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Topic

Role of urban environment in drug Addiction among University Students


(A Case Study of Islamabad Universities)

Anum Mehmood

Registration No. 1523107

MS-Social Sciences

3rd Semester

Supervisor: Dr. M. Rashid Salaria

SZABIST Islamabad Campus


Contents

Abstract............................................................................................................................................5
CHAPTER NO: 1..........................................................................................................................6
Introduction......................................................................................................................................6
Background of the study................................................................................................. 6
Significance of study..................................................................................................... 7
Problem Statement........................................................................................................ 8
Objective of Study........................................................................................................ 8
Research Questions....................................................................................................... 8
CHAPTER NO: 2..........................................................................................................................9
Literature Review............................................................................................................................9
Overview of Training..................................................................................................... 9
Dimensions............................................................................................................... 11
Limitations of study.................................................................................................... 11
Conceptual Framework .................................................................................................................12
Hypotheses.....................................................................................................................................13
CHAPTER NO: 3........................................................................................................................13
Research Methodology and Design...............................................................................................13
Research design.............................................................................................................................13
Target population...........................................................................................................................13
Sample Design...............................................................................................................................14
Sample Size...................................................................................................................................14
Sampling Technique......................................................................................................................14
Type of study.................................................................................................................................14
Data analysis technique.................................................................................................................15
Approaches....................................................................................................................................15
Unit of Analysis.............................................................................................................................15
Time Horizon.................................................................................................................................15
Research Instrument......................................................................................................................15
CHAPTER NO: 4........................................................................................................................17
Results and Data Analysis.............................................................................................................17
Model Summary........................................................................................................ 18
ANOVAa........................................................................................................................................20
Regression............................................................................................................... 21
CHAPTER NO: 5........................................................................................................................23
Questionnaires.......................................................................................................... 23
Job Related Training................................................................................................... 24
Effectiveness............................................................................................................ 25
Employees Engagement (EE)....................................................................................... 26
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB).....................................................................27
CHAPTER N0: 6..........................................................................................................................28
Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................28
Recommendations..........................................................................................................................30
Future Research.............................................................................................................................31
Bibliography..................................................................................................................................32
Acknowledgements

Special admiration goes to my supervisor (Dr. M. Rashid Salaria) for his support and constant
supervision. His precious help of productive comments and suggestions throughout my first
Independent Study have contributed to the achievement of this research. My thanks are also to
those others who contributed in my research work and whose considerations mean a lot to me.

Finally, I may thanks to my family for their encouragement and love; I have received so much
special support from my office and particularly from my subordinates. I thank them all who by
their attention and friendship kept backing me to carry on the journey of my research.

Anum Mehmood

Attestation

I understand the nature of plagiarism, and I am aware of the Universitys policy on this. I certify
that this Independent Study report is an original work done by me.

Signature
Abstract

The objective of this study is to explore the role of urban environment in drug addiction among
university students. Specially the study explore which factors under urban environment such as
unemployment, ignorance, depression, , easy avability , lack of contact with family and gender
have an impact on drug addiction. Primary data for this study was collected via questionnaire
from a sample of 120 respondents of the three universities of Islamabad such as Szabist, Numl
and Preston. Regression and correlation technique have been used for analyzing data and
drawing conclusions. The results reveal that majority of above mentioned factors are directly
related in desired directions with drug addiction among students and explain significant
portion of variability in the dependant variable i.e. drug addiction . As per this study the biggest
contribution towards drug addiction among students is that of gender , depression, ignorance
,unemployment ,and lack of contact with family. Areas of further research have been indicated
in the report.

Key Words: urban environment, drug addiction, unemployment, depression, easy availability,

Loneliness. Gender, lack of family contact, ignorance.


Introduction:

Background of the study:

All societies during their transformation stages experience various sorts of problems and
upheavals. These can be broadly classified as economic, political , scientific ,technological or
social problems .Social problems are the one which not only directly affect upon an individuals
life but also on the others such as family, community, society ,country , nation and group of
nations. Spector (1987) has noted, Social problems exist when organized societies are not able
to maintain and manage the relationship among its personnel. Its institutions get in deteriorated
state and its laws are been violated. The values of society are not being transferred from one
generation to the other in a desired and prescribed manner .Under these circumstances the entire
framework of social expectations shackles. Social problems can be numerous ,however its one
of the most important dimension and , significant area of concern for the societies is Drug
abuse and that too especially among the teenager students who are studying at schools ,
colleges or /universities in different parts of the world.

One of the most significant changes over the centuries has been urbanization, or the shift from
rural areas to large cities. Urbanization has had important consequences for many aspects of
social, political, and economic life (Kleniewski & Thomas, 2011).

Drug use and abuse is as old as mankind itself. Human beings have always had a desire to eat or
drink substances that make them feel relaxed, stimulated, or euphoric.

Urbanization is the risk factor of substance use there are different factor of urban environment
that is associated with substance misuse such as environmental factor (cultural norms,
availability of drugs, friendly environment and attitudes). Social factor, (lack of opportunities,
psychological problems, crime, violence and other deviant behavior). Family pattern is the aspect
of urbanization is also related to the drug addiction. Urbanization play very important role in
spreading the addiction among youth. These all above factor of urbanization that play an
important role in prevalence of addiction.
The occurrence of urbanization and drug addiction effects the society badly. Due to the
urbanization there are many changes appears in lives of peoples. In some way the urbanization
has play positive role as well as negative in the society. In the negative term the drug addiction is
the main issue in the society.

The use of substance is an important phenomenon among youth from around the world. Youth
shape the country future now a days in Pakistan the addiction of drug among youth is a main
problem. The time of life when someone is young (Merriam)

Drug addiction among youth is a rare phenomenon its destroy them not only morally and
socially as well as psychologically and physically. (Kernan et al 2011)

Individuals in the world are rising becoming addicted to different kinds of drugs including
prescription drugs and street drugs. Prescription drugs such as, valium, Percocet and Ritalin and
street drug include such as heroin, marijuana, meth and cocaine.

The prevalence of drug addiction among youth because now days it is the major issue in
Pakistan and all around the world. In which highlight the factor of urbanization that lead to the
students. All societies during their transformation stages experience various sorts of problems
and upheavals. These can be broadly classified as economic, political , scientific ,technological
or social problems .Social problems are the one which not only directly affect upon an
individuals life but also on the others such as family, community, society ,country , nation and
group of nations. Spector (1987) has noted, Social problems exist when organized societies are
not able to maintain and manage the relationship among its personnel. Its institutions get in
deteriorated state and its laws are been violated. The values of society are not being transferred
from one generation to the other in a desired and prescribed manner .Under these circumstances
the entire framework of social expectations shackles. Social problems can be numerous
,however its one of the most important dimension and , significant area of concern for the
societies is Drug abuse and that too especially among the teenager students who are studying
at schools , colleges or /universities in different parts of the world.

It is but relevant that before discussing drugs abuse some light is thrown on drugs. Edelfield
(2011) has described, Drugs are substances which are either available as a natural source or
manufactured through some process. Its purpose is to not only provide healing effects but also
change a user thinking, actions and feelings. Drugs are the chemical substances other than food
which is taken purposively to make certain effects on processes of body. Drugs can be legal and
beneficial if these are prescribed by a practitioner who is duly authorized by countrys
regulations to indulge in such practices. A drug can have harmful effects even if it is a legal drug
when used in a large quantity or dosage other than the one duly prescribed by authorized
practitioner or it is not supported by any prescription or laws of country.

(Alexander, LaRosa, Bader & Garfield, 2014) noted that Drugs can be used for any
legitimate requirement, however also for some illegal purposes. There can be recreational or
mind alerting drugs, which are consumed for pleasure or fun. Alcohol, Caffeine, Tobacco and
various prescription drugs such as tranquilizers, which are considered as legal drugs in various
parts of the world, also come under the classification of Recreational Drugs. However
irrespective of this fact whether drugs are legal, Over the Counter OTC or illegal, these are
very complex compounds, which can have a direct bearing on the bodily activities. The legal
status of drugs varies from country to country and changes with time. Back in early 1900s and
1930s in many parts of the world Alcohol was considered illegal, while Marijuana ,Opium
,Morphine and Cocaine were considered legal and openly advertised. However , now the case is
almost reversed.

Urbanization affects the society positively and negatively as well.

Positively:

Social and religious taboos/sensation disappearing


Education is a tool to create awareness about drug abuse
Diffusion of urban culture to rural area

Negatively:
Public health issue: water and air and the spread of communicable diseases due to over
crowding
Unemployment
Severe shortage of houses
Transportation-commenting issues-lack of public transport
Social effect: poverty, lack of opportunities, psychological problem, alcoholism, drugs,
crime violence and other deviant behavior.
Drugs use link to the urbanization, with the urban population of the developing countries.
In others words the burden of global drugs problem will shift to countries that are
relatively ill-equipped to deal with it. In developing countries High projected population
growth and younger population the main consumer of drugs will raise the demand illicit
drugs in nation.

The different characteristics of the urban environment that may be associated with substance
misuse, First urban characteristics being further sub-classified in primary (i.e.: determinants of
the infrastructure, employment, local educational and health resources) and secondary (mediating
the relation between the primary neighborhood factors and the population drug use)
determinants. Second, social networks and psychosocial stressors; they moderate the association
between characteristics of the urban environment and substance misuse. Third ,area
characteristics and living condition; substance misuse may be in fact conceived as a result not
only of the psychobiological profile of the index user but also of the characteristics of the users
area, which include income distributional levels.
Types of Drugs:

There are different types of drug such as:

Alcohol :
a boring unpredictable combustible fluid which is delivered by the normal maturation of
sugars and is the inebriating constituent of wine, brew, spirits, and different beverages,
and is likewise utilized as a modern dissolvable and as fuel.
Heroin:
Heroin is illegical, exceptionally addictive medication continue from morphine , a
normally happening substance removed from the seeds units of specific assortments of
poppy plants.
Marijuana:
Marijuana additionally called weed, herb, pot, grass, bud, ganja, Mary Jane, and
countless slang termsis a greenish-dim blend of the dried, destroyed leaves and blooms
of Cannabis sativa, the hemp plant. A few people smoke weed close by moved cigarettes
called joints; many utilize channels, water funnels (some of the time called bongs), or
weed stogies called blunts (frequently made by cutting open stogies and supplanting a
few or the majority of the tobacco with weed.
Chars: Charas is the name given to a hashish type of cannabis. It is produced using the
gum of the cannabis plant.

Cannabis:

A tall plant with a firm upright stem, separated serrated leaves, and glandular hairs. It is
utilized to deliver hemp fiber and as a psychotropic medication.

Hashish:

Hashish, or hash, is a medication produced using cannabis. It is devoured by smoking,


commonly in a pipe, vaporizer or joint, or oral ingestion.

Cocaine :

Cocaine is a fine white or grayish powder that goes about as an intense stimulant. In its
unadulterated frame, cocaine is extricated from the leaves of the coca plant.

Tobacco:

A planning of the nicotine-rich leaves of an American plant, which is cured by a procedure of


drying and maturation for smoking or biting.
Inhalants:
The expression "inhalants" alludes to synthetic vapors or gasses that create a "high" when
they are taken in. The greater part of the substances utilized as inhalants, for example, stick,
gas, cleaning solvents and mist concentrates, have honest to goodness regular uses, yet they
were never implied for human utilization. Inhalants are shabby, legitimate and simple to get.
They have a high potential for manhandle particularly by youngsters and youthful grown-
ups.

11)Methamphetamines:

Street name: speed, meth, chalk, ice, gem, precious stone meth, and jib. Methamphetamines has
a place with a group of medications called amphetamines intense stimulants that accelerate
the body's focal sensory system. It has been utilized therapeutically as a treatment for stoutness
and consideration shortfall/hyperactivity issue (ADHD).

Effects of drugs on human body:

There are such problems of drugs on human body such as:

Injuries
Health issue
Effect on the cerebrum
Behavioral issues
Birth deformity

Why do people use Drug?

People use drugs for a variety of reasons.

Young people often use drugs for the same reasons that adults do.

Some of these include:

to have a fabulous time


to unwind and overlook issues
to pick up certainty
to mingle
out of interest
as a type of idealism
to diminish restraints
to evacuate moral duty regarding choices
to celebrate or sympathize
to calm weariness and stress
self-medicine to adapt to issues

Significance of the study:

The current study will help to explore the role of urbanization in drug addiction drugs among
students academic performance and in their behavior aspects. There are many parents and
lecturers with question as to why their students dont perform as expertly, the government is also
looking for expectations as to why the students are not innovative and as to why most of them
drop out of colleges and universities. This paper will be relevant to those who will want to carry
out a similar research topic as it has contributed to the existing literature. This study will be
beneficial to the students in improving their academic performance. The finding of the study will
be useful to the community, institution of higher learning and the country government
Problem statement:

The present study is design to access the role of urbanization in drug addiction among university
students.

This study aims to investigate how the urban environment is associated with the drug addiction
and also explore the factor of urbanization that leads to the university students toward drug
addiction.

Objective of the study:

The aim and objective of the current study are given below:

To explore the factors under urban environment that leads to the university students
toward drug addiction.

Research question:

Does fear of insecure and unpredictable future because of lack of education and
unemployment leads to drug abuse?
Definitions of significant terms:
Drugs:
Any product other than food or water that effects the way people feel, think, see and
behave. It is a substance that due to its chemical nature affects physical, mental and
emotional functioning
Drug Addiction:
The use of drugs for purposes other than medical reasons, thus affecting the individual in
a negative way socially, cognitively or physically.
Urbanization:
An increase in a population in cities and towns versus rural areas.
Students:
A person who is studying at university or other place of higher education.
University:
A university is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which grants
academic degrees in various subjects. Universities typically provide undergraduate
education and postgraduate education

Chapter #2

Literature review

Historical Background:

Seeing how wonders, for example drug addiction and alcohol utilize and manhandle are
characterized is imperative in helping us to find clarifications and making social approaches.
Along these lines, take note of that sociologists use a to some degree distinctive approach in
characterizing drug utilize and mishandle than researchers from the fields of science,
pharmacology, and brain science. Sociologists tend to concentrate more on the social
significance of medications and liquor, standards and examples with respect to their utilization in
specific settings, and outcomes coming about there from. They commonly don't concentrate on
hereditary inclinations, synthetic uneven characters, neurological procedures, or identity
qualities. For instance, (Anderson, 1998) explained a more sociological definition in her social
character hypothesis (1)an example of general and overwhelming use over a huge timeframe, (2)
an arrangement of medication related issues (at work, or with relational connections, one's own
particular wellbeing, and formal social control offices), (3) past and fizzled endeavors to end
sedate utilization, and (4) mindfulness as having a medication as well as liquor issue.

Relevant Land Mark Studies:

To much usage of illicit and licit drugs by the youth is an important issue all around the world.
As such kind of activities leave health related risk for both short and long term. According to
Klingemann (2001) and Pirkola et al,(1999) commented that the main cause among youth for
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), act of violence, suicide accident is mostly due to use
of illicit drugs and alcohol. A survey on the subject of Global Youths Tobacco Survey was
executed in 1999 under the collaboration of world health organization WHO and US Center for
disease control and prevention. In this sample was taken from 43 countries of the world. The
participants were in 13 to 15 year of ages who were drug addicted. As per the findings of the
survey the usage of drugs among youths is growing immensely in the world .Teenagers from
young age youths start smoking and subsequently indulge in drugs. According to Warren et al,
(2000) at very early stages of life cigarettes is introduced, and youth become habitual to smoking
in their early stages of life, same is the case with alcohol too

The adoption of incorrect life style during childhood and adolescence period are the main
reasons behind elder and adult deaths. We can say that, that addiction to very bad habits like
smoking tobacco and alcohol abuse in youth ages leads to premature deaths. In adulthood almost
70% premature mortality was estimated by WHO, the cause behind those deaths rates is harmful
behavior like addiction to drugs at adolescence, which all could be avoided almost, (WHO-
AHDP-FRH,1998) this may be due to the reason that when individuals grow up he or she can
hardly avoid his or her habits.
These studies were menially focused on the all these topics such as prevalence rate of addiction
among youth, reason of taking drugs, age factor, which drug is mostly used urbanization factor
and way to support and recover drug addiction among youth.

Tarig osman,.(January 2016) in his studies demonstrate that the ratio of prevalence were very
low among the Sudan student the reason behind it such as (1) tobacco is frenzied commonly in
Sudan but it is not favored by the students (2) the alcohol is Banned and not stored publically .
Cannabis was most frequently used in Sudan because firstly cannabis easily smoke and share
between each other , secondly being the student of private university have more money to spend
on it .Mostly students used substance at the age of 17 or above. The main reason using behind it
curiosity, pleasure and relief of psychological stress its mean that most of the student were taking
drugs just for enjoyment and pleasure. They have curiosity to know about the different drugs and
sometimes when they feel depress or stressed that time they wants to takes drugs.

According to this study the males were more frequently indulge in drug addiction rather than
female. It also showed that these drugs were introduced by friendly environment. The other
reason behind of taking drug was lack of awareness among the sudan youth its mean that the
people of sudan had a lack of knowledge about the consequences of drugs. Alcohol is banned in
sudan on the religious bases. The only marissa and araki are available (these are the kinds of
alcohol).This study also showed that the students who are living with the family and relatives
have less associated with the substance use. Main drugs use in Europe Asia is opiates and in
Africa is cannabis. Youth were highly associated with the substance use these substances can
impact on their health, family, education, social factor negatively.

Prof Lily cheria in her studies demonstrate that the used of substance was common amongst
Uptopia students in South Africa. Substance used was the growing problem amongst the youth of
South Africa. .The research on the uptopia students was indicated that during the parties or
event of fresher ball the substance were commonly used among the students. Some of the
students were in this study indicated that drinking was the main part of intoxication.

Lily,. Mdumo & Layane,. (September 2014) According to them all the students in the developing
and developed countries used substance before the competition and first entered in the university.
Prof Lily cheria (September 2014) her studies explain that the prevalence ratio were very high
among the student of uptopia university because there Alcohol were mostly used among the
youth. The males was more indulge in the substance behavior rather than females. The
prevalence ratio among males was very high. Alcohol, tobacco, dagga and inhalant were mostly
used in the university but in which higher level of alcohol was used. The reason of mostly
focused on alcohol was that there were many alcohol related incidents was happened in the
university in the form of such as rape, sexual activities, case of fighting and stabbings etc.
probably the students between the age of 16 to 20 years in the university were mostly associated
with alcohol behavior. Alcohol is mostly used in the South African countries specially the youth
(Bauman & Phongsavan, 1999)

Prof Lily cheria,(September 2014) suggest that the university of uptopia should provide the
recreational activities to the youth. The university should develop a policy of alcohol use on the
different campuses.

M.Mudassar, (November 2012) in his studies demonstrate that drug addiction was the third
largest business after the arms and trades. Now a days drug addiction was also the main problem
in the Kashmir. There were some reasons such as poverty, corruption, begging and under
development all these problems lead to the new problems that were called drug addiction. As per
government psychiatry diseases the 90 % youth indulge in the drug addiction .Drug addiction
was the major phenomenon among the youth of Kashmir. The youth between the age of 17 to 35
they were more indulge in drug addiction behavior.

M.Mudassar (November 2012) unemployment was the main reason of taking drugs its mean that
when the youth not get the job then they feel themselves hopeless so in that situation they were
mostly like to take drugs. The ratio of prevalence was very high among the males of Kashmir
rather than females. Educational stress was also the main reason of taking drugs because when
the youngster feels educational stress or burden they would like to release their attentions in the
form of substance use. As the unemployment and educational stress the conflict was also play an
important role in increasing the drug addiction among youth. Many males and females use drugs
when they want to overcome their disappointment stress and depression.
Naqashbandi (2014) explain his study that unemployment conflict and begging were the main
problem among the overall the world. The females belongs to the all age group had a better
knowledge than males. In this study mostly youngsters was belong to the nuclear family they
mention that the gateway were used in their family. Majority of the males reveal that females
also take drugs rather than mans.

M.Mudassar (November 2012) in his study suggested that counseling classes should be to those
peoples who are suffering in depression, stress and disappointment.

Richard Kipkemboi (June 2013) in his studies elaborate that drug addiction was one the top
problem among the youth. A few years ago in the Kenya the most common drugs between
students were Tobacco, alcohol, bhang but now a days cocaine and heroin have been added in
this list. In Kenya the majority of the youngsters who between the ages of 16 to 30 were more
likely to use drugs. The high ratios of males were associated with the drug addiction behavior.
There tobacco, heroine, bhang were using frequently but the cannabis was mostly used among
the youth of Kenya because it were easily available to the youth. Drug abuse is a form of anti
social behavior that can be learned from the social media.

Richard Kipkemboi (June 2013) his study also indicate that the reason were behind taking of
drugs. Peer influence is one of the main causes of drug addiction among the youth of Kenya, its
showed that youngers had been introduced by the different drugs from the friendly environment.
Broken homes in Kenya were also the main issue to indulge the youngsters in drug addiction.
Lack of parental care was one of the main factors behind it because ignorance from the parents
can be lead to the youngsters toward addiction. Frustration and emotional stress was happening
due to the joblessness, and pressure of school, home, university and place of work.

Due to the poor economical condition in which there were not opportunity of the jobs for the
youth as well as poverty escort to the youth towards the addiction behavior. Homelessness and
abdomen was another cause of addiction among youth in Kenya. Anxiety had also leaded to the
youngsters towards the antisocial behavior. Some youngsters took drugs in Kenya just for
pleasure it was showed that those youngsters was not suffering in stress and money related
problems. They just took drug for the enjoyment. Some peoples took drugs when they feel
depressed drug addiction can be caused of some psychological and mental disorders. ( Richard
Kipkemboi., June 2013)

Richard Kipkemboi (June 2013) in his study also explain that about the different drugs and their
consequences alcohol is consisted in a form of drink its destroy the body tissues, brain cells and
mussels. Tobacco is in the form of cigarette its affect the heart, lungs, larynx and bladder etc.
cabanas is another name of bhang and marijuana its because in the form of increasing heart beat,
dry mouth and throat etc. heroine is like a brown powder it will be result in form of hepatitis,
tetanus and reduce appetite etc. cocaine it is in the form of white powder produce by the coco
leave it will be result in the form of sleeplessness, excitement and increase sexual desire etc.

Richard (June 2013) was also suggests that students should know also about the disadvantages of
drugs and try to help other students to avoided it, guidance person and psychologists should be
available at the school. In this case the family base treatment will be effective.

AGU SA, (December 2013) in his study demonstrate that due to the urbanization the social
values and norms were evaporation gradually. The usage of alcohol in the Nigeria was most
common among youth. According to the USA department of health human services indicate that
the youth between the age of 16 to 17 have the second highest rate of drug use in the country.
The highest rate of drug use in the country was between the age of 18 to 20.

Nwankwo (December 2016) in Nigeria the substance use rate were very high among adolescents.
The male were more associated with the drugs rather than females. This study was also indicate
that high rate of alcohol were used among the medical students. Alcohol had a negative impact
on individual lives and minds as well. It reduces the activity of nervous system it was caused in
the form of confusion and decline in judgment ability can be effected by negatively.

AGU SA, (December 2013) in his study were also explore that why youth drink or abuse drugs.
There were some reasons behind it such as belong to the peer group, deals with the problems,
social and media influence, to experiment and genetically influence. This study was explained
that the girls were use to alcohol to reduce the tension, lose of wait and increase confidence. The
males who belong between the age of 12 to 14 believe that the alcohol had a positive influence
on their lives.

Agborn ( December 2013) his study indicate that alcohol had a negative consequences on
individual life such as poor performance in studies , risky behavior vulnerable memory high
blood pressure, weight gain, depression, cancer, damage to the central nervous system, heart
failure and liver diseases etc. the males who belong to the urban environment were more indulge
in the drug addiction rather than male lives in the rural areas as well as the females who belong
to the urban areas were more associated with the drug addiction behavior rather than the female
who belong to the ruler environment .

AGU SA, (December 2013) his study suggest that the school authorities should be arrange the
seminars or lectures on the drug addiction. They should conduct the extra circular activities for
the students. School authorities should include in their syllabus drug addiction as a subject and
teach them about the advantages and disadvantages of drug abuse.

Reena (2006) in his study suggested that the use of alcohol has a negative effect on the high
school students rather than the university students. The result of this study shows that the use of
the alcohol has a negative impact on academic performance.

Dee and Evans (2003) also in the study concluded the alcohol use has not any negative impact on
Student academic performance .A paper by McCaffrey et al (2008) demonstrate that marijuana
use has not any negative association with academic performance .

Carrol (2004) his studies suggested that the university students used drugs for the recreation
purpose. His study also shows that 27.6% students use drugs just improve the memory. Teter
(2002) also suggested that students who use drug at collage level are more likely to improve the
concentration span as more likely to those who use before.

According to the world drug report 2002 youth are just start experimenting the drugs, they are
mostly used the drugs in the company of the young people. Once the youth experiment the drugs
after that they are more inclined in addiction. Young people soon adopt the risky behavior which
is different from the normal behavior and in this way they become more addict.
In his study explained that UN employment is one of the major reasons of behind drug addiction
among students. A study conducted by Nadeem et al (2009) explained that culture values and
economy stress are the main reason to lead to the university students toward drug addiction.

A same study conducted by the Sudan (2007)in his study he showed that violent and conflict has
the major impact on university student as well as study explained that disappointment ,stress
and depression are also the main reason behind it .

Jiste (2011) his study demonstrated that gender disparities in drug addiction is different in female
rather than male .among male there is no significant difference by urbanization but in the
perspective of female its quite different because the females of that area are not inclined in
addiction rather than males due to the social norms and values . females are restricted by the
society.

A huge impact of sex was seen among youths with guys manhandling substance (liquor) more
than females. Region was additionally found to essentially impact substance manhandle (liquor)
among teenagers. Teenagers who live in the urban region are mishandling liquor more than the
individuals who live in the rustic zone. A critical communication impact of sexual orientation
and area was additionally seen on liquor manhandle among young people. That is teenagers guys
who live in the urban regions mishandle liquor more than the individuals who live in the
provincial regions. Moreover, young people's females who live in the urban range manhandle
liquor more than the individuals who live in the provincial zones. In view of the result of this
review, future scientists ought to do comparative review in different territories to decide the cross
legitimacy of the discoveries of this review. Furthermore, guardians particularly those in the
urban territories ought to give careful consideration to their wards with a view to knowing when
they are moving with awful organization. School specialists ought to incorporate into their
educational modules subject that instructs against medication manhandle and other social
indecencies, for example, moral instruction. Most importantly, they ought to make a firm
punishment for anybody gotten in such conduct to vary others. What's more, school experts in
the urban zones ought to as an issue of need arrange consistent speakers and courses on the
antagonistic impact of medication manhandle to the individual and society on the loose. National
medication law authorization office ought to likewise experience the desire towards taking out
unlawful medication particularly pot in the general public. They ought to concentrate more on
urban zones where the issues is higher.

.As to aftereffects of this review, life stressors, for example, separating, living a long way from
family and living in rental houses without family controlling part, could be identified with
medication manhandle. Interest of youthful grown-ups is additionally another essential reason.
Expanding the preparation projects can answer many inquiries asked by the adolescent for this
situation. Hence, more precise investigations of medication mishandle condition in different
colleges and correct programming for counteractive action of medication manhandle are
essential.

Tobacco utilize is the most widely recognized announced substance use by understudies in this
review. In Sudan, there is no official tobacco control arrangement particularly focusing on young
people . Smoking is disallowed at the college. In our review, understudies detailed utilizing
cannabis more much of the time than liquor, despite the fact that cannabis is more costly than
liquor. The reasons could be that cannabis is smoked and shared among companions, while
liquor drinking is typically not shared between associates. Another reason could be that the
understudies, being understudies of a private college, have more cash to spend on cannabis than
liquor. Liquor has a tendency to be devoured by lower financial classes and is legitimately
prohibited.

As per the present writing, the substance most ordinarily manhandled and most usually
contemplated among grown-ups age 55 and more seasoned is liquor. This age gather likewise
abuses or misuse solution and over-the-counter meds, and slightest much of the time uses or
misuse illegal substances. This circumstance may change fairly as children of post war America,
a gathering more prone to have explored different avenues regarding unlawful substances than
past eras, keep on aging. Some sexual orientation contrasts were noted between more established
men and ladies, with men more inclined to manhandle liquor and ladies more prone to mishandle
doctor prescribed drugs. Contrasts likewise exist between the individuals who started
manhandling substances ahead of schedule in life and the individuals who started mishandling
substances sometime down the road. Late-onset substance mishandle (basically liquor) is
regularly activated by distressing occasions further down the road, for example, misfortune or
retirement. Late-onset substance abusers by and large have higher financial status and more
training than their initial onset.

The review by Ugandan Youth Development Link (2008) set up taht71% of the understudies had
utilized medications with liquor and cannabis leading the pack. The Global school based
understudies wellbeing review done in Tanzania uncovered that liquor was the most manhandled
medication among understudies (Gelinas, 2006).

A study directed in Nigeria on senior auxiliary school understudies by Nakpocha (2010).


uncovered that the most normally mishandled drugs as indicated by their rates were; salicylate
(20.9%), anti-infection agents (16.6%), liquor (13.4%), hypnosedatives (8.9%) and tobacco
(3.0%). Alfred, Adeyemo (2005) completed a review among restorative understudies in the
University of Illorin in Nigeria and discovered that the most manhandled substances in their
request were; gentle stimulants (33.3%), liquor (13.6%), narcotics (7.3%) and tobacco (3.3%).
Liquor and tobacco gone about as "passage medications" to the utilization of different substances
like cocaine, courageous woman, inhalants and psychedelic drugs. He further, discovered that
there was high commonness of pot smoking in auxiliary school understudies in Zaria Local
Government are of Kaduma state in Nigeria.

Winga (2005), done a review on the degree, connects and explanations behind and against
substance use among masen University understudies and discovered that liquor was the most
manhandled (41%), taken after by cigarettes and tobacco (12%), Miraa (11%) and Marijuana
(7%). A report by NACADA (2004) demonstrated that bhang and miraa are too broadly utilized
substances.

(Louw, 2001). Center qualities to live by, for example, genuineness, resilience, peace, duty are
without, this influences their social abilities advancement. Since a large portion of the
understudies are in their pre-adulthood phase of advancement on the off chance that they
participate in medication mishandle they likewise lose their character.

Understudies regularly report utilizing cigarettes, liquor and pot for recreational and social
reasons, trailed by adapting reasons (to diminish or, on the other hand stay away from negative
mind-sets or feeling about self) and upgrade reasons (to deliver happiness or increase positive
feelings. While drinking for amusement and social purposes might be the most basic explanation
behind liquor use among understudies, issue or episodic drinking seem to result more from rash
or sensation-chasing inclinations and from drinking as a methods for adapting to stress or issues
(Read, 2003).

One of the major indicators of students discipline problem is bullying. Bullying can be either

overt or covert. According to Shariff (2004), overt bullying involves physical aggression, such as

beating, kicking, shoving and sexual touching which could be accompanied by overt bullying, in

which victims are excluded from peer groups, stalked, stared at, gossiped about, verbally

threatened, or harassed. Covert bullying can also be random or discriminatory, racial, sexual,

homophobic or based on social class, abilities, or disabilities. Gale et al (2004) warn that

intimidation and bullying could cause psychological harm, not only to victims but also to

bystanders.

Perkinson (2002) clarifies that liquor is essentially a focal sensory system depressant and dulls
the mind making taking in a troublesome errand. At the point when understudies get to the
conduct of manhandling liquor their thinking get weakened and instruction happens to less need
in the understudy's life. An overview by NACADA (2004) demonstrates 35% of the understudies
from Central Province were manhandling tobacco related items. The accessibility of tobacco
items is predominant inside the area. Just to be made promptly accessible to the customers. A
Research that was done in Australia uncovered that bhang smoking prompts investing other more
energy medications because of its fortifying impact. In focal region a review by NACADA
(2004) indicated 5.3% of the understudies were mishandling bhang.

Drugs manhandled influence the mind, this outcomes in real decrease in the capacities done by
the mind (Sternberg, 2003). Drugs influence the understudies fixation traverse, which is
definitely lessened and fatigue sets in must quicker than for non medications and substance
abusers. The understudy will lose enthusiasm for school work including additional educational
modules exercises. Because of this in school work there's non-attendance in school coming about
into one taking too long to finish contemplates. The majority of the psychoactive medications
influence the basic leadership procedure of the understudies, innovative speculation and the
advancement of the fundamental life and social aptitudes are hindered. They additionally meddle
with the consciousness of a person's one of a kind potential and intrigue therefore influencing
their vocation advancement (Louw, 2001). Center qualities to live by, for example, genuineness,
resilience, peace, obligation are without, this influences their social aptitudes improvement.
Since a large portion of the understudies are in their youth phase of improvement in the event
that they participate in medication mishandle they additionally lose their personality (Kyalo and
Mbugua. 2011).

Encountering savagery and living in broken family units (e.g where illegal medications are
expended among family unit individuals) amid adolescence is related with medication use in
later life (Frolenzano et al., 2002). Hypothetically, family and associate connections are
imperative for immature medication utilize in light of the fact that both are essential gatherings
where demeanors and practices are found out. As indicated by social learning hypothesis, an
individual figures out how to take medicates in little, casual gatherings (Nobleman, 2003). It is in
these cozy settings that individuals are instructed, through impersonation and support, to hold
demeanors that are ideal or horrible to medication utilize. Inside families where liquor is utilized,
youths may watch liquor utilize, obtain ideal dispositions toward liquor utilize, and start utilizing
liquor themselves. Thus, if their companions drink liquor, young people are probably going to
get constructive social support from their companions for drinking (Kandel and Chen, 1995).

Pertinent Theories:

a. Social and Self Control Theories

A well known social process hypothesis is Hirsch's social control hypothesis. It's concentrate has
been only on degenerate practices, for example, reprobate acts (burglary, harm, and so forth.) and
medication utilize, as opposed to freak parts and characters. It doesn't address the move from
medication use to manhandle specifically, however dissimilar to different speculations, it
explains unique or essential abnormality.

b. Social Learning Theories


Social learning speculations have concentrated on clarifying genuine medication utilize,
i.e., recurrence and level of medication utilize. The vast majority of the insightful work
examining this hypothesis (see underneath) has used a quantitative overview approach,
including inquiries to people about the sorts of medications they utilize, how habitually
they utilize them, and the amount of every they utilize.

Conclusion from Previous Studies:

Usage of alcohol, hash, cigarettes and other type of drugs in student life have got negative
consequence and adversely affecting the education of the masses and increasing unemployment
and relationship problems (Shiefield et al, 2005). Also in student life almost all of the students
are dependent on others so they may face economical problems, as they get pocket money from
homes and they spends those money on drugs usage. In addition, the students addicted to it may
face social problems as nobody trusts them, nobody wants to be in their company, and society
also condemns them. Also according to Wehleser et al. (2002) system that undergoes people
addicted to drugs face more negative consequences as compared to mature people. As increasing
trend of drugs and alcohol usage has been noticed among the students, which has resulted in
increasing number of alcohol related self reported consequences. Also due to usage of alcohol
and drugs, it has been noticed that it results in increasing number of unplanned sex, violence and
also engagement in risky behavior as drugs users belong to all class level, in different part of the
country and belonging to different social backgrounds (Giralado, 2008).

Literature Gap:

The phenomena of the drug addiction vary from person to person and country to country.
Urbanization has played an important role in increasing the drug addiction because due to the
urbanizations ours social and cultural norms, values are fading gradually. Now a days addiction
is a main problem not only in Pakistan but in all over the world. The youth of all over the world
affected by this phenomena very badly in above all these article explain that the reason factor an
causes of drug addiction.

The different factor of urbanization is playing an important role in this regard. Unemployment ,
peer influence poverty social and print media, family pattern, conflict and friendly environment
that lead to the students toward the substance use.
The gap I felt during my literature review is that no result was shared regarding the urbanization
under these factors such as unemployment, peer pressure, poverty and social media.

This study will highlight the factors of urbanization that leads to the student toward drug
addiction in urban environment.

Limitation of the study:

The main limitation of the current study is only to focus on Islamabad universities as well as
collects the data from the university students.
Theoretical Framework of role of urbanization in drug addiction among university
students (A case study of Islamabad Universities)

Independent variable Dependent variable

Factors under urbanization

unemployment Drug Addiction


ignorance
gender
lack of contact with family
depression
easy availability

Hypothesis:
H1: There is a positive correlation between unemployment and drug addiction among
university students.
H2: There is positive correlation between ignorance and drug addiction among university
students.
H3: There is positive association between gender and drug addiction.
H4: There is a positive association between lack of family contact and drug addiction
among students.
H5: There is a positive relationship between depression and drug addiction.
H6: There is positive correlation between easy availability and drug addiction among
students.

Chapter #3

Research Methodology and Design

In this the study researcher will discuss research design, population frame, sources of data, unit
of analysis, sample and sampling technique, collection, measurement, and data management, and
in the last the researcher will talk about the data analysis. The main objective of the study is to
find out the role of urban environment in drug addiction among university student. Primary data
will be collect through a questionnaire to answer the vital question.

Research design:
This study follows the deductive research approach was be used and the quantitative approaches
of research was be applied.

Target population:
The target population of the study was the university students of Islamabad. Population of the
study includes the MS and BS level students of the 3 universities such as Szabist, Numl and
Preston University.

Sample Design:
Convenient sampling was be used to select a sample group from all three universities of
Islamabad

Type of study
The current study was exploratory in nature and conducted to find the role of urbanization in
drug addiction among universities students and also find out how these two variables effect to
each others.

Data analysis technique


For the quantitative data analysis, validity and reliability analysis Microsoft Office Excel 2007
and Statistical Packages for the Social Science SPSS was be used.

Approaches
In this study Quantitative approaches of research was be used. Quantitative measures associated
with mathematical measures, statistical calculations.
Sample Size
Questionnaire from the sample of 120 and it was distributed among three university of
Islamabad at the BS and MS level.
Distribution of the sample
Szabist Preston Numl
Male =20 20 20
Female=20 20 20
Total =40 40 40 Total=120

Unit of Analysis
The units of Analysis are the students at the MS and BS level of the three universities of
Islamabad (Szabist, Numl and Preston) under the categories of male and female , education level
of the students .

Time Horizon
The data gathering procedure is cross-sectional, which is widely diffuse data, such as the relation
between the role of urbanization and drug addiction among university students.
Research Instrument: Secondary data needed for the study was collected through internet,
articles and books but primary data will be collected via questionnaire from the sample of
120 respondents distributed among three university of Islamabad (Szabist, Numl and Preston) at
the BS and MS level. Quantitative and qualitative both data was collected , the major cause for
this kind of data collected was that better quality study is always based on alteration and
organizational development, a number of primary research has to be there, in perspective of
current study

There are total twenty-one questions are in the questionnaire first nine related to the socio
economic background of respondent, then next two are related to the DV for the Employees and
last ten are related to the IV.
Role of urban environment in drug addiction among university students: 5 likert scale in
questionnaire.

0 1 2 3 4 5

No slightly Agree Moderate Very much Fully


agreement Agree Agree agree agree
CHAPTER NO: 4

Results and Data Analysis


This is a quantitative research and the purpose of the study is to explore the factors of urban
environment that leads o university students towards drug addiction.

1 dependant variable (Drug Addiction) and 6 independent variables were(Unemployment,


ignorance, gender, lack of contact with family, depression and easy availability were measured
on a likert scale of 1- 5 with 1 being no agreement to 5 being full agreement.

Reliability Statistics
Table one shows the reliability statistics of items of questionnaire were determined using
chronbach alpha. In this case it is 79%. Chronbach alpha should be more than 65% it means that
the items such as Age, sex, religion, marital status, Age, Employment status, Years of education
along with Unemployment, ignorance, gender, lack of contact with family, depression and easy
availability are internally consistent. But in some weak cases above 60% is also acceptable. The
face validity of this questionnaire was assessed by expert people working in the relevant area.
The results clearly support that Unemployment, ignorance, gender, lack of contact with family
and depression all these IVs have a positive association with the dependant variable that is Drug
Addiction.

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha N of Items

.079 16

Regression and correlation analyses were used to explore the factors which have an impact on
Drug Addiction. Regression was applied because the researcher was interested in finding out the
impact of the 6 independent variables that are (Unemployment, ignorance, gender, lack of
contac with family, depression and easy availability) on the Dependant variable Drug Addiction.
CORELATION ANALYSIS:

Dv unemploy Ignora Gend contactwithfa Depress Easyavailab


ment nce er mily ion ility
Pearson
.
Correlat 1 .602** .551** .244* .571** -.199*
559**
Dv ion
Sig. (2-
.000 .000 .000 .014 .000 .047
tailed)
N 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Pearson .
.
Correlat 602* 1 .568** .158 .568** -.161
Unemploy *
511**
ion
ment Sig. (2-
.000 .000 .000 .116 .000 .109
tailed)
N 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Pearson .
.
Correlat 551* .568** 1 **
.053 .382** -.161
*
559
Ignorance ion
Sig. (2-
.000 .000 .000 .603 .000 .110
tailed)
N 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Pearson .
Correlat 559* .511** .559** 1 .009 .384** -.123
*
Gender ion
Sig. (2-
.000 .000 .000 .933 .000 .221
tailed)
The
N 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Pearson results
.
Correlat .158 .053 .009 1 .180 .010 of the
Contact 244*
ion
with family Sig. (2-
.014 .116 .603 .933 .074 .921
tailed)
N 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Pearson .
.
Correlat 571* .568** .382** .180 1 -.157
*
384**
Depression ion
correlation matrix shows that Unemployment, ignorance, gender, lack of contact with family and
depression and have a positive association with the Drug Addiction .This means that
Unemployment has a positive correlation with drug addiction among university students,
ignorance also has a positive association with drug addiction among university students, gender
also has a positive association with drug addiction among university students, lack of family
contact has a positive association with drug addiction among university students, depression also
has a positive association with drug addiction among university students .All the correlation
coefficients are statistically significant.

Regression Analysis
Regression analysis was applied to check the variations in drug addiction among university
students as explained by Unemployment, ignorance, gender, lack of contact with family,
depression and easy availability of drugs. As shown in Table 3, the value of R (co-efficient of
correlation) = 0.428 which means that the Drug addiction among university students has a
positive association with Unemployment, ignorance, gender, lack of contact with family and
depression. . R square =0.183 indicates that the contribution of Unemployment, ignorance,
gender, lack of contact with family, depression and easy availability is explaining up to 18.3%
variation in the dependent variable i.e., drug addiction.

Table 3: Model Summary


Mod R R Adjusted Std. Error Change Statistics
el Square R Square of the R Square F df1 df2 Sig. F
Estimate Change Change Change
1 .428a .183 .147 .431 .183 5.115 5 114 .000
a. Predictors: (Constant), depression, gender, unemployment, lack of contact with family,
ignorance
The ANOVA test in Table 3.1 establishes the fitness of the regression model with F = 5.115 and
significant level= 0.000b. This shows that the model fits well for the prediction of the dependent
variable. In other words independent variables (Unemployment, ignorance, gender, lack of
contact with family, depression and easy availability of drugs) are significant predictors of Drug
Addiction among university students.
Table 3.1 ANOVAa
Model Sum of Df Mean Square F Sig.
Squares
Regression 4.758 5 .952 5.115 .000b
1 Residual 21.209 114 .186
Total 25.967 119
a. Dependent Variable: dv
b. Predictors: (Constant), depression, gender, unemployment, lack of contact with family,
ignorance

Table 3.2 Coefficients


Model Unstandardized Standardize t Sig.
Coefficients d
Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta
(Constant) -.041 1.160 -.035 .972
Unemployme
.208 .124 .165 1.677 .097
nt
Ignorance .202 .099 .185 2.042 .044
Gender .285 .090 .316 3.174 .002
Lack of
1
contact with .327 .145 .159 2.254 .027
family
Depression .312 .118 .231 2.639 .010

Easyavailabilit
-.196 .163 -.086 -1.201 .233
y
As per table 3.2 the regression coefficient of unemployment is positive and
statistically significant at 10%level of significant this means that one unit
increase in unemployment will increase drug addiction among university
students by 0.208 units .The regression coefficient of ignorance is positive
and statically significant at 5% level of significant this means that one unit
increase in ignorance will increase drug addiction among university students
by 0.202 units .The regression coefficient of gender is positive and
statistically significant at 5% level of significant this means that one unit
increase in gender will increase drug addiction among university students by
0.285 units. .The regression coefficient of lack of contact with family is
positive and statistically significant at 5% level of significant this means that
one unit increase in lack of contact with family will increase drug addiction
among university students by 0.32units. The regression coefficient of
depression is positive and statistically significant at 5% level of significant this
means that one unit increase in depression will increase drug addiction among
university students by 0.312 units. The coefficient of easy avability is negative
which indicate that indicate that easy avability of drugs has negative impact on
drug addiction which is counter intuitive. al though this result satistically
insignificant the possible reason of negative correlation in our point of view is
that some time easy avability of things loses attraction and become hurdle it
self this specially true in Pakistani condition. However this point of view needs
more research. Consequently as per result of the study , the position of the
hypotheses tested is as :
H1: There is a positive relationship between unemployment and drug addiction among
university students. Accepted
H2: There is positive relationship between ignorance and drug addiction among
university students.. Accepted
H3: There is positive relationship between gender and drug addiction. Accepted
H4: There is a positive relationship between lack of family contact and drug addiction
among students. Accepted
H5: There is a positive relationship between depression and drug addiction.. Accepted
H6: There is positive relationship between easy availability and drug addiction among
students reje

QUESTIONNAIRE

I am a research scholar at Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology
(Szabist), Islamabad .I am conducting the research on Role of Urban environment in Drug
Addiction among university students (A Case study of Islamabad Universities)and I have
designed to collect the data from the university students .The data collected will be used and
reported in an aggregate from no individual responses will be referred .The information you
provide will be treated as confidential. I thank you in anticipation for the honest and unbiased
responses.

Please the appropriate check box below

Age 20-24 25-29 30-34


Gender Male Female
Religion Muslim Non Muslim
Marital Married Un married
status
Education Undergraduat Graduate Post graduate
e
Currently Home Hostel Personal Any other
live apartment
Sharing of Yes No
room
Family Less than 30.000- 41,000- Above 50,000
income 30,000 40,000 50,000
Type of Nuclear Joint Extended
family

Have you ever seen drug addict in your university

1 2 3 4 5
Often sometime Never usually Always
If your answer yes to the above question, which type of drug is used by students in your
university

1 2 3 4 5
Alcohol Heroin Marijuana Charas Any other

Please tick the appropriate number against each statement according to the your opinion.

No Slightly Agree Moderate Very Fully agree


agreement agree agree much
agree

0 1 2 3 4 5

Factors under Urban environment

Statements 0 1 2 3 4 5
Unemployment leads to the drug addiction
Ignorance leads to the addiction
Male students are more inclined to addiction than female students
Lack of Family control leads to addiction
Depression leads to addiction
Loneliness is a factor leading to addiction
Easy availability of drugs leads to addiction
CHAPTER NO: 6

Conclusion:

The present study attempts to contribute new knowledge to the existing literature on role of
urban environment in drug addiction among university students. The objective of the study was
to explore the factors under urban environment that leads to the university students toward
drug addiction Whether factors such as; unemployment, ignorance, gender, lack of family
contact, depression and easy availability are has a impact on drug addiction among university
students .

The research was based on discussion and data analysis .it was perception based study. The total
sample was 120 and it was divided in the three University of Islamabad such as Szabist, Numl
and Preston at the MS and BS level.

Students shape the country future. Now days in Pakistan the drug addiction among students is a
main problem. The phenomena drug addiction effect the society very badly but at the university
level students are openly use the drugs.

Urban environment playing an important role to become addict .This study shows that different
factor of urban environment such as Unemployment, ignorance, gender, lack of family contact,
depression is positively realted with the drug addiction and these are all the factors that lead to
students toward drug addiction.

The consequences of the present review showed the spread of drug addiction is due to the rapid
urbanization. In conclusion the acceptance of the drug abuser in the society is basically and
particularly connected with the urban catalog of the group, with those living in more urbanized
groups indicating a more significant inclination to recognize drug abusers.

CHAPTER NO: 7

Recommendations:

After the analysis of this study, researcher is able to recommend some points regarding to the
role of urban environment and drug addiction among university students such as:
Make a Strategies to control substance use are required and the university should be more
vigilant.

Government should punish those people who buy a drug in the society

Parents should provided the friendly environment to their children

Society should provided the healthy activities to students in the society


Government should provide the job facilities to the students
Students understanding about substances and their dangerous result should be raised by
incorporating health education in the course.
Students using substances should be provided with therapy and assisted with treatment
option.

CHAPTER NO: 8

Future Recommendations:
The present study tires to find out the factors under urban environment that associated with drug
addiction among university students.
More researchers are suggested to bring similar study with other variables like socio-economic
background, cultural variation as well as religions. Further research-ers should also reside on the
major causes of drug abuse especially among males. In doing this, they should also enlarge the
number of their participants. In the future suggest that carry on the study in the rural areas also
on these variables. The current study focused only on three universities of Islamabad but in the
future its recommend that to the other researcher to carry out the study in the others universities
of Islamabad as well as school and college level. Further researchers should be study on other
variables like age, income, gender, type of family and level of education and it can be the study
gap for the other studies.

CHAPTER #8
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