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Designing a Transistor Amplifier

Kathlyn S. Almarez, Jayson R. Asi, Joseph Jeremy B. Botardo

Batangas State University, Alangilan Batangas City, Philippines

College of Engineering, Architecture and Fine Arts

ECE/ICE/MEXE Department

kathlynalmarez_24@yahoo.com, jaysonrazon31@gmail.com, josephbotards@gmail.com

Abstract This paper contains the step BJTs offer greater gain at the output than
by step process regarding on how weve FETs. They are usually the choice for
designed a transistor amplifier. Various precision, linearity, dealing w/ distortions, and
considerations were initiated before coming
gain. In terms of expense, FETs, especially
up with a final design. A common-emitter
configuration which is in voltage divider MOFSFETs, are more expensive to
biasing network was used to counter beta manufacture than BJTs. FETs normally are at a
fluctuations and stabilize the circuit. Class A higher price point, but not significant enough
amplifier type was used due to its linear to
characteristics, high voltage gain and as well push away from them. This is just a slight
as low percentage of distortions. Lastly, the drawback.
swamping principle was applied on the 2 nd
stage for the stability of voltage gain
transition and for the effective reduction of
gain to minimize clipping and distortions. There are three kinds of transistor
configuration that can be used for amplifying
I. INTRODUCTION signals: Common base transistor
configuration, Common emitter transistor
Amplifier is the generic term used to configuration, and Common collector
describe a circuit which increases its input transistor configuration. These configurations
signal. They are used in electronic circuits to vary with respect to gain, input and output
make an electronic signal bigger without impedance, current gain, and power gain as
affecting it in any other way. But not all well. One may use these configurations
amplifiers are the same as they are classified according to the desired specifications.
according to their circuit configurations and
Class A amplifiers are most commonly
methods of operation.
used type of amplifiers for its large voltage
gain. Its configuration is a common emitter
An electrical signal can be amplified by
that produce a large output voltage swing from
using a device which allows a small current or
a relatively small input voltage of only a few
voltage to control the flow of a much larger
millivolts. For Class A, the transistor is
current from a dc power source. Transistors are
working and is fully on all the time. By this
the basic device providing control of this kind.
reason, it has a low efficiency of less than 40%
There are two general types of transistors,
but good signal reproduction and linearity.
bipolar and field-effect. Very roughly, the
difference between these two types is that for Design simplicity, highest linear
bipolar devices an input current controls the characteristics, and low percentage of
large current flow through the device, while distortion makes a class A amplifier as the best
for field-effect transistors an input voltage class.
provides the control.
PRE-
D E S IG N G a th e rin g o f
S TA G E D a ta
II. OBJECTIVE D E S IG N IN G
S TA G E S t e p b y s te p
d e s ig n in g o f e a c h
General Objective: TRO BU LESH O O
s ta gl ea n d e rro r o n
T IN G S TA G E Tria
The aim of this course project is to design an s im u la t io n
amplifier with the following specifications: T E S T IN G
S TA G E Te s tin g th e
Gain= at least 400 (max800) a m p lifi e r o n th e
POUT = minimum at VSUPPLY= 12V PCB
RL= 1k
Frequency Range= 300Hz 20kHz Figure 1.1 Algorithm of creating this course
Max. Input Current= 10uA project
VO(SWING) = 4Vp.p
It is also required to put the circuit into PCB PRE-DESIGN STAGE
with a suitable case.
This stage serves as the starting block for
III. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY the team to create the specified amplifier. The
team gather data and facts about the course
Amplifiers can be made by using different project from published works given by journals,
types of configurations. These configurations books, researches, online sites and other
would not be made without the basic electronic manuals that will help to support the
concept of this project.
components that sum up an amplifier.

The basic components of an amplifier are Research


transistors, resistors and capacitors. Resistor
values affects the gain of the amplifier, caution
Review of concepts
should be applied in choosing the right values
for the resistor for it is one of the noisiest
Preparation of needed softwares/application
components than can cause distortion. for design creation

In biasing, capacitor values block the DC


Figure 1.2 Pre-design Stage
signal flow and allows AC signal to flow. In
feedback, they integrate the signal and filters Our team also prepared the needed
they differentiate. Also, it affects the frequency software applications that can create a layout
response of the circuit. Remember that the and simulate the circuit design virtually.
bigger the value of capacitance the lower the
frequency.
DESIGNING STAGE
In reality transistors functions as a switch
Choosing the best transistor
and an amplifier. It acts an amplifier when a configuration
small current flow from IB is amplified, and
Using techniques and analysis in
allows a larger current to flow from IC. computing resistor values

The type of transistor used is a NPN Calculation of capacitor values


Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) with a code
Creation and initial simulations in the
of 2N2222A. This is a general-purpose software (Multisim)
transistor use for low power amplifying
applications.
Fig. 1.3 Designing stage
Other materials use for troubleshooting is
a solderless breadboard and a PCB for Step by step procedures
prototyping purposes.
1. The design starts in choosing the best
configuration for the given
specifications.
2. Next, is by following the instructions
in computing the best values of
resistors to bias the circuit. TESTING STAGE

3. Calculating the values of capacitors to


achieve the bandwidth and provide Mount Test the
Effective amplifier Check is
AC current to flow through the the
ly solder using specificati
design
circuit. connecti actual ons are
on a equipmen met.
ons.
PCB. ts.
4. Create the circuit design in the
software (Multisim) and use
simulations to get the measured gain,
bandwidth and other parameters. Figure 1.5 Testing Stage

TROUBLESHOOTING STAGE In this stage, final requirement should


Mount
be meet. The circuit must be soldered in a
the
compon
Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and again
ents on
the specifications should be satisfied.
prototy
pe
Improve
the
board
Initial 1. Mount the circuit design on the
design if check if
specific specific Printed Circuit Board.
ations ations
are not are met
met.
2. Make sure no connections are
Compari shorted/ loose to prevent it from
son of
Recheck
hand defectivity.
calculati
connecti
ons and
ons.
measure
d 3. After checking, test the amplifier
values.
by connecting the supply,
function generator and
Figure 1.4 Troubleshooting Stage oscilloscope to the terminals.
The troubleshooting stage is done both on 4. Finally, the amplifier is working.
the software and on a prototype board Just check if the specifications
are met. And youre done!
1. Mount the components on the
prototype board (breadboard) and IV. RESULTS AND SIMULATIONS
connect each terminal to the supply,
function generator and the Given the allotted time for the
oscilloscope. designing process, few options were designed
in order to meet the specifications as required:
2. Then, take a look if the required
specifications are met. Save the
values measured by the oscilloscope
on a flash drive. Circuit 1 (Week 2)

3. Compare hand calculations and actual


measurements both should matched.

4. If specifications are not satisfied,


check the construction of the circuit,
check if the design has been biased
properly.

5. Continue to do this stage to meet the


required specifications
Figure 2.1 a Circuit Design
needed resistor values. The circuit is set as an
initial first stage. The output from the virtual
oscilloscope shows slight amplification. The
amplification that took place for the circuit is
not enough to have a gain of 400 to 800. We
needed to add an effective 2nd stage.

Circuit 3 (Week 5)
Figure 2.1 b AC Sweep analysis

Figure 2.3 a Circuit Design

Figure 2.1 c Cursor values (x1 and x2 as the


frequency range)

As a kickstart, this design was made


out of trial and error without much analysis.
Weve assigned for the resistor values at the 1 st
stage and just estimated needed values for the
2nd stage through simulation. The amplifiers
gain was initially met (423.692). The
Figure 2.3 b AC Sweep Analysis
low cut off frequency as portrayed in the
cursor was at 309.9341 Hz and a high cut off
frequency of 21.9742 kHz. The major problem
about this design is the lack of analysis.
Capacitor values were just estimated and just
worked without further computation. No actual
measurements were made at this point.

Circuit 2 (Week 3)

Figure 2.3 c Cursor Values

Figure 2.2 Circuit Design and its Output


Waveform

From the information that weve got Figure 2.3 d Actual Waveform
from our research, weve found out some
general rule of thumbs in calculating the
The previous circuit was connected analysis. No actual measurements were made
with a 2nd stage for more voltage amplification. for this circuit.
The 2nd stage was estimated in order to reach
the needed voltage swing together with the Circuit 5 (Week 10)
needed gain and frequency range. There is no
further analysis for the 2nd stage. We need to
provide a circuit with full range of reasonable
explanations.

Circuit 4 (Week 7)

Figure 2.5 a - Circuit Design

Figure 2.4 a Circuit Design

Figure 2.5 b AC Sweep Analysis

Figure 2.4 b - AC Sweep Analysis

Figure 2.5 c Cursor Values

For this circuit, the resistor values at


the 1st stage were recalculated using the
technique of distributing voltages for the
collector and emitter leg. We were able to
compute resistor values without depending on
Figure 2.4 c Cursor Values Beta. The only problem weve encountered for
this circuit is the large discrepancy of
Weve set aside the previous circuit. computed gain value with respect to the
At this point, we considered in using a FET simulated gain value. By this reason, we need
transistor for the first stage due to its high to further improve the design considering that
input impedance property. We were able to get we would be able to match it up with
desirable simulation measurements. The theoretical computations. No actual
problem for this circuit is the lack of measurements were made for this circuit.
computation. Most of the resistors were
assigned to have a desirable output. This
circuit is another trial and error without further
For the final design, weve applied
the principle of swamping. The split resistor
Circuit 6 (Week 12) Final Design for Defense RE1 and RE2 reduced and stabilized the
voltage gain. Moreover, Beta fluctuations was
stabilized as well due to the divider effect of
the configuration. Specifications are met
together with close computed values from
theoretical computations.

Using AC Sweep analysis at Figure


2.6 b, we figured out the bandwidth to be
qualified with respect to the given
specification (300 Hz 18 kHz). Cursor
positions were set to Vpeak/0.707. The low cut
off frequency was found to be at 353.5534 Hz
Figure 2.6 a Circuit Design and a high cut off frequency of 18.8663 kHz. If
the cursor is placed at the midband region, a
gain of 569 would result.

By Transient Analysis at Figure 2.6 d, we


were able to find the peak to peak value of the
waveform. (1.9720+2.3876= 4.3596)

Figure 2.6 b AC Sweep

Figure 2.1 e Actual prototype test

DESIGN OF 1st STAGE

Figure 2.6 c Cursor Values.

Figure 3.1 a 1st stage

Voltage was fist distributed for Rc and RE

3
6 V =4.5 V = Vc
4
Figure 2.6 d Transient Analysis
1
6 V =1.5 V =V E
4

Set ICQ = 1 mA

VC 4.5 V
RC = ; RC =
IC 1 mA

RC =4.5 k Figure 3.1 b Load Line Analysis

DESIGN OF 2nd STAGE


RC 4.7 k

IC IE

1.5V
R E=
1mA

R E=1.5 k
Figure 3.1 c 2nd Stage

R E=1.3 k (altered) V C =4.5V


R2 < 10RE (condition to follow) V E =1.5V



R2 was simply set to 10k.;
10 kOhms<13 kOhms Set Rc =1K ; for low output impedance

V2 4.5 V
I2 = IC =
R2 ; =0.7+ 1k

I 2 =200 A I C =4.5 mA ; I C I E

V CC V B I E 4.5 mA
R 1=
I2
For RE = VE/IE

R1=50 k 51 k( standard ) 1.5 V/4.5mA = 333.333

C 1 330 (standard)
bypass= ; Re = Req//RE
2 f min R e

R2 < 10(Rc)
Cbypass = 22uF
1k < 3.3K

I2 = 2.2 mA
R1=4 .4545 k 4.7 k Z O =3197.2790

R1 4.7 k A VNL=122.9774

10 2nd Stage
bypass( R E 2)=
2 (300)(8.2)
V BB =2.1053 V
C

Cbypass (R ) 660 F RTH =824.561 4


E2

=1 70.1961

I C =4.5 mA

I B=26.5438 uA

I E =4.5264 mA

F
igure 3.1 d Load line Analysis

THEORETICAL COMPUTATIONS:

1st STAGE:

V BB =1.967 2V

RTH =8.3607 k Figure 3.1 f Small Signal Analysis

Z i=580.4799
=1 50.2283

Ic = 1 mA Z O =689.6552

IE = 1.0067 mA
A VNL =49.4586
IB = 6.6565 uA
Two StagesCoupled :

Figure 3.1 e Small Signal Analysis

Z i=2662.1298
Figure 3.1 g Two Port Model 2nd Calculate Simulate %
stage d d Difference
A V 1=1 8.8964 Ic 4.5 mA 4.34 mA 3.56 %
Ib 26.5438 25.5 uA 3.93 %
uA
A V 2=29.2714 IE 4.5265 4.37 uA 3.46 %
mA
A VT = 553.1241
Gain Calculated Simulated %
Frequency Response Difference
Av1 -18.8964 -18.6343 1.39%
Av2 -29.2714 -26.91 8.07 %
Total 553.1241 569.7699 3.01 %
Av

Final Specs Summary

Figure 3.1 h Frequency Response

f L1 = 22.8780 Hz 23 Hz

f L2 =19.1497Hz 19 Hz

f L3 = 9.4194 Hz 9 Hz

fLe 1 308 Hz

fLe2 = 294.0779 Hz V. CONCLUSION

BW =f hf l We therefore conclude that even the


simplest design requires a lot of factors to
consider. Techniques, biasing, and rules of
BW =18.8360 kHz341.1426 Hz thumb became one of the major drivers when it
comes to designing with a given range of
BW =18. 4950 kHz specifications. There is no perfect design at all,
there are always lots of drawbacks that could
be encountered when setting a parameter to be
% =3.807 high or low in value. Though there are
sacrifices, there are always room for
Percent Differences with simulation improvements. In designing, one should know
how every part of design affects the circuit as a
1st Calculate Simulate % whole. Careful action plans and further
stage d d Difference analysis should always be implied.
Ic 1 mA 987 uA 1.3 %
Ib 6.6565 6.57 uA 1.30% VI. ATTACHMENTS
uA
IE 1.0067 993 uA 1.36%
mA
Final PCB Layout

Amplifier Casing

VII. REFERENCES

[1] AspenCore, Inc. (2017). Introduction to the


Amplifier. Retrieved May 1, 2017,
from http://www.electronics-
tutorials.ws/amplifier/amp_1.html.

[2] AspenCore, Inc. (n.d.). Introduction to the


Amplifier. Retrieved 2017, from
Layout soldered on a PCB http://www.electronics-
tutorials.ws/amplifier/amp_1.html.

[3] Seshadri, B. (2015, November 10). What is


a transistor, how does it work, and
how can it be used as an amplifier or
switch? Retrieved May 2, 2017, from
https://www.quora.com/What-is-a-
transistor-how-does-it-work-and-
how-can-it-be-used-as-an-amplifier- [10] (2005). Single Stage Transistor Amplifier.
or-switch. In V. K. Mehta, Principles of
Electronics (p. 619). India: S. Chand
[4] Woodford, C. (2016, August 26). Publishing.
Amplifiers. Retrieved May 2, 2017,
from
http://www.explainthatstuff.com/ampl
ifiers.html.

[5]

Scherz, P. (2000). Practical Electronics for


Inventors. In P. Scherz, Practical
Electronics for Inventors (p. 605).
New York: McGraw-Hill.

[6] (2002). ECE60L. Winter.

[7] A. (2007). Amplifiers Module 02. In


E.Coates.

[8] Laker, K. R. (2008). Common Emitter BJT


Amplifier. ESE319 Introduction to
Team Circuit Breakers, 2017
MicroElectronics, 19.
To God be the Glory!
[9] Lloyd. (n.d.). SwampingCEAmplifier.
Retrieved from From left to right: Jayson Asi, Kathlyn
http://munro.humber.ca/~lloyd/tech15 Almarez, Joseph Jeremy Botardo
0/SwampingCEAmplifier.pdf.