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GENERATING SUCCESS --- FOR 100 YEARS

Transmission & Distribution Technologies

Hassan Younes
Transmission Cable & Substations ,
Service Line Lead
2014 / 2015

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Transmission Cable Testing
GENERATING SUCCESS --- FOR 100 YEARS

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Testing Philosophy / Why Test ?

Methods / Experience
Installation Mistakes

Repairs / Upgrade
Effect of Aging
Damage During

Environment
Manufacturing

Raw Materials

Transport
Mistakes

Manufacturing Transportation Installation Operation @ 50/60 Hz.


Power Cable Life Cycle

Commissioning
Factory Type

Acceptance

Maintenance
Tested at 50/60 Hz.
Testing

Testing

Testing
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Basic tests available in the industry
After Laying Field Tests

24 Hr. Soak Test


DC Hipot Test
AC Hipot Test
VLF Test (0.1Hz)
VLF CR Test (0.1Hz)
DAC /OSW Test

Partial Discharge Test


Dielectric Spectroscopy

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Test methods

Soak Test Method


Energize Cable System at Uo for 24 or 48 hours

Withstand Testing (Hipot)


DC HiPot Testing
Not for XPLE type cable systems (Space Charge).

AC HiPot Testing
Recommended in combination with PD monitoring (IEC Standard).

VLF Testing
Limited to Transmission cables up to 69KV (IEEE 400.2).
Very limited data on VLF withstand and nearly no data on PD diagnosis.

Diagnostic Testing
Damped AC or Oscillating Wave
Partial Discharge Testing

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Factory Testing at Kinectrics Laboratory
Type Test

Electrical and Material Testing is performed per


IEC 60840, 62067, 60229, 230, IEEE 404, IEEE
48, AEIC, and ICEA standards.

Kinectrics performs an independent third


party Laboratory testing for most cable
manufacturers:

Electrical Testing
Partial Discharge
Tan Delta at Uo @ 100C
Heating Cycle @ 2Uo for 20 days / 100C Partial
Discharge at Ambient & 100C
Switching Impulse @ 100C
Lightning Impulse at 100C
AC Withstand
Resistance of semi-conducting screen
Cable Cable
Termination Termination

PD Sensitivity of 5pC or better for cable sections HV Source

and accessories CHV HV Divider +


PD Sensor
Vref
CLV
VPD


Cable Cable Cable
No PD activity should be detected above 1.5Uo Section Joint Section Joint Section

Grounding

4 3 2 1 0 Measurement
Location

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Onsite Testing
(Commissioning & Maintenance Testing)

Electrical testing is performed Onsite by


Kinectrics in compliance with various testing
standards.

Kinectrics performs an independent


third party onsite testing service
worldwide:

AC Withstand with Partial Discharge


Online Partial Discharge
Tan Delta at Uo
Dielectric Spectroscopy
Surge Voltage Limiter testing (SVL)
Cross bonding contact resistance testing
Sheath potential testing
Positive and Zero sequence impedance
testing

PD Sensitivity of 10pC or better for cable sections and 5pC or better for accessories.

No PD activity should be detected at 1.5 Uo However,

Some clients require NO PD activity at 1.7Uo (During Hipot).

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AC Hipot (Withstand) using Resonance Circuit

Compliant with IEC 60840 and IEC 62067 international testing standards
Testing at near power frequency from 20 Hz to 300 Hz
Test level range from 1.25Uo to 2Uo but typically 1.7Uo.
Over voltage applied for 60 minute or by Cycles.
Accepted commissioning test methodology for HV & EHV

Pros Cons
Comparable to factory tests Requires heavy equipment
Proven test methodology with Require Technical expertise
decades of experience
Effective in identifying life limiting
defects
Can perform PD testing during
AC HiPot tests
Gets soft failure so meaningful
forensics can be performed

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Typical single RTS Circuit configuration
260KV / 83 A with an external power supply generator

External filter divider is required to be


setup in the field to protect the RTS,
measure applied voltage and filter out
unwanted P from the RTS.

Outputs pure sinusoidal waveform at a Frequency 20 to 300 Hz.


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Typical single RTS system configuration
260KV / 83 A with an external power supply generator

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Resonance Test System units in Parallel
260KV / 249A for testing long cables

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Resonance Test System 4 unit configuration
520KV / 166A for testing long cables

Four RTS units in series & parallel


configuration to perform testing up to
520KV test voltage and 166 A of load.

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Multiplexed Daisy Chain System
Daisy Chained Multiplexer Systems, A Kinectrics designed partial
discharge monitoring multiplexer system that allows us to connect a large
number of cable joints into a network that can be remotely and
individually controlled via fiber optics from test site.

This product is used exclusively by Kinectrics to offer in lieu of the Joint


hopping which requires many extra activities such as additional staff,
traffic diversion, police escort, barricades, etc This translates to a more
expensive process.

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Multiplexed Daisy Chain PD Systems

Installed prior to testing, removed following completion of testing


Constant PD monitoring of all accessories simultaneously
Does not require access to joints during test No joint hoping
Requires pre-installation of PD sensors and Fiber optic cable
Water proof and 3 months battery life
Can remotely switch between phases and joints

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Sheath Sensors
Partial Discharge Sheath Sensors: A Kinectrics Designed Sheath type
sensor to be used on cable system where cable joints have no cross
bond links for a standard type HFCT (High Frequency Current
Transformer type PD sensor).

Sheath Sensors are typically used near a joint or before and after a joint
to detect PD activity with high accuracy in or near the accessory.

Sheath (Voltage) PD Sensor

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Sheath Sensor (Voltage)

Sheath sensors are a unique type sensor designed and built by Kinectrics
for special straight thru joints without bond lead. They are designed to
sense voltage variations in the sheath.

Typically use ultra wideband PD monitors

10kHz to 30 MHz
10kHz to 50 MHz
10kHz to 400 MHz

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High Frequency CTs.
Kinectrics designed HFCT partial discharge
sensors to be utilized in cable systems where cable
joints have exposed and accessible cross bond
links.

Higher frequency bandwidth compared to other


sensors on the market provides a much better
overall performance.

HFCT PD Sensor

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Power Frequency CTs.

Kinectrics uses power frequency partial


discharge sensors to be utilized in cable
systems where online Partial Discharge
sensitivity is used to synchronize with
applied voltage zero crossing. These
sensors are left on cable systems for
future online PD monitoring.

PFCT Power Frequency Current


Transformer

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Sensitivity Assessment

Inject 2,000 pC
Cable Cable
Termination Termination

HV Source

CHV HV Divider +
PD Sensor
Vref
CLV
VPD
Cable Cable Cable
Section Joint Section Joint Section

Grounding

4 3 2 1 0 Measurement
Location

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Typical Installation Problems

Transportation Damage 2% Workmanship 88%


o Improper Lifting o Protrusions/dents at inner conductor
o Improper Transportation o Knife cuts
o Improper Reel Orientation o Lack of cleanliness
o Manufacturing o Flat spots
o Misalignment of components
o Inadequate use of materials
o Lack of Experience
Pulling Damage 10%
o Dents in sheath
o Exceeding bending radius
o High Pulling Tension
o Torqueing cable

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Variable Frequency Resonance Test System (RTS)
22MVA @ 83A / 260KV / 1650nF (20-300Hz)
Control Room Reactor Tarp System

1 Exciting Transformer HV Filter


f
2 LC

Meets IEC 60840 & 62067 standards for cable testing (up to 500KV cable class).

RTS testing combined with Partial Discharge monitoring, provides the ultimate
diagnostic tools in the industry to determine the health condition of your cable system.

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Applied Test Typical Voltage Profile

60 minutes Hipot Typically at 1.7Uo

PD monitoring

Voltage Dwell & Frequency Sweeps (1Mhz to 20Mhz)

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IEC 60840 Standard, for HV Cable (30KV to 150KV):

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IEC 62067 Standard, for EHV Cable (150KV to 500KV)

133 KV 226 KV

166 KV 282 KV

203 KV 339 KV

289 KV 491 KV
289 KV 491 KV

Requested Test Voltage is typically 1.7Uo of the HIGHEST voltage rating in a cable class

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Competing Technologies
Soak Test (24 Hr. or 48 Hr. at Uo)

Allowed by some specifications as an alternative test


No test equipment required: quick and cheap, but how effective ?
Low Risk of a failure during test
No overvoltage stress, thus no accelerated ageing of defects
Can be combined with PD diagnosis
Kinectrics successfully performed PD diagnosis during 24 hr Soak
test on a Cable System in Wisconsin for ATC.
Not a diagnostic tool

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Competing Technologies
Oscillating Wave / Damped AC / DAC / OSW

OSW / DAC Circuit


IEEE 400.4 Guide for Field testing of Shielded Power
Cable Systems.

50+ Excitation Shots


Not a continuous AC test
20 to 300 Hz. Oscillations
Meets & Exceeds 1.7 Uo test voltage levels
Applicable for withstand testing with PD diagnosis
Applicable for cable class 5KV and higher

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Competing Technologies
Oscillating Wave / Damped AC / DAC / OSW

Long DC Charging Time up to 100s for each shot.


Oscillations occur at 20-300Hz. for 10ms per shot.
High risk of spare charges due to DC charging, especially in HV/EHV Cables.
Damping factor ~ 5% to 40%, capacitance dependent.
50+ excitations yield ~ 2 seconds of AC stress, not a suitable withstand test.
Risk of small but critical voids do not initiate PD activity due to inadequate AC Stress, thus weak
points may not be detected.

IEEE 400.4 is a Guide NOT AN IEC STANDARD, thus DAC is not a viable withstand solution.

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Other Technologies
VLF Very Low Frequency (0.01 Hz. To 0.1 Hz.)

IEEE 400.2 Standard for cable class 69KV and below, used for lower voltage cable
class.
Hipotential Testing very few zero crossings compared to 20 to 300 Hz test.
Possible formation of space charges on HV and EHV class cable
Very limited potential of electrical tree growth, thus requiring much longer test time.
Portable with low power requirement, smaller test sets, however how effective on HV
& EHV ?
May be combined with PD or tan, not comparable to 20-300 Hz. test method.

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Formation of Electrical Trees
Effects of Frequency and Test Time on Tree Shape Formation.
Sine wave @ 2Uo (0.1Hz to 500Hz)

Sinewave at 2 Uo
Few Branches / Less discharge
ducts
Note the long test time
VLF

Sinewave at 2 Uo
@ 10 50 Hz
More Branches / More discharge
ducts
Less test time

RTS
Sinewave at 2 Uo
@ 100 500Hz.
Numerous Branching / lots of
discharge ducts

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Total PD pulses collected @ Sine Wave 2Uo.
From 0.1 Hz. (VLF) to 20-300 Hz. (NPF) test frequency
Time (hrs)
# of PD pulses

20Hz 300Hz

# of PD pulses collected at NPF is


at 1/3 of the VLF time

VLF requires much longer test time interval until breakdown


VLF shows significantly less PD pulses as compared to NPF
VLF test time has to be active much longer to achieve same # of PD pulses as NPF

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What is Partial Discharge?

IEC defines PD as: Localized electrical discharge that only partially bridges the insulation
between conductors and which can or cannot occur adjacent to a conductor.

Partial Discharge measurement is a very important diagnostic tool in assessing the


overall health condition of the insulation in power cable systems.

In XLPE

In OIL

In AIR

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Partial Discharge

PD is a Diagnostic tool to detect signs of distress in distribution


and Transmission cable systems.
PD gives us the opportunity to detect defects BEFORE failure
Can be performed on-line or off-line
Can use multiple types of power supplies, we prefer NPF.
PD testing is a non destructive test to an insulation system.
PD is typically measured during the Hipot test.
PD is performed at near power frequency and at elevated voltages
to accelerate aging of defects

PD ACTIVITY RELATES DIRECTLY TO INSULATION INTEGRITY

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Partial Discharge (Equivalent Circuit)

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Partial Discharge
20
Voltage/Electric Field Electrical Field Conditions
15

Initial
10 Discharge Return
Second
Discharge
Discharge
5

Phase Angle
0
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360

-5

-10

Appl. Voltage [kV]


-15 Background Field [kV/mm]
Void Breakdown Strength
Void Field [kV/mm]
-20

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Terminal vs. Distributed PD measurements

Terminal PD Measurement
No Joints

Distributed PD Measurement
Jointed System

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Typical Partial Discharge Pattern

Phase Resolved PD Pattern (doble / Lemke, HPMT 03-06)

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PD Testing Online vs Offline

On-Line Off-Line
Non-invasive test Requires cable system to be
Done at rated voltage Uo disconnected
PDIV and PDEV cannot be measured Guiding criteria is that the cable
Assess individual PD sources system should be PD free at the
separately specified test voltage
Often, multiple PD sources from Requires external power source
various types of HV equipment are
Done at elevated voltages usually
detected
at 1.7Uo.
Can only detect sources present at
the time of testing Measures PDIV, PDEV, PD level.
Localizes PD Source & Intensity

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PD Attenuation with Cable Length

1 Corresponding Attenuation (Normalized)

0.1

Length [feet]
0.01
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

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Water Tree Formation
High electrical field caused by voltage transients result in power dissipation in the micro
water channels that exist in the XLPE insulation. This raises the temperature of the water
and increases pressure in the water tree channel, generating cavities to support PD.

Water migration into the insulation leads to water trees which in turn decreases insulation
resistance and increases leakage current

Water Trees form and with time convert to electrical trees producing partial discharge and
ultimately lead to failure

Insulation Failure Water Trees

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Water Trees (XLPE)

Insulation Shield

Electrical
Vented Water Tree
Tree (VWT)

Lowers the AC breakdown voltage Increased DC leakage current


Increase in dielectric loss Tan Can only be detected via Dielectric
Delta Spectroscopy ( Tan Delta at 0.01 to
60 Hz. )
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Why test at 1.7Uo ?
(Constant PD Monitoring Only)

Distribution of PDIV
Distribution During
of PDEV HV Hipot
during Comm. Testing
Test
1.00
Percentile
0.90

0.75

50% to 90% of PDEV occur at or above


1.7Uo
0.50
Some go as high as 2Uo depending on
cable class

0.25

0.00
0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00
Partial Discharge Inception Voltage (PDIV) [U 0 ]

IEC Standards 60840 & 62067 adopted 1.7Uo due to its higher confidence level and over
30 years of testing experience; if PD source is present, it will ignite at or above 1.7Uo.
But wait, in what time frame

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Why test for 60 minutes ?
(Constant PD Monitoring Only)

On-Set of PD During HV Commissioning Testing


1.00

0.90

0.75
Percentile

0.50
75% to 99% of the time PD ignites at or
above 20 minutes

0.25 Some increase test time depending on


test frequency, for 20Hz, test time is
180 minutes.

0.00
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time [minutes]

IEC Standards 60840 & 62067 adopted 60 minutes test time due to its higher
confidence level and over 30 years of testing experience; if PD source is present, it
will ignite at or above 1.7Uo when applied between 25 min to 60 min.

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Case Study Feb. 2014
AC Hipot with Daisy Chained PD system

Using 2 RTS units in series to be


able to successfully test and PD
diagnose a 345KV class cable.

* 4 major issues were found.

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345KV Cable System Tested at 1.7Uo with PD
17 splices per phase (Feb 2014)

Joint was replaced & retested, no PD


present

PD was detected at 339KV at Joint 6


via PD sensor

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345KV Cable System Tested at 1.7Uo with PD
XC Phase / Joint failed during testing (Feb 2014)

PD pulses started igniting a 318KV,


then few seconds later the joint
failed.

Joint was replaced & retested

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345KV Cable System Tested at 1.7Uo with PD
Cascade System / Joint failed during testing (Mar 2014)

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138KV Cable System Tested at 1.7Uo with PD
Termination showed PD activity near IGBT Pulse

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72KV Cable System Tested at 1.7Uo with PD
6 Cables no splices per phase (Jun 2013)

PD was detected on all 3 phases near GIS termination


via Kinectrics HFCT type PD sensor.

Cable section had to be replaced and


retested to be PD Free

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72KV Cable System Tested at 1.7Uo with PD
3 Cables no splices per phase (Mar 2013)

PD was detected on phase A open air termination via


Kinectrics HFCT type PD sensor.

Orientation of PD Sensors allowed the location of the


PD activity to be located Note reversed polarity of A
phase.

All 3 phase were being tested simultaneously.

Workmanship issues while installing stress cone.

Termination had to be
replaced and retested to
be PD Free

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Sample of failures from 2012 - 2014

Failure Rate
Accessories
Cable Class

Failures
Total
Test Date

December 2014 138 kV 18 1 5.5%


October 2014 230 12 1 8.3%
March 2014 138 kV 38 3 7.9%
February 2014 345 kV 102 4 3.9%
June 2013 72 kV 48 4 8.3%
April 2013 115 kV 18 1 5.6%
March 2013 72 kV 12 1 8.3%
December 2012 138 kV 18 1 5.6%
December 2012 138 kV 18 1 5.6%
Totals: 284 17 5.99%

Selected few Jobs with actual failures due to Hipot and/or PD, shows a steady
failure rate of 4% to 8% on the average Failed components were replaced by
cable manufacturers to ensure long term operation of PD free cable systems.

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Summary

Many IEC Studies and experiences prove a combination of AC HV


(Hipot) & PD is the Ultimate Diagnosis Tool in determining the
health of underground cable systems.
Test levels must be at 1.7Uo to provide higher confidence level that
all possible PD sources are addressed.
Test duration likely need to be adjusted when testing at lower
frequencies Cigre Workgroup B1.38. Test Duration by cycles.
Trends going towards constant monitoring via daisy chained PD
Systems for commissioning testing.
Testing with Near Power Frequency (20Hz. 300 Hz.) @ 1.7Uo
subjects the cable to similar stresses as operating frequency at
elevated voltages to locate all possible PD sources, after all, the
cable system will live the rest of its life at 50/60 Hz.

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Contact Information:

HASSAN YOUNES
Service Line Leader
Transmission Cables & Stations

800 Kipling Avenue, Toronto Ontario M8Z-5G5


hassan.younes@kinectrics.com
Mobile: 416.206.7528
Office: 416.207.6000 xtn 6347

Responsible for all HV & EHV Cable testing and Partial


Discharge diagnosis in North America and Europe

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Questions?

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Thank you for your attention

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