Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 34

Electrical

Qualified Individuals must be authorized to perform specific work.

Have a documented High Risk Work or Restricted Work Authorization, or a business equivalent

Electricity

Electricity is an invisible force which is all around us, although we are not aware of most
electrical activity because it is below that which our bodies can detect

To flow, electricity must have a complete circuit or path

Electricity, like water, takes or has the potential to take all flow paths, not just the path of
least resistance

Anything or anyone that enters the path of electricity may become part of that path!

Conductors

Conductors

Conductors are materials through which an electric current can readily travel

Good conductors are water, metals such as copper and aluminum, and the human body

The human body is an excellent conductor due to water content and the minerals present

Water with minerals or ions in it. (ex. sweat) is a much better conductor than purified or de-ionized
water.
Insulators

Insulators are materials through which an electric current cannot readily pass

Good insulators are polystyrene, mica, glass, brick, plastic, wood, rubber, and air

Current and Resistance Explained

The flow of electrons within a wire is quite similar to the flow of water through a pipe.
In general - the larger the pipe, the more water it can flow. This also holds true for wires -
the larger the wire, the more current it can flow.
The movement of water in the pipe is called flow, whereas the movement of electrons in a
wire is called current. As the electrons move down the wire they are constantly colliding
with the atoms of the wire.
This occurrence, called resistance, slows down the electrons and opposes the flow of
electrons in the wire.

Ohm's Law as it relates to Electrical Safety

Consider the algebraic relationship described by Ohm's Law:
V (volts) = I (amps) x R (ohms)
At a constant voltage, as resistance increases (), current decreases () due to more
opposition to flow, and as resistance decreases (), current will increase () due to less
opposition to flow.
This concept is extremely important to electrical safety, since current has the
greatest effect on the human body. Therefore, you can protect yourself and
others by increasing the resistance.
Common methods for increasing resistance include using insulated blankets, tools, and
equipment, and the proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
Ohm's Law
This activity will familiarize you with the application of Ohm's Law. For both 110V and 220V,
click on the resistors or resistive material tabs, and observe how the current changes.
110 Volts
Large copper wire: 1.0 ohm
Small copper wire: 2.5 ohms
Dry skin: 100,000 ohms
Wet skin: 1,000 ohms
Voltage
volts
Resistance
Current
ohms
amps

220 Volts
Large copper wire: 1.0 ohm
Small copper wire: 2.5 ohms
Dry skin: 100,000 ohms
Wet skin: 1,000 ohms
Arc,
The bright, luminous electrical discharge (sparking) through the air that occurs when high voltages
exist across a gap between conductors. An arc is ionized air (air particles develop a charge from
the high potential). When these ions reach a conductive state, current flows, which is seen as an
arc. This condition is usually caused by equipment failure. Arcs can reach temperatures of
over 35,000F (19,427C).

Blast

The occurrence of a pressure wave caused during the generation of an arc. The
expansion rate of an arc blast is more powerful than dynamite!
Unsafe Work Practices such as:

Failure to STOP WORK when needed

Failure to de-energize

Emotional State: Rushing, Frustration, Fatigue, Anger, Complacency

Unsafe Equipment or Installation such as:

Ungrounded live parts

Improper shielding

Improper grounding

Loose connections

Defective parts

Faulty insulation

Flammable vapors, gases, liquids, dusts, or fibers

Corrosive atmosphere

Body Resistance

A person's main resistance to current flow is the skin. Dry skin may have a resistance of
100,000 ohms or more, whereas wet skin may have a resistance of only 1,000 ohms. Once
the skin is broken down, current can readily flow throughout the body

A worker who is or has been ill may have a lower threshold to electrical shock than a
healthy worker

The typical internal resistance for a human body is 1000 ohms but this varies according to
path of travel

Pathways Through the Body

There are several pathways that electricity can take through the body. The most damaging are:

The "Ear to Ear" pathway in which the current goes through the brain disrupting the natural
electrical discharges of the brain

The "Hand to Foot" or "Hand to Hand" pathway in which the current passes through the
chest cavity disrupting the natural electrical currents of the heart
Ear to Ear 100 ohms

Contact Time

The longer the duration of current through the body, the greater the damage that will occur.
A shock that is short in duration may only be painful and not cause any permanent damage.
A longer duration shock, lasting a few seconds could cause death if the current level is
great enough to cause ventricular fibrillation in the heart

Contact Pressure

Lower contact pressure with an energized circuit results in greater resistance, and therefore
lower current flow to the body. Conversely, the greater the pressure, the greater the current
flow to the body

Contact Area

Lower contact area with an energized circuit results in greater resistance, and therefore
lower current flow to the body. Conversely, the greater the contact area, the greater the
current flow to the body

Voltage
Voltage has a direct relation to current flow in a shock or electrocution situation. The higher the
voltage, the greater the potential injury. As you observed previously in this course, if voltage
changes but resistance doesn't, the current flow will follow the voltage change (ie - voltage
increases, current increases).
Current

As a rule, the higher the current, the greater the damage to the body

Let-Go Current - The maximum current level that will cause involuntary muscle contractions
but may still allow the worker to let go and stop current flow. This current level is generally
accepted to be 15mA AC, but it does vary with muscle mass

Above the Let-Go Current level, the worker may not be able to let go to stop the current
flow through the body

Normally, we are in equilibrium. Electrical signals from your brain travel to their intended
destination as shown at right, and you feel healthy.
Equilibrium includes these positively charged ions:
Iron, Fe++
Manganese, Mn+++
Magnesium, Mg++
Calcium, Ca++
Copper, Cu+
Zinc, Zn++
Silver, Ag+
Nickel, Ni++
Aluminum, Al+++
Physical Effects
Circulatory, nervous and associated system effects due to electrical shock may include:

Difficulty or cessation of breathing

Physical Effects
Circulatory, nervous and associated system effects due to electrical shock may include:

2. If you can do so safely, de-energize the power source

3. If it is safe to do so, approach the victim and care for life threatening injuries

4. If the victim is unresponsive and not breathing and you are trained to do so, begin CPR at
once. If an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is available, use as directed

5. If the victim is conscious and breathing, treat for shock

You must comply with your local regulations regarding emergency assistance for victims.

Ohm's law states that:

Choose the correct answer, then click the Submit button.
Choose the correct answer, then tap the Submit button.
At a constant voltage, as resistance decreases, current decreases

At a constant voltage, as resistance decreases, current remains the same

SubmitTry again
That is correct!
In this section, you will learn about the proper selection and care of Personal
Protective Equipment (PPE).
PPE Overview
Employees shall use PPE appropriate for the work to be performed:

Protective Clothing

Protective Gloves

Safety Shoes

Remember PPE is the last line of defense and MUST be inspected prior to every use. If you do not
have the correct PPE, do not do the job!
GE and country-specific PPE standards may vary. You must be aware of, and comply
with, the most protective requirement. If you have any questions, contact your EHS
manager.

In this section, you will learn about the proper selection and care of Personal
Protective Equipment (PPE).

PPE Overview

Employees shall use PPE appropriate for the work to be performed:

Protective Clothing

Protective Gloves

Safety Shoes

Remember PPE is the last line of defense and MUST be inspected prior to every use. If you do not
have the correct PPE, do not do the job!

GE and country-specific PPE standards may vary. You must be aware of, and comply
with, the most protective requirement. If you have any questions, contact your EHS
manager.
Swipe to proceed

Always use a nonconductive hard hat that is approved for electrical work. Specific hard hat
classifications will be discussed in Country-Specific training.

Metal framed safety glasses shall not be worn when working on or near electrical circuits because
they are conductive.

Face shields must be worn when engaging in activities that could cause severe hazards to the
face. Safety glasses with integrated side shields, or goggles, must be worn under face shields.

Clean and properly store all head, eye and face PPE, and replace when needed.

As a minimum, wear long sleeve shirts and pants made of nonmelting, flammable
materials, such as cotton, wool, and silk

Prohibited items:

Conductive work items such as tools, pagers, cell phones, or flashlights

Swipe to proceed

Always use a nonconductive hard hat that is approved for electrical work. Specific hard hat
classifications will be discussed in Country-Specific training.

Metal framed safety glasses shall not be worn when working on or near electrical circuits because
they are conductive.

Face shields must be worn when engaging in activities that could cause severe hazards to the
face. Safety glasses with integrated side shields, or goggles, must be worn under face shields.

Clean and properly store all head, eye and face PPE, and replace when needed.

INSPECT ALL EQUIPMENT PRIOR TO USE!

Swipe to proceed

Wear Arc-Rated (AR) clothing wherever there is possible exposure to an electric arc flash above
the incident-energy level for a second-degree burn (5 J/cm 2 or 1.2 cal/cm2). Any protective clothing
selected must meet arc flash protection standards and the protection level must be clearly
indicated. Ensure the protective clothing meets the requirements of Appendices A or B of P2003.

There are many types of Arc-Rated clothing such as Nomex, Kevlar and Kermel. They are
specifically designed to offer the wearer protection from flames and electric arcs. They are
available in several styles and fabric weights. Always wear 100% cotton clothing under these
types of protective clothing.
Follow the manufacturer's recommendations for maintenance and care of your protective clothing,
as well as any applicable governmental standards. GE has developed additional guidance to assist
GE employees and contractors who perform Projects and Service activities and home launder Arc-
Rated Clothing.

Protection of clothing
As a minimum, wear long sleeve shirts and pants made of nonmelting, flammable
materials, such as cotton, wool, and silk

Prohibited items:

Conductive work items such as tools, pagers, cell phones, or flashlights

As a minimum, wear long sleeve shirts and pants made of nonmelting, flammable
materials, such as cotton, wool, and silk

Prohibited items:
Synthetic clothing, which may melt and complicate injuries

Conductive work items such as tools, pagers, cell phones, or flashlights

Swipe to proceed

Select and wear gloves for the type of protection you will need, based on Appendices A or B of
P2003.

Rubber (dielectric) gloves must extend beyond leather protectors. The overlap must meet country
or company specific requirements.

Visually inspect all components, and field air test the rubber gloves, before each use.

Rubber gloves need to be lab tested and certified on a periodicity specified by Appendix E of
P2003.

A "Field Air Test" MUST be conducted before each use.

Follow the steps below to complete a field air test.

Hold the glove cuff with thumb and forefingers of both hands.

Twirl the glove around quickly trapping air in the glove.

Squeeze the gauntlet with one hand, use the other hand to squeeze the palm, fingers and thumb
to check for weakness and defects.
4

Hold the glove near the face to detect air leakage or near the ear to listen for escaping air.

Swipe to proceed

Select and wear gloves for the type of protection you will need, based on Appendices A or B of
P2003.

Rubber (dielectric) gloves must extend beyond leather protectors. The overlap must meet country
or company specific requirements.

Visually inspect all components, and field air test the rubber gloves, before each use.

Rubber gloves need to be lab tested and certified on a periodicity specified by Appendix E of
P2003.

Inspect all equipment prior to use!

Swipe to proceed

CAREFULLY stretch a small area of the glove at a time. Be sure to check between each finger of
the glove as well. Check for:

Cracks

Holes

Tears
Punctures

Embedded objects

Texture changes

Swelling

Softening or hardening

Areas becoming sticky or elastic

Lockout/Tagout (LOTO)
Lockout/Tagout (LOTO) is the process used to prevent the accidental startup or release of
hazardous energy while maintaining or servicing of equipment is being performed.

The risk to individuals working on powered equipment or machinery can be minimized by

adhering to the six step process of LOTO as described in the GE LOTO Authorized Course

Lockout/Tagout must be used whenever you are performing service or maintenance on any
machine where you or someone else could be injured by the unexpected startup or release
of stored energy

Unless ALL Lockout/Tagout steps have been implemented, consider the equipment
energized

PPE must be used and clearance requirements must be maintained throughout the LOTO
process and are of greater concern in the electrical LOTO process
This course does not authorize you to perform Lockout/Tagout (LOTO) to control hazardous energy
while servicing equipment. If your job requires LOTO, you must also complete the Lockout/Tagout
Authorized course

(GE-EHS-CEP-34).

Safety Program & Plan

When performing work on electrical equipment, you must have an electrical safety program
specific to the work being performed, as required by local regulations and GE Procedure. This must
include the following, where applicable:

Program principles and controls, including job briefing requirements

Awareness information on the potential electrical hazards and required safety attitude

Where work will be performed within the Limited Approach Boundary (this will be defined
shortly) on energized electrical conductors or circuit parts at 50 volts or more, there must
be:

Risk assessment/management procedures to be used before work begins

If equipment-specific boundary calculations are not available, the use of PPE categories
based on P2003 is allowed, as long as the guidance provided meets or exceeds local
requirements

Safety Program & Plan

A Safety Plan must be used for all electrical work, and include the steps listed below.

Evaluate the Job

Control the Hazards

Review the Procedure

Emergency Response

Emergency Response

Emergency Response actions need to be included in case there is an accident. Emergency

telephone numbers and identification of the emergency response organization must be available
at the work location.

Hierarchy job aid 1. Plan and prepare for

shutdown
"Think before taking action"
2. Shutdown the equipment
"Put the equipment at its normal, at rest position"
3. Isolate the equipment
"Separate the equipment from external energy sources"
4. Apply Lockout/Tagout Devices
"Assure that all external energy sources have
been properly secured and labeled"
5. Control stored energy
"Discharge or control any energy stored in the equipment"
6. Verify isolation: Zero energy
"By taking active measures verify that

Hazard Control > Hierarchy

Submit

Lockout/Tagout (LOTO)
Lockout/Tagout (LOTO) is the process used to prevent the accidental startup or release of
hazardous energy while maintaining or servicing of equipment is being performed.

The risk to individuals working on powered equipment or machinery can be minimized by

adhering to the six step process of LOTO as described in the GE LOTO Authorized Course

Lockout/Tagout must be used whenever you are performing service or maintenance on any
machine where you or someone else could be injured by the unexpected startup or release
of stored energy

Unless ALL Lockout/Tagout steps have been implemented, consider the equipment
energized

PPE must be used and clearance requirements must be maintained throughout the LOTO
process and are of greater concern in the electrical LOTO process

Tap here to view a job aid containing the 6 steps of LOTO.

This course does not authorize you to perform Lockout/Tagout (LOTO) to control hazardous energy
while servicing equipment. If your job requires LOTO, you must also complete the Lockout/Tagout
Authorized course

(GE-EHS-CEP-34).

Swipe to proceed

The "hierarchy of controls" is a prioritized list that is used when deciding what type of defenses will
be used to address a particular EHS hazard.

control, ppe
Most effective

Least effective

Hierarchy of Controlsontrols
PPE
Physically remove the hazard

Protect the worker with Personal Protective Equipment

For any particular hazard, more than one defense may be needed.

Use of PPE is the last resort, to be used when all other defenses have been ruled out in the short
term, or are unable to completely protect the employee. Where feasible, do not use PPE as the
only defense.
Most effective

Least effective

Submit

Safe Work Practices > Approach Limits > Approach Boundaries

The Approach Boundaries are designed to shield an employee from shock and electrocution. There
are two approach boundaries: Limited and Restricted.

Shock
Limited

A Limited Approach Boundary is the limit to which unqualified employees may approach
energized part(s). Where one or more unqualified persons are working at or close to the limited
approach boundary, the designated person in charge of the work space where the electrical
hazard exists shall advise the unqualified persons of the electrical hazard and warn them to stay
outside of the limited approach boundary.

Limited Approach Boundary

Restricted

The Restricted Approach Boundary is the Qualified Person's approach limit without the use
of shock protection equipment and insulation.

Qualified employees must not cross or take any conductive object closer to energized electrical
conductors and circuit parts than the Restricted Approach Boundary unless:

The person is insulated or guarded from the energized electrical conductors and circuit
parts

The energized electrical conductors and circuit parts are insulated from the qualified person
and from any other conductive object at a different potential

The Qualified Person is insulated from any other conductive object, such as during live
line work

Restricted Approach Boundary

Swipe to proceed

Activity
What steps could have been taken during servicing of this de-energized circuit breaker to prevent
this accident?

Choose all that apply, and then click the Submit button.

Choose all that apply, and then tap the Submit button.

The employee should not have used a metal banded brush

The employee should have attached the metal banded brush to a hot stick

The employee should have worn the proper PPE including faceshield and arc-rated clothing

Insulating barriers should have been placed over the adjacent terminal

SubmitTry again
Swipe to proceed

Safe Work Practices > Approach Limits

GE requires each location that has an electrical safety program to establish boundaries around
energized electrical equipment when work is to be performed.
Before a person approaches any exposed electrical conductor or circuit part that has not been
placed in an electrically safe work condition, safe work and PPE requirements must be included
and discussed as part of the task preparation. These safe work and PPE requirements may be
obtained from either P2003 (this will be explained shortly), or shock and arc flash risk assessments
that have been performed for the equipment to be worked on.

Shock Risk Assessment Arc Flash Risk Assessment

Determines the Approach Boundaries and the Determines the Arc Flash Boundary, the
personal and other protective equipment incident energy at the working distance and the
required to safely perform the task PPE that personnel inside the Arc Flash
Boundary must use

Safe Work Practices > Approach Limits > Activity

After reviewing the graphic and definitions, select the correct boundary from the
dropdown list, then click the Submit button.
After reviewing the graphic and definitions, select the correct boundary from the
dropdown list, then tap the Submit button.
Arc Flash protection must be worn inside this boundary
Arc Flash

Limited Approach

Qualified person limit without insulation

Restricted Approach

Arc Flash protection must be worn inside this boundary

Unqualified person limit
Qualified person limit without insulation
Submit
That is correct!

Work Involving Electrical Hazards

Submit

x
Safe Work Practices > PPE Selection
The preferred method for determining appropriate PPE is to use the result of an Arc-Flash Risk
Assessment (RA), which will be displayed on labels as shown below. If an Arc-Flash RA has not
been completed, appropriate PPE can be selected by utilizing the tables available in GEs Electrical
Safety Procedure, P2003.

When utilizing the results of an Arc-Flash RA, it is important to account for any circuit/system
changes that may have been made since the Assessment was completed.

2012 label example

The PPE Category for energized work can be determined using this flow chart. First, identify the
task and equipment condition, and use Hazard Identification table, B-1, to determine if Arc Flash
PPE is required. Next, identify the system voltage (AC or DC) and use PPE Category tables, B-2.1 or
B-2.2, to determine the Arc Flash PPE Category.

Note that the specifications of the equipment you will be working on MUST fall within the
parameters listed on the table, otherwise the table does NOT apply, and either an Arc Flash Risk
Assessment must be performed OR the work must be performed with the equipment in an
electrically safe (de-energized) work.

If your country's PPE Categories do not align with those in P2003, you must ensure that the PPE
you use for each task is rated, by cal/cm2 or equivalent, at least as high as the potential exposure
and Arc Flash Boundary

Follow all safe work pres that apply

Swipe to proceed

If the Shock and Arc Flash Risk Assessments are not completed, safe work can still be
accomplished by utilizing the tables from GE's Electrical Safety Procedure, P2003.

Approach Boundaries

Can be determined by using the Approach Distances Tables in Appendix G.

Required PPE

Can be determined by using the Hazard Identification table, B-1, the PPE Category tables, B-2.1
and B-2.2, and the PPE table, B-3, in Appendix B.

The use of these tables will be detailed in the following slides.

Swipe to proceed

The Approach Boundaries for energized work can be determined using the appropriate Table
provided in Appendix G of P2003.

Using the applicable Table, the nominal voltage range or potential difference will determine the
distance of the boundaries from the conductor.

This will allow you to set up the work area to restrict access for unqualified individuals, and to
identify the distance at which qualified individuals must wear shock insulating PPE.

Next, determine the personal protective equipment required by locating the PPE Category from the
previous step on Table B-3, Simplified PPE Requirements Chart.

View all the items on the page to proceed

The four PPE categories are represented by the numbers 1-4. Click on each number to see the
required PPE for that category of work.

2
3

If your country's PPE Categories do not align with those in P2003, you must ensure that the PPE
you use for each task is rated, by cal/cm2 or equivalent, at least as high as the potential exposure
Work Involving
x

Warning signs notify qualified persons of potential electrical arc-flash hazards, and should be
utilized in accordance with local regulations.

There are generic signs and equipment-specific signs that convey the arc flash risk assessment
results, such as those below. Equipment-specific calculations, if available, are preferable over a
generic application.

2012 label example

WARNING
ARC FLASH HAZARD
Nominal System Voltage 208 VAC

Working Distance 18" (0.45 m)

Minimum Arc Rating of Clothing 4 cal/cm2

Level of PPE

View all the items on the page to proceed

The four PPE categories are represented by the numbers 1-4. Click on each number to see the
required PPE for that category of work.

3
4

If your country's PPE Categories do not align with those in P2003, you must ensure that the PPE
you use for each task is rated, by cal/cm2 or equivalent, at least as high as the potential exposure

Energized Electrical Work Permit

An Energized Electrical Work Permit confirms the appropriate steps are taken to ensure
the safety of the workers.

When working within the restricted work or arc flash boundary on energized electrical conductors
or circuit parts that are not placed in an electrically safe work condition, work to be performed
must be considered energized electrical work and be performed by written permit only. An
electrically safe work condition is a state in which an electrical conductor or circuit part to be
worked on or near has been disconnected from energized parts, locked/tagged in accordance with
established standards, tested to ensure the absence of voltage, and grounded if determined
necessary.

Certain situations may be exempt from the requirement of an Energized Electrical Work Permit.

Diagnostic
Exemptions

Diagnostic Exemptions

Diagnostic work, such as testing, troubleshooting, and voltage measuring, by qualified persons,
does not require an Energized Electrical Work Permit, provided appropriate safe work practices and
PPE are provided and used.

ther Exemptions
Additional exemptions, provided the Restricted Approach Boundary is not crossed, are

Thermography and visual inspections

Access to and from an area with energized electrical equipment, if no electrical work is
performed

General housekeeping & miscellaneous non-electrical tasks

Work
x

Warning signs notify qualified persons of potential electrical arc-flash hazards, and should be
utilized in accordance with local regulations.

There are generic signs and equipment-specific signs that convey the arc flash risk assessment
results, such as those below. Equipment-specific calculations, if available, are preferable over a
generic application.
WARNING
ARC FLASH HAZARD
Nominal System Voltage 208 VAC
Arc Flash Boundary 1' - 6.5" (0.5 m)
Available Incident Energy 1.3 cal/cm2
Working Distance 18" (0.45 m)
Minimum Arc Rating of Clothing 4 cal/cm2
Level of PPE
2015 label example

2012 label example

WARNING
ARC FLASH HAZARD
Nominal System Voltage 208 VAC

Level of PPE

Insulated Tool

Testing Devices > Voltage Sensing (non-contact) Detectors

Voltage sensing detectors are testing devices used to detect AC voltage without making a
connection.

When you are testing for the presence of elevated voltages, use a hot stick to increase the
distance between you and the conductor.

Inexpensive

Swipe to proceed

Usage

They must be used and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's

recommendations, noting:

Operating limitations, such as temperature or orientation with respect to the conductor

Handling requirements
Upper or lower voltage limitations

Submit

Live Line Devices

Hot sticks, shotgun sticks, and switch hooks are live line devices used to increase
distance between an individual performing electrical work and the voltage source.

Live line devices are commonly used for replacing circuit components, applying grounds, holding
voltage sensing detectors, or for other types of work with the circuit energized.

These are specialized devices and this training alone will not qualify you to use them!

Live Line Devices

Hot sticks, shotgun sticks, and switch hooks are live line devices used to increase
distance between an individual performing electrical work and the voltage source.

Live line devices are commonly used for replacing circuit components, applying grounds, holding
voltage sensing detectors, or for other types of work with the circuit energized.

These are specialized devices and this training alone will not qualify you to use them!
Hot Stick/Insulating Stick

Testing Devices > Activity 1

To safely detect 800 VAC, you must use the following equipment.

Choose all that apply, and then click the Submit button.

Choose all that apply, and then tap the Submit button.

0-600 Volt measuring detector

None of this equipment

Submit

Other Protective Equipment & Precautions

Employees shall use insulated tools and/or handling equipment when working with exposed live
parts where tools or handling equipment might make accidental contact. Tools certified to specific
local regulations will have an associated marking or certification, such as the examples shown
below, or IEC 60900 (International Electrotechnical Commission standard).
SLA

Slam mer