum, reducing extended
plenum or perimeter loop system
SUMMARY - 4
Duct systems can be made of galvanized metal,
aluminum, fiberglass duct board, spiral metal,
flexible duct or a combination of different
materials
Branch ducts deliver the proper amount of air to
remote locations in the structures
Balancing dampers are used to help ensure proper
airflow to the remote locations
The return air system can be configured as a
central or individual return air system
SUMMARY - 5
Friction in the duct slows the air flowing in
it
Slower air experiences less friction
Air balancing ensures the proper amount of
air is delivered to each supply register
CFM = velocity x cross sectional area
The friction chart is used to properly size
duct systems
TASBIH KIFARAH









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