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Machines

ThenandNow
R o b e rQu
t inn
Readand discoverall aboutmachinesin
thepastand today...
. Whendid peopleinventthewheel?
. What is a nanobot?
R e aa d ndd i sco vemo r rea b o uth t ewor td!
Thisseriesof non-fiction readers provides
i n t e r esti nagn de d u ca ti o nco with
a In tent,
activities andproject work.
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Then and Now
RobertQuinn

lntroduction
1 TheFirstMachines 4
2 Round andRound 6
3 Ramps andCranes 8
4 WaterandWind 10
5 Tetting theTime L2
6 Engines andEnergy L4
7 Ftying Machines 16
8 Communications 18
9 Computers 20
10 BigandSma[[ 22
Activities 24
Projects 44
PictureDictionary 46
AboutReadandDiscover48

R*TP*R
( )x l.'()t<l)
ilnffiodweffii@m
A C K N O WL E D C E M ! N T S

l Nl\ | [\tl \ I tl \\
liiuslrdrionsby: Mark Duli]n pp3 (coDrpul('r), 6. 7. 2 l, 34, 40;
Roger at KJA Aftists pp3, 4, 5, 8. 9. 24: Alan Rowc pp24, 26, 28,
( )\l()rrl ()x2 6Dr 30.32,36,46.47: Cary Swift p15.
( )\ l or1l I lril \ r't \l t y l'r r'\s t\ lt (lel)itrt l)tcllt of tltc University 11k, pxblishcl' rvoli(i likc to thLtnk tltc fLillov,itl{.fbr tfuir kinLl pemissiot
o! ( )\l()[l. lt lIrl lx ls t ll(.l lntv(.t\ity's l)l)jcitive of excellence Lo reylrdlac phlttngrophs on(l othcr npyight ndlcndi: Alamy hnagcs
lr) resclrr(l), \( ltr )l.tr'\l)ll)..ilt(l e(llrf:lt i()D by I)ubliShing pp3 (Alaml clock/studiomode), 9 (Conrainer teminal, Germany/
worl(lwi(l(.ir) blickwinkel). 13 {Alarm clock/studiomode), 22 (Bucket wheel
excavator/lilonline digitale Bildagenrur cnbH), 42 (Bucker
Oxlirrcl Ncw Yoll<
Auckhnd Cipc lt)wtr l)itr e s Srlunr Hong Kong Karachi
wheel excavator/l;lonline digitale BildageDtur GmbH); Corbis
ppl6 (Lincoln Beachey Airship/H. Amrstrong Roberts), 20 (Man
Machines makeour liveseasier. We usethem
Kuala Lu|rpur Mtdlid Mcll)ollillc MexicoCity Nairobi
NcwDelhi Shanghai laipei li)ronto
working with early contpuler/Jeuy Cooke), p23 lDenso uricro-
car 1995 nrodelIIWPhoto); p42 (Denso nicro-car 1995 model/
to do work,to travet,to communicate,
and
Wilh offices in TwPhoto): Cetty hnrgcs pp3 (Corporatc jct/Paul llowen). 8
Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France (Ciza pyramids/James L. Stanficld), l0 (Clade Creek Crist Mill,
USA/Ron and Patty lhomas), 17 (Corporatejer/Paul Bowcn), t8
to havefun.Somemachines aresimple,with
Greccc Cultemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal
Singrpore SouthKorea Switzerland Thailand Turkey
IJkrilinc Vietuam
(Portrble tclevision 1949); Hemen Tcchnologies Inc. pptS (Old
fashioDed telephone), 18 (Old fashioned radid; iStockphoro
onlyoneor two parts.Othermachines are
complex,with manypartsthat worktogether.
p11 (Windturbincs in wind firm/BdanJackson); Mirrorpix
()xt,oRD xnd oxt,oRD EN(;t.IsH are rcgistered trade marks p14 (Stean train); OUP pp7 (LondoD lye/lmage Sourcc). 13
of Oxlirrtl [Jniversity Press in the UK al)d in certain other (clock detail/Design Pics): PA Photos pplT (World's Sn)allesr
coLlllrics Helicopter/Lorenzo calassi/AP), 19 (Sony 0.3 miUinrerer displry/
o Oxford LJniv(,rsity Pr('ss zolo AP); I'hotolibrary pp3 (Electric cars (harging/Shmuel'Ihaler).
9 (Parthenon, Athens, Greece/Goodsltoot), 12 (Sundial/tThe
Whatarethe machines betowcalled?
The moral rights ol'tltc author ltave been ilsserted
Drtabase right Oxford UDiversity Press (ruaker)
Irish lmage Collection), p13 (Brass gears from a pocket watch/
Corbis); 15 (Elcctric cars charging/Shmuel Thaler): Robcrr Whatdo we do with thesemachines?
First publishcd 2o1o Harding World Imagery p11 (Tharched windmill/Pete r Scholc'y):
zo11 2073 2072 2Ot1 2O1O
109a765432
Science Photo Library p23 (Nanorobot in the bloodstrcaD/
Christian Darkin).
Whichof thesemachines do youuse?
No unauthorized photocopying Whatothermachines do youuse?
All rights reserved. No prrt ofthis publication Dtay be
reproduced, stored in .r retrieval system, or trilnsmitted,
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to the ILI Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at
tlre lddress above

You nust Dot circulate this book iD any other biDding or


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elcquirer

Al)y w!'bsites referred to in this publication are in the


public dornain and their addresses are provided by Oxford
University Press for informarion only. Oxford University
Prcss disclaims any responsibility for the content

rsBN:978 o 19 464437 2

An Audio CD Pack contriniDg this book and a CD is also available


fsBN: 978 o 19 464477 8
The CD has a choice ofAmerican and British English
recordings ofthe complete text.

n n acconpanying Activity Book is also available


rsBN:978 o 19 46411j l

Printed in China

Ihis book is printed on papcr ftont (L'rlified atrd well-managed sources

Nowreadanddiscover
moreaboutmachines!
Thxeffiffimadhffimw
l)coplc invcnted the first machines a long
tinrc ago.'l'hcy were simple tools made of
stoncl wood, or bone.

)'s *wur@

,.. \, "'::::''
Fa
I
L;". jA'*r"l

About two million years ago people made


iF 4."d
.' , ;!41: '
,
!i.
-' 1i" "
h;
stone axeswith wooden handles.They used
* thesetools to cut wood. Peoplealso used
stone and animal bone to make knives and About 7,000 years ago people started
arrows.To shoot their arrows they used farming for food. They invented new
r"
lflfl"'.
bows made with long piecesof wood. machines,like plows, and used animals to
')":'" Peopleused simple leversto move heavy make work easier.Some farmers used long
objects like rocks.They put one end of a leversto get water from rivers.They also
L
2P' built canalsto get water for their plants.
long stick of wood under a big rock, and
they put a small rock under the stick.$7hen About 5,000 years ago people started
they pushed on the other end of the stick, making metal tools.These tools were
the big rock moved. better than stone or bone tools.

) Goto pages24-25for activities.


Roundond
m

The wheel is one of the most important Todav there are lots of machines with
inventions in history. About 51500years ago wheels.W'ecan seewheels on
potters used the first wheels to make clay cars)bicycles,and skateboards.
pots.They put wet clay on a wooden wheel. There are also wheelchairs
Then they turned the wheel to make a nice for people who can't walk
round pot. easily.Can you think of
Before people had wheels to move heavy more machines that
objects,they used rollers.The rollers were have wheels?
made from tree trunks. Then people made
TheLondonEyeis a verybig whei![:
carts and chariots with wooden wheels.
It's 135metershigh!Youget a great'
They connected the wheels with a long bar viewof London fromthe top!
called an axle.

* Goto pages26-27 for activities.


lmmmrcondffir,mffiilffi

About 21500years ago the Ancient Greeks


used big cranesto build temples.The cranes
were made of wood, and they had many
ropes and little wheelscalled pulleys.F'irst
the workers tied a rope to a block of stone.
Then they put the rope around the pulley.
Ramps are useful becausethey help us lift
They pulled the rope and lifted the block.
objectsmore easily.More than 51000years
The work was easierwith cranes.so the
ago the Ancient Egyptians used ramps to
Greeksdidn't need as
build pyramids.The Great Pyramid at Giza
many workers as
is the biggest pyramid in the world. It's
the Egyptians.
138 metershigh.
The Egyptians used rollers ro move large We usecranestodayto tift
blocks of stone up the ramps.They needed veryheavyobjects. Thebiggest
lots of workers becausethe blocks were typeof craneis the gantrycra
very hear,ry.
) Goto pages28-29 for activities.
War,&effiamdWffind Windmills use energy
li'orn the wind. Hundreds
ol'yearsago people started
Somc machinesuse energy from nature. rrsingwindmills to make flour.
$Tatermillsuse energy from flowing water. Windmills have long arms with
Thousands of years ago people built lrig sails.The wind pushesthe sails
watermills next to rivers.They used the rurclturns the arms. Inside the mill,
watermills to make flour from grain. Then ruraxle turns a millstone.Windmills
they used the flour to make bread and rrrcusefulin placesthat don't have
cakes.\Watermillshave a big wheel on the Irig rivers, but they only work
outside.The river turns the wheel.Then the whcn it's windy!
wheel turns an axle inside the watermill.
The axle turns a round millstone
that breaks the grain into flour.
we usewindmi[[s
Today
to makeelectricity.
Modern
areca[[edwind
windmi[[s
turbines.

i * {u
-"1r
I
About 11000yearsago people invented
mechanicalclockswith metal gears.Some
mechanicalclockshavea pendulum to
move the parts. Others have metal springs.

In the past, people told the time in many Today many clocks are digital.They show
ways.Thousands of years ago people used the time with only numbers. Digital clocks
sundials. Sundials had a pointer thar made work with electricity.They usually have
a shadow to tell the time. A sundial only electrical cords or
worked on sunny days! batteries. Computers
and cell phones have
Somc people also used water clocks. Simple
digital clocks, and
watcr clocks had two pots. \Water flowed
many people wear
fiom the top por ro the bottom pot to tell
digital watches.
thc time. Later, people used sand clocks.
These clocks had two glassbubbles with
sand inside them.
* Goto pages32-33for activities. W'l
*bnd Then people invented new enginesthat
used fuels like oil, gasoline,and diesel.
Now we use these enginesfor vehicleslike
cars,buses,planes,or helicopters.They can
carry enough fuel to travel long distances.

Today most vehiclesuse gasolineor diesel


as fuel. Some vehiclesuse biodiesel made
from plant materials.There are also electric
cars that use energyfrom batteries.Some
vehicles,like bicycles,use human energy!

For thousands of yearspeople used animals


to do work. Then inventors built steam
engines.These enginesheated water to
make steam.The energy from the steam
made other machineswork. The first steam
enginesusually used fuels like wood, coal,
or oil.

Peopleused steam enginesto power


vehicleslike trains and boats. Many carsaregoodfor
Etectric
factories used steam enginesto power Theydon't
the environment.
their machines.This was the beginning producesmokeor pottution.
of modern industrv.
* Gots pages34-35 for activities.
ffimgMoehffines
Tirday we can fly all over the world, but
200 yearsago planes didn't exist. Some
pcople flew in hot-air balloons.These
balloons had no enginesso they were
slow and hard to control.

Today there are many types of plane.


Some planes have propellers and others
have jet engines.Some planes carry freight
and others carry passengers.Some modern
r_.1 planes carry more than 850 passengers!

Helicopters are very useful.


Later, people invented airships.They had
They can transport food and
enginesand propellers, so they were faster
medicine in emergencies.
and easierto control.
They can also rescuepeople
In 1903 \(rilbur and Orville rU(rrightinvented and take them to hospital.
the first plane. It was made of wood and
carried one person.The first flight only
lastedfor 12 seconds!Four yearslater a
in theworld.lt
helicopter
French inventor named Paul Comu flew
oneperson!
carries
one of the first helicopters.He stayedin the
air for about 20 seconds.
I Goto pages36-37foractivities.
clomm@mflcaffi@ffi Communications today are very different.
\tr(letalk on cell phones that transmit sounds
with no wires.W'ecan send text messages,
Iror a long time, people sent messageson
photos, and videos.Many cell phones are
paper.Then people invented new machines
also music players,and they can connect to
to communicate more quickly and easily.
the Internet!
lUTithmodern televisions,we can receive
In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell programs by satellite.$7ecan also watch
invented the telephone.It DVDs. Some televisionsare very big. There
transmitted sounds through wires. is a television in Japanthat is I I meters tall
and 66 meters long!

In 1895 Guglielmo Marconi


invented the radio. It transmitted
sounds with no wires.

In 1926 John Logie Baird invented


a way to transmit images and show
them on a screen.It was the first
television,but it only showed black
and white images.Then l8 years
later, inventors made a television
Somemodern
tetevisions
can
that showed imagesin color. be almostasthin aspaper!

* Goto pages38-39 for activities.


Cmmnpueetrs Computers today are very useful.You see
imageson a monitor and you use a keyboard
to type words.You use a mouse to move the
Peopleinvented the first computers more
cursor and click on buttons. To connect to
than 60 years ago.Those computers were
the Internet you use a modem.
very different from computers today.
Modern computers also have speakersso
One of the first computers was called
you can listen to music or watch movies.
EI{IAC.II was built in about 1946. ENIAC
You need a printer to print documents, and
was big and heavy.It weighed about
to play computer gamesyou need a joystick.
30 metric tons! It was also expensive- it
\(rhat other things can computers do?
cost about 500,000 dollars!

Over the next 40 years computers became


smaller and cheaper.From about 1980
people started using computers at home.
Then in 1989Tim Berners-Lee invented
the \7orld $7ide'Web. or the S7eb.

* Goto pages40-41for activities.


\\
L
\

With modern technologyrwe can build


machinesthat are very big or very small.

The cruise ship Oasisof the Seasis one of


the world's largestpassengervehicles.It's
65 meters high and 360 merers long. It
carries 51400passengers.It has restaurants,
shops,cinemas,and three swimming pools! The DEI/SO Micro-Car is one of the world's
The Bagger288 is a mining machine. smallestmachines.It's about 4.8 millimeters
It's 96 meters high and long and 1.7 millimeters high. It's smaller
240 meters long. It's than a finger! The car can move, but its top
one of the world's speedis only 180 metersper hour. In the
heaviestland vehicles. future people will use micro-machines like
It weighs13,500 this to repair other machinesfrom the inside.
metric tons!
wantto buitd
Scientists
caltednanobots.
micro-machines
Wewil.lneeda microscopdto
seethem!Doctorswill ucet,, ;

:i:HHfl,',''jJ:Sln-
il
workinsidetheir

& Goto pages42-43 for activities.


Wrhffi FirstMachfimms the sentences.
3 Comptete
tools levers #ines ptows wood farming
t Readpages4-5.
abouttwo mi[[ion
startedusing mac.hinss
1 Peopl.e
Writethe words. stofie wood bone metal yearsago.
1 mtnrnm 3 2 Theyusedlongpiecesof to makelevers.
3 Peoplestarted forfoodabout7,000

ffi\ / $ yearsago.

used
5 Somefarmers
startedmakingmetal
6 People
[ike
farmingmachines
4 Theyinvented
to get water.
about
X Complete
the sentences. 5,000yearsago.

4 Answerthe questions.
1 Whatdid peop[euseto shootarrows?
1 Theaxeis madeof et***=*r":dw**d Fe*ple-**$d Ll*w*t* *h**t arrsu*.
2 Theknifeis madeof 2 Whatdid peoptebuildto getwaterfortheirplants?
3 Theleveris madeof
4 Theplowis madeof 3 Howdid peoplemoveheavyobjectslikerocks?
5 Thearrowis madeof
6 Thebowis madeof 4 Whendid peoplestartmakingmetaltoots?
WffioundamdRmmnd
$ Readpages6-7.
Write trueor false.
1 Peopleusedthe firstwheelabout
2,000yearsago. falee
ax[e cart ctaypot
rollers wheel car 2 Peopte fromtreetrunks.
madero[[ers
$ Writethe words.
3 Carsusuallyhavewheelsandaxtes.
4 Thefirstwheetsweremadeof metal.
5 TheLondon Eyeis 153metershigh.

4 Writethe words.
hv ci
t e
b
ce t
X Match.Thenwritesentences. c
v
Peopleusedrol[ers--=' is a verybig wheel. vahicla 4
An axleis a bar -*to moveheavyobjects. ite
l.
I
r-
Pottersusedwhee[s arevehicleswith wheels. h W o
TheLondonEye that connectstwo wheels. c
h
Cartsandchariots to makectaypots. ea r c
2 5
1
d k
2 a r"tt
r a
3 e b o
4 tso
5
H
# ffiamps
E*rdCranes 3 Answerthe questions.
1 Whatdo rampshetpusto do?
& Readpages8-9.

Writethe words. needmanyworkers?


2 Whydidthe Egyptians
btock crane puttey ramp rope tempte
3 Howdidthe workersmovethe blocksupthe ramps?

2
w@ 4 Whereis the biggestpyramidin Egypt?

pyramid?
5 Howhighis the biggest

the puzzte.
Complete
TheGreeks (1)_ cranes to buitdtheirtemples. Theworkers Q)_
the ropesto blocksof stone.Thenthey (3)- the ropesaroundthe
tr Completethe sentences. pu[[eys.
Theworkers (4)- the btockswhen they (5)- the ropes.
TheGreeks (6)- workers, but notas manyasthe Egyptians.
btocks cranes putteys ramps ropes workers **" "t
z"-"-'t -l *-*.,-
: ?Y
...,J

1 TheEgyptians
used to buitdpyramids. I
u:
I

'li
2 The of stonewereverylargeandheavy. !, -> ld
- .,.,f . -. . . _. . .. I . .

3 TheEgyptians
neededrotters rt'"''
andmany--. :il
s*i ul I
4 TheGreeksusedbig_ madeof wood. -,-. i
I
-
,.

A .I
5 TheGreeks
hadcranes with manyropesand_. i-- t
6>1 v i
-l'-1.
i
6 Theworkers
puttedthe_ andtiftedthe btocks. 4i

- s'$
i ': l - 'l l : ] . 1 r '. i : . : : :

?4:.tt,:,
W Wm&mr
ffimdW#wxd
l Readpages10-11.
the sentences.
3 Complete
arms axle grain flour
sai[s water whee[ wind
arm axte river saiI
i Writethe words. miltstonewatermiI canmakegraininto
1 Watermitts
wheeI windmi[[ useenergyfromflowing
2 Watermilts
hasa large
3 A watermitt onthe outside.
1 4 Thewheelturnsan insidethewatermi[[.
2 fromthe
useenergy
5 Windmilts
3 haslongarmswith big
6 A windmitt
4 7 The turnwhenthewindpushes
the saits.
5 8 A mitlstone
breaks
the
6
Completethe puzzle.Writethe secretword.
7
- a whee[.
1 A watermitt 4 Themiltstone - the grain.
8 s ai l s .
- w heni t'sw i ndy . 5 T hew i nd- a w i ndm i l l 's
2 A windmitl
3 Thewheel_ a big axle.
Write true or false. r-*--T'-""-r
1--; $r ,r * i
1 Peopleusewatermi[[s
to makebread. i i | -'r " - r
z-1 i i-l i
2 Windmills
onlyworkwhenit'swindy. r- --r Ir-i---
i I -i
1- I
3 Watermi[[s
don'tuseenergyfromnature. '*l i--i I 1i - *:i *- i i r
to produce
4 We canusewindmi[[s electricity. 4'*i i
I '
i i
l - " " *- i "
i
"- - i - -l i i
i -

areusefu[in placeswith no rivers.


5 Watermitls s- --,I i ' :
1,-*-: i 1 ,
6 Peopte
usedwindmitts of yearsago.
thousands -
Thesecretword t, [" :]-; I ii- - il
W'
{"
#e{m\
W-Y:ffiffiW#wreffis Orderthe words.Thenwrite trueor false.
ffisedffimffitrWW
I long/ can/ Buses/ distances.
/ travel
Readpages14-15.
Fu*sr *a* travelt**q dietar:*ee.
Writethe words. 2 many/ use/ Today/ wood./ vehicles

biodiesel boat bus car coal diesel oiI


gaso[ine heticopterptane train wood 3 cars/ from/ use/ Etectric
/ batteries.
/ energy

/ use/ ptanes
4 and/ human/ Trains/ energy.

5 from/ made/ is / materiats. / plant


/ Biodieset

Answerthe questions.
L Whatfuelsdo mostvehicles
usetoday?

don'tproduce
2 Whatvehicles smokeor pol[ution?
1 7
2 8
3 Whattypesof vehicles
usehumanenergy?
3 9
4 10 l

do younormatty
4 Whattypesof vehicles use? il

5 11 J:

6 t2

ffi
6 Teltins
theTirne Write trueor false.
1 A sundial's pointermakesa shadow
{* Readpages12-13. to tetl the time.
digitatclock sandclock 2 Sandclockshadglassbubbles with
I Writethe words. mechanicalctock sundial waterin them.
waterclock Ona digitatctockwe canseethe
timein numbers.
Mostce[[phones andcomputers
haveclocksin them.
ln waterctocksthe waterflowsfrom
the bottomto the top.
At[ mechanicaI clockshavegears
anda pendulum.
Findandwritethe words.
j :?: g a ti 1 r l u r ti ;l l
Complete
the chart.
V b S a n d t k 2
batteries gears pots glassbubbles water
S a r u t W o m 3
ffitfm pointer sand springs sun
p t e S t m W e
4
r t b u b t k c
I e m n u r c h 5
n r u d b n o a 6
pendutum
I g I n I b h t n
7
o e X a t c c i
p 5 a t e t s c
8
s c v I p a z a 9
S h a d o W q t 10
W WWy#ffi$W
&%mek*mwm
;iii Readpagest6-tz.
3 Write trueor false.
1 Orvi[[eandWilburWrightinvented
the firstjet ptane.
airship helicopterplane
jet engine propeller 2 Thefirstp[aneftightin historywas
i Writethe words. hot-airbatloon 12 seconds[ong.
3 PaulComuftewoneof the world's
firsthelicopters
in 1903.
4 Comu's helicopterfloatedin theair
for about20 minutes.
5 Theworld'sfirstplaneontycarried
oneperson at a time.
the puzzle.Writethe secretword.
4 Complete
Sometypesof ptanes onlycarry_.
Someplaneshave_ to makethemf[y.
A hot-airba[[oon
canfly but it doesn'thavean_
Som ebigpl anesc anc ar r y850_.
tr Match.Thenwritesentences. Helicopterscantakepeopteto _.
TheGENH-4_ cancarryoneperson.
Hot-airballoons powerfuIjet engines.
Helicopterscan exist200yearsago.
Someplaneshave be usefulin emergencies.
Planesdidn't areslowandhardto controt.

1
2
3
4
ru
m

3 Findandwritethe words.
W ffiwmffixwmicatlom$
owdysgu@sbph r:taono r,t'lree
n
S. Readpages18-19.
sti5erfl*ffiqlr*#i**s*undg n"ra *
me:**Qc * [i $
,$"Completethe sentences.
r ai"r1.ll 1!r {i rt vprrfnsatcl[\te cf pr0g rf,fi rn
a\111
radios telephonestelevisionssate[[itessounds
ce[[phones images messagesprograms wires 60mmunicale

L otd transmitted wires.


through
2 Otd showedblackandwhite
3 cantransmit
sounds
withno
4 Modern cansendtext
5 Now transmitlotsof television Answerthe questions.
3" Match.Thenwritesentences. aretherein yourhome?
1 Howmanytetevisions
JohnLogieBaird the telephone in 1895
Gug[ielmo
Marconi the firsttelevision in 1944 2 Howmanypeoplein yourfamityhavea ce[[phone?
Inventors the radio in 1876
Atexander
Graham Be[[ the colortelevision in 1926
do youwatchon tetevision?
3 Whatprograms
1
2 4 Howoftendo youwatchmovieson DVD?
3
4

.& q+:{:i@witw:q+rystri!t&1j{1tr1}ry*ryqqry$tf iffiq4s9slry


w . . i i l. . : i.lj]l. itt::* a !11 i:itF.]!:: i* ni: : * l1] ! : . . j; : + ! = : : i: . r ; = : ! + i! * n'++] : $ f i : ! i : i : ! +J *: 1 $ i i {. ] | 1 l ] : 5 , 4 J r 9 i ! j q $ i i | e f J ! P '1 g 1 i q
the sentences.
3 Comptete
ffwffiWw&wwm
playgames typewords usethe Internetwatchmovies
q:" Readpages20-2L clickon buttons printdocumentslistento music
cursor joystick keyboard
$ Writethe words. modem monitor mouse 1 Youcan on the monitor.
printer speaker headphones 2 Youusea printerto
1
3 Youneeda joystickto
2 w 4 You with the keyboard.
3
4 5 Youusea mouseto

5 6 Youneeda modemto
7 Youcan if youhavespeakers.
6
7 &, Answerthe questions.
8 t Whenwasthe ENIAC built?
computer
9
2 Howmuchdidthe ENIAC cost?
computer
Circlethe correctwords.
1 Thefirstcomputers
wereverybig/ smattandheavy. invent?
3 WhatdidTimBerners-Lee
2 TheENIAC
computer
weighed3 / 30 metrictons.
3 TheEN/ACcomputer
wasverycheap/ expensive. 4 Whatcanwe movewitha mouse?
4 From1960/ L980peopteusedhomecomputers.
5 TheWeb/ modemwasinvented
in 1989. 5 Whatdo youusea computer
for?
t
Write trueor false.
ffi6ed%mffi#ffi
ffi#W
1 TheOasiscancarrylotsof peopte.
ii Readpages22-23.
is a largepassenger
2 TheBagger vehicle.
Writethe numbers. 3 TheOasisis muchtatlerthanthe Bagger.
7.7 13,500 96 4.8 360 180 65 240 5,400 4 Doctors to hetppeopte.
wi[[ usenanobots
5 TheMicro-Car
canmove,but it's notveryfast.
W \
\
ffi 6 Nanobots
arebiggerthanthe Micro-Car.
7 TheBaggeris heavierthanthe Micro-Car.
8 TheMicro-Caris
biggerthana finger.
Answerthe questions.
Bagger288 Micro-Car Oasisof the Seas 1 Whattypeof machineis the Baggeft
,ltemetershigh _ mil[imeters
high - metershigh
_ meterslong _ millimeterslong _ meterslong 2 Whatwi[[ doctorsusenanobots
for in the future?
_ metrictons - metersperhour _ passengers
pootsdoesthe Oasishave?
3 Howmanyswimming
Writethe words.
1 rcusieihsP do youuse?
4 Whatbigmachines
2 n;mniginamche
3 lisri6os6op
4 s3rPn5gs do youuse?
5 Whatsmallmachines
5 ceuhile
6 1i5c5lentt
A Machines
Survey A MachinePoster
1 Writetwo morequestionsfor the suruey. 1 Findor drawpicturesof a machinethatyou like.
yourfriendsandfamily.Write/ tor
2 fnteruiew 2 Answerthesequestions
andmakenotes.
eachanswer.
$t\$t\$t\t\{\t\t\t\\ t\t\${\t l\{\\ t {\t t\$$t\
Whatdoesthe machine
do?

Yes No
1 Canyouridea bicycle?
Howdoesthe machine
work?
2 Doyouusuallyweara watch?
3 Doyouhavea computer
at home?
4 Aretherewindmillsnearyourhome?
5 Doyousometimes
walkup ramps?
6 Doyouhavea digitatclock? Whatcanpeopleuseit for?
7 Doyousendtext messages?
8 Doesyourfamity'scarusebiodiesel?
9 Doyousometimes
travelby plane?
10 Doyouplaycomputer
games? Whoinventedit?When?
LT
L2

Makea summary
Countthe answers. to show 3 Makea poster. to describe
Writesentences fr
yourresults. yourresutts.
Disptay Disptay
the machine. yourposter. $
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#
7 71 r-.:r :+=:'Fjii:i:4:r' , "-.=-t*..**.-*@
PictureDictionary
6'

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I wr
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axle batteries bone canal cart mi[[stone


mrcroscope
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passengers
pendu[um
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id

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engine flour food freight


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\

treetrunk

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v
grain ha n d l e hot-air medicine
-

metaI waterclock wheel wheelchair wires


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balloon
@ ffi
SeriesEditor:HazelGeatches
. CLILAdviser:
JohnCtegg
OxfordReadand Discovergradedreaders areat four [evets,from
3 to 6, suitabtefor studentsfromage8 andotder.Theycovermany
topicswithinthreesubjectareas, andcansupportEngtish acrossthe
curriculum, or Content andLanguage Integrated
Learning (CLIL).
Available for eachreader:
. Aud i oC DPa c k( b o o k& a u d i oC D )
. ActivityBook
ForTeacher's
Notes& CLILGuidance go to
www.oup.com/ elt/ teacher/reada
nddiscover

\ subiecr
The World of Science The Natural The World of Arts
\rea & Technology World & Socia[Studies
Level \
. . r FestivalsAround
6
600
.
.
HowWe Make Products
Soundand Music
SuperStructures
.
r
AmazingMinibeasts
Animalsin the Air
Life in Rainforests
the World
. FreeTimeAround
headwords. the Wortd
YourFiveSenses . WonderfulWater
. At[ About Ptants . A[[ AboutDesertlife r Animalsin Art
@ o How to Stay Heatthy r A[[AboutOceanLife r Wondersof the Past
750 o MachinesThenand Now . Animatsat Night
headwords r Why We Recycte r lncredible
Earth
Materiats
a to Products o A[[ About lslands HomesAround
6
a

Medicine
a ThenandNow r Anima[LifeCycles theWortd
900 a Transportation
Then . ExploringOurWortd
I
OurWortdin Art
headwords andNow . GreatMigrations
WitdWeather
. Cettsand Microbes r Alt AboutSpace . Helping
Around
@ .
o
ClothesThenand Now e Caringfor Our Ptanet the Wortd
o FoodAround
1,050 IncredibteEnergy r EarthThen and Now
headwords r . the Wortd
YourAmazingBody Wonderful Ecosystems

Foryoungerstudents,DotphinReadersLevelsStarter,t, and2 areavailable.