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Some Fourier Transform and Properties (Using w)

1. Definition

X(w) = x(t)ejwt dt
1

x(t) = 2
X(w)ejwt dw

2. Transform Pairs
eat u(t) 1
jw+a
,a >0
ea|t| 2a
a2 +w2
,a >0
(t) 1
rect(t/ ) sin(w /2)
w /2
rect(t) = 1, |t| < 0.5 and rect(t) = 0, |t| 0
sin W t
Wt
W

rect(w/2W )
tri(t/ ) ( sin(w /2) 2
w /2
) where tri(t) is a unit height triangle with base from 1 to 1.
( sin(W
W t/2
) 2
t/2) 2
W
tri(w/W )

et /2 2 ew /2
2 2 2 2

ejw0 t 2(w w0 )
cos w0 t (w w0 ) + (w + w0 )
sin w0 t j(w w0 ) + j(w + w0 )

n= (t nT ) T k= (w 2k/T )
2

1 2(w)
u(t) 1
jw
+ (w)
sign(t) 2
jw
1
t
jsign(w)
at
e sin(w0 t)u(t) w0
(jw+a)2 +w02

eat cos(w0 t)u(t) jw+a


(jw+a)2 +w02

sin(w0 t)u(t) w0
w02 w2
j 2 (w w0 ) + j 2 (w + w0 )
teat u(t) 1
(jw+a)2

tn eat u(t) n!
(jw+a)n+1

3. Fourier Transform of periodic signals


Fourier Series: x(t) Xk , fundmental frequency w0

Fourier Transform: x(t) 2 k= Xk (w kw0 )

Let y(t) be a signal with finite support of length T0 , and let x(t) =
n= y(t T0 )
1
be its periodic extension. Then Xk = T0 Y (kw0 ) (where w0 = 2/T0 ).

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4. Properties of the Fourier Transform
linearity: a1 x1 (t) + a2 x2 (t) a1 X1 (w) + a2 X2 (w)
symmetry: x(t) real, then X(w) = X (w)
x(t) real and even, then X(w) is real and even
x(t) is real and odd, then X(w) is purely imaginary and odd
time delay: x(t t0 ) ejwt0 X(w)
frequency shift: ejw0 t x(t) X(w w0 )
dierentiation: d
dt
x(t) jwX(w)
time reversal: x(t) X(w)
t
integration: y(t) = x( )d Y (w) = X(w)
jw
+ X(0)(w)
time-frequency duality: X(t) 2x(w)
multiplication by t: tx(t) 1j dw
d
X(w)
time scaling: x(at) 1
|a|
X( wa )

Parsevals identity: E = x2 (t)dt = 1
2
|X(w)|2 dw
convolution: y(t) = x(t) h(t) Y (w) = X(w)H(w)
modulation: x(t)z(t) 1
2
{X(w) Z(w)}
response to a cosine input: let H(w) = M (w)ej(w) be the frequency response of the
system, with M (w) denoting the magnitude response and (w) the phase response. If
the system input is A cos(w0 t), its output will be AM (w0 ) cos(w0 t + (w0 )).

Some Fourier Transform and Properties (Using f )

1. Definition

X(f ) = x(t)ej2f t dt

x(t) = X(f )ej2f t df

2. Transform Pairs
eat u(t) 1
j2f +a
,a >0
ea|t| 2a
a2 +(2f )2
,a >0
(t) 1
rect(t/ ) sin(f
f
)
rect(t) = 1, |t| < 0.5 and rect(t) = 0, |t| 0
sin 2Bt
2Bt
1
2B
rect(f /2B)
tri(t/ ) ( sin(f
f
/) 2
) where tri(t) is a unit height triangle with base from 1 to 1.
( sin(Bt)
Bt
)2 1
B
tri(f /B)
et ef
2 2

2
ej2f0 t (f f0 )
cos 2f0 t 12 ((f f0 ) + (f + f0 ))
sin 2f0 t 2j1 ((f f0 ) (f + f0 ))

n= (t nT ) T k= (f k/T )
1

1 (f )
u(t) 1
j2f
+ 12 (f )
sign(t) 1
jf
1
t
jsign(f )
eat sin(2f0 t)u(t) 2f0
(j2f +a)2 +(2f0 )2

eat cos(2f0 t)u(t) j2f +a


(j2f +a)2 +(2f0 )2

sin(2f0 t)u(t) 2f0


(2f0 )2 (2f )2
+ 1
4j
((f f0 ) (f + f0 ))
teat u(t) 1
(j2f +a)2

tn eat u(t) n!
(j2f +a)n+1

3. Fourier Transform of periodic signals


Fourier Series: x(t) Xk , fundmental frequency f0

Fourier Transform: x(t) k= Xk (f kf0 )

Let y(t) be a signal with finite support of length T0 , and let x(t) = n= y(t T0 )
be its periodic extension. Then Xk = T10 Y (kf0 ) (where f0 = 1/T0 ).

4. Properties of the Fourier Transform


linearity: a1 x1 (t) + a2 x2 (t) a1 X1 (f ) + a2 X2 (f )
symmetry: x(t) real, then X(f ) = X (f )
x(t) real and even, then X(f ) is real and even
x(t) is real and odd, then X(f ) is purely imaginary and odd
time delay: x(t t0 ) ej2f t0 X(f )
frequency shift: ej2f0 t x(t) X(f f0 )
dierentiation: d
dt
x(t) j2f X(f )
time reversal: x(t) X(f )
t
integration: y(t) = x( )d Y (f ) = X(f )
j2f
+ X(0)
2
(f )
time-frequency duality: X(t) x(f )
multiplication by t: tx(t) j2
1 d
df
X(f )
time scaling: x(at) 1
|a|
X( fa )

Parsevals identity: E = x2 (t)dt =
|X(f )|2 df

3
convolution: y(t) = x(t) h(t) Y (f ) = X(f )H(f )
modulation: x(t)z(t) X(f ) Z(f )
response to a cosine input: let H(f ) = M (f )ej(f ) be the frequency response of the
system, with M (f ) denoting the magnitude response and (f ) the phase response. If
the system input is A cos(2f0 t), its output will be AM (f0 ) cos(2f0 t + (f0 )).

1. Some trigonometric identities


cos(x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y
sin(x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y
cos x cos y = 21 [cos(x y) + cos(x + y)]
sin x sin y = 12 [cos(x y) cos(x + y)]
sin x cos y = 21 [sin(x y) + sin(x + y)]
cos2 x = 12 [1 + cos 2x]
sin2 x = 12 [1 cos 2x]
2. FM with sinusoidal input
1
k=0

k=1

k=2
0.5
k=3 k=4 k=5
k=6 k=7
J ()
k

0.5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
beta

Figure 1: Bessel Function


x(t) = A cos(wc t + sin wm t) = k= Jk () cos(wc t + kwm t)
2
k= Jk () = 1

3. Quantization
2
SNR at output of quantizer: 3L2 mm(t)
2 , where L is the number of quantization levels,
p

m2 (t) is the signal power, mp is the peak value of the signal.

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4. Transmit Filter

Nyquist condition 1
T k= G(w 2k/T ) = 1
Raised cosine filter


T 0 |w| (1 ) T
P (w) = T2 sin( T2 (w T )) (1 ) T |w| (1 + ) T


0 (1 + ) T |w|
sin t/T cos t/T
p(t) = t/T 1(2t/T )2

5. Correlation, Energy and Power Spectral Density


Energy spectral density of f (t): Ef (w) = |F (w)|2 where F (w) is the Fourier transform
of f (t).

Total energy: E = Ef (w) dw 2

Power spectral density of f (t): Sf (w) = limT |FT T(w)|


2


Total power: P = Sf (w) dw 2

For periodic functions: Sf (w) = 2 k= |Fk | (w kw0 )
2

If Y (w) = H(w)X(w) then Sy (w) = |H(w)|2 Sx (w)


Correlation function

Energy signal: Rf ( ) = f (t)f (t + )dt

T /2
Power signal: Rf ( ) = limT T /2 f (t)f (t + )dt
Sf (w) is the Fourier transform of Rf ( )
6. Link budget
Received power: Pr = Pt GLt Gr , where Pt is the transmit power, Gt , Gr are the transmit
and receive antenna gains, and L is the path loss.
Path loss: L = (4d/)2 , where d is the distance and is the wavelength.
Noise power: Pn = N0 BF , where N0 is the power spectral density of the noise
N0 [dBm] = 174.
Signal to noise ratio: SNR = Pr /Pn .
7. Probability of Error
A is pulse amplitude, is noise variance.
On-o signaling Pe = Q(A/(2))
Polar Pe = Q(A/)
Bi-polar Pe = 1.5Q(A/(2))
(1e1.4x ) ex /2
2
Approximate formula for the Q-function: Q(x) =
1.135 2x