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HOLLAND TYPOLOGY THEORIES

CONGRUENCE (selaras) tahap keselarasan jenis prsonaliti & pkjaan

CONSISTENCY (tekal) tahap hbgan 2 psonaliti sebelah, sendeng, tentang

DIFFERENTIATION (pembezaan) ketulinan personaliti (skor tinggi-skor rndah)

CALCULUS konsep hbgan JARAK 2 personaliti jarak/kadar sgsang

IDENTITY identiti individu/persekitaran

TEORI HOLLAND hubgan lgsg personaliti individu & konteks persekitaran

Cari prsekitaran utk ekspresi diri


Tgkahlaku motivasi,achivement,kepuasan,produktiviti,stabiliti dep on djah kselarasan jenis
personaliti dgn jenis prsekitaran

REALISTIC kem. Etletik/mekanikal


Objek, mesin, alat, tumbuhan, binatang, outdoor
Engineer, operator mesin, mekanik plane, technician, gardener, tkg kayu

INVESTIGATIVE perhati,belajar,selidik,analisis,nilai,selesai masalah research


Mahir saintifik & matematik, kjaya teknikal
Doktor,biologis, kajicuaca,agronomi,fizik,astronomi,kajibumi,antropologist

ARTISTIC artistik,inovatif,intuisi,kurang berstruktur, imaginasi,kreativiti


Tak suka rutin, ulang2,brstruktru
Penyair, pnyajak, okestra,lagu,pyanyi,wartawan, arkitek, interior designer

SOCIAL suka interaksi manusia, tolg, latih, ubat, kebajikan


Mahir komunikasi/kata2 matlamat kebajikan
Sosiologist, guru, pro, pgarah kem belia, kaunselor, pgarah kebajikan

ENTERPRISING suka kerja, interaksi mnsia, manipulasi, pengaruh, pimpin, urus orglain
Profit org. & untung ekonomi
CEO, Spekulator, actuarist, eksek. Iklan, biz, publicity, lawyer, politician, pgurus hotel, jual insuran

CONVENTIONAL data/nombor
Pgkeranian, akur, terprinci, ikut arahan, data, nombor
Co. Secretary, akauntan, bookeeper, guru akaun, krani bank, krani gaji, penilai harta, jual insuran

8 KEKUATAN TEORI HOLLAND


1. MUDAH idea asas mudah pgkhususan kerjaya 6 jenis psonaliti & prsekitaran
kerja (RIASEC)

2. keSAHan teori bole terang, ram al & sahkan tingkahlku kerjaya/kehidupan


sebenar mrka. Respons Ya means mudah diterima & difahami (fokus research
utama sokong valid SAHnya)
3. Rangka Kerja Berstruktur model hexagon Holland RIASEC bantu kslr,kln, pkaji
dgn rangka krja brstruktur mudahkan logik & bfaedah pd semua

4. Prbndaharan KATA pgunaan meluas drg guna terms Holland dlm


profesional/clinical discussions. Consistent, differences, identity, calculus,
congruence drg bincang dunia krjaya >tepat&detailed

5. Praktikal Teori bole pakai alat ukur SDS (Self Directed Search) dimurni byk X,
unik bbdg lain.Diguna meluas & diterjemah > 25 bahasa. Kelebihan SDS :

Trjmahan teori H diaplikasikan kpd praktis utk kenal pmilihan krjaya sesuai. Lain2 alat ukur X
berasaskan teori
Mudah diurus kiraan skor & boleh interpretasi sendiri. Beri markah sendiri, pengguna boleh
faham lebih jelas
Alat Rawatan selain ukuran pdkatan aspek kndiri rasa selamat & kerahsiaan pengguna
Kombinasi penilaian libat impian/angan2 pkrjaan, aktiviti, kecekapan pnlaian kndiri, pkrjaan &
jgkaan diri
Skala mudah guna guna skor selaras
3 kod huruf Holland pkrjaan bekait Occupatin Finder, H Occup. Code & sumber2 kjaya oleh
sistem klasifikasi Holland
Boleh simpan & guna ulang2 sumber prancangan kerjaya tetap kepuasan, kepastian,
pengesahan dlm prncangan kerjaya
Apply in intervnsi kelompok/indivdu tgkat pmhaman kndiri, timbg plbagai pilihan kjaya, kepuasan
bkrja & pgetahuan ttg tipologi

6. Terus digunapakai beratus2 kajian & dapatan positive

7. Phgan kndiri dgn info kjaya impak kuat nilai penilaian minat & prosedur ksling kjaya

8. Interaksi mnsia & kestabilian kejayaan & kepuasan kerja

9. Implikasi alatukur jelas kenal diri, kerja & prsekitaran

10. Sekolah industri, urusan niaga, hospital, kerja ciri psikologi staff/kenal diri

11. Data brguna tgkat, beralih, pindah kaya

12. Psikologi orgnisasi pnentu kepuasan bkerja individu

KELEMAHAN TEORI HOLLAND

1. Faktor pandai & sosioekonomi tiada investigative-realistik (jurutera)

2. Tiada sebab/masa pkmbangan tak myeluruh (umur, knk2-dwasa, hbngan dgn pilihan krjaya
Super) pmbntukan personaliti X lgkap X kukuh, X complete, tak terang bgmana & kenapa
pmbentukan personaliti trjadi

3. Kurang nasihat/teknik kaunseling prosedur/langkah2

4. Proses ubah tgkahlaku dlm interaksi indvid & environment lemah

5. Proses bgmana tgkat kepuasan decision sistem hbgan bkesan tgkat pngkatan kendiri

6. Alat ukur bguna utk pgguna :

SPS lebih define category dr VPI (Voc. Pref. Inentory)


Apa kerja baru dlm klasifikasi
Tepat ke klasifikasi pekerjaan?
7. Boleh pakai pd L & P non profesional SDS Bias Jantina, plhan wanita limited : A-S-C

TEORI GINZBERG

- Faktor pgaruh VEEEA (nilai peribadi, emosi, plg pddikan, kesan pskitaran)
- Value (nilai p), Environment (sekitar), Emosi (E), Education (pdkan), Achievement (A),
- Personaliti, Minat, Kecerdasan, Sikap, Konsep Kendiri

Andaian :

- Proses plhan kerja berterusan, tak terhad selagi kerja


- Tekan pemilihan kerja, peluang kerja, pkerjaan gen. Muda tak memadai (21-25thn)
- Sering tukar2 kerja ikut keadaan
- Patah semula tak sah teruskan cabaran - latihan, pendidikan
- Kaunseling kerjaya mengembang, gmbaran lgkap diri & peranan dlm dunia kerja
- Realiti puas diri & faedah masyarakat
- Optimis sesuai & relevan dgn individu (1972)
- Consider kekurangan teknan, background fmly, education stress pgaruh kstabilan keje
- Orientasi nilai penting capai kepuasan
- Teroka peluang baru

3 prgkat : FANTASI - PERCUBAAN - REALISTIK

- Fantasi (6-11) : pmainan jd orientasi pkejaan

- Percubaan (11-17) : minat, kebolehan, nilai, peralihan transisi, ksesuaian, fkir realiti,
minat asas utama, kebolhan pgtahuan X lgkap, plhan berubah Xserius, nilai, peralihan
sedar pilihan & kesan

- Realistik (17 dewasa) info kjaya, pgkususan, plhan lebih tepat, 3 prgkat : jelajah (teliti
plihan keje), pbentukn (boleh pilih, aspek kmpromi), pnentuan (had pilihan, laksana pilhan)

4 KELEMAHAN GINZBERG :-

- Tak menyeluruh tak lengkap 3 prgkat saja : tiada kanak2 pkmbgan pilihan
inventori minat
- Ginzberg perlu ada prgkat lepas realistik lebih penting cakup seluruh prkgat
kerja
- Tiada hubgan Tahap pkembangan umur dgn Pilhan kerjaya
- Pilhan kerjaya proses berterusan realiti dgn pkmbgan umur. Pkmbangan kjaya seiiring
dgn pngkatan umur sebenar
- Tiada Minat, nilai, peluang dlm aspek kerjaya HOLLAND
- Super realiti, tahap, keadaan & cara pelaksanaan

3 prgkat GINZBERG
Realistik
Umur
Minat, nilai, peluang

TEORI SUPER

Teori Pendekatan Proses Kerjaya Fokus Konsep Kendiri Kerjaya (beza diri dgn orglain)

Gabungan aspek perkembangan sosial personaliti fenomenologikal psikologi konsep


kendiri teori pembelajaran

Kanak2 Remaja Dewasa Tua Konsep Kendiri Jiwa : kndiri istilah pkerjaan

Konsep kendiri kpluan latihan profesional kerjaya yg dipilih

FAKTOR PENGARUH PKMBGAN KRJAYA :-

Ekonomi edaran pdgangan, perubahan teknologi, peperangan


Sosial status sosioekonomi, taraf pdidikan, kwarganegaraan, bgsa, agma, gender
Psikologi warisan biologi, kcerdasan, bakat istimewa, nilai

PRGKAT PKMBAGAN KONSEP KENDIRI :

Tumbuh (0-14)
Teroka (15-24)
Kukuh (25-44)
Kekal (45-64)
Turun (65 ke atas)

1. Pertumbuhan :
0-14, knsp kndiri bnding diri dgn org lain, lihat & nilai diri sendiri

2. Penerokaan :
15-24, teroka strength, weakness, potensi diri, kenal dunia kerja

3. Pengukuhan
24-44, get konsp kndiri krja lebih trjamin, dah kerja

4. Pengekalan :
45-64, kukuh position, kekal knsep kndiri Pgarah, Pgtua, Guru Kanan, Guru Besar,
Ketua Pgarah, Ketua Jabatan

5. Penurunan :
65 ke atas, kurang tenaga, tukar knsep kndiri lebih sesuai, pencen - new more suitable
job

Edaran Maxi pkmbgan konsep kndiri UTAMA ptumbhan pnurunan


Edaran Mini edaran kecil dlm edaran utama

RUMUSAN TEORI SUPER :


Mnusia beza kebolehan, minat, personaliti
Ciri2 beza layak mcm2 jenis pkerjaan
Tiap kerja prlu corak2 trtntu kebolehan-minat-tret personaliti toleransi luas benar
beberapa jenis individu 1 kerja dan beberapa kerja 1 individu
Proses bterusan pmilihan kjaya & kcekapan situasi lokasi kediaman, bkerja, masa,
pglaman (konsep kndiri individu berubah)
Prgkat Kehidupan proses perubahan & prkembangan ptumbuhan pnurunan
Corak smulajadi krjaya prgkat kerja & order, kekerapan, jgkamasa keje pcubaan &
tetap ditntukan aras sosio-ekonomi ibubapa, kbolehan mental, ciri personaliti &
peluang2 individu (dedahan peluang)
Boleh bimbing prkmbangan prgkat hidup pcepat proses matang, kebolehan, minat &
sbhg lg dgn bantu ujian realiti & pkmbgan konsep kendiri individu
Proses pmbntukan & plksanaan konsep kendiri proses prkmgn kerjaya proses
kompromi konsep kendiri hasil interaksi kcenderungan, warisan sistem neural &
endokrin, peluang2 main few peranan & pnilaian how far ketua & rakan setuju peranan
Proses kompromi individu & faktor sosial dn konsep kndiri & realiti satu main peranan
pernan khayalan dlm interview kaunseling/hidup sbenar dlm kelas/sekolah, kelab
kerja part/full time
Kepuasan kerja/kepuasan hidup bgntg how far individu dpt cukup jln keluar salur
kebolehan minat, tret2 personaliti & nilai2nya, kemantapan 1-1 kerja, situasi kerja,
cara khidupan boleh main peranan dianggap sesuai/sepadan dgn ptumbuhan &
pgalaman jelajahnya.

SOFT & HARD SKILLS

Soft skills is a sociological term - person's "EQ" (Emotional Intelligence Quotient), the
cluster of personality traits, social graces, communication, language, personal habits,
friendliness, and optimism that characterize relationships with other people. [1] Soft skills
complement hard skills (part of a person's IQ), which are the occupational requirements of a job
and many other activities.

dependability and conscientiousness - significant return on investment for an organization.

The legal profession - ability to deal with people effectively and politely, more than their mere
occupational skills, can determine the professional success of a lawyer. [3]

Hard Skills versus Soft Skills

Hard skills describe processes, procedures, industry specific jargon and are easy to
measure and quantify. They are terms such as; account management, talent acquisition and
development, client retention, data management, project management, accounts receivable
and payable, product support, and new business development.

Soft skills are personality descriptors and people skills and not easily measured or
quantifiable. They include terms such as; excellent communicator, great verbal and written
skills, problem solving, providing support, listening, teamwork and more.

How to Differentiate Between Hard Skills And Soft Skills

HARD SKILLS

Hard skills are tangible skills that are easy to teach, identify, and measure. Eg hard skills
are occupational skills such as technical and administrative; accounts payable,
accounts receivable, typing, machine operator, financial analyst, and computer
operator are all hard skills. Hard skills also include your degrees, certifications, job titles,
and computer lingo. Hard skills can be taught in school or via on-the-job training.

SOFT SKILLS

Soft skills are intangible interpersonal skills that are associated with an individuals ability
to effectively interact with others. These skills are not easy to measure but they can be
observed in individuals who possess the ability to interact with people well. Some examples
of soft skills are decision maker, motivator, leader, problem solver, excellent
communicator, critical thinking skills and more. Soft skills are more behavioral
learned.

WHY THESE SKILLS ARE NECESSARY IN THE WORKPLACE

SOFT SKILLS such as; problem solving skills, analytical thinking, communication
skills, and leadership skills. Overall, your hard skills will help - interview with a potential
employer and yoursoft skills - help you advance in the company if hired.

SOFT SKILLS - communication, listening, negotiation, etiquette, language skills etc.

Soft skills play a vital role for professional success; they help one to excel in the workplace and
their importance cannot be denied in this age of information and knowledge. Good soft skills --
which are in fact scarce -- in the highly competitive corporate world will help you stand out in a
milieu of routine job seekers with mediocre skills and talent.

"an across-the-board unanimous profile of skills and characteristics needed to make a good
employee." The people most likely to be hired for available jobs have what employers call "soft
skills".

The most common traits, mentioned by virtually every employer, were:

~ Positive work ethic.


~ Good attitude.
~ Desire to learn and be trained.

'good attitude: "It is a behavioural skill - cannot be taught - developed through continuous
training. It represents the reactive nature of the individual and is about looking at things with
the right perspective. - ready to solve problems proactively and create win-win situations -
must be able to take ownership ie responsibility for your actions and lead from the front
without calling it quits at the most critical moment."
"hard skills" - capability to operate machinery or fulfill other tasks, but many potential hires
lack the "soft skills" that a company needs.

CEOs and human resource managers said they are ready to hire workers who demonstrate a
high level of "soft skills" and then train them for the specific jobs available. The ever-changing
impact of technology has given hard-skills-only workers a short shelf life.

results of the Workforce Profile, (source: www.workforce.com) the more valuable employee is
one who can grow and learn as the business changes.

Soft skills "are as important, if not more important, than traditional hard skills to an employer
looking to hire -- regardless of industry or job type. This could offer a major breakthrough as
educators and training providers seek to develop and cluster training courses to fit business
and industry needs."

Top 60 SOFT SKILLS

The Workforce Profile defined about 60 "soft skills", which employers seek. They are applicable
to any field of work, according to the study, and are the "personal traits and skills that
employers state are the most important when selecting employees for jobs of any type."

1. Math.
2. Safety.
3. Courtesy.
4. Honesty.
5. Grammar.
6. Reliability.
7. Flexibility.
8. Team skills.
9. Eye contact.
10. Cooperation.
11. Adaptability.
12. Follow rules.
13. Self-directed.
14 Good attitude.
15. Writing skills.
16. Driver's license.
17. Dependability.
18. Advanced math.
19. Self-supervising.
20. Good references.
21. Being drug free.
22. Good attendance.
23. Personal energy.
24. Work experience.
25. Ability to measure.
26. Personal integrity.
27. Good work history.
28. Positive work ethic.
29. Interpersonal skills.
30. Motivational skills.
31. Valuing education.
32. Personal chemistry.
33. Willingness to learn.
34. Common sense.
35. Critical thinking skills.
36. Knowledge of fractions.
37. Reporting to work on time.
38. Use of rulers and calculators.
39. Good personal appearance.
40. Wanting to do a good job.
41. Basic spelling and grammar.
42. Reading and comprehension.
43. Ability to follow regulations.
44. Willingness to be accountable.
45. Ability to fill out a job application.
46. Ability to make production quotas.
47. Basic manufacturing skills training.
48. Awareness of how business works.
49. Staying on the job until it is finished.
50. Ability to read and follow instructions.
51. Willingness to work second and third shifts.
52. Caring about seeing the company succeed.
53. Understanding what the world is all about.
54. Ability to listen and document what you have heard.
55. Commitment to continued training and learning.
56. Willingness to take instruction and responsibility.
57. Ability to relate to coworkers in a close environment.
58. Not expecting to become a supervisor in the first six months.
59. Willingness to be a good worker and go beyond the traditional eight-hour day.
60. Communication skills with public, fellow employees, supervisors, and customer

Top 10 Soft Skills for Job Hunters

1. Strong Work Ethic. Are you motivated and dedicated to getting the job done, no matter
what? Will you be conscientious and do your best work?

2. Positive Attitude. Are you optimistic and upbeat? Will you generate good energy and good
will?

3. Good Communication Skills. Are you both verbally articulate and a good listener? Can
you make your case and express your needs in a way that builds bridges with colleagues,
customers and vendors?

4. Time Management Abilities. Do you know how to prioritize tasks and work on a number
of different projects at once? Will you use your time on the job wisely?

5. Problem-Solving Skills. Are you resourceful and able to creatively solve problems that will
inevitably arise? Will you take ownership of problems or leave them for someone else?

6. Acting as a Team Player. Will you work well in groups and teams? Will you be cooperative
and take a leadership role when appropriate?

7. Self-Confidence. Do you truly believe you can do the job? Will you project a sense of calm
and inspire confidence in others? Will you have the courage to ask questions that need to be
asked and to freely contribute your ideas?

8. Ability to Accept and Learn From Criticism. Will you be able to handle criticism? Are
you coachable and open to learning and growing as a person and as a professional?
9. Flexibility/Adaptability. Are you able to adapt to new situations and challenges? Will you
embrace change and be open to new ideas?

10. Working Well Under Pressure. Can you handle the stress that accompanies deadlines
and crises? Will you be able to do your best work and come through in a pinch?

Each company looks for a different mix of skills and experience depending on the business it's
in. Yet it's no longer enough to be a functional expert. To complement these unique core
competencies, there are certain "soft skills" every company looks for in a potential hire.

"Soft skills" refer to a cluster of personal qualities, habits, attitudes and social graces that make
someone a good employee and compatible to work with. Companies value soft skills because
research suggests and experience shows that they can be just as important an indicator of job
performance as hard skills.

Today's service economy and the ascendance of work teams in large organizations puts a new
premium on people skills and relationship-building," Portland-based human resources expert
Lori Kocon says. "And with business being done at an increasingly fast pace, employers also
want people who are agile, adaptable and creative at solving problems."

Kocon advises all job candidates -- especially those who aspire to managerial positions -- to get
in touch with their soft sides. Some of the most common soft skills employers are looking for
and will be assessing you on include:

SOFT SKILLS VS. HARD SKILLS?

Are "soft skills" more important than actual knowledge? We all want to hire "team players

I began designing and selling pre-employment tests for skilled tradesmen ten years ago. I chose this field
because as a mechanical engineer, -, I had come to respect and value their abilities. What's more, I
LIKED them - line was down, they were the people who would fix it.

I saw what companies were using for "mechanical aptitude" tests, and it bothered me that as a college-
educated engineer/math nerd, I could easily outscore my best maintenance mechanic on your typical
Bennett or Wonderlic test. Why didn't someone write a test that would truly allow those individuals to
shine? A test where THEY would outscore ME?? And after many false starts and wrong turns, that's finally
what I succeded in creating. It's called the "Shop Apprentice" and I'm extremely proud of it. - full-fledged
electrical/mechanical geniuses.

Not only was I pleased; the client was also very satisfied with the whole process. A win-win situation all
around, right? Well, not exactly. About two months after the plant opened, I was able to engage the client
in a detailed "post-mortem" of the hiring process. I was dismayed to learn that of the six applicants who
were hired, the HIGHEST scorer among them had ranked TWELFTH overall on my test, and among others
who were hired (based on strong performances in the interview) were some who ranked in in the high
twenties or worse!

But those three electrical-mechanical geniuses...were they ALL such "bad apples"? My whole top
ten...none of them worthy of being hired!? I can understand that out of the top ten, maybe you have to
reject two or three based on personality issues...but was it necessary to go all the way to number twelve
on the list before finding someone who fits your preconceived notion of a "good employee"?

Of all the jobs in a manufacturing facility, if there's ONE JOB where actual knowledge is more important
than soft skills, it's the job of maintenance mechanic. I have to wonder: just what exactly were the "soft
skills" were they unable to demonstrate in the interview process? How easy is it to simply brush off a
man by saying "he's not a team player"?

When job-hunting - focus on the skills most likely to interest the prospective employer and
learn to demonstrate these skills through your resume, in an interview or in dealing with
potential employers at career fairs or industry association gatherings.
For example, tell a story of how you successfully handled a crisis or challenge at your company.
Mention honors you received or even bring along letters of thanks or commendation from an
employer or customer.

However, a recent survey carried out by my own company has shown high levels of
dissatisfaction among the call centre industry, specifically the ground level staff and 1st level
management.

As a generalisation, these people feel as if they have been let down. This is the yawning gap in
customer satisfaction experienced by a number of companies, this is the very expensive
yawning gap of finding trained and motivated call centre staff.

From my own observations and experiences on strategic UK, European and global projects, I
have found that many call centres consistently fail to live up to their full potential.

This leads to both negative human and financial consequences resulting in poor customer
service, lost business and a high level of disillusionment within the call centre industry.

The reasons for this across the board failing are varied, but specifically from a strategic point of
view it is mainly because of the imbalance between the above two skill factors: hard skills and
soft skills.

It is a commercial necessity that many senior managers have to focus on the hard skills area.
However, the failings start to appear when this complete focus is pressure fed cascaded along
the chain of command all the way along to team leaders.

The focus on stats is of course important, but there also always has to be a balance with the
soft skills area of call centre work, and indeed in most other areas of work/ life.

All the way along the chain of command straight to agent level, most call centres focus on the
stats to the detriment of soft skills development and the "people" element of the call centre.

This has the unwanted result of agents being bombarded with the demands and requirements
emerging from the hard skills area. While agents and team leaders need to know what is
expected of them - and why - they invariably respond more effectively to the soft skills
approach. This is often overlooked and results in a decreased performance throughout the call
centre and an unwanted culture.

The problem is it is unusual to find that desired blend of hard and soft skills within the call
centre management structure. This is mostly because of extensive pressure from above,
forcing managers to concentrate only on the hard skills.

Let's face it anyway, many managers and people in general already have trouble with soft
skills. Call centres are especially prone to such vagaries of human nature and tend to amplify
those potentially negative short falls due to the sheer intensity of the work and the heavy
reliance upon one another.

People - and especially call centre agents - need to be inspired. This will rarely happen from the
pure hard skill area of work. Make no mistake - stats and financials are important and
necessary for a full business understanding.
However, what inspires people more is the human approach, the emotional approach, lifting
them from what may be overwhelming financials and stats into a state of self belief, and from
this, a state of achievement. When this happens, any negative stats there are, are quickly
swept away because positive and inspired agents will produce more positive and inspired work.

From experience, this is where most call centres fail to live up to commercial and agent
expectations. Most call centres experience some form of negative feedback spiral culminating
in agents feeling a definite lack of respect and appreciation resulting in less work and
decreasing results. This is so easily halted with soft skills dealing with motivation and
communication.

Based upon an understanding of the financials and agent buy in through motivation and a
shared responsibility of success, call centres can become more effective than they tend to be
for the long term sustainable benefit of everyone involved.

Call centres come and go but only the successful remain. This success is built upon sound
financial results driven from motivated agents. Motivation gained from proper communication
and an appreciation of the inherent factors that create within people that elusive sense of
achievement.

Inspiration is the key.

Inspiration created from ourselves as professional, motivated and experienced call centre
managers. Call centre managers are in a unique position to inspire their staff. They are in a
unique position to spread the fruits of success and to make the agent experience a worthwhile
and attractive work / life function