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Chapter 2

Fundamentals

ANSWERS TO MULTIPLE-CHOICE TYPE QUESTIONS


2.1 b 2.19 a
2.2 a 2.20 A. c
2.3 c B. a
2.4 a C. b
2.5 b 2.21 a
2.6 c 2.22 a
2.7 a 2.23 b
2.8 c 2.24 a
2.9 a 2.25 a
2.10 c 2.26 b
2.11 a 2.27 a
2.12 b 2.28 b
2.13 b 2.29 a
2.14 c 2.30 (i) c
2.15 a (ii) b
2.16 b (iii) a
2.17 A. a (iv) d
B. b 2.31 a
C. a 2.32 a
2.18 c

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2.1 (a) A1 = 530 = 5 [ cos30 + j sin 30] = 4.33 + j 2.5
4
(b) A2 = 3 + j 4 = 9 + 16 tan 1 = 5 126.87 = 5e j126.87
3
(c) A3 = ( 4.33 + j 2.5 ) + ( 3 + j 4 ) = 1.33 + j 6.5 = 6.63578.44
(d) A4 = ( 530 )( 5 126.87 ) = 25 156.87 = 22.99 + j 9.821
(e) A5 = ( 530 ) / ( 5 126.87 ) = 1156.87 = 1 e j156.87

2.2 (a) I = 400 30 = 346.4 j 200


(b) i(t ) = 5sin ( t + 15 ) = 5cos ( t + 15 90 ) = 5cos ( t 75 )

( 2 ) 75 = 3.536 75 = 0.9151 j3.415


I = 5

(c) I = ( 4 2 ) 30 + 5 75 = ( 2.449 j1.414 ) + (1.294 j 4.83 )


= 3.743 j 6.244 = 7.28 59.06

2.3 (a) Vmax = 359.3V; I max = 100 A


(b) V = 359.3 2 = 254.1V; I = 100 2 = 70.71A
(c) V = 254.115 V; I = 70.71 85 A

j6 6 90
2.4 (a) I1 = 100 = 10 = 7.5 90 A
8 + j6 j6 8
I 2 = I I1 = 100 7.3 90 = 10 + j 7.5 = 12.536.87 A
V = I 2 ( j 6 ) = (12.536.87 ) ( 6 90 ) = 75 53.13 V
(b)

2.5 (a) (t ) = 277 2 cos ( t + 30 ) = 391.7cos ( t + 30 ) V


(b) I = V / 20 = 13.8530 A
i(t ) = 19.58cos ( t + 30 ) A

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(c) Z = j L = j ( 2 60 ) (10 10 3 ) = 3.77190
I = V Z = ( 277 30 ) ( 3.771 90 ) = 73.46 60 A
i(t ) = 73.46 2 cos ( t 60 ) =103.9cos ( t 60 ) A
(d) Z = j 25
I = V Z = ( 27730 ) ( 25 90 ) = 11.08120 A
i(t ) = 11.08 2 cos ( t + 120 ) = 15.67cos ( t + 120 ) A

2.6 (a) V = 100 ( )


2 30= 70.7 30 ; does not appear in the answer.

(b) (t ) = 100 2 cos ( t + 20 ) ; with = 377,


(t ) = 141.4 cos ( 377t + 20 )
(c) A = A ; B = B ; C = A + B
c(t ) = a(t ) + b(t ) = 2 Re Ce jt
The resultant has the same frequency .

2.7 (a) The circuit diagram is shown below:

(b) Z = 3 + j8 j 4 = 3 + j 4 = 553.1
(c) I = (1000 ) ( 553.1 ) = 20 53.1 A
The current lags the source voltage by 53.1
Power Factor = cos53.1 = 0.6 Lagging

2.8 Z LT = j ( 377 ) ( 30.6 10 6 ) = j11.536 m


Z LL = j ( 377 ) ( 5 10 3 ) = j1.885
1
ZC = j = j 2.88
( 377 ) ( 921 106 )
120 2
V= 30 V
2

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The circuit transformed to phasor domain is shown below:

2.9 KVL : 1200 = ( 600 )( 0.1 + j 0.5 ) + VLOAD


VLOAD = 1200 ( 600 )( 0.1 + j 0.5 )
= 114.1 j 30.0 = 117.9 14.7 V

2.10 (a) p(t ) = (t )i(t ) = 359.3cos ( t + 15 ) 100 cos ( t 85 )


1
= ( 359.3)(100 ) cos100 + cos ( 2 t 70)
2
= 3120 + 1.797 10 4 cos ( 2 t 70 ) W
(b) P = VI cos ( ) = ( 254.1)( 70.71) cos (15 + 85 )
= 3120 W Absorbed
= +3120 W Delivered
(c) Q = VI sin ( ) = ( 254.1)( 70.71) sin100
= 17.69 kVAR Absorbed
(d) The phasor current ( I ) = 70.71 85 + 180 = 70.71 95 A leaves the positive
terminal of the generator.
The generator power factor is then cos (15 95 ) = 0.1736 leading

2.11 (a) p(t ) = (t )i(t ) = 391.7 19.58cos2 ( t + 30 )


1
= 0.7669 10 4 1 + cos ( 2 t + 60 )
2
= 3.834 103 + 3.834 103 cos ( 2 t + 60 ) W
P = VI cos ( ) = 277 13.85cos0 = 3.836 kW
Q = VI sin ( ) = 0 VAR
Source Power Factor = cos ( ) = cos ( 30 30 ) = 1.0
(b) p(t ) = (t )i(t ) = 391.7 103.9cos ( t + 30 ) cos ( t 60 )
1
= 4.07 10 4 cos90 + cos ( 2 t 30 )
2
= 2.035 10 cos ( 2 t 30 ) W
4

P = VI cos ( ) = 277 73.46 cos ( 30 + 60 ) = 0 W

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Q = VI sin ( ) = 277 73.46 sin 90 = 20.35 kVAR
pf = cos ( ) = 0 Lagging
(c) p(t ) = (t )i(t ) = 391.7 15.67 cos ( t + 30 ) cos ( t + 120 )
1
= 6.138 103 cos ( 90 ) + cos ( 2 t + 150 ) = 3.069 103 cos ( 2 t + 150 ) W
2
P = VI cos ( ) = 277 11.08cos ( 30 120 ) = 0 W
Q = VI sin ( ) = 277 11.08sin ( 90 )
= 3.069 kVAR Absorbed = +3.069 kVAR Delivered
pf = cos ( ) = cos ( 90 ) = 0 Leading

2.12 (a) pR (t ) = ( 359.3cos t )( 35.93cos t )


= 6455 + 6455cos2 t W
(b) px (t ) = ( 359.3cos t ) 14.37cos ( t + 90 )
= 2582 cos ( 2cot + 90 )
= 2582sin 2 t W

( 2)
2
(c) P = V 2 R = 359.3 10 = 6455 W Absorbed

X = ( 359.3 2 )
2
(d) Q = V 2 25 = 2582 VAR S Delivered

(e) ( ) = tan 1 ( Q / P ) = tan 1 ( 2582 6455 ) = 21.8


Power factor = cos ( ) = cos ( 21.8 ) = 0.9285 Leading

2.13 Z = R jxc = 10 j 25 = 26.93 68.2


i(t ) = ( 359.3 / 26.93 ) cos ( t + 68.2 )
= 13.34 cos ( t + 68.2 ) A

(a) pR (t ) = 13.34 cos ( t + 68.2 ) 133.4 cos ( t + 68.2 )


= 889.8 + 889.8cos 2 ( t + 68.2 ) W

(b) px (t ) = 13.34 cos ( t + 68.2 ) 333.5cos ( t + 68.2 90 )


= 2224sin 2 ( t + 68.2 ) W

( 2 ) 10 = 889.8 W
2
(c) P = I 2 R = 13.34

(d) Q = I X = (13.34 2 ) 25 = 2224 VAR S


2
2

(e) pf = cos tan 1 ( Q / P ) = cos tan 1 (2224 / 889.8)


= 0.3714 Leading

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2.14 (a) I = 40 kA
V = Z I = ( 2 45 )( 40 ) = 8 45 kV
(t ) = 8 2 cos ( t 45 ) kV
p(t ) = (t )i(t ) = 8 2 cos ( t 45 ) 4 2 cos t

1
= 64 cos ( 45 ) + cos ( 2 t 45 )
2
= 22.63 + 32 cos ( 2 t 45 ) MW
(b) P = VI cos ( ) = 8 4 cos ( 45 0 ) = 22.63MW Delivered
(c) Q = VI sin ( ) = 8 4sin ( 45 0 )
= 22.63 MVAR Delivered = + 22.63MVAR Absorbed
(d) pf = cos ( ) = cos ( 45 0 ) = 0.707 Leading

2.15 (a) I = 4
( )
2 60

( 230) = 2 30 A

i(t ) = 2 cos ( t + 30 ) A with = 377 rad/s


p(t ) = (t )i(t ) = 4 cos30 + cos ( 2 t + 90 )
= 3.46 + 4 cos ( 2 t + 90 ) W
(b) (t), i(t), and p(t) are plotted below: (See next page)
(c) The instantaneous power has an average value of 3.46 W, and the frequency is twice that
of the voltage or current.

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2.16 (a) Z = 10 + j 120 0.04 = 10 + j15.1 = 18.156.4
pf = cos56.4 = 0.553 Lagging
(b) V = 120 0 V
The current supplied by the source is
I = (120 0 ) (18.156.4 ) = 6.63 56.4 A
The real power absorbed by the load is given by
P = 120 6.63 cos56.4 = 440 W
which can be checked by I 2 R = ( 6.63 ) 10 = 440 W
2

The reactive power absorbed by the load is


Q = 120 6.63 sin 36.4 = 663VAR
(c) Peak Magnetic Energy = W = LI 2 = 0.04 ( 6.63 ) = 1.76 J
2

Q = W = 377 1.76 = 663VAR is satisfied.

2
2.17 (a) S = V I * = Z I I * = Z I = j LI 2
Q = Im[ S ] = LI 2
di
(b) (t ) = L = 2 L I sin ( t + )
dt
p(t ) = (t ) i(t ) = 2 L I 2 sin ( t + ) cos ( t + )
= L I 2 sin 2 ( t + )
= Q sin 2 ( t + )
Average real power P supplied to the inductor = 0
Instantaneous power supplied (to sustain the changing energy in the magnetic field) has a
maximum value of Q.

2.18 (a) S = V I * = Z I I * = Re Z I 2 + j Im Z I 2
= P + jQ
P = Z I 2 cos Z ; Q = Z I 2 sin Z
(b) Choosing i(t ) = 2 I cos t ,
Then (t ) = 2 Z I cos ( t + Z )
p(t ) = (t ) i(t ) = Z I 2 cos ( t + Z ) cos t
= Z I 2 cos Z + cos ( 2 t + Z )
= Z I 2 [ cos Z + cos2 t cos Z sin 2 t sin Z ]
= P (1 + cos2 t ) Q sin 2 t

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1
(c) Z = R + j L +
jC
From part (a), P = RI 2 and Q = QL + QC
1 2
where QL = LI 2 and QC = I
C
which are the reactive powers into L and C, respectively.
Thus p(t ) = P (1 + cos2 t ) QL sin 2 t QC sin 2 t
If 2 LC = 1, QL + QC = Q = 0

Then p(t ) = P (1 + cos2 t )

*
150 5
2.19 (a) S = V I = 10
*
50 = 375 60
2 2
= 187.5 + j 324.8
P = Re S = 187.5 W Absorbed
Q = Im S = 324.8 VAR SAbsorbed
(b) pf = cos ( 60 ) = 0.5 Lagging
(c) QS = P tan QS = 187.5 tan cos 1 0.9 = 90.81VAR S
QC = QL QS = 324.8 90.81 = 234 VAR S

1 1
2.20 Y1 = = = 0.05 30 = ( 0.0433 j 0.025 ) S = G1 jB1
Z1 2030
1 1
Y2 = = = 0.04 60 = ( 0.02 j 0.03464 ) S = G2 + jB2
Z 2 2560
P1 = V 2 G1 = (100 ) 0.0433 = 433 W Absorbed
2

Q1 = V 2 B1 = (100 ) 0.025 = 250 VAR S Absorbed


2

P2 = V 2 G2 = (100 ) 0.02 = 200 W Absorbed


2

Q2 = V 2 B2 = (100 ) 0.03464 = 346.4 VAR SAbsorbed


2

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2.21 (a)

L = cos1 0.6 = 53.13


QL = P tan L = 500 tan 53.13 = 666.7 kVAR
S = cos1 0.9 = 25.84
QS = P tan S = 500 tan 25.84 = 242.2 kVAR
QC = QL QS = 666.7 242.2 = 424.5 kVAR
SC = QC = 424.5 kVA

(b) The Synchronous motor absorbs Pm =


( 500 ) 0.746 = 414.4 kW and Q = 0 kVAR
m
0.9

Source PF = cos tan 1 ( 666.7 914.4 ) = 0.808 Lagging

1 1 1
2.22 (a) Y1 = = = = 0.2 53.13
Z1 ( 3 + j 4 ) 553.13
= ( 0.12 j 0.16 ) S
1 1
Y2 = = = 0.1S
Z 2 10
P 1100
P = V 2 ( G1 + G2 ) V = = = 70.71 V
G1 + G2 ( 0.12 + 0.1)
P1 = V 2 G1 = ( 70.71) 0.12 = 600 W
2

P2 = V 2 G2 = ( 70.71) 0.1 = 500 W


2

(b) Yeq = Y1 + Y2 = ( 0.12 j 0.16 ) + 0.1 = 0.22 j 0.16


= 0.272 36.03 S
I S = V Yeq = 70.71( 0.272 ) = 19.23 A

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2.23 S = V I * = (1200 )(10 30 ) = 1200 30
= 1039.2 j 600
P = Re S = 1039.2 W Delivered
Q = Im S = 600 VAR S Delivered = +600 VAR SAbsorbed

2.24 S1 = P1 + jQ1 = 10 + j 0; S2 = 10 cos1 0.9 = 9 + j 4.359


10 0.746
S3 = cos1 0.95 = 9.238 18.19 = 8.776 j 2.885
0.85 0.95
SS = S1 + S2 + S3 = 27.78 + j1.474 = 27.82 3.04
PS = Re(SS ) = 27.78 kW
QS = Im(SS ) = 1.474 kVAR
SS = SS = 27.82 kVA

2.25 SR = VR I * = RI I * = I 2 R = (20)2 3 = 1200 + j 0


SL = VL I * = ( jX L I )I * = jX L I 2 = j8(20)2 = 0 + j 3200
SC = VC I * = ( jIXC )I * = jX C I 2 = j 4(20)2 = 0 j1600

Complex power absorbed by the total load SLOAD = SR + SL + SC = 200053.1


Power Triangle:

Complex power delivered by the source is


SSOURCE = V I * = (100 0 )( 20 53.1 ) = 200053.1
*

The complex power delivered by the source is equal to the total complex power absorbed by
the load.

2.26 (a) The problem is modeled as shown in figure below:

PL = 120 kW
pfL = 0.85Lagging
L = cos1 0.85 = 31.79

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Power triangle for the load:

QL = PL tan ( 31.79 )
SL = PL + jQL = 141.1831.79 kVA
I = SL / V = 141,180 / 480 = 294.13A = 74.364 kVAR

Real power loss in the line is zero.


Reactive power loss in the line is QLINE = I 2 X LINE = ( 294.13 ) 1
2

= 86.512 kVAR
SS = PS + jQS = 120 + j ( 74.364 + 86.512 ) = 200.753.28 kVA
The input voltage is given by VS = SS / I = 682.4 V (rms)
The power factor at the input is cos53.28 = 0.6 Lagging
(b) Applying KVL, VS = 480 0 + j1.0 ( 294.13 31.79 )
= 635 + j 250 = 682.421.5 V (rms)
( pf )S = cos ( 21.5 + 31.79 ) = 0.6 Lagging

2.27 The circuit diagram is shown below:

Pold = 50 kW; cos1 0.8 = 36.87 ; OLD = 36.87; Qold = Pold tan ( old )
= 37.5 kVAR
Sold = 50,000 + j 37,500

new = cos1 0.95 = 18.19; Snew = 50,000 + j 50,000 tan (18.19 )


= 50,000 + j16, 430
Hence Scap = Snew Sold = j 21,070 VA
21,070
C = = 1155 F
( 377 )( 220 )
2

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2.28 S1 = 12 + j 6.667
S2 = 4 ( 0.96 ) j 4 sin ( cos1 0.96 ) = 3.84 j1.12
S3 = 15 + j 0
STOTAL = S1 + S2 + S3 = ( 30.84 + j 5.547 ) kVA
(i) Let Z be the impedance of a series combination of R and X
*
V V2
Since S = V I * = V = * , it follows that
Z Z

( 240 )
2
V2
Z =*
= = (1.809 j 0.3254)
S ( 30.84 + j 5.547 )103
Z = (1.809 + j 0.3254 )

(ii) Let Z be the impedance of a parallel combination of R and X


( 240 )
2

Then R= = 1.8677
( 30.84 )103
( 240 )
2

X= = 10.3838
( 5.547 )103
Z = (1.8677 j10.3838 )

2.29 Since complex powers satisfy KCL at each bus, it follows that
S13 = (1 + j1) (1 j1) ( 0.4 + j 0.2 ) = 0.4 + j1.8
S31 = S13* = 0.4 + j1.8

Similarly, S23 = ( 0.5 + j 0.5 ) (1 + j1) ( 0.4 + j 0.2 ) = 0.1 j 0.7

S32 = S23* = 0.1 j 0.7

At Bus 3, SG 3 = S31 + S32 = ( 0.4 + j1.8 ) + ( 0.1 j 0.7 ) = 0.5 + j1.1

2.30 (a) For load 1: 1 = cos1 (0.28) = 73.74 Lagging


S1 = 12573.74 = 35 + j120
S2 = 10 j 40
S3 = 15 + j 0
STOTAL = S1 + S2 + S3 = 60 + j80 = 10053.13 kVA = P + jQ
PTOTAL = 60 kW; QTOTAL = 80 kVAR; kVA TOTAL = STOTAL = 100 kVA.
Supply pf = cos ( 53.13 ) = 0.6 Lagging

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S * 100 103 53.13
(b) ITOTAL = = = 100 53.13 A
V* 10000
At the new pf of 0.8 lagging, PTOTAL of 60kW results in the new reactive power Q , such
that
= cos1 ( 0.8 ) = 36.87

and Q = 60 tan ( 36.87 ) = 45 kVAR


The required capacitors kVAR is QC = 80 45 = 35 kVAR

V 2 (1000 )
2

It follows then XC = * = = j 28.57


SC j 35000
106
and C= = 92.85 F
2 ( 60 )( 28.57 )
S * 60,000 j 45,000
The new current is I = = = 60 j 45 = 75 36.87 A
V* 10000
The supply current, in magnitude, is reduced from 100A to 75A

V11 V2 2 V1 V
2.31 (a) I12 = = 1 90 2 2 90
X 90 X X
V V
Complex power S12 = V1 I12* = V11 1 90 1 2 90 2
X X
2
V1 V1V2
= 90 90 + 1 2
X X
The real and reactive power at the sending end are
V12 VV
P12 = cos90 1 2 cos ( 90 + 1 2 )
X X
V1V2
= sin (1 2 )
X
V12 VV
Q12 = sin 90 1 2 sin ( 90 + 1 2 )
X X
V
= 1 V1 V2 cos (1 2 )
X
Note: If V1 leads V2 , = 1 2 is positive and the real power flows from node 1 to
node 2. If V1 Lags V2 , is negative and power flows from node 2 to node 1.
(b) Maximum power transfer occurs when = 90 = 1 2
V1V2
PMAX =
X

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2.32 4 Mvar minimizes the real power line losses, while 4.5 Mvar minimizes the MVA power flow
into the feeder.
2.33
Qcap MW Losses Mvar Losses
0 0.42 0.84
0.5 0.4 0.8
1 0.383 0.766
1.5 0.369 0.738
2 0.357 0.714
2.5 0.348 0.696
3 0.341 0.682
3.5 0.337 0.675
4 0.336 0.672
4.5 0.337 0.675
5 0.341 0.682
5.5 0.348 0.696
6 0.357 0.714
6.5 0.369 0.738
7 0.383 0.766
7.5 0.4 0.801
8 0.42 0.84
8.5 0.442 0.885
9 0.467 0.934
9.5 0.495 0.99
10 0.525 1.05

2.34 7.5 Mvars

2.35

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(.3846 + .4950 ) + j (10 1.923 4.950 ) (.4950 j 4.950 ) V10

(.4950 j 4.950 ) (.3846 + .4950 ) + j (10 1.923 4.95) V20
1.961 48.69
=
1.961 78.69
0.8796 + j 3.127 0.4950 + j 4.950 V10 1.961 48.69
=
0.4950 + j 4.950 0.8796 + j 3.127 V20 1.961 78.69

2.36 Note that there are two buses plus the reference bus and one line for this problem. After
converting the voltage sources in Fig. 2.23 to current sources, the equivalent source
impedances are:

Z S1 = Z S 2 = ( 0.1 + j 0.5 ) // ( j 0.1) =


( 0.1 + j 0.5 )( j 0.1)
0.1 + j 0.5 j 0.1

=
( 0.509978.69)( 0.1 90) = 0.1237 87.27
0.412375.96
= 0.005882 j 0.1235
The rest is left as an exercise to the student.

2.37 After converting impedance values in Figure 2.29 to admittance values, the bus admittance
matrix is:
1 1 0 0

1 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 j1
1



1
2 3 4 3 j1 4


Ybus = 1 1 1 1 1
0 j1 j1 + j + j j
3 3 4 2 4

1 1 1 1 1
0 j 4 + j 4 j 3
4 4
Writing nodal equations by inspection:
1 1 0 0 V10 10

1 ( 2.083 j1) ( 0.3333 + j1) 0.25 V20 = 0
0 ( 0.3333 + j1) ( 0.3333 j 0.25 ) j 0.25 V30 0

0 ( 0.25 ) j 0.25 ( 0.25 j 0.08333) V40 230

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2.38 The admittance diagram for the system is shown below:

Y11 Y12 Y13 Y14 8.5 2.5 5.0 0


2.5 8.75 5.0
Y Y22 Y23 Y24 0
YBUS = 21 = j S
Y31 Y32 Y33 Y34 5.0 5.0 22.5 12.5

Y41 Y42 Y43 Y44 0 0 12.5 12.5

where Y11 = y10 + y12 + y13 ; Y22 = y20 + y12 + y23 ; Y23 = y13 + y23 + y34

Y44 = y34 ; Y12 = Y21 = y12 ; Y13 = Y31 = y13 ; Y23 = Y32 = y23

and Y34 = Y43 = y34

2.39 (a)

Yc + Yd + Y f Yd Yc Y f V1 I1 = 0

Yd Yb + Yd + Ye Yb Ye V2 = I 2 = 0
Yc Yb Ya + Yb + Yc 0 V I
3 3
Y f Ye 0 Ye + Y f + Yg V4 I 4
14.5 8 4 2.5 V1 0
8 17 4
5 V2 0
(b) j =
4 4 8.8 0 V3 1 90

2.5 5 0 8.3 V4 0.62 135
YBUS V = I ; YBUS
1
YBUS V = YBUS
1
I

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0.7187 0.6688 0.6307 0.6194
0.6688 0.7045 0.6242 0.6258
where 1
YBUS = Z BUS = j
0.6307 0.7045 0.6840 0.5660

0.6194 0.6258 0.5660 0.6840
V = YBUS
1
I
V1 0
0
V2
where V= and I =
V3 1 90

V4 0.62 135
Then solve for V1 , V2 , V3 , and V4 .

208
2.40 (a) VAN = 0 = 120.10 V (Assumed as Reference)
3
VAB = 20830 V; VBC = 208 90 V; I A = 10 90 A
VAN 120.10
ZY = = = 12.01 90 = ( 0 + j12.01)
I A 10 90
IA 10
(b) I AB = 30 = 90 + 30 = 5.774 60A
3 3
VAB 20830
Z = = = 36.0290 = ( 0 + j 36.02 )
I AB 5.774 60

Note: ZY = Z / 3

2.41 S3 = 3VLL I L cos1 ( pf )


= 3 ( 480 )( 20 ) cos1 0.8
= 16.627 103 36.87
= (13.3 103 ) + j (9.976 103 )
P3 = Re S3 = 13.3kW Delivered
Q3 = I m S3 = 9.976 kVAR Delivered

2.42 (a) With Vab as reference

208 Z
Van = 30 = 4 + j 3 = 536.87
3 3

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Van 120.1 30
Ia = = = 24.02 66.87 A
( Z / 3) 536.87
S3 = 3Van I a* = 3 (120.1 30 )( 24.02 + 66.87 )
= 865436.87 = 6923 + j 5192
P3 = 6923W; Q3 = 5192 VAR; both absorbed by the load
pf = cos ( 36.87 ) = 0.8 Lagging; S3 = S3 = 8654 VA
(b)

Vab = 2080 V I a = 24.02 66.87 A 13.87 36.87 A

2.43 (a) Transforming the -connected load into an equivalent Y, the impedance per phase of the
equivalent Y is
60 j 45
Z2 = = ( 20 j15 )
3
With the phase voltage V1 = 1203 3 = 120 V taken as a reference, the per-phase equivalent
circuit is shown below:

Total impedance viewed from the input terminals is


( 30 + j 40 )( 20 j15)
Z = 2 + j4 + = 2 + j 4 + 22 j 4 = 24
( 30 + j 40 ) + ( 20 j15)
V1 1200
I= = = 50 A
Z 24
The three-phase complex power supplied = S = 3V1 I * = 1800 W
P = 1800 W and Q = 0 VAR delivered by the sending-end source

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(b) Phase voltage at load terminals V2 = 1200 ( 2 + j 4 )( 5 0 )
= 110 j 20 = 111.8 10.3 V
The line voltage magnitude at the load terminal is

(VLOAD )L -L = 3 111.8 = 193.64 V

(c) The current per phase in the Y-connected load and in the equiv.Y of the -load:
V2
I1 = = 1 j 2 = 2.236 63.4 A
Z1
V2
I2 = = 4 + j 2 = 4.472 26.56 A
Z2

The phase current magnitude in the original -connected load

(I )ph =
I2
3
=
4.472
3
= 2.582 A

The three-phase complex power absorbed by each load is


S1 = 3V2 I1* = 430 W + j 600 VAR
S2 = 3V2 I 2* = 1200 W j 900 VAR
The three-phase complex power absorbed by the line is
SL = 3 ( RL + jX L ) I 2 = 3 ( 2 + j 4 ) (5)2 = 150 W + j300 VAR
The sum of load powers and line losses is equal to the power delivered from the supply:
S1 + S2 + SL = ( 450 + j600 ) + (1200 j 900 ) + (150 + j 300 )
= 1800 W + j 0 VAR
2.44 (a) The per-phase equivalent circuit for the problem is shown below:

2200 3
Phase voltage at the load terminals is V2 = = 2200 V taken as Ref.
3
Total complex power at the load end or receiving end is
SR( 3 ) = 560.1( 0.707 + j 0.707 ) + 132 = 528 + j 396 = 66036.87 kVA

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2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
With phase voltage V2 as reference,

SR*( 3 ) 660,000 36.87


I = = = 100 36.87 A
3V2* 3 ( 22000 )

Phase voltage at sending end is given by


V1 = 22000 + ( 0.4 + j 2.7 )(100 36.87 ) = 2401.74.58 V
The magnitude of the line to line voltage at the sending end of the line is

(V1 ) L -L = 3V1 = 3 ( 2401.7 ) = 4160 V

(b) The three-phase complex-power loss in the line is given by

SL (3 ) = 3 RI 2 + j 3 I 2 = 3 ( 0.4 ) (100 2 ) + j 3 ( 2.7 )(100 )


2

= 12 kW + j81kVAR
(c) The three-phase sending power is
SS (3 ) = 3V1 I * = 3 ( 2401.74.58 )(10036.87 )
= 540 kW + j 477 kVAR

Note that SS (3 ) = SR(3 ) + SL ( 3 )

2.45 (a)

SS 25.001 103
IS = = = 30.07 A
3VLL 3 ( 480 )

(b) The ammeter reads zero, because in a balanced three-phase system, there is no neutral
current.

2.46 (a)

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Z / 3
Using voltage division: VAN = Van
( Z / 3) + Z LINE

208 1030
= 0
3 1030 + ( 0.8 + j 0.6 )

=
(120.09 )(1030) = 1200.930
9.46 + j 5.6 10.9930.62
= 109.3 0.62 V

Load voltage = VAB = 3 (109.3 ) = 189.3V Line-to-Line


(b)

Z eq = 10 30 || ( j 20)
= 11.547 0
Z eq
VAN = Van
Z eq + Z LINE

(
= 208 3 ) (11.54711.547
+ 0.8 + j 0.6 )
1386.7
= = 112.2 2.78 V
12.3622.78
Load voltage Line-to-Line VAB = 3 (112.2 ) = 194.3 V

2.47

15 103
(a) I G1 = cos1 0.8 = 23.53 36.87 A
8 ( 460 )( 0.8 )

460
VL = VG1 Z LINE1 I G1 = 0 (1.4 + j1.6 )( 23.53 36.87 )
3
= 216.9 2.73 V Line to Neutral
Load Voltage VL = 3 216.9 = 375.7 V Line to line

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2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
30 103
(b) I L = 2.73 cos1 0.8 = 57.63 39.6 A
3 ( 375.7 )( 0.8 )
I G 2 = I L I G1 = 57.63 39.6 23.53 36.87
= 34.14 41.49 A
VG 2 = VL + Z LINE 2 I G 2 = 216.9 2.73 + ( 0.8 + j1)( 34.14 41.49 )
= 259.7 0.63 V
Generator 2 line-to-line voltage VG 2 = 3 ( 259.7 )
= 449.8 V
(c) SG 2 = 3VG 2 I G2* = 3 ( 259.7 0.63 )( 34.1441.49 )
= 20.12 103 + j17.4 103
PG 2 = 20.12 kW; QG 2 = 17.4 kVAR; Both delivered

2.48 (a)

(b) pf = cos31.32 = 0.854 Lagging


SL 26.93 103
(c) I L = = = 32.39 A
3VLL 3 ( 480 )

(d) QC = QL = 14 103 VAR = 3 (VLL ) / X


2

3 ( 480 )
2

X = = 49.37
14 103
(e) I C = VLL / X = 480 / 49.37 = 9.72 A
PL 23 103
I LINE = = = 27.66 A
3 VLL 3 480

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2.49 (a) Let ZY = Z A = Z B = ZC for a balanced Y-load

Z = Z AB = Z BC = Z CA
Using equations in Fig. 2.27
ZY2 + ZY2 + ZY2
Z = = 3 ZY
ZY
and
Z 2 Z
ZY = =
Z + Z + Z 3

(b) Z A =
( j10 )( j 25)
= j 50
j10 + j 20 j 25

ZB =
( j10 )( j 20 ) = j 40 ; Z =
( j 20 )( j 25) = j 100
C
j5 j5
2
2.50 Replace delta by the equivalent WYE: ZY = j
3
Per-phase equivalent circuit is shown below:

2
Noting that j 1.0 j = j 2 , by voltage-divider law,
3

j2
V1 = (1000) = 1050
j 2 + j 0.1

1 (t ) = 105 2 cos ( t + 0) = 148.5cos t V

In order to find i2 (t ) in the original circuit, let us calculate VAB

VAB = VAN VBN = 3 e j 30VAN = 173.230

173.230
Then I AB = = 86.6120
j2
i2 (t ) = 86.6 2 cos ( t + 120 )

= 122.5cos ( t + 120 ) A

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1
2.51 On a per-phase basis S1 = (150 + j120 ) = ( 50 + j 40 ) kVA
3

( 50 j 40 )103 =
I1 = ( 25 j 20 ) A
2000
Note: PF Lagging
Load 2: Convert into an equivalent Y
1
Z 2Y = (150 j 48 ) = ( 50 j16 )
3
20000
I2 = = 38.117.74
50 j16
= ( 36.29 + j 11.61) A
Note: PF Leading

1
S3 per phase = (120 0.6 ) j 120 sin( cos1 0.6 ) = ( 24 j 32 ) kVA
3
( 24 + j32 )103 =
I3 = (12 + j 16 ) A
2000
Note:PF Leading

Total current drawn by the three parallel loads I T = I1 + I 2 + I 3

ITOTAL = ( 73.29 + j 7.61) A


Note:PF Leading

Voltage at the sending end: VAN = 20000 + ( 73.29 + j 7.61)( 0.2 + j 1.0 )

= 2007.05 + j 74.81 = 2008.442.13 V

Line-to-line voltage magnitude at the sending end = 3( 2008.44 ) = 3478.62 V

2160
2.52 (a) Let VAN be the reference: VAN = 0 24000 V
3
Total impedance per phase Z = ( 4.7 + j 9 ) + ( 0.3 + j1) = ( 5 + j10 )
24000
Line Current = = 214.7 63.4 A = I A
5 + j10
With positive A-B-C phase sequence,
I B = 214.7 183.4 A; I C = 214.7 303.4 = 214.756.6 A

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(b) (VAN ) LOAD = 24000 ( 214.7 63.4 )( 0.3 + j1)
= 24000 224.159.9 = 2179.2 j 38.54
= 2179.5 1.01 V
(V )
BN LOAD
= 2179.5 121.01 V ; (VC N ) LOAD = 2179.5 241.01 V

(c) S / Phase = (VAN ) LOAD I A = ( 2179.5 )( 214.7 ) = 467.94 kVA


Total apparent power dissipated in all three phases in the load
S3 = 3 ( 467.94 ) = 1403.82 kVA
LOAD

Active power dissipated per phase in load = ( P1 )


LOAD

= ( 2179.5 )( 214.7 ) cos ( 62.39 ) = 216.87 kW


P3 = 3 ( 216.87 ) = 650.61kW
LOAD

Reactive power dissipated per phase in load = ( Q1 )


LOAD

= ( 2179.5 )( 214.7 ) sin ( 62.39 ) = 414.65 kVAR


Q3 = 3 ( 414.65 ) = 1243.95 kVAR
LOAD

(d) Line losses per phase ( P1 ) = ( 214.7 ) 0.3 = 13.83 kW


2
LOSS

Total line loss ( P3 ) = 13.83 3 = 41.49 kW


LOSS

25
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