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TRAINING OF ISLAMIC PREACHER : A CASE STUDY OF

DDII WEST JAVA BRANCH


Abstract

Since establishment in 1967, Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia is the


institution that has the goal to spreading islamic value to Indonesia, DDII
West Java as the local branch taking role as the agent of it. The important
key to produce qualified Islamic preacher is conducting appropriate and
good training program.

This research has aim to know the implementation of training and the way
or method of recruitment in DDII. The research is conducted by using
qualitative approach. Data collection is by participant observation, and
conducting in-depth interview. The result is that the main training
conducted by DDII Jawa Barat is held in ADI. The participant is recruited by
requirement of Quran memorizing and basic Islamic knowledge. The
training program has the positive impact it can be look that new preacher
is from the program of DDII has fill the position and build their own area
with their predication skill.

Keyword : DDII, Predication, Recruitment, Training, Akademi Dakwah


Indonesia, Participant Observation

A. Introduction

Indonesia as the state that has largest majority of muslim population


the world. In every century, from the era of Samudra Pasai in Sumatra,
Demak and Wali Songo in Java, nation movement on the beginning of 20 th
century with Syarikat Islam, and proclamation of independence. Muslim of
Indonesia is taking a role with the spirit of Dakwah or predication to
spread value of Islam and creating better societies in faith basis to God.

In the Indonesian Revolution Era, Masyumi as the biggest muslim


political party in Indonesia is playing important role in the politics to
struggle Islam as the nation principle of Indonesia. But the dynamic of
politics has change everything. The ambition, injustice and greed create
unbalance world. The riot everywhere at that era, including what several
Masyumi leaders do in PRRI turn the game of Islamic politic over. Then, at
1960 Masjumi is officially dissolve in 1960.

After the change of regime, Islamic movement in Indonesia is still


prohibited in first period of New Order under Soeharto Regime. All politic
movement from is not allowed to established except military and national
ideology. Mohammad Natsir, ex Prime Minister and Director of political
party Masyumi, with the support of scholar, preacher, ulama, and Islamic
politician, Natsir created Indonesia Council for Islamic Predication or DDII

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to continue spirit of Islamic movement in 1967. Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah
Indonesia (DDII) is the institution that established for the vision to
realizing the Islamic order for society of Indonesia. The mission of this
organization is to inculcating creed/aqidah and spreading Islamic thought
derived from the Qur'an and As-Sunnah; stemming apostasy from
extremist evangelist and deviant sect, and also the aim is to build
international solidarity of Islam in order to participate and supporting the
creation of peace world. Thus from the central of DDII at Jakarta, after that
the branch is spread to be established in each province.

DDII West Java is officially established in 1970 and taking office at ex


headquarter of Masyumi Jl. Pungkur No. 151 Kebon Kalapa Bandung. The
main program of DDII West Java is to conduct education and training for
Islamic preacher or Dai and preparing them for various social level,
nurturing majelis talim, build mosque and school in each branch,
consolidation with other dakwah organization and also become active to
raise fund and helping disaster victims.

All the activity and program of DDII West Java is prepared in the first
period of management. DDII West Java held the gathering of management
or Rakerwil (Rapat Kerja Wilayah) to discuss and decide the program. And
in weekly routine to meet and discuss the problem or issue of ummah or
muslim community. DDII also have a media named Bina Dakwah,
published every month to share and spread propaganda of Islam.

To make good relationship and communication with other mass


organization, eventually DDII and other organization meet in Islamic
Organization Forum or FSOI (Forum Silaturahmi Ormas Islam). All activity
of DDII get the source of funding from donation, help from governor and
abroad institution such Rabithah Alam Islamy and also from alms-giving
(zakat). All of money is managed by Lembaga Amil Zakat, Infaq Shadaqah
(LAZIS).

DDII continuously produce and train more than one hundred preach
each year. DDII emphasize their preacher to be ready to fight (jihad) and
skilled in thought and argument war (ghazwul fikri) with other entities to
defend Islamic value.

From those explanations, this research is intended to explore more the


activity of training itself in DDII organization, the recruitment system of
preacher, and the problem that occurred in the field. It seems important to
get insight and look at development or declination of Islamic movement
especially in predication (dakwah) in Indonesia by holistic view.

1. Research Objective

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This research has objective to know the implementation of training
program at DDII and the way or method of recruitment in DDII West Java.

2. Research Question

This study will mainly discuss to find answer of three things as below:

a. How was the training for preacher of DDII West Java?


b. How the preacher of DDII West Java is recruited?

B. Literature Review

1. Predication (Dakwah) and Islamic Movement in Indonesia

Dakwah is the term derived from arabic language by mean to call or to


address. Islamic Predication is one of important doctrine for all muslim. It
was stated in Quran and obligated to all who embrace Islam. It was duty
of muslim from previous age, and continuing forever after. Dakwah is the
historical duty for muslim who believe that Allah is their God and
Muhammad is his Messenger.i

In professional matter, Quran tell that from all the muslim, there must
be group of people that specialized for mastering religion studies that will
be projected as enlighteners and bring the people to the dark side to the
light side. There are two main content of predication, the good or happy
news (basyir) and the warning or (nadzir). The essence of Islamic
predication is to renewal (tajdid), to fix (ishlah), to purify (tathwir) and to
change (tadawul) (Muhyiddin, 2014). The destination of Islamic dakwah is
not only muslim, but for all humankind.

Islamic predication is delivering Islamic value, to convey people and


humankind to accept and believe the God and to have an Islamic
worldview. Predication is prohibited to address by force or violence,
because religion faith is a freedom and human right. Islam as Rahmatan lil
Alamin or mercy to all universes, must be understand and implemented as
the principle of Islamic preacher.

The death of Muhammad is not stopping the Islamic predication. Time


passed, and Islamic movement is adapting and changing based on era.
From the theory by Snouck Hourgronje that Islam entered on 12 th century,
the strategy of Dakwah is by trade and marriage. The decline of Islam in
20th century inspired many Islamic intellectual in all over the world
including Indonesia to make Islam great again by intellectual and create a
movement.

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Many Islamic organizations is established in this country Indonesia, and
many of them hathe same value and mission to create better society by
spreading and teaching Islamic value. For example is Syarikat Dagang
Islam in 1905, later become Syarikat Islam, Muhammadiyah in 1912, and
Nahdhatul Ulama in 1926. Japanese fascism era in 1942-1945 has bring
the inspiration for political movement for Islam to be arised. Masyumi
(Majelis Syuro Muslimin) that supervising all Islamic organization is the
manifestation to propagating Islamic predication as politic. The leader and
important figures in Masyumi take role in preparing Indonesian Indepence
and try to incepting Islamic value for the nation principle of Indonesia.

Unfortunately, the unstable political condition in Indonesian revolution


era (1945-1965) is a bad news for Islam as politic. There was internal
conflict and riot, that condition brought Masyumi to dismiss in 1960.
Following the banned from the government, ex leaders of Masyumi
continue campaign for Islamic law and predication. The regime transition
in 1966 gives opportunity to the revival of Masyumi, but Soeharto as the
single and dictator leader marginalized all political movement, including
Islamism and Communism.

Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia (DDII) is the new creation of


Islamic movement after the fall of Masyumi in 1960. In New Order regime,
Natsir and his Masyumi colleagues face the challenge that islam political
movement is weakened in that era. In opposite with government ideas on
building up religious, Natsir viewed his movement in DDII as dakwah that
not purely as the spiritual matter but as political struggle in a new form.ii

Founded by Natsir in February 1967, DDII is differ from another dakwah


organization that exist before. DDII has the strong alliance with the
International Muslim Organization such Rabithah Alam Islamy and using
dakwah to inspiring the awareness of international issues. iii The DDII was
more preoccupied than these predecessor such as Muhammadiyah or
Nahdhatul Ulama. The nature of DDII program is to defend Islamic
fundamental value and confrontate the extremist evangelist movement.

For achieving its aims and objectives, the DDII holds close cooperation
with another Islamic organization that have existed throughout Indonesia.
In controversial matters, DDII is avoiding and reducing the dispute
between predication supporters, all differences in term of madzhab, DDII
is accepting all 4 big madzhab practicing. But for the meaning of
tolerance, DDII interpret tolerance as only the respect and acceptance to
other entities not acceptance and not the appreciation or believing of the
rich diversity of cultures, forms of expression and ways of being human.

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Consequently, the position of DDII can rather between the fanatics oor
conservative and moderate.

What makes DDII different with other organization is specialization in


training of Islamic preacher. Besides that, DDII conduct research, which
results can be immediately utilized for predication. DDII also have a media
and distributing various kinds of publications, including monthly
magazine, books, brochures, primarily intended to equip preacher with
intellectuality.

In recent year, DDII face the challenge not only with evangelist
movement and Islamic deviant sect, but also with muslim liberal activist
that promoting value of pluralism, secularism and liberalism. Because DDII
is still consist with the founding father mission and values, the power and
influence struggle in Indonesia is now more competitive.

2. Training

Training is the activity to teach and developing. It has a purpose to


giving skill and competencies, improving performance and capability.
Training means giving new or current employees the skills that they need
to perform their jobs (Kessler, 2011). Training is essential to improve the
quality of organization member.

Isa Anshary said in his book Mujahid Dakwah that every single Islamic
propagandist or preacher have to fulfill minimum requirement of islamic
studies and general knowledge before thay can become generic or real
preacher.iv The training must fulfil and give appropriate material that
needed by participant. The understanding and accumulation of both
religion and general knowledge makes the power of Dakwah is stronger
and can really effective and flexible in all circumstances.

In addition, Mohammad Natsir told that a preacher or muballigh have


to train their mentality and do some preliminary scientific process by
leaning and do sociological research because they face the human not the
unliving creature. The material that should use for Islamic preacher
training according to Natsir is the international and local language, Quran
and Hadits studies, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and the
capability of ijtihad or to determine the law with hermeneutical skills. The
learning process of all those material must be continue and not stop in
training, because in confrontation field stop is retreat, and careless is
lose (Natsir, 1969)

The management strategic plans should ultimately govern its training


goals. In essence, the task is to identify the staff behaviors. The
organization will require executing its strategy, and from that deducing

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what competencies staff or member will need. Then, put in place training
goals and programs to instill these competencies. The organization should
confirm the applicant/members claims of skill and experience, provide
adequate training (particularly where employees use dangerous
equipment), and evaluate the training to ensure that it s actually reducing
risks

As Islamic preacher here is some competencies that must be


possessed:v

a. Comprehensive Islamic knowledge and insights.


b. Expertising in guidance and counseling.
c. Basic proficiency of ICT (Information and Communication
Technology)
d. Serving as a desirable model, representing the best of its character
and spirituality.

To conduct the successful training, organizations or company can use


The ADDIE five steps for training process, that already uses by many
organizations for years, by analyzing the training need, second is
designing the overall training program, next is developing the course
(actually assembling/creating the training materials), than implement the
training, and the last is evaluating the courses effectiveness.

C. Methodology

1. Research Design

In order to satisfy the objectives of the research, a qualitative research


was use for this study. The main characteristic of qualitative research is
that it is mostly appropriate for small samples, while its outcomes are not
measurable and quantifiable. Its basic advantage, which also constitutes
its basic difference with quantitative research, is that it offers a complete
description and analysis of a research subject, and get the nature of
participants responses.

Ethnography method is used for this research. By using ethnographic


methods, I put myself in a strange position and release presumptions and
assumptions about a group of people in order to effectively learn anything
about them. It can not to look at them the same way looking at people in
my own culture or thought. It is important to put aside personal feelings
and not to judge, otherwise conflict might arise.

The research approach that was followed for the purposes of this
research was the inductive one. According to this approach, researchers

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begin with specific observation, which are used to produce generalized
theories and conclusions drawn from the research.

2. Data Collection

For the purposes of this research, interviews were used. Interviewing is


an effective method to learn from people what they believe, how they
think, and how that affects their life. There are two different forms of
interviews: fully-structured and semi-structured. In depth interviews are
personal interviews, whose aim is to identify participants emotions,
feelings, and opinions regarding a particular research subject.

The researcher conducted in depth interview in structured form for 5


persons. People that interviewed are the director of DDII, secretary, vice
director of program and training and the student of Akademi Dakwah
Indonesia (ADI). For semi-structured interview is by questioning and make
short conversation with the staff of DDII West Java at their office. Almost
all interviews is conducted at DDII West Java office, in one occasion the
researcher follow the activity of director of organization and take interview
at his home. The interview is held multiple time on same person to get
deeper data.

The conduction of the research involved the use of semi-structured


questionnaire, which was used as an interview guide for the researcher.
Some certain questions were prepared, so as for the researcher to guide
the interview towards the satisfaction of research objectives, but
additional questions were made encountered during the interviews.

For the the observation is taking on the head office at Jl. Pungkur and
Pusdiklat Akademi Dakwah Indonesia (ADI) at Bumi Pakusarakan, Cimahi.
Observation mainly focused on the organization activity, relation among
staff member, the condition of office. What they said they do and what
actually they do or the discrepancy is also the main feature to be
observed. The observation and interview take the time about 13 hours to
conduct, once or twice a week in one month.

The researcher becoming participant observer by following the activity


of student in their class, get in to dormitory and follow the meeting of
organization. Participant observation is beneficial to immerse oneself into
a community to gain a deep knowledge about the intricacies and inner
workings that could not be obtained from literature or a type of method
where information is learned second-hand.

D. Data Analysis

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These are the data collected from the fieldwork, it divided into two part
recruitment of the preacher or the member of DDII and the training that
conducted by DDII for their member.

1. Recruitment

Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia is the organization where people


from other organization community like Persatuan Islam, Muhammadiyah,
Nahdhatul Ulama, Himpunan Mahasiswa Islam (HMI), etc is gathered. The
characteristic of organization is melted and create new interaction or
value in DDII, but in fact for example in Garut, the motor or majority of
DDII is mostly from Muhammadiyah, while at Cirebon is from Nahdhatul
Ulama. In DDII West Java, the dominant are from Persis, because when I
follow the pray together at there, they use Persis Madzhab for practical
prayer.

For the manager and staff of DDII Jawa Barat, there are 4 kind of
recruitment source, first is staff from previous management period that
continue to work, and second is recruited from the local branch based on
performance, background life and activities, or from track record, third is
from training program, that will explain next section, and the fourth is
from referral or staff relation. In addition, several staff of DDII West Java is
getting double position for example become secretary both in DDII West
Java and Garut Residence

The main focus of DDII in the previous era and now is still the same.
But, the need of regeneration nowadays is focusing on the person that has
more capability in intellectual, rather than just in oration skill. The existing
management staff is still filled by senior member that has long experience
in the past, still work until now, sometime not focus at DDII because they
have other job or important responsibilities in other institution. DDII in this
era is trying to fix the recruitment method and looking for the real
preacher who ready to spent all time focusing for dakwah and loyal to
DDII.

The young generation that intended to be preacher is delegated by


their local DDII branch. They are taken directly from Pondok Pesantren or
from their own intention to register. There are some requirements such as
ability to read Al-Quran fluently, memorizing 1 Juz of Al-Quran, basic skill
of communication and big willing to work for society. DDII West Java will
test and recruit if they fulfill the requirement; the next is giving them
training to improve their skill.

2. Training

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DDII that has a concern for actualizing muslim community to have
superiority both in intellectual and spirituality. Therefore, it was really
important thing to take role through quality improvement of Islamic
preacher. There are three different training programs, the first is training
for new comer, second is for the member or staff of DDII and third is
public training.

Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia Jawa Barat has Center for


Education and Training (Pusdiklat). Located at Bumi Pakusarakan, Cimahi,
its about 10 kilometers from the head office. The institution held
education from elementary school, junior high school and college diploma
program. The goal of this Pusdiklat is to preparing the seed of Islamic
preacher since child age to become strong propagandist of Islam in the
future. The curriculum used in elementary and junior high school is
incorporation and support from Ministry of Religion and Ministry of
Education, mixed with the basic program and material from DDII.

Akademi Dakwah Indonesia (ADI) West Java is diploma college


established in 2013. The student that acceptable to join this college is
limited only for 15 per year due to limited building and facility The
registration is open every year on May. The college will pursued in 2 year
(4 semester) and will got diploma degree. This program is free, the
student who pass the test is just need to bring their body and cloth, the
equipment, money, books, room and food is provided by ADI. The student
is supposed to live in hostel or dormitory in the same building and
prohibited to go outside except for important affair.

In this institution, students are obligated to learn Islamic studies such


tafsir, hadits, quran, fiqh, Arabic and English language, sociology,
management of dakwah, history, politic and ideology, comparative
religion,etc. All the lecturer and trainer are coming from staff of DDII from
West Java in different specialized background. Beside study in the class,
the student often go to society to practice preach and speaking skill, hold
event for community development in each two or three month at area of
West Java. Speaking and writing skill are take preference to be mastered
by student because they are prepared to be amusing orator and
fascinating writer. The head of school told that he expect the student to
be last fortress to defend the value of Islam with all bravery and strong
mentality.

Two students asked for their motivation to register and join this training
program. One of student said that he intended to follow this program from
his willing to take care the condition of moslem in Indonesia. He feels sad
to look the injustice and the decrease of religious value in society. To

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compromise that and change ummah for better life, he ready to join
program, give and sacrifice himself for dakwah. And other student tell
story that he was recommended by his previous alma mater Pesantren to
continue his study in ADI, he previously has experience in preaching and
conduct community development in his area. He want to advance
knowledge, skill and achieve more with ADI and STID.

After finishing their study, the student are given the options whether to
continue their study at STID or to come back to their regency area to
implement their knowledge. Most of student is continue their study
because they need to advance their skill and want to be sent to remote
area to feel the real experience of predication.

For those who continue to study at Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Dakwah (STID)
Mohammad Natsir at Bekasi, will pursue the rest of semester and
completing bachelor degree in 4 years. But after the graduation they
obligated to have predication mission first to get their license. They will
send to remote or rural area for about 6 month. But before the mission,
they will conduct survey to know feasibility, recent condition and analyze
the need of society.

The practices of da'wah in remote areas conducted by STID


Mohammad Natsir students are in Mentawai Island, Sambas, Nias, Bali,
Lombok, Kepri, Halmahera, Maluku, Manado, Raja Ampat Papua, and
others. That duty aims is to give student experience in facing real
condition of Indonesian society. At that area, they have to immerse with
local residence, learn their ritual, follow the value and tradition, and work
as farmer or fisher same as their native residence occupation.

They have to conduct religious event, teach local residence basic


knowledge of Islam like reading quran (Iqra), and law of Islam (Fiqh)
instruction to pray, etc. The student also helps to build mosque and school
for that area. After passed 6 month at there, they are free to continue
their journey of life, marry local residence and live at that town, or come
back to their own region. STID Mohammad Natsir alumni who came from
the provinces all over Indonesia has been involved in building the ummah
and the nation with various activities.

ADI and STID Mohammad Natsir is build to stimulate struggle of


Muslims to participate in building and maintaining civilization through
Islamization of science, produce qualified human resources, who know the
teachings and values of Islam and capable of spreading and growing it in
various aspects of life. In providing scientific insights, STID Mohammad
Natsir and ADI in addition to emphasize the sciences of not only on

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da'wah and ushuluddin (root of islam religion), but also on language and
literature aspect.

Daurah Duat is the special program for the staff and manager of DDII
West Java and DDII in local branch. The aim of this program is to shaping
the skill and to search for talent that will continue organization. DDII Jawa
Barat held this centralized event once per year and chose only few person
as delegation from each local branch. The training take place at Pesantren
around West Java.

In this training, the participant will got more deep material about
strategic dakwah, managing issue in society, preparing movement,
community development, case study and problem solving, The trainer of
this program is senior member of DDII, daily board of DDII, trainer from
Central DDII at Jakarta such as Dr. Adian Husaini, Saiful Rosad, etc and
from another institution for example lecturer from Unpad, Unisba, and UIN
Bandung.

Program Kaderisasi Ulama (PKU) is the advance level of training for the
staff that has commitment, good performance and active for developing
their branch. This program is scholarship offer for continuing study to post
graduate or master degree and doctoral degree. This program is in
partnership with Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI) Bandung and
Universitas Ibnu Khaldun (UIKA) Bogor, but the applicant also may propose
another campus. The high achievement and potential staff will be
promoted to register and get that scholarship, although this program also
is open for public from another organization or institution that fulfills the
requirement.

This scholarship program is fully funded. Different with undergraduate


program, the requirement is more advance, the minimum quran
memorizing is 3 Juz for master degree and 5 juz for doctoral degree, have
activity in predication and community development, mastering Arabic and
English language both in writing and speaking and maximum age is 30 for
master degree and 40 for doctoral, and get the recommendation or
referral letter from head of DDII of their own local branch.

Not all study program is open for this scholar, only for those who want
to continue study master in Hadits, History of Islam, Dakwah, Islamic
Economy and Islamic education and for doctoral degree is open for Islamic
thought, Dakwah, and Islamic Education. The student who has finished
their scholarship study are obligated to work for DDII, write publication
and books in Islamic thought, become trainer for DDII agenda and
responsible to preaching, educating and developing their region

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Beside of those formal training, DDII West Java also open for public
training such as Training for Jumat Preach (khutbah Jumat), management
of Majelis Talim, controlling and coaching to the preacher around West
Java, and giving consultation for mosque development. and support for
illiterate eradication. The general lecture or training of intensive Islamic
study is also given for the institution that invite or need for it.

E. Conclusion

Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia has proven as the foundation or


institution that exist last for more than 50 years. The founding father has
nurturing the great idea and concept and instruction of dakwah and
developing muslim community in Indonesia. The existence of DDII as
Islamic movement with all strength and weakness is absolutely known and
all benefit and advantages is already known and perceived by the people,
especially in guarding the faith (aqidah), establishing sharia/islamic law,
nurturing islamic brotherhood, support for NKRI (Negara Kesatuan
Republik Indonesia) and solidarity of the Ummah.

DDII since its establishment has a characteristic "consistent in value


and principal, persistent in opinion and responsive to the problems of the
people, either through the mass media, or through real action in the field.
DDII has raised and positioned as a top organization in Islamic movement.
The presence is because central figure Mohammad Natsir and also other
DDII leaders who have excellence and obedience in behaving, saying and
doing for the people.

The programs that has been going along and develop, such as training
and education has produced thousand of new qualified preacher. But for
the note is that what DDII do is must be evaluated more and more. In
order to face modern era, the organization must adapt new style of
management, and open for new concept and innovative program. The
problem now is the quantity of preacher is still low in comparison with
total population of Indonesia or lack of human resource. Many area that
not covered by Islamic predication (dakwah), and society is really need for
help in human and spirituality development.

My suggestion for DDII West Java is to do partnership with college


student and Islamic youth community that has as big spirit to bring glory
to Islam. For recruitment of new preacher, it suggest to not just depending
on the pesantren source, DDII can make a relation with Rohani Islam
(Rohis), Islamic organization at senior high school and Dawah community
is college student and mosque community of West Java to be recruited,
developed and trained as agent of change in Islamic predication.

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Although preach is a voluntary action or non-profit activities, the
welfare of preacher is must be considered. The preacher will be more
creative and productive doing predication activities if their wealth is
assured. Funding is the key point to keep the struggling dakwah
movement, because all event and activity need money. Then financial
management must be learned, do not rely on donation or zakat, DDII must
have other method for fundraising to keep healthy cash flow and all
activities is running well.

This study only reveals the training activity of organization, Its


recommended for the next researcher who want to study about DDII, to
take more further data on the result and testimony from participant that
has finished their study or training. What is their impact to society?, are
they productive to teach and publish a writing? Is the training program is
relate with market or society needs? Additional research from multiple
perspectives and methodology is necessary to address current and future
trends of diversity in Islamic movement.

Further research could also add to the understanding about the impact
of training and provide a feedback mechanism that will allow future efforts
in this area to more fully meet its intended goals and objectives. It would
also be helpful to capture qualitatively the experiences and perspectives
of research object who have had mixed or negative experiences, since
they may be less likely than enthusiasts to volunteer to participate in
studies of involvement in research.

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End Note

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i M. Natsir, Fiqh Dakwah, p. xi

ii Mohammad Natsir, Islam sebagai Dasar Negara Jakarta Masyumi 1957

iii Robert W. Hefner, Civil Islam, p. 109

iv KHM. Isa Anshary, Mujahid Dakwah, p. 149

v Asep Muhyiddin, Strategi Penyiapan Calon Penyuluh Agama, an article in Kajian


Dakwah Multiperspektif p. 34