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Celina Gunnarsson

December 5, 2016

1 Exam topics

To succeed in this class and on this exam, you will need to understand the material covered in previous exams.

However, from the topics covered since last exam, you should be able to:

understand how the Navier-Stokes equation is derived and what assumptions are involved in this derivation

generate a list of justifiable assumptions from a problem statement

use assumptions to simplify Navier-Stokes equations

reduce scaled Navier-Stokes equations to a solvable form based on the relative contributions of flow-determining

terms

apply conservation of mass and momentum to macroscopic scale problems

find flow rate and average velocity in a microvessel networks using the electrical analogy for Poiseuille flow

2.1 General concepts

2.1.1

Write the general expression for the conservation of a quantity X in a system.

2.1.2

Write the general expression for the flux of a quantity X across a surface A. Flux is describes the quantity

X entering a surface A per unit time and is defined as

1 X

A t

2.1.3

Write the general expression for a constitutive equation.

(potential)

F luxn = {constitutive property}

n

Here, n is perpendicular to the surface A through which there is flux. Flux occurs according to a surface and its unit

normal, so both diffusive flux equations (given here) and convective flux equations must account for this direction.

1

2.1.4

Write the expressions for convection mass and momentum flux. How are these quantities derived?

Mass flux: A1 m 1 AL

= L

t = A t t = v n where L is the length dimension perpendicular to the surface A.

Momentum flux: A1c t =

(mv) v

v

n

Again note that momentum and mass flux through a surface A is only due to the velocity perpendicular to that

surface, i.e. only due to velocity in the n direction. So, to be rigorous, you need to dot velocity by -

n to get the

velocity that actually passes through the surface. Here, the negative sign accounts for the outward-facing direction

of the unit normal, i.e. when velocity and n are in the same direction, fluid is exiting the surface, whereas when they

are in opposite directions, fluid is entering.

For flux entering a cylindrical volume through the circular face (as in Lecture 2), mass flux = vx and momentum

flux = vx2

2.1.5

What is meant by convective vs. diffusive flow terms? What is meant by inertial vs. viscous flow

terms? You may provide examples of each kind of term to aid your explanation.

Convective terms describe the contributions of bulk fluid motion to the systems mass and momentum. Diffusive

terms describe the contributions of diffusive motion of individual particles along a gradient to the systems mass and

momentum.

Inertial and viscous are the fluid-specific descriptors for convective and diffusive terms, respectively.

2.2 Assumptions

2.2.1

List common assumptions related to fluid property, and write as mathematical expressions.

Incompressible - f luid = c

Newtonian - f luid = c

Isothermal - Tf luid = c

Note that incompressible fluids do not exhibit flow-dependent density effects. So, an incompressible fluid at rest

and an incompressible fluid in motion will have the same density. The incompressible assumption is an assumption

related to the intrinsic property of a fluid. It does not mean the density of a system always has to be constant.

(For systems in which multiple fluids are mixed, the density of the fluid mixture might not always be constant, unless

you say the fluids are well-mixed!)

2.2.2

List common assumptions related to flow, and write as mathematical expressions.

Fully developed - the flow profile and boundary layer do not change along the direction of flow. s = 0 where s is

the flow direction.

Dimensionality - reduces the number of required space coordinates. (For example, by assuming that changes in one

spatial dimension will be 0. For fluid flowing down an inclined plane, we assumed that z = 0.)

Directionality - reduces the number of required velocity coordinates. (For example, by assuming that there will be

no flow in a particular direction. For fluid flowing down an inclined plane, we assumed that vz = 0.)

Symmetry - either axisymmetric ( = 0) or midplane ( n = 0) where n is normal coordinate.

2.3.1

For the set of four Navier-Stokes equations, what conservation principles were applied to get each?

Conservation of mass, conservation of momentum for each coordinate (x, y and z; r, and z; r, and ).

2.3.2

Identify the terms in the Navier-Stokes equations that correspond to the terms in the conservation

equation.

2

The general form of the Navier-Stokes momentum equation is

(v)

+ (v )v = P + 2 v + mg

t

The Cartesian Navier-Stokes x-momentum equation is

vx vx vx vx P 2 vx 2 vx 2 vx

( + vx + vy + vz )= + ( 2 + 2

+ ) + mgx

t x y z x x y z 2

General: (v)

t

X-momentum only: v x

t

Which Navier-Stokes terms describe mass/momentum production?

General: P + mg

X-momentum only: Px + mgx

Which describe net entry of mass/momentum?

General: (v )v + 2 v

2 vx 2 vx 2 vx

X-momentum only: (vx v vx vx

x + vy y + vz z ) + ( x2 + y 2 + z 2 )

x

Of these net entry terms, which describe the contribution of convection to mass/momentum entry?

General: (v )v

X-momentum only: (vx v vx

x + vy y + vz z )

x vx

Of diffusion?

General: 2 v

2 2 2

X-momentum only: ( xv2x + yv2x + zv2x )

2.3.3

What is the expression for a shear stress ij on a Newtonian fluid?

vi vj

ij = ( + )

j i

2.3.4

2 2v 2

Based on your expression for ij , show how xxx yyx zzx reduces to ( xv2x + y2y + zv2z ) for an

incompressible fluid. Hint: use the Navier-Stokes continuity equation, and recall that ij = ji .

xx yx zx vx vx vx vy vx vz

= (( + )) (( + )) (( + ))

x y z x x x y y x z z x

Which simplifies to

2 vx 2 vx 2 vx 2 vx 2 vy 2 vz

( 2

+ 2

+ 2

) + ( 2 + + )

x y z x xy xz

Which simplifies to

2 vx 2 vx 2 vx vx vy vz

( 2

+ 2

+ )+ ( + + )

x y z 2 x x y z

Which simplifies to

2 vx 2 vx 2 vx 1

( 2

+ 2

+ ) + ( )

x y z 2 x t

based on the continuity equation, when incompressibility is assumed. For an incompressible single-component or

well-mixed fluid, also recall that density is constant in all spatial dimensions such that we get

2 vx 2 vx 2 vx

( + + )

x2 y 2 z 2

3

2.3.5

What assumptions are the Navier-Stokes equations based on?

Newtonian fluid

Depending upon the form of the Navier-Stokes equation, the incompressible fluid assumption may also have been

applied.

Less importantly, but technically also true: The fluid obeys the continuum hypothesis. The equations also embed

assumptions related to the relationship between shear stress, shear strain and shear strain rate, i.e. that you are

dealing with a viscous, linear isotropic fluid.

2.4.1

How would you scale the following variables: x, y, z, r, , , P, vx ?

x = x/w

y = y/h

z = z/L

P PL

P =

P0 PL

vx = vx /vmax vx = vx /vavg

Theta and phi are already dimensionless!

Also, note that dP = d(P P + PL ) = d(P P ) because derivatives of constants are zero

2.4.2

What is the purpose of scaling the Navier-Stokes equations? Would it be useful to scale the equation

2 vx

0 = P

x + y 2 ? Why or why not?

The purpose of scaling the Navier-Stokes equation is to determine the relative contributions of terms, ultimately

allowing you to reduce terms that do not contribute much to flow relative to other terms. For example, if flow in x

is much, much smaller than flow in y, then I would be able to neglect flow in x when describing the overall flow in

the system. Often, scaling allows you to reduce the Navier-Stokes equation enough to be easily solvable.

Scaling the Navier-Stokes equations allows you to reduce them into a solvable form. An equation such as 0 =

2 vx

P

x + y 2 is already readily solvable. So, scaling this equation would not be particularly useful. Further, saying

that a term is negligible in comparison to other terms is not the same as saying a term is zero. So, scaling a simple

equation such as this might even result in a loss of information!

2.4.3

Assuming steady-state and negligible gravity, scale the Navier-Stokes x-momentum equation. What

happens when the Reynolds number with respect to h (the maximum height in the y-direction) is

small?

Starting off from the general equation

vx vx vx vx P 2 vx 2 vx 2 vx

( + vx + vy + vz )= + ( 2 + 2

+ ) + mgx

t x y z x x y z 2

We know gx = 0 and t = 0.

vx vx vx P 2 vx 2 vx 2 vx

(vx + vy + vz )= + ( 2 + 2

+ )

x y z x x y z 2

Using scaling factors found previously

4

vx < v > vx < v > vx < v > P P 2 vx < v > 2 vx < v > 2 vx < v >

(vx < v > +v y < v > +v z < v > ) = +( + + )

x w y h z L x w x2 w2 y 2 h2 z 2 L2

<v>h

Because Re = is small, we want to pull out h from as many terms as possible

(vx + vy x + vz x ) =

+ 2

( 2 2 + x2 + x2 2 )

h x w y z L x w h x w y z L

<v>

Dividing both sides by h2 allows us to get a Re coefficient on the left-hand side

< v > h vx h v v h P P h2 2 v h2 2 v 2 v h2

(vx + vy x + vz x ) = + ( x2 2 + x2 + x2 2 )

x w y z L x < v > w x w y z L

For a small Reynolds number,

P P h2 2 v h2 2 v 2 v h2

0=

+ ( x2 2 + x2 + x2 2 )

x < v > w x w y z L

In summary, for a small Reynolds number the inertial terms disappear. This makes sense because the Reynolds

number itself is a ratio of inertial effects to viscous effects.

2.5.1

Write the macroscopic mass conservation in terms of mass flow rate w for a single-inlet, single-outlet

system with a leaky wall. How would this equation change for a system with m inlets and n outlets?

dm

= wwall + win wout

dt

For multiple inlets and outlets, simply subtract the sum of outlet mass flow rates from inlet mass flow rates.

2.5.2

For the same problem, write the integral forms of the accumulation of mass and of the mass flow

rates in the inlet, outlet and wall. Across which region of the system will you integrate for each and

why?

Z Z Z Z

d

dV = v n dS + in vin n dA + out

v

out n dA

dt V S Ain Aout

The generalized method of dotting the negative velocity with the outward-facing unit normal will always define outlet

flow as negative and inlet flow as positive. We assume that inlet and outlet flow is perpendicular to the inlet and

outlet surfaces and since vin points inward and vout points outward, we get

Z Z Z Z

d

dV =

v

n dS + in vin dA out vout dA

dt V S Ain Aout

Based on our previous work with the microscopic approach, we know that velocity across a surface isnt necessarily

uniform. (In the microscopic approach, we avoided this problem by using an infinitesimally small surface.) For this

reason, we integrate all the mass fluxes over the area to get the momentum entering our system through that specific

area. For the inlet, this area is Ain . For the outlet, this area is Aout . For the wall, this area is S. Similarly, because

we dont necessarily expect momentum to be uniform across the large system volume, we integrate over the volume

V to get the total momentum accumulation within the system.

5

2.5.3

For the same problem, show how assuming the system is incompressible, well-mixed and at steady-

state simplifies the mass balance.

Z Z Z Z

d

dV = v n dS + in vin dA out vout dA

dt V S Ain Aout

For an incompressible fluid, density is not affected by flow. So, even though velocity might not be uniform across

the inlet, outlet or wall surface, density will be and we treat it as a constant in our integration.

Z Z Z

d(V )

= v n dS + in vin dA out vout dA

dt S Ain Aout

which becomes Z

d(V )

= v

n dS + in < v >in Ain out < v >out Aout

dt S

For a well-mixed fluid, the density is uniform throughout the volume, such that

Z

dV

= v n dS + < v >in Ain < v >out Aout

dt S

At steady state, Z

0 =

v n dS + < v > A < v > A

in in out out

S

2.5.4

The general expression for momentum entering a volume through a conduit i is Ai (i

vi )(

vi

R

ni dAi ),

R 2

which can be written as Ai (i vi )dAi ( ei ni ) ei .

What do

ei and

ni represent and in what direction do they point? Draw the directions of

ei and

ni on the inlet and outlet faces for a single inlet-outlet straight tube, single inlet-outlet L-shaped

tube and single inlet-outlet U-shaped tube.

e - unit vector in velocity direction

i

ni - outward-facing unit normal

6

Consider the (

ei

ni )

ei term. What is its direction in the following cases:

both

ei and

ni are positive

both are negative

only

e is negative

i

only

ni is negative

How would this cause the momentum balances for a straight tube, L-shaped tube and U-shaped

tube to differ from each other?

When both

e and

i

n are positive, the direction is positive.

i

When only

e is negative, the direction is positive.

i

When only

ni is negative, the direction is negative.

As you can see from the previous diagram, the straight and L-shaped tubes will have inlet momentum entry

= < vin >2 Ain and outlet momentum entry = - < vout >2 Aout for an incompressible, well-mixed fluid.

However, the U-shaped tube will have inlet momentum entry = < vin >2 Ain and outlet momentum entry

= < vout >2 Aout .

What does the i vi (

vi

ni ) term represent? Why is it necessary to dot with

ni ? (Hint: does flow

parallel to a surface result in flux across the surface?)

The term represents the convective momentum flux, found previously. As noted, it is necessary to dot with the

unit normal to eliminate velocity components parallel to the surface, which do not result in flux, and to isolate

the velocity that is actually through the surface.

Why is it necessary to take the integral over dAi ?

To find the momentum entering the system through a specific area, it is necessary to sum up the fluxes over

that area. Simply multiplying by the flux by the area wont work in this case because the flux can vary across

the surface.

2.5.5

Write the macroscopic momentum conservation for a single-inlet, single-outlet system in integral

form. Simplify for straight tube, L-shaped tube and U-shaped tube cases.

For uniform pressure across the inlet and outlet surfaces,

Z Z Z

d

v dV = (i

vi )(

vi

ni dAi ) + (o

vo )(

vo

dA ) m

n o o

g + R + Ai Pi (

ei

ni )

ei + Ao Po (

eo

)

n

o eo

dt V Ai Ao

Note that momentum of a system is only changed by external forces, so the R term here represents the force by the

wall on the fluid.

ei

ni < 0 and

eo

> 0 such that.

n o

0 = Ai < vi2 >

ei Ao < vo2 >

eo m

g + R + A i Pi

e i A o Po

eo

0 = Ai < vi2 >

x Ao < vo2 >

x mg

y + Rx + Ry + Ai Pi

x A o Po

x

0 = Ai < vi2 >

y Ao < vo2 >

y + R x + R y + A i Pi

x mg

y A o Po

x

0 = Ai < vi2 >

y + Ao < vo2 >

y mg

y + Ry + Ai Pi

y + A o Po

y

7

2.6 Microvascular flow networks

2.6.1

Which terms in the Hagen-Poiseuille equation are analogous to which terms in Ohms law?

P r4

Qv =

8L

Voltage (V ) is analogous to pressure drop P .

Resistance (R) is 8L

r 4 in the Hagen-Poiseuille equation.

2.6.2

Which vessel geometry, fluid property and flow conditions are required for Hagen-Poiseuille to be

valid?

Cylindrical vessel with constant cross-sectional area. Fluid is Newtonian and incompressible. Flow is fully developed

and laminar.

2.6.3

A vessel with diameter 3D0 branches at length L0 into two vessels: one with diameter 2D0 and length

2L0 and one with diameter D0 and length 2L0 . The pressure drop across the overall network is P0 -

PL . (In other words, the pressure at the beginning of the large-diameter vessel is P0 and the pressure

at the end of the bifurcating vessels is PL .) As discussed in exam review, the best way to deal with

multiple resistances is put them in terms of one another (e.g. R0 , R1 = c1 R0 and R2 = c2 R0 )

What is the resistance of each vessel? What is the resistance of the overall network?

128L0 128L0

R0 = 4 =

4

3 D0 81D04

128 2L0 16L0

R1 = =

24 D04 D04

128 2L0 256L0

R2 = 4 =

D0 D04

In terms of each other:

8

R0 = R1

81

R2 = 16R1

R1 and R2 have an equivalent parallel resistance RR11+RR2

2

= 16

17 R1 The overall network resistance then becomes

16 8 1432 161432L0

17 R1 + 81 R1 = 1377 R1 = 1377D04

What is the volumetric flow rate through each vessel and through the overall network?

The flow rate through the overall network will be equal to the flow rate through vessel 0.

1377P D04

Q0 =

16 1432 L0

The pressure drop across vessels 1 and 2 is assumed equal; they both have the same pressure at the bifurcation Pi

and the exit pressure is PL for both. Since they have the same pressure drop, we can relate their flow rates.

Q1 = 16Q2

To conserve volume,

Q0 = Q1 + Q2 = 17Q2

Q1 = =

1432 17 L0 1432 L0

8

1377P D04 81P D04

Q2 = =

16 1432 17 L0 16 1432 L0

What is the average flow velocity through each vessel?

1377P D04 4 153P D02

< v0 >= 2 2 =

16 1432 L0 3 D0 4 1432 L0

81P D04 4 81P D02

< v1 >= 2 2 =

1432 L0 2 D0 1432 L0

81P D04 4 81P D02

< v2 >= 2 =

16 1432 L0 D0 4 1432 L0

What is the pressure at the bifurcation?

P

Q=

R

P = QR

Based on vessel 2:

81P D04 256L0 81 81 98

Pi = QR + PL = = P + PL = P0 + PL

16 1432 L0 D04 179 179 179

Based on vessel 1:

81P D04 16L0 81

Pi = = P + PL

1432 L0 D04 179

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