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OTC 8530

Field Cases of Cost Efficient Slickline Well Interventions


David R. Larimore, S P E , a n d Gary Z. Fehrmann, S P E , Halliburton Energy Services

Copyright 1997, Onshore Technology Conference straints of the last decade, slickline service was only considered
This paper was prepared for presentationat the 1997 Onshore Technology Conference held in for routine mechanical workovers. Who would have considered
Houston. Texas. 5-8 May 1997.
using slickline to set a packer in the early 90's.
This paper was selected for presentation by the OTC Program Committee following review of
information contained in an abstract submined by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as
The capabilities that have changed the profile of slickline
presented, have not been reviewed by the Otfshore Technology Conference and are subject b service from one of routine mechanical well workovers to a
coneclion by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position
of the Otfshore Technology Conference or its officers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or multi-faceted service technology are derived from the new
storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the
Offshore Technology Conference is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restrictedto
slickline tools that can be used independently or combined to
an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstracl must further enhance the scope of services. The equipment includes
contain conspicuous adtnowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented.
an electronic triggering device (ETD) that enables safe detona-
tion of explosive devices, a battery-operated, electro-mechanical
Abstract tool that sets wellbore devices on slickline and braided line
The comparison of today's slickline capabilities with its early without explosives, an electronic measurement system that
usage for routine remedial workovers and maintenance best automatically corrects measurement inaccuracies resulting from
illustrates the significant advances that have occurred within line stretch and environmental stress factors, a slickline collar
slickline technology. Today, for example, slickline can be used locator (SLCL) that accurately verifies collar locations in a
to I ) set and retrieve slickline-retrievable safety valves or plugs, tubing string, and dataljob loggers or acquisition software
2) open and close downhole circulating devices, 3)retrieve systems that connect to the electronic measurement system to
accurate depthhime data for correlating with memory production graphically record dynamic wireline information.
surveys for well diagnostics (problem identification) reservoir
description, or flow analysis, 4) provide accurate correlation of History of Service and Equipment Development
tubing casing collars, and 5) pull and run multiple flow controls Traditionally, slickline servicing has been able to provide an
set packers and other downhole equipment without explosives; effective means for performing well maintenance by high speed
setting monobore tools; and other perform other well interven- mechanical deployment, manipulation, and retrieval of downhole
tions that are dependent upon measurement accuracy. Less than service tools in all types of wells, including those with high
a decade ago, slickline was only considered for mechanical well pressure and flowing well conditions. Its portability has allowed
workovers.
it to be cost efficient for performing these services in remote
This paper will discuss the newly developed technology that locations and on satellite platforms.
allows slickline to economically provide alternatives to services
Although slickline service capabilities, completion equip-
traditionally reserved for other, more costly options. Case ment, and wire have continually been improved over the last fifty
histories will be used to illustrate the enlarged scope of services
years, a significant increase in the use of slickline to replace the
and how the equipment combines to provide the innovative low
traditional service options has only recently been noted. Several
cost service options that the industry has been seeking.
factors have been instrumental in effecting this change:
1. Although the oilfield has always encouraged investiga-
Introduction
tion into new methods, until the declining economic conditions
Economic initiatives are usually the drivers of new technologies,
of the last few years surfaced, very little attention had been paid
and thus, reacting to the significant decline in the oilfield climate
to slickline depth measurement capabilities and the technical
during the last decade, no era has been as momentous in provid-
merit of surface measurement accuracy during normal operations.
ing stimuli for operational change. Unfortunately, operators who
2. The newly emerging oilfield technologies have been
are seeking new methods usually look to new technologies as the
such that precise measurements have become more critical.
potential problem solvers, and in so doing, overlook enhance-
Examples of these innovations include production strings with
ments to the older, proven technologies that could provide the
multiple profiles closely spaced in a tubing string and tubing
cost efficient alternatives they want.
strings without locating profiles such as the new nippleless
This has been the case with slickline. Until the resurgence of
investigation into new strategies to meet the oilfield cost con- completions. One of the major contributors to the increase in the
scope of slickline service, therefore, has been the development
DAVID R. LARIMORE and GARY Z. FEHRMANN OTC 8530
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of an electronic depth measurement system that is capable of Advanced Measurement System (AMS) - The aforementioned
providing the accurate depth control needed in the servicing slickline service tools provide functionality and can accomplish
operations to support these new technologies.',' tasks at substantial savings over comparable electric line
3. Finally, state-of-the art slickline tools have been services. The services they offer, however, share one common
developed that combine to expand the slickline scope of services. need for job success -dependency on measurement accuracy to
The tools that have been particularly instrumental in allowing reliably place the service tool at a selected depth in the wellbore.
this upsurge of slickline usage to take place are described in the An advanced measurement system that automatically corrects
following sections.' measurement inaccuracies resulting from line stretch and
environmental stress factors has been developed to satisfy this
Overview of the New Slickline Equipment need. The system uses high-speed microprocessing compatible
Electronic Triggering Device (ETD). The electronic trigger with slickline speeds to deliver measurement accuracy that is
device (ETD) is one of the first modern slickline service tools to comparable to electric line units.
incorporate efficient electrical circuitry downhole. It can be The advanced measurement system for slickline is an
used for perforating and cutting tubing and casing, activating operator interface portable tool that provides accurate depth and
setting tools for bridge plugs and/or packers, and for dump line tension measurements for routine and advanced slickline
bailing. (Fig. 1). By coupling a battery pack, control circuit, operations. The system consists of three primary components:
firing head and the proper electric detonator, the electronic the depth panel, the encoder, and the slickline tension-measuring
trigger device becomes a self contained system to fire perforating load sensor. The depth panel and a combination counter with
charges, tubing cutters and other explosive devices. Electric integral load sensor and depth measuring wheel can be seen in
wireline and special electronic surface equipment is not required, Fig. 3. Digital displays include depth, line tension, and line
and to ensure safety, a proprietary control circuit monitors speed. Analog line tension dial indicators for gross tension and
pressure, temperature, time and movement. incremental tension (k5 lbf) provide the clarity and response
sensitivity necessary during slickline operations.
Downhole Power Unit (DPUTM).The DPUTh4is an electro- To facilitate operational safety, several features have been
mechanical setting device suitable for setting and retrieving incorporated. These are: I) a 100-footlmeter surface alarm that
downhole tools on slickline equipment without the use of warns the operator of approaching the surface depth, 2) an
explosive charge^.^ As shown in Fig 2., the DPUTh4consists of excessive tension override, which can be tied into the hydraulic
three sections. The top section of the tool encloses the pressure drive and will stall the hydraulic drive of the wireline drum if line
sending actuator, the middle section is the control and power tension exceeds the operator's setting, and 3) continuous
source, and the lower section contains the linear drive mecha- recording of depth data in flash memory, which will allow the
nism. A proprietary control circuit controls the setting opera- wireline operator to recover true depth information regardless of
tion. The control circuit senses pressure, time and movement. power failure or inadvertent operator switch interference. The
When the proper conditions are met, the setting operation is retrieval of depth, line speed, line tension, and time data is
activated. Since no explosives are used, safety is increased, and readily performed for use with downhole memory production
maintenance is decreased. The reduced maintenance require- surveys, job reporting and slickline collar locator logs.
ments allow the tool to be quickly reset for another operation.
Traditionally, the method of choice for setting wireline Slickline Collar Locator (SLCL) - With accurate depth
packers, bridge plugs, and similar wellbore tools has consisted of measurements available on slickline, there is still a question as to
running an electrically-activated explosive-charge setting tool to position of downhole tools in relationship to collars in the
the required depth on electric line and activating the tool with tubinglcasing string in the well. A slickline collar locator has
electric charge. Recently, however, new completion technologies been developed to determine the position of collars downhole in
such as monobore lock/plugging systems with wellbore configu- real time and to provide that information to the operator. The
rations in which the explosive-type setting method is not slickline collar locator, an electro-mechanical device, couples a
desirable have been introduced to the oilfield. In these configu- standard electric line collar locator sensor with a battery-powered
rations, the rapid setting motion provided by explosive-charge "drag" mechanism on the toolstring and a computer system
actuated tools may not allow the slips and sealing elements to coupled with the electronic measurement system at the surface.
fully conform to the tubing wall. The downhole power unit When the toolstring passes a collar, the electro-magnetic drag
produces a bi-directional, linear force for setting or retrieving mechanism is triggered, increasing its frictional engagement
downhole tools, thus solving the problem mentioned above with against the tubing wall downhole, and a load change is momen-
the new monobore systems. A gear motor operates a linear drive tarily sensed by the electronic measurement system at the surface.
to generate a gradual, controlled, axial compressive or tensile This load information is transmitted to the computer, which
force to optimize the setting of downhole completion equipment. processes the information and sends it to a printer. These tension
The downhole power unit employs specially-developed circuitry changes are plotted against depth by the surface equipment, and
to assure that it will be activated at the proper thus, the operator is provided with an accurate indication of
collar location. The printer plots a standard API log of depth
OTC 8530 FIELD CASES OF COST EFFlClENIT SLICKLINE WELL INTERVENTIONS 3
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versus load, which can be correlated with previous collar logs. performance, or determining cause of a survey anomaly or
Thus, when teamed with the electronic measurement system, it failure. These reports can be transmitted real time to remote
can complement use of the downhole power unit for accurately monitoring locations or can be stored as a hard copy or a
setting plugs and packers. computer file for future reference.
'The SLCL is shown in Fig. 4.
Typical Jobs Utilizing Advanced Slickline Service
Dataljob LoggetdAcquisition Software Systems. These can be Techniques
connected to the Ah4S to provide a quality control job report that Following are examples of the types of services that are now
graphically represents forces and other dynamic information that routinely performed with slickline:
occurs during a wireline trip (Fig. 5). The job logger can
simultaneously record real-time depth and time data for merging Plugback Recompletions
with downhole memory surveys for production well logs. The The combined usage of the ETD, DPUTM, SLCL, DatdJob
datdjob logger provides a means for recording the depth Logger and Ah4S provides a cost efficient plug and abandonment
measurement data. This data includes tool direction, depth, line system. Thru-tubing and in-tubing recompletions for uphole
tension, line speed, time, and units of measurement. By using real alternates or selectives are one of the primary markets for
time logging software, the dataljob logger can generate historical advanced slickline services. In this application, there are usually
job summaries, real time slickline collar locator logs, and several zones of interest in a wellbore behind pipe. In some
memory production logs. cases, these alternate zones have already been perforated and are
isolated from the current producing intervallby a packer and
Expanded Applications and Combined System nonperforated pipe. In other cases, it will be necessary to
Capabilities perforate for production thru the tubing and/or casing. A plug is
The most significant factor in the increase of slickline usage for set in the tubing or casing below the zone of interest, and cement
low cost well intervention has been the methodology that is then dump bailed on top of the plug to insure isolation of the
combines the individual equipment into a suite of new slickline existing lower zone. A perforator gun is run to the uphole zone,
well servicing techniques that can increase job efficiency when and the tubing is perforated or both tubing and/or casing are
used in combination. Fig 6 shows a typical slickline service unit perforated into the zone to allow flow into the production string.
and the equipment that can be used in combination to effect If the recompletion is in tubing, a standard bridge plug is set
enhanced services. For example, the AMS used in conjunction i n a nipple in the tubing string or a cast iron bridge is set in the
with the SLCL can provide depth correlation equivalent in tubing. If out in the casing, a through-tubing petal basket bridge
accuracy to electric line. The advanced measurement system plug is set to isolate the existing production. If the uphole zone
provides the operator interface and sensitive line tension is already perforated thru casing, depth control is not critical. On
measurements for precise control of downhole tool assemblies. the other hand if the upper zone needs to be perforated, depth
The slickline collar locator provides the method for determining control becomes extremely critical and normally a gammdCCL
the position of the casing or tubing collars via line tension logging run is required to tie in the formation to other equipment
fluctuations measured by the AMS. A hard copy of the data made up in the tubing string such as a nipple or end of tubing.
produced by the datdjob logger from the AMS data of a slickline With the development of the new technologies setting plugs,
collar log is shown in Fig. 7. Note the repeatability of the AMS dump bailing, correlating for depth, and perforating can now all
from 8,900 feet to 9,100 feet, utilizing the slickline collar locator be performed on slickline, thus eliminating the need to bring in
run at various speeds across the same interval for two different more costly E-line logging services. The 3 case histories below
runs in the well. Also note the flat depth response (with line illustrate the use of the advanced slickline system in this capacity.
tension increase) representing the casing collar. This flat depth Case History: Depth Determination Utilizing AMS
response indicates that the slickline drag mechanism has momen- Well Data:
tarily stopped the downhole tool assembly and that the AMS is Location: Offshore Louisiana
correcting for the tool-induced line stretch. Single Completion
The repeatability at various speeds and the precise correla- Tubing: 2 718411.6.5 Ib/ft EUE
tion of collars provides the capabilities to allow accurate setting Customer's Objective: A thru-tubing petal basket bridge
of plugs and packers with the DPUTM and perforating of tubing plug had been set in the casing below the production tubing to
or casing with the ETD. Because the ETD can be used for firing plug and abandon a lower interval. The plug had apparently
detonators, its usage can be expanded into providing conven- become loose and had been floating up and down the casing
tional electric line services such as cutting tubing or casing, below the end of the production tubing. There was an uphole
activating dump bailers for dumping sand or cement, and/or alternate zone below the end of the tubing that the operator
setting tubing or casing patches. For field job reporting and/or wished to perforate, but before he could proceed with a thru-
quality control improvement monitoring, the datdjob logger can tubing workover to open up the alternate zone, he needed to
be utilized with the AMS by providing hard copies ofjob events. know the exact location of the bridge plug.
Such information can be important in evaluating job details, job Services Solution: A slickline service unit equipped with
4 DAVID R LARIMORE and GARY Z. FEHRMANN OTC 8530
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an AMS was sent to the location. A gauge run was made to the coupled tubing with a collar recess at each connection. The
top of the bridge plug, and the electronically corrected measured upper packer was a hydraulic-set type that was run with the
depth was noted. A tubing-end locator was then attached and run tubing. The completion diagram showed that the packer was
to tag the end of the tubing. This measurement was also recorded. only 6 ft in length and was located several hundred feet from the
Conclusion: The accuracy of the AMS proved that the petal nearest nipple with several full joints of tubing above and below.
basket bridge plug was far enough below the alternate zone that The service plan was to use the AMS and data logger to locate
it could be safely perforated and brought on line. The AMS and and record the depth of the collar recesses below and above the
slickline fulfilled the customer's objective and eliminated the packer. Once the top of the packer depth was establish, the ETD
need to initiate more costly E-Line services. would be used to cut the tubing at the desired location - 11 ft
Case History: Perforate for Production Using ETD above the packer (which was located at 9,530 ft).
Well Data: Production casing was 5-in 17# with a bore hole of Job Scenario: A slickline lift boat equipped with a portable
6 in. AMS , Data Logger, and ETD tool was used for the job. The
Location: Gulf Coast first trip in the hole with slickline was with a gauge cutter run to
Customer's Objective: A well had depleted in the lower the end of the tubing (EOT). The second run was to set a plug in
sand at 9838 to 9872 ft. One packer had been set at 9771 ft, and the nipple located at 10,481 ft. The third run in the wellbore was
a second packer had been set at 9372 ft. The customer's to run a correlation to establish the location of several collars
objective was to perforate the upper producing zone between the above and below the packer. A collar stop was run several
packers. The major concern was the restricted ID through the 2 hundred feet below the packer and then pulled up and dropped a
-318-in 4.7# tubing between the two packers and the limited few feet until it set down in a collar recess. This process was
work space available on the platform. repeated until several collar recesses were located above and
The desired perforation depths were as follows: below the packer. With the location of the top of the packer now
Formation established, a depth correction was made in the measurement
Depth Gun Type Penetration system panel prior to the last run with the ETD tool to insure that
9594-ft - 9586-ft 1 9/16 shc 4spf 2.923-in tubing cutter would be properly positioned. The ETD tool with
9468-ft - 9558-ft 1 9/16 shc 4spf 2.923-in cutter was then lowered into the well, positioned, and the tubing
9548-ft - 9540-ft 1 9/16 shc 4spf 2.923-in was cut.
9506-ft - 9500-ft 1 9/16 shc 4spf 2.923-in All of the runs were recorded with the data logger, and
9496-ft - 9488-ft 1 9/16 shc 4spf 2.923-in information was provided on the fluid levels encountered while
9484-ft - 9479-ft 1 11/16 Link Jet 4spf 8.290-in going into and pulling out of the hole. In addition, the position
9476-ft - 9466-ft 1 11/16 Link Jet 4spf 8.290-in of the upper nipple profiles was also recorded on the job log, and
9462-ft - 9452-ft 1 11/16 Link Jet 4spf 8.290-in the expanded log verified when the tool fired.
Services Solution: Hollow carrier guns were used on the Conclusion: One week after the tubing was cut, a workover
deeper runs because of the large amount of debris released from rig was moved on to the well site to pull tubing. The last joint
the link jets. This type of gun was recommended for the 5-inch pulled was approximately 20 feet in length, which placed the cut
casing because of the possible interference by the debris when approximately 8-314 inches from the target of 11 feet above the
attempting to get back into the 2-3/8-in tubing section. Other- packer. This meant that the slickline electronic measurement
wise, because of its limited penetration, it would not have been system was less than 4 in. off depth at 10,000 feet. Cost incurred
chosen. by the customer to perform these services with slickline and the
Conclusions: Using the slickline ETD provided a cost service vessel were about the same as if the customer had used a
effective method to perforate for production within the limited low cost E-line company to do the work off a barge. Advantages
platform restrictions. It provided an economic solution by were that 1) two different types of equipment and associated
eliminating the job costs associated with mobilization of logging crews were eliminated, 2) no grease seal head was required, and
equipment and the tools and additional personnel that would 3) mobilization of equipment from several different vendors was
have been required for other services. eliminated.
Case History: Slickline Plug Back and Tubing Cut (Fig.
8A and 8B) Water Conformance
Well Data: Single Completion Typically a production log is run to determine the point of water
Tubing: 2 3/8-in 4.7 Ib/ft EUE entry. In some cases this is accomplished by utilizing a produc-
Casing: 5-112-in 17-20# tion logging tool that incorporates a spinner tool, gamma, CCL,
Location: Inland waters, Louisiana fluid ID, temperature and pressure instrument. Once the water
Customer's Objective: The customer wished to plug an entry point is identified a plug may be set to isolate the water
existing depleted zone, and then, to cut the tubing I I ft. above production from the rest of the production. Utilizing advanced
the upper packer. The customer planned to come back later with slickline services technology allows these operations to now be
a rig to remove the tubing and recomplete the well. completed with slickline.
Services Solution: The tubing was standard threaded and Case History: Check for Channeling from Lower Water
OTC 8530 FIELD CASES OF COST EFFICIENT SLICKLINE WELL INTERVENTIONS 5
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Zone with Memory Production Logger and Collar Locator the services performed, it is estimated that through the use of the
Well Data: 1-718-6.4#tubing at 12125, 18# liner at 13100 DPUTM and slickline, the elimination of the costs of an electric
Squeeze perfs: 12450 to 12451, Retainer at 12510 crew and equipment as well as the cost for rig usage and loss of
Open perfs: 12416 to 12436 ft. production from well shut-in resulted in approximately a $25,000
Location: Brazoria, Texas cost saving.
Customer Objective: Well had been producing approxi- Case History Depth Correlation and shift sleeve using
mately 10 mmcf/D and 500 BOPD with a little water. After Depth Measurement System and AMS Unit.
increasing production, the flow rate decreased to 1300 mcf/D and Location: Texas Gulf Coast Area
895 bbYw, 40 BOPD with a flowing tubing pressure of 3525 psi. Well Data: HPIHT Austin Chalk
Operator wished to check for channeling from a lower water zone Customer Objective: Several attempts had been made to shift
to make sure that the squeeze perfs were in tact. open a downhole sleeve without success in a deep, hot, high
Job Scenario: Dummy run with gauge tool was made to tag pressure Austin Chalk well. On previous runs in the well, the
depth and locate bottom of tubing. Proceeded to bottom to shifting tool had been sheared with no indication that the sleeve
obtain a temperature gradient curve. Made one complete pass up had been shifted downward into the open position. The customer
to locate the packer and tail pipe and to obtain a temperature was considering using E-line to go in and perforate the tubing at
gradient curve. The well was opened up to establish stabilized the sleeve.
flow and production log was run. A computer analysis of the data Services Solution: Use the AMS to identify the problem, which
is shown in Fig.9. would allow proper solution to be planned.
Conclusion: The temperature curve did not show a change Job Scenario: The AMS determined that the shifting tool was
in temperature that would be indicative of production of any fluid not actually sitting down in the sleeve but was hanging up in a
or gas from below. The Squeeze perfs showed no indication of nipple several feet above the sleeve. It was also determined that
producing any fluid or gas. The upper portion of the perforations perforation debris and mud where covering the sleeve. A coiled
were contributing the majority of the fluid and gas. When a tubing unit was then called in, and approximately 14 gallons of
subsequent pulsed neutron log was run on E-line, it verified the debris was removed from the well. The AMS unit was then used
service conclusion that the majority of the contributing produc- to shift the sleeve, which was found to be 12 feet deeper than the
tion was coming from the upper part of the perfs. original slickline measurements showed, into the open position.
Conclusion: Utilizing the AMS helped to determine the shifting
Diagnostic Tools tool was not actually sitting down in the sleeve, but was hanging
Using the AMS and MPL tools will allow accurate locating of up in a nipple several feet above the sleeve. Use of the AMS
holes in the tubing string and other cross flow situations in the helped to identify the problem fairly early, saving at least one
wellbore. MPL can also be used to analyze gas lifted wells to day of rig time at approximately $4,50OIday. In addition, its use
determine which valve is operating and pinpoint out of pocket helped to eliminate a costly high pressure perforating job.
valves or cut out GLV's, etc. MPL run in conjunction with the Case History: Depth Correlation to Determine Diffi-
AMS and Data Logger can pin point fluid entry from perfora- culty With Producing After Recompleting
tions as well. The following cases are examples of this usage. Well Date: Recompletion in 18,000 ft offshore well
Case History: Set Retrievable Tubing Patch using Location: Vermilion Bay, South Louisiana
slickline and 3.66-in DPUTM.(Fig. 10) Customer Objective: Customer had encountered difficulty
Well Data: producing well after recompletion with TCP guns. Wanted to
Location: Offshore Northwestern Australia determine cause of problem:
Problem to Resolve: Gas Lift Valve Stuck in Side Pocket Services Solution: After several unsuccessful other
Mandrel which was leaking into tubing casing annulus. This leak attempts to determine cause of problem had been made, a
was 1) consuming lift gas at high rates, 2) Reducing liquid slickline vessel equipped with a portable AMS unit was called in.
hydrocarbon production by 40% (3000 BOPD), and 3) compro- Job Scenario: Several impression blocks were run in the
mising safety standards. well, and some bailing was performed in an attempt to clear an
Services Solution: Provide a 5-%-inch tubing retrievable obstruction in the tubing. It was finally determined that the TCP
patch designed to be run on slickline, set with the DPUTM, and guns did not self release as designed and part of the releasing
with the maximum allowable inside diameter to reduce the mechanism had been damaged and was protruding into the ID of
choking effect during production. Equipment proposed for the the tubing.
job was ordered and included the appropriate patch for the Conclusion: Utilizing the AMS allowed the customer to
retrievable packer and the slickline downhole power unit. First, determine that there was sufficient room between the fish and the
the gas lift valve was located using conventional methods, and packer to perforate the tubing for production.
slickline was flagged at the counter. The job was completed Case History: Determine Depth of Mislocated Equip-
without difficulty. Conclusion: The solution succeeded ment in Tubing String with AMS
in attaining the desired increase in well production and needed Location: Gulf of Mexico
reduction in lift gas usage. In analyzing the economic value of Well: Offshore Completion
DAVID R. LARIMORE and GARY Z. FEHRMANN OTC 8530
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Customer Objective: Determine accurate depth of mis- Conclusions: The goal of the jobs was to set the bridge
located equipment in the tubing string to continue with plug back plugs in two days. Due to the need to clean out some of the wells
operations. with drilling rigs, all could not be set in the required time. The
Service Solution: Since standard slickline service options job proved that the slickline capabilities could compare favor-
had failed in locating a nipple in the wellbore, an advanced ably with the E-line, and that with a few equipment adjustments
slickline offshore skid equipped with an AMS was dispatched to concerning adaptation to a cathodic protection system, slickline
the location to determine the problem. could provide a cost effective service.
Job Scenario: The slickline advanced system was able to Case History: DPUTMand Dump Bailer used to Reduce
determine that the nipple was run out of sequence while the Costs of Simple P & A
tubing had been run. The actual nipple location was actually 900 Well Data: 54 deviation at packer, depth of 3973 ft.
ft deeper than the customer had intended for it to be. Location: North Western Alberta Canada
Conclusion: Once the nipple was located, the customer was Customer Objective: Customer wished to pull a plug from
able to successfully complete his slickline service plug back a packer, set a permanent bridge plug above the packer and dump
operations. 8 linear meters of cement on top of the bridge plug. Customer
wished to complete the job at minimum cost. The original job
Plug and Abandonment Services (P & A) program set out by the customer required 2 days.
ETD services have been used since the mid 70' to perforate Service Solution: Use the DPUTM and dump bailer with
tubing, casing, and cut the same for P & A applications. With slickline to complete the job in one day. The plug was to be
the AMS, SLCL, the cutters and perforators can be more pulled using slickline, then the DPUTMwould set the permanent
accurately located. Then, the DPUTMcan be used to set the bridge plug. Once set, cement could be dump bailed on top of
plugs, and the ETD can be used to dump the cement or cut tubing the plug, again with slickline.
or casing. The following case history is an example of these Job Scenario: Retrieved plug from packer with slickline,
capabilities. Using DPUTM on slickline, set a bridge plug at 3772 ft. and
Case History: Plug and Abandon 20 wells using AMS pressure tested to 7Mpa. Dump bailed 8 linear meters of cement
system, slickline collar locator, and DPUTM on top of the bridge plug. Completed abandonment and salvage
Location: Ada, Oklahoma procedures.
Well Data: Water injection and production, free flowing with low Conclusions: The job was completed in one day, creating
pressure savings for the customer of one day over original plan.
Well fluids: Mixture of crude oil, fresh water, salt water, sweet
gas and small amount of sour gas. 7 wells, 7-in casing, 8 wells, Setting Completion Equipment
5.5-in casing and 5 wells, 4.5-in casing. Average setting depth The advance slickline system can be used to set sump packers
of 2800 feet. and productions packers. MPL can be used to correlate the
Customer Objective: Customer wished to set 20 bridge packer setting depth to formation. The SLCL in conjunction with
plugs. One objective of the job was to determine if slickline the AMS and data job logger can be used to allow real-time
tools and truck could be used in the same manner as the E-line depth correlation prior to setting the packer on ETD or with the
truck. E-line was to set the 7-in plugs and slickline was to set the DPUTM.
4.5- and 5.5-in plugs. Case History: Setting Packers with DPUTM(Fig. 11)
Services Solution: Determine target setting depth, run Well Data: Gas well with water level at approx. 6,000 ft.
SLCL logs with the data job logger, determine collar locations Location: Onshore, Texas Panhandle
with the SLCL, use DPUTM to set the bridge plugs, and then Tubing: 2-3/8 4.7# J55 Tubing EUE Brd, Casing size: 5-112-in
dump cement above the bridge plugs OD to 9100 ft.
Job Scenario: In each well, an attempt was made to Perforations at 8,910 ft.
detect collars before the plugs were set and the cement dumped. Casing ID: 4.88 in.
In several wells, no collars could be detected due to severe Drift ID: 4.72
corrosion and scale deposits, and in some wells, setting depth's Customer's Objective: Setting a permanent packer and a
could not be reached with gauge ring. This job presented several retrievable packer in the same well using the DPUTMand the
"firsts" for the advanced slickline tools including the first time AMS. Services Solution: First operation was to run a gage
the SLCL had ever been operated on .125-in wire, used in a ring and a junk basket with slickline tool string to supply
flowing well, in wells 30 to 40 years old, and with scale .10 to information about the ID of the casing, fluid environment and
.20-in thick. Although inexperience in the varying conditions time to trip into the hole. Then, a permanent packer was to be set
caused some equipment adjustment requiring operational delays; at approximately 8900 feet, and a retrievable packer was to be set
the slickline truck was able to set a comparable number of plugs at a depth of approximately 8275 ft.
to the E-line truck, and in one case, was able to complete the Job Scenario:Well was fraced and equipment rigged out of
operation in less than 2 hours including rig up and tear down the way. The junk basket run showed the perfs covered with
time. about 5 0 feet of proppant, which was cleaned out with coiled
OTC 8530 FIELD CASES OF COST EFFICIENT SLICKLINE WELL INTERVENTIONS 7
--

tubing. When the pipe showe,d to be clear, the equipment was operating at 7:00 a.m. The tool string reached the target depth,
rigged up for the dummy run, and the minimum travel time was 8700-ft, at 7: 15 a.m.. A casing collar log was run from 8700 to
established. Packer /DPUTM assembly was attached to tool 7800-ft at 120 ftlmin. The first SLCL log was finished at 7:23
string. At about 6700 feet, the tool string hung. After four tries a.m. A second logging pass confirmed accurate depth correla-
to lift the tools and then attempt to go through the tight spot, the tion. The tool string was then lowered down past the target
operator successfully went through. With 9 minutes of travel setting location and pulled up to the target setting depth of 8686-
time, the 8900-ft location was reached. Setting was started. ft to 8690-ft. The tool string was stopped at this depth at 7 5 0
Hangoff weight was 520 pounds when brakes were set. Notice- a.m.. Ten minutes after the last collar was detected, the DPUTM
able weight loss shown by the differential weight indicator on the was activated by an internal timer, and the bridge plug was set.
AMS indicated that the packer was set. After 30 minutes, At 8:20 a.m. the tool string was raised up and set back down on
attempt was made to pull free of the packer assembly. The the bridge plug to assure that it had been set. At 8:25 a.m., the
pulling tool sheared off the DPUm. The power unit was fished, tool string was raised to the surface at 500-600 ftlmin and was
and it was found that the setting sleeve was fouled with frac sand. removed from the well at 8:44 AM. A successful 5000 psi
Had the conditions been clean, the sleeve would have come off pressure test was run to check the settinglsealing integrity of the
without any problems. The DPUTM was loaded with a new set of bridge plug.
batteries and was prepared to set the second packer. The dummy Conclusions: Coordination capabilities of the slickline
run encountered no obstacles to the setting depth. Travel time equipment enabled the job to be accomplished economically and
was set at 80 minutes as with the previous packer. The setting with operational efficiency.
process was started, and a sudden weight loss of 120 pounds Case History: Use DPUm to Set a Nippleless Lock
indicated that the setting was completed. The toolstring and the Well Data: 4- 112-in tubing
DPUTM were removed from the well. Middle East
Conclusions: The job proved that the sensitivity and depth Customer Objective: Customer needed to do a well
control of the AMS was invaluable in providing information workover without extenuated shut-in periods to control severe
concerning the packer assembly during the setting process and scale problems near the surface and to set a nippleless lock. The
that the DPUTM further enhanced the operation because of its alternatives were to use the DPUTM on slickline or to run a bridge
operational efficiency. Comparable solutions could not have plug on electric line. To do the latter would have required flying
been run as cost efficiently. a man in from the UK and incur this cost plus the E-line and tool
Case History: Set 4.5-in Drillable-Type Bridge Plugs in redress costs. The additional cost for employing this alternative
Gas Unit (Fig. 12) was not economically feasible.
Location: Panola County, East Texas Services Solution: This particular well had 4%-in tubing
Well Data: Casing: 4.5-in. 11.60 IbmJft, Well fluid: KCL, and was experiencing severe scale problems near the surface. A
Downhole Temperature: 260F, Wellhead pressure 1,000 psi conventional nipple plug could not be run because of the reduced
Customer's Objective: Set 4.5-in Drillable-Type Bridge ID, and a collar stop bridge plug could not be used because of
Plugs in Gas Unit the lack of collars in the string. The first joint of tubing was
Services Solution: Service company normally sets 4.5-in close to full ID, but below that, the scale problems began to
Drillable-type bridge plugs in 4.5-in 11.60 Ib./ft. casing for the appear. Repeated acid washes did not help the situation.
operator in the East Texas field with electric-line logging trucks, A proposal was made to the customer to run the nippleless
using an explosive-charge setting tool. The decision was made lock with the DPUTM to plug the tubing and allow the workover
to set the bridge plug using the advanced slickline tool system. rig to move on the well.
The 2.5-inch downhole power unit (DPUTM), 2.5-inch slickline Job Scenario: As planned, the nippleless lock was run with
collar locator (SLCL), DatalJob Logger, and the AMS were a modified plug assembly attached below. A junk catcher was
employed to accurately position and set the plug. This was the then installed to prevent any debris from falling on top of the
first job in which the concept of combining the DPUTM,SLCL, plug. After the workover, the lock was equalized, and the
and Power Pack (PP) as a modular system was used. This was equipment was retrieved from the well using a mechanical
also the first field job in which the 2.5-in OD Advanced Slickline pulling tool. The lock released with one jar.
Tools were used. Conclusions: The use of the DPUTMon slickline supplied an
Job Scenario: The slickline truck was equipped with the economical means for accomplishing the customer's objectives.
AMS and combination depth and line load counter assembly.
The wire size was .108-in diameter. On 7/8/96, a dummy run was Electronic Memory Recorders and Memory
made to 8700 ft to test the SLCL Casing logs were made from Production Logging
8700-ft to 7800-ft for correlation purposes. The tool string was Using the AMS and SLCL helps identify exact locations of tools
assembled with the slickline collar locator, power pack, DPUTM, in the wellbore. This helps eliminate potential misruns due to
setting sleeve, and 4.5-in drillable. The tool string weight at the poor depth control. Using the AMS with the data job logger
surface was 186 pounds. The tool string started into the hole at allows recording of depth and time data. This data is merged
6:20 a.m. at approximately 200-250 ftlmin. The SLCL started with time and production data from MPL tools. The accuracy of
8 DAVID R. LARIMORE and GARY Z. FEHRMANN OTC 8530
- - -

the AMS improved depth control, and thus, the quality of' the tool string was determined to be adjacent to the casing perfora-
MPL. Memory production logs require post processing of data tions in the horizontal section of the well. Fortunately, the tool
that is downloaded from the tool, and in some cases, a full assembly was not lost and was recovered after several attempts
analysis of the job is not performed on site. Therefore, if proper at forcing the tool string free over the period from 3:30 to
depth is not achieved while the tools are in the hole, the job approximately 9:00 or 5.5 hours. As evident, this type of job
objectives may not be met. record can be very useful in determining exactly what happened
Case History: Depth Determination Utilizing MPL during the job to prevent similar situations from occurring on
Well Data: Single Completion, Tubing: 2 7/8@ 6.5 Ib/ft EUE future well interventions.
Location: Offshore Louisiana
Customer's Objective: Customer was utilizing E-line Conclusions
service contractor to dump bail cement on top of a plug to When economic conditions in the oilfield are strained, a
eliminate the rate-hole below perforations. After several failed resurgence of energy into investigation to find more efficient
attempts to locate the top of the cement, the customer requested operational strategies can usually be noted This was the
slickline services to verify cement and plug locations. The scenario that occurred during the last decade. The oilfield
customer was concerned that E-Line would stick in the soft economy declined, and immediately, operators rushed to find
cement in the well and they wanted to be able to jar on the tools new technologies and equipment that could meet the economic
if necessary. challenges. Slickline addressed the challenge by developing
Services Solution: A gauge run was made to insure the innovative tools that could interrelate to perform an enlarged
integrity of the tubing. Then a memory GammdCCL was used scope of cost efficient well interventions. Slickline can now be
to correlate the end of the tubing with the top of the cement. The used to 1) accurately locate downhole tubular goods/profiles, 2)
GammaICCL was run on the end of a set of spang jars, so they accurately produce quality logs from downhole memory surveys
could be jarred loose if necessary. A total of 3 passes where at half the cost of traditional logging services, 3) support for all
made with memory GarnmaICCL at varying speeds. new completion technologies that require accurate depth
Conclusion: Use of the memory GammdCCL confirmed measurement, 4) set bridge plugs and packers without use of
that the lower 4 feet of the perforations were covered with explosives, and 5) perforate and/or cut tubing or casing.
cement. Slickline continues to provide the lowest cost methods for
well workovers and can perform these options without compro-
Other Applications mising operational safety and efficiency. In view of the over-
The unique capabilities of the data job logger allow it to be used whelming advances that have surfaced in this technology to date,
as a cost efficient method for job histories and job monitoring. it will be hard to set limits on its capabilities of the future.
The following case history is an example of this usage.
Case History: Use data job logger to record present job Acknowledgments
scenario and to provide historical job surveys The authors wish to thank Halliburton Energy Services for its
Location: Oman support in developing these systems and publishing this paper.
Customer Objective: As part of the slickline service contract,
the service company was required to provide a historical job References
record of each job performed on a specific well. This historical 1. Robison, C.E.: "Monobore Completions for Slimhole W-
ells,"Paper OTC 7551 presented at the 26th Annual Offshore
record was to represent the requirements specified by the
Technology Conference held in Houston, Texas, U.S.A.,2-4 May
operator's job profile and was to include depths surveyed, line 1994.
tension during the survey, and line speed for the entire length of 2. Larimore, D.R., Kerr, W.: "Improved Depth Control for Slickline
the job. Increases Efficiency in Wireline Services" CIM Paper No. 94-38
Services Solution: Datdjob loggers were deployed to Oman presented at the CIM 45th Annual Tech Meeting & AOSTRA
to fulfill contractual requirements for job monitoring and Tech Conference, 1 2- 15 June 1994, Calgary
historical job record. 3. Larimore, D.R., Goiffon,J.J., Bayh, 111, R.I.: "Low Cost Solutions
Job Scenario: Fig. 13 represents a copy of one job record for Well Interventions Through Advanced Slickline Services,"
Paper SPE 35236 presented at the SPE Permian Basin Oil & Gas
performed. The job included running a gauge to top of the plug,
Recovery Conference, 27-29 March 1996.
which is represented during time interval from 1:30 to 2:30. The 4. Gazda, 1, and Goiffon, J.J. "A Battery-Operated Electro-
operator wanted to pull a plug at a depth of approximately 4,429 Mechanical Setting Tool for Use With Bridge Plugs and Similar
feet, which is represented during the time interval from 3:00 to Wellbore Tools" Paper SPE 29459 presented at the 1995 SPE
approximately 3:30. The rapid increases and decreases in line Production Operations Symposium, 2-4 April 1995, Oklahoma
tension and line speed indicate mechanical manipulation or City. Oklahoma
jarring of the pulling tools. Note the sudden increase in line 5. Goiffon, J.: "Setting Tool Increases Safety and Decreases Setting
tension and depth. This was a result of the downhole tool Time for Packers and Bridge Plugs" published in the January
assembly being forced downhole by an underbalance situation. edition of WORLD EXPRO 96.
Conclusions: After careful examination of the depth, the
OTC 8530 FIELD CASES OF COST EFFICIENT SLICKLINE WELL INTERVENTIONS 9

Si Metric Conversion Factors


psi x 6.894 757 E+OO = kPa
Ib x 4.535 924 E- 01 = kg
ft x .048* E- 01 =m
OF (OF - 32)/1.8 = OC
psi x 6.894 757 E+OO = kPa
lbf x 4.448 222 E+OO =N
in x 2.54* E+OO =cm

* Conversion Factor is Exact

DPUTMis a registered trademark of Halliburton Energy Services


77- Fishneck

PRESSURE
SENSING
ACTUATOR

Atmospheric
Chamber
Well Pressure Ports

Piston

POWER
SOURCE
Y

t-- DPU

Large Spring

Contact Plunger
and Spring

LINEAR
DRIVE

Insulator

Setting
Sleeve

Contact Rod -Power


Rod

-Tension
Sub
Combination Timer / Shear Pin
Accelerometer Unit Holes

Figure I Figure 2
Electronic Triggering Device Adapter Kit Assembled to DPU
Right

- -

Panel Mount AMS


aam-'
() ' TS!:

R -

Remote Load Sensor Portable AMS

Figure 3
Depth Measurement System
Slickline Fishing Neck

Collar Locator

Drag Mechanism

Electronic Subassembly

Figure 4
Slickline Collar Locator
Figure 5
Data Job Logger
Electronic Depth DataIJob Logger
Measurement System

Combination Depth Counter and Line


Tension Sensors (Input to Electronic Depth
Measurement System)

Figure 6
A dvanced Slickline Operation
Figure 7
Slickline Collar Log Run at Various Speeds
COMPANY REP.

PARISH VERMlLLlON

Cut 11' Above

FLUIDS Final

Figure 8A
-
Case History Tubing Cut Job
362
Database File: m:\psee\wirelinebIsI-dat\louisiana\la8896_2,db
Dataset Pathname: job 1
Presentation Format: sljob. prs
Dastaset Creation Date: Mon aug 1208:59:32 1996
Charted by: Time scaled 16"lhour

Figure 8B
-
Case History Job Log Summary
363
Figure 9
-
Case History Computer Analysis of Memory Production Log Data

364
Retrievable
Packer

Leaking Gas
Lift Valve

Retrievable
Packer

Figure 10
-
Case History Tubing Patch
COMPLETION GUIDE

Figure 11
-
Case History No. 3 Completion Guide for Setting
Packers with DPU
Figure 12
-
Case History Setting Drillable Bridge Plug
( Correlation Log )
I *1"11111. D 0.2 I"."..
.*I*, . U I . 12. I
LO.DCIII.*~LI 0
.
U*,,,

-
DILYlElllC
l1*.lO" 11 : ,111 1*
OIPT* P. :
-*
LIME SPIED P 1 : .W
n...
I
OEM* LIME SPEED

Figure 13
Case History368Oman Job Log -