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Key objectives in lighting design

Qualifications
no strong "contrasts"
good "color rendering"
adequate "light levels"
no "disturbing reflections"
no direct "glare"
Radio- and photometric quantities
Radiometry vs. Photometry
absolute (energy)
vs.
V()-dependent (light) 1.0

0.9

0.8

Relative Efficiency [-]


0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800
Wavelength [nm]

Figure by MIT OCW.


Radio- and photometric quantities
Four major quantities
flux
illuminance
intensity
luminance

Figure by MIT OCW.


Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
energy / unit of time
in Watts [W] vs. lumen [lm]
Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
energy / unit of time
in Watts [W] vs. lumen [lm]
683 lumen/Watt at 555 nm : lum [lm] = 683 V() e [W]
Incandescence Discharge
75 watts 70 watts

very
different
efficacies !

1055 lumens Figures by MIT OCW. 5600 lumens


Emission spectra
Continuous Discontinuous
3.0 3.0
Relative Energy

2.0 2.0

1.0 1.0

400 500 600 700 nm 250 300 350 400 nm

Combined Rays
3.0 3.0
Relative Energy

2.0 2.0

1.0 1.0

400 500 600 700 nm 300 400 500 600 nm

Figure by MIT OCW.


Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
Illuminance
flux received / unit of surface
E in [W/m2] vs. [lm/m2] or lux [lx]

Figures by MIT OCW.


Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
Illuminance
flux received / unit of surface
E in [W/m2] vs. [lm/m2] or lux [lx]

Full moon Overcast sky Sunlight

0.01 Lux 8'000 - 20'000 Lux 100'000 Lux

Figure by MIT OCW.


Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
Illuminance
flux received / unit of apparent surface (cosine ("Lambert") law)
E in [W/m2] vs. [lm/m2] or lux [lx]


E =
a S

E = E. cos

Figures by MIT OCW.


Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
Illuminance
flux received / unit of apparent surface (cosine ("Lambert") law)
E in [W/m2] vs. [lm/m2] or lux [lx]
measurement with lux-meter (illumance-meter)

Requirements Lux Examples


Low 20-70 Circulation, stairs
Moderate 120-185 Entrance, restaurant
Medium 250-375 General tasks
High 500-750 Reading, Writing
Very high > 1000 Precision tasks
Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
Illuminance
flux received / unit of apparent surface (cosine ("Lambert") law)
E in [W/m2] vs. [lm/m2] or lux [lx]
measurement with lux-meter (illumance-meter)
exitance M for emitted flux [lux]
Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
Illuminance
Intensity
flux emitted "in a certain direction"

Figures by MIT OCW.


Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
Illuminance
Intensity
flux emitted within a certain solid angle

A = .d2
A
d = 2
d

Figures by MIT OCW.


Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
Illuminance
Intensity
flux emitted within a certain solid angle
I in [W/sr] vs. [lm/sr] or Candela [Cd]

1 Candela = intensity of one candle


Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
Illuminance
Intensity
flux emitted within a certain solid angle
I in [W/sr] vs. [lm/sr] or Candela [Cd]
inverse square law for point source

d


E= = = 2
.d2 d A

Figures by MIT OCW.


Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
Illuminance
Intensity
flux emitted within a certain solid angle
I in [W/sr] vs. [lm/sr] or Candela [Cd]
inverse square law for point source

E = I cos() / d2

Figure by MIT OCW.


Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
Illuminance
Intensity
flux emitted within a certain solid angle
I in [W/sr] vs. [lm/sr] or Candela [Cd]
inverse square law for point source 240o 120o
intensity distribution 270o 90o

100

300o 60o
200

300

400
o
30o
330

Figure by MIT OCW.


Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
Illuminance
Intensity
flux emitted within a certain solid angle
I in [W/sr] vs. [lm/sr] or Candela [Cd]
inverse square law for point source
intensity distribution 180
o 165 o
150 o

5
o

13
o
120 o
105
o
90
40

30 60

75 o
80
100

60 o
120
h = 10 ft d 140
160

o
45
180
o
200
30
o
0
o 15

Figure by MIT OCW.


Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux Source Ns

Illuminance

Intensity I
Ss
Luminance
flux emitted by apparent
surface in a given direction
I/m2 (or M/sr)
L in [Cd/m2]

Figures by MIT OCW.


Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
Illuminance
Intensity
Luminance
flux emitted by apparent
surface in a given direction
I/m2 (or M/sr)
L in [Cd/m2]

Sa S
L = I / Sa
L = I / (S . cos )
Radio- and photometric quantities
Flux
Illuminance
Intensity Specular Spread Diffuse

Luminance
flux emitted by apparent
surface in a given direction Diffuse/Specular Specular/Spread Diffuse/Spread

I/m2 (or M/sr) Figures by MIT OCW.


L in [Cd/m2] Intensity variation Luminance variation

lambertian surface lambertian surface


Radio- and photometric quantities
Primary sources Cd/m2
Flux Sun 1 650 000 000
Incandescent lamp (100 W, bright) 6 000 000
Illuminance Incandescent lamp (100 W, frosted) 125 000
Fluorescent tube (40 W, 38 mm) 5000 - 8000
Intensity Candle 5000
Computer screen 100-200
Luminance
flux emitted by apparent
surface in a given direction
I/m2 (or M/sr)
L in [Cd/m2]
Radio- and photometric quantities
Secondary sources Cd/m2
Flux Moon 2 500 - 3000
White paper ( = 0.8, E = 400 lux) 100
Illuminance Grey paper ( = 0.4, E = 400 lux) 50
Black paper ( = 0.01, E = 400 lux) 5
Intensity
Minimal luminance perceived: 10-5
Luminance
flux emitted by apparent
surface in a given direction
I/m2 (or M/sr)
L in [Cd/m2]
Radio- and photometric quantities
Luminance measurement
Eye = luminance-meter
Radio- and photometric quantities
Luminance measurement
Integrating sphere
Radio- and photometric quantities
Reading relevant to lecture topics:
"IESNA Lighting Handbook" (9th Ed.): pp. 2-1 to 2-3 + pp. 2-9 to
2-11