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Contents

A1.0 INTRODUCTION TO OPENHOLE LOG INTERPRETATION ...................................1

A.1 USES OF LOGS.......................................................................................................................1

A.2 BASIC PETROLEUM GEOLOGY..............................................................................................2

A.3 BASIC LOG INTERPRETATION CONCEPTS...........................................................................4

A.4 RESISTIVITY AS A BASIS FOR INTERPRETATIONTHE ARCHIE EQUATION.......................5

A.5 DEFINITIONS ...........................................................................................................................7


a) Formation Porosity ()...........................................................................................................8
b) Formation Resistivity (R)........................................................................................................8
c) Formation Factor (F)..............................................................................................................8
d) Water Saturation: Sw ...........................................................................................................8
e) Hydrocarbons Saturation (Shy )...............................................................................................9
f) Clean Formations ..................................................................................................................9
g) Shaly Formations..................................................................................................................9
h) Key Formulas ....................................................................................................................11
i) Key Symbols........................................................................................................................11

A.6 LOG SCALES AND PRESENTATIONS ..................................................................................12

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Introduction to Openhole Logging

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A1.0 Introduction to Openhole Log


Interpretation

A.1 USES OF LOGS The Drilling Engineer:


A set of logs run on a well will usually mean What is the hole volume for cementing?
different things to different people. Let us ex- Are there any keyseats or severe doglegs
amine the questions askedand/or answers in the well?
sought by a variety of people. Where can you get a good packer seat for
testing?
The Geophysicist: Where is the best place to set a whipstock?
Are the tops where you predicted?
Are the potential zones porous as you have The Reservoir Engineer:
assumed from seismic data? How thick is the pay zone?
What does a synthetic seismic section How homogeneous is the section?
show? What is the volume of hydrocarbons per
cubic meter?
The Geologist:
Will the well pay-out?
What depths are the formation tops?
How long will it take?
Is the environment suitable for accumula-
tion of hydrocarbons? The Production Engineer:
Is there evidence of hydrocarbons in this Where should the well be completed (in
well? what zone(s))?
What type of hydrocarbons? What kind of production rate can be ex-
Are hydrocarbons present in commercial pected?
quantities? Will there be any water production?
How good a well is it? How should the well be completed?
What are the reserves? Is the potential pay zone hydraulically iso-
Could the formation be commercial in an lated?
offset well? Will the well require any stimulation?
What kind of stimulation would be best?

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Introduction to Openhole Logging

Log evaluation can be many things to many deposition is such that crossbedding structures,
people. As the answers are sought each indi- channel patterns and gradational rock types are
vidual will possibly use the available data in a common. In areas of freshwater deposition
different manner. The common approach will coal beds may occur, indicating non-marine
be in reading the logs and understanding the conditions.
various reactions produced by formation char-
acteristics on our logging devices. The factors After deposition and with deeper burial of
influencing log reading and the information the sequence, compaction occurs and the clas-
they provide are what we wish to introduce to tic grains can become cemented together to
you in this course. form sedimentary rock.

A.2 BASIC PETROLEUM GEOLOGY Carbonate Deposition


In order to better understand log responses, Carbonate deposition occurs in marine con-
we should first review the types of rocks that ditions by the precipitation of limestone from
are found in the boreholes. organisms as fine particles, shells or massive
growths. Limestones are deposited either as
Common sedimentary rocks are flat-lying beds on the ocean floor or as
sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, mounds or pinnacle reefs.
dolomite and anhydrite
Barrier reef chains that grow in this manner
In general, sedimentary rocks are deposited may form restricted ocean basins landward, in
as either clastic sequences containing sand- which dolomite and anhydrite are precipitated
stone, siltstones and shales or carbonate se- by the evaporation of seawater.
quences of limestone, dolomite, anhydrite and
shale. (Figure A1). When limestones form near shore, there
may be mixing of limestone and eroded clastic
material. In deeper ocean basins, limestone
Clastic Deposition and shale mixtures are common.
Clastic rocks are formed from rock frag-
ments and weathered particles of preexisting After deposition, later burial may cause
rocks. These sediments are transported by dolomitization of the limestone in which the
wind and water and are usually deposited in actual composition of the rock is changed to
rivers, lakes and oceans as relatively flat-lying dolomite.
beds. Current and wave action later sorts the
sediments such that in high-energy environ- Because of their brittle nature compared with
ments coarse-grained sands are deposited and other sediments, limestones tend to fracture
in low energy environments fine-grained silts with deformation, which increases permeabil-
and clays are deposited. The nature of the ity and helps in the dolomitization process.

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Figure A1: Clastic Deposition vs. Carbonate Deposition

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Introduction to Openhole Logging

In many parts of the world multiple se- d. RW = water resistivity: the electrical re-
quences of clastic rocks overlie older carbonate sistance of the water filling the pore
sequences. Between each of the clastic and car- space in the rock. This value varies
bonate groups, erosional inconformities are with water salinity and temperature.
common and the nature of deposition within e. k = permeability: the ability of the rock
each group is unique. to pass fluids through it.
A.3 BASIC LOG INTERPRETATION Consider the following unit cubes (Figure
CONCEPTS A2):
Any given rock formation has numerous
unique physical properties associated with it. Cube A
Only those that can be measured and are useful If the porosity () is filled with water then, by
will be considered in this course. They are definition, the water saturation SW = 100%.

a. = porosity: the void space between Cube B


grains that is generally filled with liq- If the porosity is 70% filled with water and
uids or gases. 30% hydrocarbons, then, the water saturation
b. Sw = water saturation: the percentage
of the pore space filled with water (as 70
opposed to hydrocarbons or air). SW = % = 70%
c. R = resistivity: the resistance to elec- 70 + 30
trical current flow presented by a unit
volume of rock. and hydrocarbons saturation

Cube A: Cube B:
porosity = waterfilled porosity = hydrocarbons and
SW = 100% water in
SW = 70%

Figure A2

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Shy = 1 - Sw = 30% The usefulness of resistivity logging rests on


the facts that
Therefore the percentage volume of water - water is a conductor (low resistivity)
saturation - hydrocarbons and rocks are insulators
(high resistivity)
= Sw
Consider the following unit cubes (Figure A3):
For example: if = 20% and Sw = 70%, then
Cube C
14% of the bulk volume is water and 70% of The resistivity Rt of the cube will vary with
the pore space is water filled. water resistivity Rw (i.e. as Rw increases, Rt in-
creases and vice versa).
A.4 RESISTIVITY AS A BASIS FOR Therefore: Rt Rw. (1)
INTERPRETATIONTHE ARCHIE
EQUATION
In the previous section we introduced a num- Cube D
ber of parameters used to evaluate rock forma-
Replace 25% of the cube with rock (hence
tions. If we could build on the effects of
= 75%) but maintain a constant Rw. Resistivity
resistivity in conjunction with the other pa-
rameters to develop a mathematical relation- Rt increases with decreasing porosity (i.e. as
ship, we would have an extremely useful tool decreases, Rt increases).
for our work with potential hydrocarbon zones.

The remainder of this section is devoted to


developing such a formula.

Cube C Cube D Cube E


- Constant Current - Constant Current - Constant Current
- Porosity = 100% - Porosity = 75% - Porosity = 75%
- Sw = 100% - Sw = 100% - Sw = 70%

Figure A3

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Introduction to Openhole Logging

Rw
Therefore: Rt 1/. (2) Ro (5)

Cube E Now, let = 1, then Ro Rw .
Replace 30% of remaining porosity with
hydrocarbons. Resistivity Rt increases with
Now, let F = constant of proportionality
decreasing water saturation Sw (i.e. as Sw de- defined as the formation factor.
creases, Rt increases).
Therefore: Ro = FRw
Therefore: Rt 1/Sw. (3)
Ro
By combining the above observations (1, 2 or F = (6)
and 3), we can say Rw

1 1 Returning to Equation 5 and introducing po-


Rt Rw rosity as a variable, it is clear that
Sw
1
or F

Rw
Rt (4) This is intuitively obvious as the relationship
between Ro and Rw is related to that particular
Sw
unit cube of rock and its porosity characteris-
tics.
To solve for the constants of proportionality
let us first limit the equation as follows: Through empirical measurements, it was
determined that
Let Sw = 100% (i.e. there is no hydrocar-
bon present and the porosity is 100% a
water filled). F= (7)
m

Then, define Ro = Rt (ie: Ro is the wet resis-


tivity of the formation for the condition Sw = where
100%): a = constant
m = cementation factor

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The cementation factor m relates to the po-


rosity type and how it will transmit electrical aRw
current to the actual rock (also called tortuos- or S n
= (9)
w
ity).
Rt
m

Using the above equations


Equation 9 forms the Archie relationship that
Recall Ro = FRw (Equation 6) is the basis for all conventional log interpreta-
tion techniques. Enhancements and refine-
aRw ments may be applied for the more
Rt = Ro = when Sw = 100% complicated rock types.
m

The remainder of this course is dedicated to


if Sw 100%, then measuring, evaluating and using porosity and
resistivity to calculate water saturation and
hence hydrocarbons reserves using the con-
aRw 1 cepts of this equation.
Rt
m
Sw
A.5 DEFINITIONS
1
a) Formation Porosity ()
or Rt Ro
Defined as the fraction of total volume occu-
Sw pied by pores or voids, where

Ro pore volume
or Sw (8) = 100%
Rt total volume

When the pore space is intergranular it is


Through laboratory measurements, it was known as primary porosity. When the poros-
found that this relationship (8) is dependent on ity is due to void space created after deposition,
the saturation exponent n as (e.g., vugs or fractures in carbonates), the po-
rosity is known as secondary porosity. When
Ro shale is present, the pore space occupied by the
Sw
n
= water in the shale is included with the pore
Rt space in the rock to give total porosity ( T ). If
only the rock pore space is considered in a
FR w shaly formation, the pore space is called effec-
or S n
= tive porosity (e ).
w

Rt

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b) Formation Resistivity (R) For Porosity


Defined as the resistance offered by a for- In a 1942 paper Gus Archie proposed that
mation to the flow of electrical current. It is the relationship between formation factor and
expressed in ohm-meter2/meter. porosity could be described by the formula

We use several terms to describe formation a


resistivity under various circumstances of fluid F=
content. m

Rt : Describes the resistivity of a for- where


mation undisturbed by the drilling a = empirical constant.
process. m = cementation factor.

Some recommended F and relationships


Ro: Describes a special form of Rt . It are
is the resistivity of a clean forma-
tion when all pore space is filled 0.62
with connate water (Rw). F= (for sands)
2.15

Rw: Is the symbol for the resistivity of


formation (connate) water. 0.81
F= (for sands)
2

c) Formation Factor (F)


1
For Resistivity F= (for carbonates)
An important relationship exists between the 2

resistivity of a fully water saturated formation


and the resistivity of the contained water. The Chart Por-1 (figure A4) in the Log Inter-
ratio of these two values is called formation pretation Chart book is based on several dif-
resistivity factor (or more commonly, forma- ferent F- relationships.
tion factor) where:

Ro d) Water Saturation (Sw)


F= Defined as the fraction of pore volume filled
Rw with water where

F is a constant for the formation under con- water filled pore volume
sideration. The value of F for any particular sw = 100%
formation depends on: total pore volume
- formation porosity
- pore distribution
- pore size
- pore structure.

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e) Hydrocarbons Saturation (Sh y) g) Shaly Formations


Defined as the fraction of pore volume filled This describes formations where some of the
with hydrocarbons where: formation void space (porosity) is filled with
shale.

hydrocarbon-filled pore volume Shale distribution is considered to be:


Shy = 100% - Laminated: The formation is built up
total pore volume of thin laminae of sand and shale.
- Dispersed: The shale particles are dis-
or Shy = 1 Sw. persed in the pore space.
- Structural: The shale replaces matrix.

f) Clean Formations
The term clean formation refers to those that
are shale free.

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Introduction to Openhole Logging

Formation Resistivity Factor versus Porosity

50 2.5 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 10,000

40

30
25

20

15
1
FR =
2 1
10 m FR =
, porosity (p.u.)

9 m
8
7 Vugs or
spherical pores 2.8
6
5 0.62
FR = 2.5
2.15
4 Fractures

3 2.2

1.8
2.0
2
0.81
FR = 1.6
2
1.4
1
2.5 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 10,000

FR, formation resistivity factor

This chart gives a variety of formation resistivity factor-to-porosity conversions. The proper choice is best
determined by laboratory measurement or experience in the area. In the absence of this knowledge,
recommended relationships are the following:

0.62 0.81
For Soft Formations: Humble Formula: Fr = or Fr =
2.15 2
0.62
For Hard Formations: Fr = with appropriate cementation factor, m.
m

EXAMPLE: is 6% in a carbonate in which a cementation factor, m of 2 is appropriate


Therefore, from chart, Fr = 280.

Chart Por-1

Figure A4

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h) Key Formulas
FRw Formation Factor:
Ro
Archies formula: Sw =
n

a. From deep resistivity F =


Rt
Rw
where n is usually taken as 2 Rxo
b. From shallow resistivity F =
Rmf

a
c. From porosity F =
m

i) Key Symbols
BHT - bottom hole temperature in degrees Sxo - water saturation, as above, in
Celsius flushed zone
di - average diameter of invaded zone S hc - hydrocarbons saturation as percent
(Di) of pore space occupied by water
h - bed thickness in meters K - coefficient in the sp formula
RIDPH - resistivity from the deep phasor in- SSP - static spontaneous potential - the
duction maximum possible for a particular
RIMPH - resistivity from the medium Phasor Rmf / Rw
induction PSP - pseudostatic spontaneous poten-
RSFL - resistivity from the Spherically Fo- tialthe SP found in a thick shaly
cused Log sand
Rm - resistivity of the mud k - permeability in millidarcies
pore volume
Rmf - resistivity of the mud filtrate
- porosity = 100%.
Rmc - resistivity of the mudcake total volume
Rw - resistivity of the formation water S - sonic porosity
Rwa - apparent resistivity of the formation D - density porosity
water N - neutron porosity
Rt - resistivity of the formation N + D
(uncontaminated zone) T - total porosity
Ro - resistivity of the formation when
2
100% water filled e - effective porosity
Rxo - resistivity of the flushed zone
2 - secondary porosity
(close to borehole)
Vsh - volume of shale
Rsh - resistivity of the shales
Pe - photoelectric index
F - formation resistivity factor
- porosity in percent
Sw - water saturation, percent of pore A complete list of symbols and subscripts is
space occupied by water in uncon- included in Section J (Miscellaneous).
taminated zone

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Introduction to Openhole Logging

A.6 LOG SCALES AND PRESENTATIONS


a) Well logs provide a continuous graph of for- 3. Integrated transit timeRequires sonic
mation parameters versus depth. tool (Figure A5)
- placed on the right side of the
Normal depth scales are depth track
- 1:2401 m of log per 240 m of - small marks indicate 1 msec
measured hole depth. Each line whereas large marks represent 10
is 1 m, with heavy lines every 5 msec of time.
m, and heavier lines every 25 m
for ease of reading. Depths are If the log is recorded using logging-while-
indicated every 25 m (Figures drilling methods, event markers on both sides
A5 and A6). of the depth track (Figure A6) represent the
- 1:6001 m of log per 600 m of conversion from time-based sampling to a
measured hole depth. Each line depth-based presentation. The markers there-
is 5 m, with heavy lines every 25 fore indicate the number of data samples per
m. Depths are indicated every 25 unit depth. In other words, the larger the con-
m (Figure A7). centration of markers over a depth interval, the
- Other scales are available. These greater the number of data samples used to
include 1:1200, 1:120, 1:48 and make the log.
1:5.
- Log grids may be either loga- c) Logs also have headings and inserts.
rithmic (resistivity logsFigure - Log headings provide such information as
A6) or linear (porosity logsFig- well depth, casing depth, mud params,
ure A5). maximum temperature and other com-
ments pertinent to the evaluation of log
b) If a caliper device is present or the log being data (Figures A8 and A9).
generated is a type of sonic log, event markers - Inserts provide such information as curve
are placed on each side of the depth track inte- scaling, coding, date/time of acquisition,
grating the quantity of hole volume or transit data curve first-reading points and con-
time recorded. stants pertinent to the logging run fol-
lowing the insert. Curve coding on the
1. Integrated hole volumerequires caliper log data indicates the deepest reading pri-
device (Figure A5) mary measurement (long dashed) to the
- placed on the left side of the shallowest reading primary measurement
depth track (solid) when two or more measurements
3
- small marks indicate 0.1 m are combined (Figure A10).
whereas large marks represent
3
1.0 m .

2. Integrated cement volumeRequires


caliper device plus future casing size
- placed on the right side of the
depth track when space per-
mits and if sonic not present
3
- small marks indicate 0.1 m
while large marks represent
3
1.0 m .

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Figure A5: Linear Grid 1/240 Scale

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Introduction to Openhole Logging

Logarithmic Grid 1/240 Scale


Data Sample Event Markers for LWD Curves

Figure A6

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Figure A7: Linear Grid 1/600 Scale

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Introduction to Openhole Logging

Figure A8: Log Heading (page 1)

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Figure A9: Log Heading (page 2) and Log Tail

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Introduction to Openhole Logging

Figure A10: Log Insert


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Contents

B1.0 RESISTIVITY OF THE FORMATION.....................................................................................1


B1.1 INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................1
B1.2 FORMATION WATER RESISTIVITY RW......................................................................3
B1.3 FORMATION RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS .........................................................3
Chart Gen-9: Resistivity of NaCl Solutions..................................................................4
B1.4 TO SUMMARIZE ........................................................................................................6
B1.5 THE DRILLING PROCESS AND PERMEABLE BEDS.................................................5
Invasion Profiles ........................................................................................................5
Chart Gen-3: Symbols Used in Log Interpretation......................................................7
B1.6 SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL (SP) CURVE ................................................................8
Chart SP-1: Rweq Determination from ESSP (Clean Formations)..................................13
Chart SP-2: Rw versus Rweq and Formation Temperature..........................................14

B2.0 MEASUREMENT OF Rt BY INDUCTION PRINCIPLES........................................................15


B2.1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................15
B2.2 INDUCTION LOGGING PRINCIPLES........................................................................15
B2.3 SPHERICALLY FOCUSED LOG PRINCIPLES..........................................................16
B2.4 DUAL INDUCTION - SPHERICALLY FOCUSED LOG ................................................17
B2.5 PHASOR-INDUCTION SFL TOOL .............................................................................23

B3.0 MEASUREMENT OF Rt BY LATEROLOG PRINCIPLES ....................................................29


B3.1 DUAL LATEROLOG.................................................................................................29

B4.0 MEASUREMENT OF RXO BY MICRO-RESISTIVITY PRINCIPLES .....................................35


B4.1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................35
B4.2 MICROLOG .............................................................................................................36
B4.3 MICRO-SPHERICALLY FOCUSED LOG..................................................................38

B5.0 WORK SESSION ..............................................................................................................41

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B1.0 Resistivity of the


Formation

B1.1 INTRODUCTION
The resistivity of a formation is a key pa- opposite faces of a unit cube of that substance at
rameter in determining hydrocarbon saturation. a specified temperature. The meter is the unit
Electricity can pass through a formation only of length and the ohm is the unit of electrical
because of the conductive water it contains. resistance. In abbreviated form, resistivity is
With a few rare exceptions, such as metallic
sulfide and graphite, dry rock is a good electri- R = r A/L,
cal insulator. Moreover, perfectly dry rocks are where
seldom found. Therefore, subsurface forma- R is resistivity in ohm-metres,
tions have finite, measurable resistivities be- r is resistance in ohms,
cause of the water in their pores or absorbed in A is area in square metres,
their interstitial clay. and L is length in metres.
(See Figure B1)
For the purposes of our discussions we will
divide substances into two general categories, The units of resistivity are ohm-metres
conductors or insulators. squared per meter, or simply ohm-metres
(ohm-m).
Conductors are substances that pass electrical
current (e.g., water, shales, mud). Insulators Conductivity is the reciprocal of resistivity
are substances that do not allow electrical cur- and is expressed in mhos per meter. To avoid
rent flow (e.g., hydrocarbons or rock matrix). decimal fractions, conductivity is usually ex-
pressed in millimhos per meter (mmho / m),
The measured resistivity of a formation de- where 1000 mmho/m = 1 mho/m
pends on
C = 1000/R.
- resistivity of the formation water
- amount of water present Formation resistivities are usually from 0.2 to
- pore structure geometry. 1000 ohm-m. Resistivities higher than 1000
ohm-m are uncommon in permeable forma-
The resistivity (specific resistance) of a sub- tions but are observed in impervious, very low
stance is the resistance measured between porosity formations (e.g., evaporites).

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Introduction to Openhole Logging

ra 2 R = resistivity
R= OHM-METERS
L a = area
METER
L = length
r = resistance

Figure B1: Principles of Resistance and Resistivity

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B1.2 FORMATION WATER B1.3 FORMATION RESISTIVITY


RESISTIVITY RW MEASUREMENTS
As previously indicated, formation matrices If we consider a formation with pore space
are insulators; thus a formations ability to con- that contains only water, its true resistivity is
duct electricity is a function of the connate water called Ro. We know that an important relation-
in the formation. Several factors must be con-
ship exists between formation resistivity and
sidered:
the resistivity of the saturating water, Rw. The
- volume of the water (porosity) ratio of these two values, F, is called formation
- pore space arrangement (type of poros- resistivity factor, or more commonly formation
ity) factor, which is a constant, where:
- temperature of the formation
- salinity of the water. F = Ro / Rw

For example, if the salinity of the connate


a) Water Salinity water increases, Rw will decrease. This will in
As salinity increases, more ions are available turn allow current to flow more easily through
to conduct electricity, so R w (water resistivity) the formation, thus lowering R o and maintain-
decreases. ing F at a constant value. This is what we
should expect as F is an inherent formation
characteristic.
b) Water Temperature Formation factor can be related to formation
As water temperature is raised, ionic mobility porosity by the general formula
increases and resistivity decreases. Chart Gen-9
(Figure B2) in the Log Interpretation Chart F = a / m
book illustrates these relationships. where
a = constant
m = cementation factor
c) Water Volume
As water-filled pore space in a rock is in-
creased, resistivity decreases. If some water is
displaced by hydrocarbons (insulators), water
saturation decreases; resistivity increases.

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Introduction to Openhole Logging

Resistivity of NaCl Solutions


Conversion approximated by R2 = R1 [(T1 + 6.77)/(T2 + 6.77)]F or R2 = R1 [(T1 + 21.5)/(T2 + 21.5)]C

Grains/gal at 75F
10
8

ppm
6
5
200
4 10

3 300
15

400
2 20
500
25
600
30
700
800
1 40
100
0 50
0.8

NaCl concentration (ppm or grains/gal)


120
0
140
Resistivity of solution (ohm-m)

0.6 0
170
0.5 0
200
0 100
0.4
300
0.3 0 150

400
0 200
0.2 500
0 250
600
0 300
700
0
800 400
0
10,
0.1 000 500
12,
00
0.08 14, 0
000
17,
00
0.06 20, 0 1000
000
0.05
30, 1500
0.04 000

40, 2000
000
0.03
50, 2500
000
60, 3000
0
70, 00
0.02 00
80, 0 4000
000
100 5000
,0
300 120 00
,
,00
0 140 000
,0
170 00
0.01 ,
200 000 10,000
,
250 000
280,000 15,000
,00
0
F 50 75 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 20,000
C 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200

Temperature (F or C)

Chart GEN-9

Figure B2

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B1.4 SUMMARY
1. Dry rock formations are an insulator. Mudcake thickness is symbolized by hm c.
2. Formations conduct current because of
water in the pore spaces. Invasion Profiles:
3. Knowledge of water resistivity (Rw) is 1. Flushed Zone. Adjacent to the bore-
essential for log interpretation. hole the invasion process flushes out
4. Resistivity used rather than resistance. the original water and some of the hy-
5. Formation resistivity factor (F) is a po- drocarbons (if any were present). The
rosity-related formation characteristic. resistivity of this zone is termed Rx o;
6. Relationships the water saturation is called Sx o where
a. F = (Rt / Rw) = (Ro / Rw)
FR mf
100% water saturated porous rock
b. F = a / m Sxo =
2

7. Symbols Rxo
Rw - resistivity of connate water
Rt - true formation resistivity (for clean formations only)
Rxo - resistivity of flushed zone
Plotting Rxo as a function of radial
a - constant depth into the formation yields (Figure
m - cementation factor. B4).
B1.5 DRILLING PROCESS AND 2. Transition Zone. Further from the
PERMEABLE BEDS borehole the flushing action of the
Before proceeding to a discussion of meth- mud filtrate may create a variety of
ods of obtaining formation resistivity, let us situations. If the flushing proceeds as
examine what happens to a permeable forma- a uniform front, we call this a step
tion when it is penetrated by the drill bit. profile of invasion (Figure B5[a]). If
(Refer to Chart Gen-3 [Figure B3] in this sec- the intermingling of formation fluids
tion or the Log Interpretation Chart book.) is gradual, we call this a transition
zone (Figure B5[b]). Sometimes in
Under normal conditions, the hydrostatic oil- or gas-bearing formations, where
head of the mud column is greater than forma- the mobility of hydrocarbons is greater
tion pressure. This differential pressure forces than the connate water, the oil or gas
filtrate from the mud system into the forma- move out leaving an annular zone
tion pore spaces, leaving solid particles or filled with connate water (Figure B5c).
mudcake buildup on the borehole wall. If Rmf > Rw, then the annular zone will
Eventually this impervious mudcake will seal
off further invasion (unless it is removed by have a resistivity lower than Rxo and Rt
some mechanical process; e.g., removing the and may cause a pessimistic saturation
drill bit). calculation.

(05/96) B-5
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Symbols Used in Log Interpretation

Resistivity of the zone


Resistivity of the water in the zone
Water saturation in the zone
Mud

Rm
Adjacent bed

Rs

Uninvaded
hmc zone
Flushed
zone Rt
Rm c Zone of
transition
dh or
(Bed Rw
thickness) annulus
Mudcake Rx o
Sw
h Rm f

Sx o

Rs
di
dj
Adjacent bed

(Invasion diameters)

rj

dh
Hole
diameter

Chart GEN-3

Figure B3

(05/96) B-6
Schlumberger

3. True Unaffected Zone. This is the zone tion Sw. Plotting Rxo , Ri and Rt as a
that we want to analyzeit is the for- function of invasion gives us Figure
mation undisturbed by the drilling B4.
process. Its resistivity is termed Rt ,
water resistivity Rw and water satura-

Rxo

Di

Figure B4: Invasion Process

Rxo Rxo Rxo


Ri
Ri
R Rt R Rt R Rt
Ri

Di Di D2 Di

(a) (b) (c)

Figure B5

(05/96) B-7
Introduction to Openhole Logging

B1.6 SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL


(SP) CURVE

a) Introduction b) Electrokinetic Potential


The SP curve is a continuous recording If a solution is forced by differential pressure
(versus depth) of the difference in potential to flow through a membrane, an electrical po-
between a moveable electrode in the borehole tential will appear across the membrane
and a fixed (zero) potential surface electrode. (Figure B6). A similar situation occurs when
Units used are millivolts. the mud filtrate flows through the mudcake
because of the differential pressure between the
The SP was discovered quite by accident in mud column and the formation. This elec-
the early days of electrical logging. In some of trokinetic potential (Ekmc ) is generally small.
the first test wells logged by Schlumberger
using the point-by-point technique, it was In a low-permeability formation, where the
noted that a small natural potential was present mudcake is only partially built up, this elec-
in the well even when the current source was trokinetic potential may be as high as 20 mV.
turned off. This spontaneous potential is due to This situation is, however, rare and in general
a combination of two phenomena: an elec- the total electrokinetic potential can be ne-
trokinetic potential is usually negligible and an glected.
electrochemical potential is composed of a
membrane potential and a liquid-junction po- c) Electrochemical Potential
tential. The membrane potential is about 5 This potential is created by the contact of two
times bigger than the liquid-junction potential. solutions of different salinity, either by a direct
contact or through a semipermeable membrane
such as shales.

Figure B6: Electrokinetic Potential of SP Figure B7: Electrochemical membrane


potential of SP

(05/96) B-8
Schlumberger

1) Membrane Potential where


An ideal cationic membrane because of its amf and aw are the electro-chemical ac-
physico-chemical composition is permeable to tivities of mud filtrate and connate water,
positive ions (cations) only. Shales are ideal respectively.
membranes as long as they are not too sandy or
too limy. In a borehole, a shale section usually 2) Liquid Junction Potential
separates salty water (generally the connate The liquid junction potential takes place at the
water of the virgin zone) from a less salty liquid boundary between the flushed zone and the vir-
(generally the mud) (Figure B7). There is mi- gin zone. There is no shale separating the two
gration of the positive ions (Na+ ) from the salty solutions. Anions as well as cations can transfer
water (formation) to the less salty water (mud). from one solution to the other (Figure B8) be-
cause of the higher salinity of the formation
When an equilibrium is reached: water and both Na+ cations and Cl anions will
- Positive ions that have already crossed migrate toward the mud filtrate. The Na+ ion is
the shale membrane exert a repelling comparatively large and drags 4.5 molecules of
force on the positive ions in the mud. water. The Cl ion is smaller and drags only 2.5
molecules of water. Hence, the anion Cl will
- Negative ions left behind in the forma- migrate more easily than the Na+ ions.
tion exert an attractive force on the
positive ions which cannot travel any
more into the shale.

The difference of potential appearing between


the two solutions is given by the formula:

amf
Em = K ;og
aw

Figure B8: Electrochemical Liquid- Figure B9: SP Circuit Path


Junction Potential of SP

(05/96) B-9
Introduction to Openhole Logging

The result is an increase of positive charges left drop of potential measured across the current
behind in the formation water. These positive lines in the borehole. Along its path the SSP
charges restrict Cl migration toward the current has to force its way through a series of
flushed zone. A difference of potential appears resistances, both in the formation and in the
at the boundary between the two solutions: mud (Figure B9). This means that the total po-
tential drop (which is equal to the SSP) is di-
amf vided between the different formations and
Ej = K log mud in proportion to the resistances met by the
aw current in each respective medium. The SP,
which is the measure of the potential drop in the
d) Spontaneous Potential (SP) mud of the borehole, is only part of the SSP.
The total potential of the whole chain is thus In general, it is a large portion because the elec-
the algebraic sum Em + Ej , which is also called trical resistance offered by the borehole is, in
the Static Spontaneous Potential (SSP). Elec- general, much greater than that offered by the
trokinetic potential is neglected. The SP is the formations.

Rmfe
SSP = -K log
Rwe

Rmf = Rw Rmf <Rw Rmf > Rw


SALINE MUD FRESH MUD

Figure B10: The SP Deflection and its Rmf-Rw Dependency

(05/96) B-10
Schlumberger

So, we can write: In practice, the SP is affected by a number of


factors, all of which tend to reduce its magni-
amf tude.
SP SSP = (K + K) log
aw The maximum available SP in a thick, clean,
water-bearing zone is called the SSP (Figure
The SP curve is generally presented in track B10).
1, and usually recorded with resistivity sur-
veys, assuming a conductive mud is in the The SP is reduced by the shale in a shaly
borehole. zone, and the deflection is called the pseudo-
static spontaneous potential (PSP).
Opposite a permeable formation, the SP
curve shows excursions from the shale base- The ratio of these two values, termed =
line. In thick, clean beds the SP deflection PSP/SSP, can be used as a shale indicator in
tends to reach an essentially constant deflection sands. An approximation of the SSP in a
defining a clean line. shaly sand is SSP = PSP / (1 Vsh ) where the
volume of shale (Vsh ) is estimated from the
The deflection may be either to the left
(negative) or to the right (positive) depending gamma ray deflection, which is discussed
mostly on relative resistivity of the formation later.
water and of the mud filtrate (Figure B10).

The magnitude of SP deflections is always e) Uses of SP


measured from the shale line and for a clean, The SP can be used to
water-bearing formation containing a dilute - detect permeable beds (a qualitative in-
sodium chloride solution is given by dication only)
- determine Rw, formation water resis-
SSP = K log(Rmfe / Rwe ) tivity
- give an indication of zone shale content
The constant K depends on the temperature - indicate depositional environment.
and salt types in formation water (K = 71 at
25C for NaCl).

(05/96) B-11
Introduction to Openhole Logging

f) Factors Affecting the SP g) Solution of Rw from SP


- Bed thickness: SP decreases when Because of its dependence on Rmf and Rw, the
bed thickness decreases. magnitude of SP deflection enables us to solve
- Invasion: Reduces SP. for the Rw of the formation when Rmf is known.
- Shaliness: Shale reduces SP. This method, when applied in clean matrix, is
- Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbons in generally accurate.
slightly shaly formations reduce the
SSP.
1. From the log heading, get Rmf at sur-
- Mud filtrate: The magnitude and direc-
tion of SP deflection from the shale face temperature.
baseline depends on relative resistivi-
ties of the mud filtrate and the forma- 2. Convert Rmf to formation temperature
tion water. using chart Gen-9 (Figure B2).
- Fresh mud: negative SP (Figure B8).
Rmf > Rw 3. Convert Rmf at formation temperature
- Saline mud: positive SP (Figure B8). to Rmfe using:
Rw > Rmf
Rw = Rmf : zero SP (Figure B8). Rmfe = 0.85 Rmf (approximation)

If Rmf is below .03 ohm-meter or above


1.5 ohm-meter at formation tempera-
ture, use chart SP-2m (Figure B12) to
get Rmfe .

4. Calculate static SP from log at zone of


interest.

5. Enter chart SP-1 (Figure B11) with


static SP, formation temperature and
Rmfe to get Rwe at formation tempera-
ture.

6. Enter chart SP-2m (Figure B12) with


Rwe and formation temperature to get
R w.


corrosion charts are available to correct for these factors.

Pyrite in the formation produces a positive SP.
(05/96) B-12
Schlumberger

Rweq Determination from ESSP


(CLEAN FORMATIONS)

This chart and nomograph calculate the equivalent forma- Example: SSP = 100 mV at 250F
tion water resistivity, R weq, from the static spontaneous R mf = 0.70 ohm-m at 100F
potential, E SSP, measurement in clean formations. or 0.33 ohm-m at 250F
Enter the nomograph with ESSP in mV, turning through
Therefore, R mfeq = 0.85 0.33
the reservoir temperature in F or C to define the
= 0.28 ohm-m at 250F
R mfeq /R weq ratio. From this value, pass through the R mfeq
value to define R weq. R weq = 0.025 ohm-m at 250F Rweq
For predominantly NaCl muds, determine R mfeq as E SSP = K c log(R mfeq /R weq ) (ohm-m)
follows: K C = 61 + 0.133 TF 0.001
a. If R mf at 75F (24C) is greater than 0.1 ohm-m, K C = 65 + 0.24 TC
correct R mf to formation temperature using Chart
Gen-9, and use R mfeq = 0.85 R mf.
b. If R mf at 75F (24C) is less than 0.1 ohm-m, use
Chart SP-2 to derive a value of R mfeq at formation
temperature.

Rmfeq /Rweq 0.005


0.3 0.3

0.4 0.4
0.5 Rmfeq 0.01
0.6 0.6 (ohm-m)
0.01
0.8 0.8
1 1 0.02 0.02

0.04
0.06
2 2
0.1
aw /amf or Rmfe /Rwe

0.05
3 0.2

4 4
0.4
5 0.6 0.1
6 6
1
8 8
10 10 2 0.2

4
25 00 C

6
0
C
2

20 20
10
15

50
C

Formation 0.5
10
0
50

0

0C

temperature
F
40

30
C

20
0
30
0C

F
100

20

40 40
F
0F

40
F

50 1.0
60
+50 0 50 100 150 200
100
ESSP, static spontaneous potential (mV)
2.0
Schlumberger

SP-1
Figure B11
(05/96) B-13
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Rw versus Rweq and Formation Temperature

0.001
250C
200C

0.002 150C

100C
75C
0.005
50C

25C
0.01
Saturation

0.02
R weq or R mfeq (ohm-m)

0.05

0.1

0.2

250
C
200
C
0.5 150
C
100
C
75
C
N

50
aC

1.0 C
la

25
t2

C
5
C

2.0
0.005 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0 2 3 4 5
R w or Rmf (ohm-m)

Gyp-base mud filtrates

EXAMPLE: Rweq = 0.025 m at 120oC. From chart, Rw = 0.031 m at 120oC


Special procedures for muds containing Ca or Mg in solution are discussed in Reference 3. Lime base muds
usually have a negligible amount of Ca in solution; they may be treated as regular mud types.

SP-2m

Figure B12

(05/96) B-14
Schlumberger

B2.0 Measurement of Rt by
Induction Principles

B2.1 INTRODUCTION Experience soon demonstrated that the induc-


We have two different types or classes of tion log had many advantages when used for
tools designed for the two most common bore- logging wells drilled with water-base muds.
hole environments: Designed for deep investigation, induction logs
can be focused to minimize the influences of
1. Nonconductive boreholes the borehole, surrounding formations and in-
- including fresh mud systems, invert vaded zone.
mud systems and air-filled holes.
a. Dual-Induction SFL tool (no Principle
longer in service) Todays induction tools have many transmit-
b. Phasor-dual Induction SFL ter and receiver coils. However, the principle
tool can be understood by considering a sonde with
c. Array Induction Imager tool only one transmitter coil and one receiver coil
(AIT) (see Figure B13).

2. Conductive boreholes A high-frequency alternating current of con-


- including saline to salt saturated mud stant intensity is sent through a transmitter coil.
systems The alternating magnetic field created induces
Dual laterolog. currents in the formation surrounding the bore-
hole. These currents flow in circular ground
B2.2 INDUCTION LOGGING loops coaxial with the transmitter coil and cre-
PRINCIPLES ate, in turn, a magnetic field that induces a volt-
The induction logging tool was originally de- age in the receiver coil.
veloped to measure formation resistivity in
boreholes containing oil-base muds and in air- Because the alternating current in the trans-
drilled boreholes. Electrode devices did not mitter coil is of constant frequency and ampli-
work in these nonconductive muds, and at- tude, the ground loop currents are directly pro-
tempts to use wall-scratcher electrodes were portional to the formation conductivity. The
unsatisfactory. voltage induced in the receiver coil is propor-
tional to the ground loop currents and, there-
fore, to the conductivity of the formation.

(05/96) B-15
Introduction to Openhole Logging

There is also a direct coupling between the B2.3 SPHERICALLY FOCUSED LOG
transmitter and receiver coils. The signal PRINCIPLES
originating from this coupling is eliminated The SFL device measures the resistivity of
electronically. the formation near the borehole and provides
the relatively shallow investigation required to
The induction tool works best when the evaluate the effects of invasion on deeper re-
borehole fluid is an insulatoreven air or gas. sistivity measurements. It is the short-spacing
The tool also works well when the borehole device used in the Phasor induction SFL tool.
contains conductive mud unless the mud is too
salty, formations are too resistive or borehole The SFL system differs from previous fo-
diameter is too large. cused electrode devices. Whereas those sys-
tems attempt to focus the current into planar
discs, the SFL system establishes essentially
constant potential shells around the current
electrode.

Figure B13: Basic two-coil induction log system

(05/96) B-16
Schlumberger

The SFL device is able to preserve the spheri- The first sphere is about 9 in. away from the
cal potential distribution in the formation over survey current electrode; the other is about 50
a wide range of wellbore variables, even when in. away. A constant potential of 2.5 mV is
a conductive borehole is present. To accom- maintained between these two spherical sur-
plish this, the SFL device is composed of two faces. Because the volume of formation be-
separate, and generally independent, current tween these two surfaces is constant (electrode
systems (Figure B14). The bucking current spacing is fixed) and the voltage drop is con-
system serves to plug the borehole and estab- stant (2.5 mV), the resistivity of this volume
lish the equipotential spheres. The io survey of formation can be determined by measuring
current system causes an independent survey the current flow.
current to flow through the volume of investi-
gation; the intensity of this current is propor- B2.4 DUAL INDUCTION
tional to the formation conductivity. SPHERICALLY FOCUSED LOG
This is the most basic of induction devices
and was the reference resistivity induction de-
vice for more than 20 years until its retirement
in 1990. The tool supplies three focused resis-
tivity curves: two induction and a shallow in-
vestigating spherically focused curve plus the
spontaneous potential (SP). Each curve has a
different depth of investigation (Figure B15).

Spherically focused loga shallow


reading device affected mainly by the
flushed (Rxo ) zone (radial distance
30 cm).

Medium induction (ILM)


depending on the invasion diameter
and profile the ILM may be influ-
enced by the Rxo or Rt zones or both.
(radial distance 60 80 cm).
Figure B14: Electrode array of SFL tool
and schematic representation of surveying Deep induction (ILD) mostly af-
current (io) lines (dashed) and focusing
current (io) lines (solid).
fected by Rt , unless invasion is very
deep. Either or both induction curves
may be influenced if an annulus is
present (radial distance 1.2 1.5
The SFL device consists of current-emitting m).
electrodes, current-return electrodes and meas-
ure electrodes. Two equipotential spheres
about the tools current source are established.

(05/96) B-17
Introduction to Openhole Logging

DUAL INDUCTION - SP/SFL


FILE 2

ILM
0.2000 (OHMM) 2000.0000

ILD
0.2000 (OHMM) 2000.0000

SP SFLU
-150.0000 (MV) 0.0000 0.2000 (OHMM) 2000.0000

600

Figure B15

(05/96) B-18
Schlumberger

a) Log Presentation Correction charts are available for the


a. Logarithmic: A 1:240 scale is pre- influence of:
sented with the resistivity curves on a - borehole (diameter and mud
logarithmic scale. This is the pre- resistivity)
ferred presentation for log analysis - bed thickness
(Figure B15). - invasion.
b. Log-lin: The 1:600 scale presents two
resistivity curves, the SFL (averaged) c) Limitations
and the ILD on the linear resistivity 1. The logging of large diameter holes
scale. Also included is the equivalent drilled with saline mud should be
ILD conductivity curve. This presen- avoided, particularly in high-resistivity
tation is primarily for correlation pur- formations. Large borehole signals
poses. Both presentations are re- will add to the formation signals, pro-
corded simultaneously. ducing anomalously low apparent re-
sistivities.
b) Tool Characteristics and Applications 2. In zones of high resistivity (low con-
1. The Dual-Induction SFL tool is most ductivity), e.g. in excess of 250 ohm-
effective when used in holes drilled m, errors in measurement can occur.
with moderately conductive mud
(e.g., where Rmf / Rw > 2.5). These problems may be minimized by a sys-
2. Vertical focusing is good, and reliable tem of downhole calibration checks. A thick
values of Rt may be obtained where zero-porosity zone (e.g., limestone or anhy-
drite) is used for this purpose. Thus, if diffi-
bed thickness is > 4.0 m. culties in producing a good DIL are expected, it
3. Because this tool actually measures is often advantageous to run a porosity-caliper
formation conductivity and converts log before the DIL. (Note that these changes
the values to resistivity, results are were only made to the DIL logs in the remarks
most accurate in zones of low resis- section of the log heading.)
tivity.
4. The recording of three curves that in- d) Log Responses (Figure B16)
vestigate different amounts of forma-
For wells drilled with fresh muds (Rmf/Rw >
tion volume enable us to study inva-
sion profiles and where invasion is 2.5, Rxo /Rt > 2.5) the following general conclu-
deep, make the correction to obtain Rt . sions can be reached by log inspection:
5. Because the two induction devices
produce their signals by inducing a - When SFL = ILM = ILD; Rt = ILD,
magnetic field in the formation, they this indicates zero or very shallow in-
can be run in air-drilled wells or wells vasion.
drilled with nonconductive mud. (The - When SFL > ILM = ILD; Rt = ILD
SFL tool requires a conductive mud
this indicates moderate invasion.
path to the formation and cannot be
presented.) A gamma ray curve is - When SFL > ILM > ILD; and if Rxo =
usually recorded in place of the SP. SFL, then Rt < ILD, which indicates
deep invasion.

(05/96) B-19
Introduction to Openhole Logging

When SFL = ILM > ILD and if Rxo = SFL 3. It measures low resistivities (less than
chart Rint-2c must be used (Figure B17) to ob- 10 ohm-m) accurately.
tain Rt . This response indicates very deep inva- 4. Recording of three focused resistivity
logs, which investigate different vol-
sion.
umes of formation, enables us to
study invasion profile and good Rt
In general, the closer the medium curve is to
the SFL, the deeper the invasion. The result of values in the case of deep invasion.
correcting for invasion is to obtain an Rt that is
lower than the ILD. Hence, by using ILD Correction charts are available for
without correction, you will obtain an optimistic - borehole
Sw. - bed thickness
- invasion.
e) Summary Disadvantages:
Benefits: 1. Not reliable for resistivities > 250
1. Dual-Induction SFL tool can most ef- ohm-m (use a dual laterolog)
fectively be used in holes filled with 2. Large hole and saline mud results in
moderately conductive mud, noncon- large borehole signals give an unusu-
ductive mud, and air-drilled holes. ally low apparent resistivity. (use
2. Vertical focusing is good and gives DLL in this case).
reliable values of Rt for beds thicker
than 3 m.

(05/96) B-20
Schlumberger

DUAL INDUCTION INVASION PROFILES


ILM
0.2000 (OHMM) 2000.0000

ILD
0.2000 (OHMM) 2000.0000

SP SFL
-80.0000 (MV) 20.0000 0.2000 (OHMM) 2000.0000

NO INVASION

SHALLOW
INVASION

MODERATE
INVASION

VERY DEEP
INVASION

Figure B16

(05/96) B-21
Introduction to Openhole Logging

DIL* Dual-Induction - SFL* Spherically Focused Log


ID - IM - SFL

Thick beds, 8-in. [203-mm] hole, skin-effect corrected,


DIS-EA or equivalent
40

Rxo /Rm 100


30

Rxo 50
20 40 60
70
) Rt
di (in. 80
30
30 90
25

25
20

20

10 15
9
15
8

7 1.01 1.27 1.52


2.03
)
RSFL/RID d i (m
6 0.75 10
0.63 0.95 0.90 0.80
5 Rt 1.0
0.50 RID
7
4
0.38

5
3

3
2

1
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.9
RIM /RID

Rint-2c

Figure B17

(05/96) B-22
Schlumberger

B2.5 PHASOR-INDUCTION SFL TOOL


The Phasor-Induction SFL tool (Figure B18) Central to this development is a nonlinear
uses a conventional dual induction-SFL array deconvolution technique that corrects the in-
to record resistivity data at three depths of in- duction log in real time for shoulder effect and
vestigation (see Chart B1). In addition to the improves the thin-bed resolution over the full
usual in-phase (R-signal) induction measure- range of formation conductivities. This algo-
ments, the tool makes a high-quality meas- rithm, called Phasor Processing, requires the
urement of the induction quadrature signal (X- use of the induction quadrature signals, or X-
signals). These measurements are combined signals, which measure the nonlinearity di-
with new advances in signal processing to rectly. Phasor Processing corrects for shoul-
provide an induction log with thin-bed resolu- der effect and provides thin-bed resolution
tion down to 2 ft [60 cm]. Full correction for through Enhanced Processing down to 60 cm
such environmental distortions such as shoul- in many cases.
der effect and borehole effect are also per-
formed.

Since its introduction in the early 1960s, the


dual induction tool has evolved into the pri-
mary logging service for openhole formation
evaluation in fresh and oil-base muds. Previ-
ous tools have, however, produced logs with
response limitations. These limitations have
usually required tedious hand correction. In
extreme cases tool response limitations have
produced features on logs that were mistaken
for geological features. Although distortions
of the formation resistivity caused by resolu-
tion effect and shoulder effect are fully predict-
able from electromagnetic theory, automatic
correction algorithms were not successful be-
fore now because of the nonlinearity of the R-
signal measurement, which was the only
measurement made in the older tools.

New developments in electronics technology,


work on computing the response of the induc-
tion tool in realistic formation models and
modern signal processing theory have com- Figure B18: Schematic of the
bined to allow the development of a newer tool Phasor-Induction SFL tool
that is able to overcome the limitations of pre-
vious tools.

(05/96) B-23
Introduction to Openhole Logging

By adding borehole geometry measurements b) Log Presentation


in the same tool string, borehole effect can also The same presentation format is used for
be corrected in real time. With these environ- both generations of induction tools. The two
mental effects removed, a real-time inversion logs can be identified by the following differ-
of the data into a three-parameter invasion ences (Figure B19):
model can be done at the wellsite. 1. Deep induction (IDPH)the log in-
serts use the IDPH acronym to iden-
The Phasor induction design provides sev- tify Phasor Processing.
eral additional advantages over existing tools. 2. Medium induction (IMPH)the log
These include improvements in the calibration inserts use the IMPH acronym to
system, sonde error stability, SFL response identify Phasor Processing.
and a reduction of signal and cable noise. 3. There is a hash mark up the right side
Each of these improvements contributes to- of the depth track.
ward providing more accurate formation resis-
tivity measurements over a wider range of re- c) Tool Characteristics, Improvements,
sistivity and borehole conditions. and Applications
1. The Phasor-Induction SFL tool can
a) Phasor Tool Description and Features be most effectively used in holes
The Phasor-Induction SFL tool can be com- filled with moderately conductive
bined with other cable telemetry tools. Meas- mud, nonconductive mud and air-
urements returned to the surface include deep drilled holes.
(ID) and medium (IM) R-signals, ID and IM 2. Vertical focusing is good and gives
X-signals, SFL voltage and current, SFL focus reliable values of Rt for beds thicker
current, spontaneous potential (SP), SP-to-
Armor voltage and array temperature. All than 2.5 m with no shoulder bed cor-
measurements except SP are digitized down- rections required.
hole with high-resolution analog-to-digital 3. Low resistivities are measured accu-
converters, and all measure channels are re- rately.
calibrated every 6 in. [15 cm] during logging. 4. The recording of three focused resis-
tivity logs investigates different vol-
The operating frequency of the induction ar- umes of formation.
rays is selectable at 10, 20, or 40 kHz, with a 5. It is reliable for resistivities up to
default frequency of 20 kHz. The tool also 1000 ohm-m versus 250 ohm-m
provides measurements of important analog with the normal induction tool.
signals and continuous monitoring of digital 6. Accurate readings are obtained in
signals as an aid to failure detection and analy- boreholes up to 66 cm in diameter
sis. Depths of investigation and vertical reso- (Rt /Rm < 1000).
lution of the measurements are listed. 7. Varying transmitter frequencies im-
prove the signal-to-noise ratios.
8. Digital transmission techniques are
used to improve accuracy of calibra-
tion and measurement.

(05/96) B-24
Schlumberger

Correction charts are available for


- borehole
- bed thickness
- invasion (chart Rint-11a).

Phasor-Induction SFL tool


Median Depth of Investigation

1. Tool Depth

Above 100 ohm-m, ID 62 in. [1.58 m]


homogeneous forma- IM 31 in. [0.79 m]
tion SFL 16 in. [0.41 m]

2.

At 0.1 ohm-m, homo- ID 48 in. [1.22 m]


geneous formation IM 26 in. [0.66 m]
SFL 16 in. [0.41 m]

Phasor-Induction SFL tool


Vertical Resolution

Vertical resolution bed IDPH 8 ft [2.46 m]


thickness for full Rt IMPH 6 ft [1.85 m]
determinationno in- IDER 3 ft [0.92 m]
vasion IMER 3 ft [0.92 m]
IDVR 2 ft [0.61 m]
IMVR 2 ft [0.61 m]
SFL 2 ft [0.61 m]

ERenhanced resolution phasor tool


VRvery enhanced resolution phasor tool

Chart B1

(05/96) B-25
Introduction to Openhole Logging

SFQF PHASOR INDUCTION - SFL


0.0 10.000
IMQF
0.0 10.000
IDQF
0.0 10.000
SFLU(OHMM)
.20000 2000.0
TENS(N ) IMPH(OHMM)
0.0 20000. .20000 2000.0
SP(MV ) IDPH(OHMM)
-80.00 20.000 .20000 2000.0

IDPH QUALITY

IMPH QUALITY

SFLU QUALITY

PHASOR PROC.

CP 32.6 FILE 8 08-JUN-1992 17:03

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


1 18-MAY-1992 10:33

1/240

1450

---TENS
---SFLU
SP---
---IMPH
---IDPH
---SFQF
---IMQF
---IDQF

1475

Figure B19

(05/96) B-26
Schlumberger

Phasor* Dual Induction-SFL Spherically Focused Log


ID Phasor - IM Phasor - SFL

Thick beds, 8-in. [203-mm] hole, skin-effect and borehole corrected


Rxo /Rm 100, DIT-E or equivalent, frequency = 20 kHz
200
di (in.)
40 50 60
30 70 80
25 90
100 20 100
15 Rt 120
0.9 0.8 0.7
200 0.95 RIDPH 0.6
50 0.5
0.4 160
140 0.3

100 200
20
70
RSFL/RIDPH
50
10 40
30
20 1
5
15
10
7
2 5
Rxo 3
2
Rt
1
1 2 3 4 5
RIMPH /RIDPH

These charts (Rint-11) apply to the Phasor induction tool when operated at a frequency of 20 kHz. Similar
charts (not presented here) are available for tool operation at 10 kHz and 40 kHz.
The 20 kHz charts do provide, however, reasonable approximations of Rxo/Rt and Rt /RIDPH for tool operation
at 10 kHz and 40 kHz when only moderately deep invasion exists (less than 100 inches).
All Phasor* Induction invasion correction charts are applicable to Enhanced Resolution Logging (ERL*) and
Enhanced Resolution Analysis (ERA*) presentation.

Rint-11a

Figure B20

(05/96) B-27
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96) B-28
Schlumberger

B3.0 Measurement of Rt
by Laterolog Principles

B3.1 DUAL LATEROLOG a) Description and Features


Broadly speaking, borehole fluids used dur- These requirements resulted in the develop-
ing drilling operations are broken into conduc- ment of the dual laterolog MicroSFL tool with
tive and nonconductive categories. Each poses simultaneous recordings. Figure B21 illus-
particular challenges in measuring formation trates the focusing used by the deep laterolog
resistivities. The dual laterolog is a current device (LLD, left) and by the shallow laterolog
emitting electrode device that performs best in device (LLS, right). Both use the same elec-
saline muds (i.e., where Rt /Rm >>> 100, Rmf /Rw trodes and have the same current-beam thick-
< 2.5). It is designed to extract Rt by measur- ness, but have different focusing to provide
ing resistivity with several arrays with different their different depth-of-investigation charac-
depths of investigation. teristics.

Measurements responding to three appropri-


ately chosen depths of investigation usually
approximate the invasion profile sufficiently
well to determine Rt .

For best interpretation accuracy, a combina-


tion system should have certain desirable fea-
tures:
- Borehole effects should be small
and/or correctable.
- Vertical resolutions should be simi-
lar.
- Radial investigations should be well
distributed (i.e., one reading as deep
as practical, one reading very shallow
and the third reading in between).

Figure B21: Dual Laterolog


Deep and Shallow Current Patterns

(05/96) B-29
Introduction to Openhole Logging

The DLL tool has a response range of 0.2 to b) Log Presentation


40,000 ohm-m, which is a much wider range The DLL MicroSFL log presentation
than covered by previous laterolog devices. is similar to that of the Phasor Induc-
tion. Differences include an expanded
To achieve accuracy at both high and low re- resistivity scale (0.2200,000 ohm-
sistivities a constant-power measuring system m) and the addition of gamma ray
is employed. In this system both measure cur- and caliper (if MicroSFL is used).
rent (io) and measure voltage (Vo) are varied See the log in Figure B23.
and measured, but the product of the two Voio
c) Tool Characteristics and
(i.e., power) is held constant.
Applications
The deep laterolog measurement (LLD) of 1. The dual laterolog performs most ef-
the DLL tool has a deeper depth of investiga- fectively in saline mud (high Rt /Rm
tion than previous laterolog tools and extends ratios) or where Rmf/Rw < 2.5 (Figure
the range of formation conditions in which re- B22).
liable determinations of Rt are possible. 2. The tool has an excellent resistivity
range; by utilizing a unique design,
To achieve this, long guard electrodes are resistivity resolution from 0.2 to
needed; the distance between the extreme ends 40,000 ohm-m is possible.
of the guard electrodes of the DLL-Rxo tool is
approximately 28 ft [8.5 m]. The nominal
beam thickness of 2 ft [60 cm], however, in-
sures good vertical resolution. Radial investi-
gation is 45 ft [1.21.5 m].

The shallow laterolog measurement (LLS)


has the same vertical resolution as the deep
laterolog device at 2 ft [60 cm], but it responds
more strongly to that region around the bore-
hole normally affected by invasion. It uses a
type of focusing called the pseudolaterolog,
wherein the focusing current is returned to
nearby electrodes instead of to a remote elec-
trode. This causes the measure current to di-
verge more quickly once it has entered the
formations, thus producing a relatively shallow
depth of investigation of 20 to 24 in. [50 to 60
cm].

Figure B22: Preferred Ranges of Applications of


Induction Logs and Laterologs

(05/96) B-30
Schlumberger

DUAL LATEROLOG - MSFL


FILE 16

LLD
2000 (OHMM) 200000

BS LLS
125 (MM) 375 2000 (OHMM) 200000

TENS MSFL
50000 (N) 0 0.2 (OHMM) 2000

CALS LLD
125 (MM) 375 0.2 (OHMM) 2000

GR LLS
0 (GAPI) 150 0.2 (OHMM) 2000

2550

2600

Figure B23

(05/96) B-31
Introduction to Openhole Logging

3. Vertical resolution is excellent. Rt can d) Limitations


be obtained in beds as thin as 2 ft [60 1. The tools should not be used in fresh
cm]. muds (Rmf/Rw > 2.5).
4. The LLD has very little borehole ef- 2. The tools requires good centralization
fect in large holes. to minimize borehole influence on
5. When combined with an Rxo meas- the LLD.
urement, the LLD and LLS curves 3. If invasion is deep, a good value of
may be used to study invasion pro- Rxo (e.g., from a microspherically fo-
files and compute a more accurate Rt . cused log) is required to correct LLd
See Chart Rint-9 (Figure B24). for invasion influence to obtain an
6. Assuming borehole conditions are accurate value of Rt .
suitable, the separation of the LLS
and LLD curves may be used to give Correction Charts are available for the influ-
quicklook indications of hydrocar- ence of
bons; particularly in salt mud. In salt - borehole (diameter and mud resistiv-
muds Rxo / Rt will be less than 1 so the ity)
better the zone, the greater the separa- - invasion. (Chart Rint-9b, Figure
tion between the LLS and LLD. B24)
- bed thickness.

(05/96) B-32
Schlumberger

Dual Laterolog -Rxo Device


DLT-D/E LLD - LLS - Rxo Device

Thick beds, 8-in. [203-mm] hole,


no annulus, no transition zone, Rxo /Rm = 50,
use data corrected for borehole effect
100
20 30 40 50
80 60
0.50 100
0.75 80
60 1.01 1.27
1.52
70 2.03 100

40 120
50
Rt 3.04
30 di (in.)
Rxo
1.1 30 di (m)
20 1.2
1.3
1.4
15 20 1.6
1.8
15
10

8 Rt
10
RLLD
6
7
RLLD /Rxo
4 5

3
3
2
2
1.5 1.5

1
di (in.) Rt
0.8 Rxo
di (m)
0.6
100
2.54 60 0.4
0.4 1.52 40
30
0.3 1.01 20
0.75 0.2
0.50
0.2
0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2 3 4 6 8 10 15 20 30 40 50
RLLD /RLLS

Rint-9b
Figure B24

(05/96) B-33
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96) B-34
Schlumberger

B4.0 Measurement of Rxo by


Microresistivity Principles

B4.1 INTRODUCTION
As has been mentioned, a measurement of To measure Rxo , the tool must have a very
flushed-zone resistivity Rxo is an important in- shallow depth of investigation. Because the
put when attempting to define invasion di- reading should be affected by the borehole as
ameter. Because the flushed zone may extend little as possible, a sidewall-pad tool is used.
only a few centimetres from the borehole, a
shallow-reading device is required. Such tools Currents from the electrodes on the pad must
are the microlog, microlaterolog, proximity log pass through the mudcake to reach the flushed
and the MicroSFL log. All are pad-type de- zone. Therefore, microresistivity readings are
vices that are pressed against the borehole wall affected by mudcake; the effect depends on
to make their measurements. mudcake resistivity Rmc and thickness hmc.
Moreover, mudcakes can be anisotropic, with
Today, the microlog MicroSFL log are com- mudcake resistivity parallel to the borehole
pletely combinable with all main logging wall less than that across the mudcake. Mud-
services. The microlaterolog and proximity cake anisotropy increases the mudcake effect
log have been discontinued because of their on microresistivity readings so that the effec-
limitations in design; hence, explanations of tive, or electrical, mudcake thickness is greater
their measurements are not provided. Another than that indicated by the caliper.
service, the EPT (Electromagnetic Propagation
Tool), also provides an excellent Rxo measure-
ment. This service is an advanced device and
is not discussed in this book. For more infor-
mation, refer to Schlumberger Log Interpreta-
tion Applications/Principles.

(05/96) B-35
Introduction to Openhole Logging

B4.2 MICROLOG
With the microlog tool, two short-spaced As drilling fluid filters into the permeable
devices with different depths of investigation formations, mud solids accumulate on the hole
provide resistivity measurements of a small wall and form a mudcake. Usually, the resis-
volume of mudcake and formation immedi- tivity of the mudcake is slightly greater than
ately adjoining the borehole. the resistivity of the mud and considerably
lower than the resistivity of the invaded zone
Comparison of the two curves readily identi- near the borehole.
fies mudcake, which indicates invaded and,
therefore, permeable formations. The 2-in. micronormal device has a greater
depth of investigation than the microinverse. It
a) Principle is, therefore, less influenced by the mudcake
The rubber microlog pad is pressed against and reads a higher resistivity, which produces
the borehole wall by arms and springs (Figure positive curve separation. In the presence of
B25). The face of the pad has three small in- low-resistivity mudcake, both devices measure
line electrodes spaced 1 in. [2.5 cm] apart. moderate resistivities, usually ranging from 2
With these electrodes a 1- by 1-in. microin- to 10 times Rm .
verse (R1" x1" ) and a 2-in. [5.1 cm] micronormal
(R2" ) measurement are recorded simultane- In impervious formations, the two curves
ously. The currents emitted from these elec- read similarly or exhibit some negative separa-
trodes are totally unfocused and hence flow by tion. Here the resistivities are usually much
the path of least resistance (Figure B26). greater than in permeable formations (see Fig-
ure B27).

Figure B26: Microlog


Figure B25: Microlog

(05/96) B-36
Schlumberger

MICROLOG

ACCUMULATED INTEGRATION VALUES SUMMARY:


Integrated Hole Volume: 2.07418 M3 FROM 2039.87 M TO 1995.07 M

EVENT MARK SUMMARY:

OUTPUT INTERVAL DEPTH TRACK


BETWEEN PIPS EDGE

Integrated Hole Volume .100000 M3 LEFT EDGE

MCAL(MM )
125.00 375.00
TENS(N )
50000. 0.0
SGR(GAPI) BMNO(OHMM)
0.0 150.00 0.0 40.000
BS(MM ) BMIN(OHMM)
125.00 375.00 0.0 40.000

CP 32.6 FILE 3 00- -1941 00:39

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


61 02-JUN-1992 15:15

1/240

2000

2025

MCAL---
---BMNO
---BMIN
TENS---
---SGR
---BS

Figure B27

(05/96) B-37
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Under favorable circumstances the microlog This eliminates the need for a separate logging
can be used to obtain Rxo but it is generally run to obtain Rxo information. See Figure B23
considered a good qualitative indicator of per- for a log example of the MicroSFL tool with
meability, rather than an Rxo measurement. dual laterolog.

b) Microlog Limitations The second improvement is in the tools re-


- Rxo /Rmc must be less than about 15. sponse to shallow Rxo zones in the presence of
- Mudcake thickness < 1.2 cm mudcake. The chief limitation of the micro-
- Depth of flushing > 10 cm, other- laterolog measurement was its sensitivity to
wise the microlog readings are af- mudcakes. When mudcake thickness exceeded
fected by Rt . about 3/8 in., the log readings were severely
influenced at high Rxo /Rmc contrasts. The
B4.3 MICROSPHERICALLY proximity log, on the other hand, was rela-
FOCUSED LOG tively insensitive to mudcake, but it required an
invaded zone diameter of about 100 cm to
The MicroSFL tool is a pad-mounted,
provide direct approximations of Rxo .
spherically-focused logging device that has
replaced the microlaterolog and proximity
tools. It has two distinct advantages over the The solution was found in an adaptation of
other Rxo devices. The first is its combinability the principle of spherical focusing in a side-
wall-pad device. By careful selection of elec-
with other logging tools, including the Phasor-
trode spacings and bucking-current controls,
Induction SFL, the AIT (Array Induction Im-
the MicroSFL measurement was designed for
ager and dual laterolog tools).
minimum mudcake effect without any undue
increase in the depth of investigation. Figure
B28 illustrates, schematically, the current pat-
terns (left) and the electrode arrangement
(right) of the MicroSFL tool.

By forcing the measure current to flow di-


rectly into the formation, the effect of mudcake
resistivity on the tool response is minimized;
yet, the tool still has a shallow depth of inves-
tigation.

Synthetic microlog curves can also be com-


puted from MicroSFL parameters. Because the
measure current sees mostly the flushed zone
and the bucking current sees primarily the
mudcake, it is possible to mathematically de-
Figure B28: Current Distribution of MicroSFL
device (left) and Electrode Arrangement (right)
rive micronormal and microinverse curves.

(05/96) B-38
Schlumberger

B5.0 Work Session

1a. Given Rmf = 2.5 ohm-m at 10oC, find Rmf at 52oC, using Chart Gen-9 (Figure B2).

Rmf =

b. What is NaCl concentration of the mud filtrate in ppm?

2a. Given a solution salinity of 80,000 ppm, find the solution resistivity at 121oC.

Rm =

b. Given a solution salinity of 10,000 ppm at 20oC, find the solution resistivity at 50oC.

Rm =

3. Given Rm = 0.74 at 20oC, what does Rm equal at BHT if the total depth is 2400 m and the
geothermal gradient is 2oC/100 m (surface temperature is 20oC) ?

Rm = __________________________ at __________________ oC

(05/96) B-41
Introduction to Openhole Logging

4. From the SP in Figure B30,


SP(MV )
calculate Rw. Formation
-150.0 0.0
temperature is 63oC.
15 Rmf = 0.79 at 20oC.
-|---|+

a) Rmf = at formation temperature

CP 32.6 FILE 1 01-APR-1941 17:28


b) SP = mV
INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE
1 05-JUN-1992 08:34

1/240
c) Rmfe = at formation temperature

d) Rwe = at formation temperature


2150
e) Rw = at formation temperature

f) Rw = at25oC

g) Formation NaCl
concentration = ppm

Note: Use charts SP-1 and SP-2m


(Figures B11 and B12).

SP---

2175

Figure B30

(05/96) B-42
Schlumberger

5. Calculate Rw for the zone from 2326 to 2340 m in


GR(GAPI)
30.000 130.00 Figure B31.
SP(MV )
-150.0 0.0
Rmf = 0.110 at 20oC
15
-|---|+ Formation temperature = 58.9oC

CP 32.6 FILE 3 01-APR-1941 18:05


Rw = at25oC
INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE
1 05-JUN-1992 08:38

1/240

6. Using the log examples in Figure B32 calculate

2325 a) Depth of invasion at A and B


and
b) Rt (ILD corrected) at A and B

---GR
SP---

7. Calculate Rw for the example of the dual induction


SFL in Figure B15.
Given: Rm = 3.05 at 17oC
R mf = 2.60 at 17oC
BHT = 23oC
2350

Figure B31

(05/96) B-43
Introduction to Openhole Logging

ILM(OHMM)
.20000 2000.0
GR(GAPI) ILD(OHMM)
0.0 150.00 .20000 2000.0
SP(MV ) SFL(OHMM)
-150.0 0.0 .20000 2000.0

CP 32.6 FILE 8 09-JUN-1992 14:42


INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE
1 09-JUN-1992 14:09

1/240

1800 A

---GR
---SP
---ILM
---ILD
---SFL

1700

---SP B
---ILM
---ILD
SFL---

1725

Figure B32

(05/96) B-44
Schlumberger

SP(MV )
8. Calculate Rw for both zones in Figure B33
-80.00 20.000 Rm = 1.18 at 25oC
10 R mf = 0.93 at 16oC
-|---|+
BHT = 59oC
CP 32.6 FILE 4 01-APR-1941 18:13
INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE
1 05-JUN-1992 08:41
1675

a. Top zone: 1685 m to 1695 m

Rw = at 59oC

Rw = at 25oC

b. Bottom zone: 1695 m to 1717 m

1700
Rw = at 59oC

Rw = at 25oC

---SP

c. What are possible reasons for the


difference?

1725

Figure B33

(05/96) B-45
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96) B-46
Schlumberger

Contents
C1.0 POROSITY MEASUREMENTS ....................................................................................................1

C2.0 POROSITY MEASUREMENTS FROM THE BHC SONIC TOOL...................................................3


C2.1 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................3
C2.2 POROSITY DETERMINATION ................................................................................................4
C2.3 FACTORS AFFECTING SONIC INTERPRETATION:................................................................7

C3.0 POROSITY MEASUREMENTS FROM THE LITHO-DENSITY TOOL...........................................11


C3.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................11
C3.2 PRINCIPLE...........................................................................................................................11
C3.3 POROSITY FROM A DENSITY LOG.....................................................................................13
C3.4 LITHOLOGY FROM THE PE MEASUREMENT......................................................................17
C3.5 FACTORS AFFECTING DENSITY LOG:................................................................................20

C4.0 POROSITY MEASUREMENTS FROM THE COMPENSATED NEUTRON TOOL.........................21


C4.1 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................21
C4.2 PRINCIPLE ...........................................................................................................................21
C4.3 FACTORS AFFECTING CNL LOGS.......................................................................................23

C5.0 TOTAL POROSITY DETERMINATION .......................................................................................29

C6.0 GR LOG.....................................................................................................................................31
C6.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................31
C6.2 PROPERTIES OF GAMMA RAYS ........................................................................................31
C6.3 NATURAL GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETRY TOOL...............................................................34

C7.0 BOREHOLE GEOMETRY BY CALIPER MEASUREMENT .........................................................37


C7.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.....................................................................................................37
Single-Arm Caliper Configuration................................................................................................40
Two-Arm Caliper Configurations .................................................................................................40
Three-Arm Caliper Configurations...............................................................................................41
Four-Arm Caliper Configuration ..................................................................................................41

C8.0 WORK SESSION.......................................................................................................................43

(05/96)
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96)
Schlumberger

C1.0 Porosity Measurements

C1.1 INTRODUCTION
Total porosity may consist of primary and For example, the formula for a density log
secondary porosity. Effective porosity is the measurement including all these variables can
total porosity after the shale correction is ap- be written as
plied. Rock porosity can be obtained from the
sonic log, density log or neutron log. For all b = e Sw f + e (1 Sw) hy + Vsh sh +
these devices, the tool response is affected by (1 e Vsh ) ma .
the formation porosity, fluid and matrix. If the
fluid and matrix effects are known or can be Solving for porosity in this case would not
determined, the tool response can be deter- be easy because there are several unknowns
mined and related to porosity. Therefore, these and only one measurement. However, when
devices are usually referred to as porosity logs. we compare other porosity and log measure-
ments, we can solve for these unknowns.
All three logging techniques respond to the
characteristics of the rock immediately adjacent
to the borehole. Their depth of investigation is
shallowonly a few centimeters or lessand
therefore generally within the flushed zone.

As well as porosity, the logs are affected by


- volume and nature (lithology) of ma-
trix material
- amount and nature of pore space con-
tents (pore geometry, water, hydrocar-
bons)
- volume and nature of shales.

(05/96) C-1
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96) C-2
Schlumberger

C2.0 Porosity Measurements


from the BHC Sonic Tool

C2.1 INTRODUCTION
In its simplest form, a sonic tool consists of The computer also integrates the transit time
a transmitter that emits a sound pulse and a readings to obtain total traveltimes (see Figures
receiver that picks up and records the pulse as C1 and C2).
it passes the receiver.

The sound emanated from the transmitter


impinges on the borehole wall. This estab-
lishes compressional and shear waves within
the formation, surface waves along the bore-
hole wall and guided waves within the fluid
column.

The sonic log is simply a recording versus


depth of the time, tcomp, required for a compres-
sional sound wave to traverse 1 m of forma-
tion. Known as the interval transit time, transit
time, t or slowness, tcomp is the reciprocal of
the velocity of the sound wave. (For the re-
mainder of this document, tcomp is known as
t.) The interval transit time for a given for-
mation depends upon its lithology and poros-
ity. This dependence upon porosity, when the
lithology is known, makes the sonic log useful
as a porosity log. Integrated sonic transit times
are also helpful in interpreting seismic records.
The sonic log can be run simultaneously with
many other services.

The borehole-compensated (BHC) tool trans-


mitters are pulsed alternately, and t values are
read on alternate pairs of receivers. The t val-
ues from the two sets of receivers are averaged
automatically by a computer at the surface for
borehole compensation.
Figure C1: Schematic of BHC sonde, showing
ray paths for the two transmitter-receiver sets.
Averaging the two t measurements cancels er-
rors from the sonde tilt and hole-size charges.

(05/96) C-3
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Sometimes the first arrival, although strong The sonic log is run with t presented on a
enough to trigger the receiver nearer the trans- linear scale in tracks 2 and 3 with a choice of
mitter, may be too weak by the time it reaches two scales:
the far receiver to trigger it. Instead, the far re-
ceiver may be triggered by a different, later 500100 and 300100 sec/m.
arrival in the sonic wave train, and the travel
time measured on this pulse cycle will then be A three-arm caliper curve representing the
too large. When this occurs, the sonic curve average borehole diameter and a gamma ray
shows an abrupt, large excursion towards a (GR) curve are recorded simultaneously in
higher t value; this is known as cycle skip- track 1 (See Figure C3).
ping. Such skipping is more likely to occur
when the signal is strongly attenuated by un- The gamma ray curve measures the natural
consolidated formations, formation fractures, radioactivity of potassium, uranium and tho-
gas saturation, aerated muds or rugose or en- rium in the formation and is usually represen-
larged borehole sections. tative of the amount of shale present. This is
because radioactive elements tend to concen-
trate in clays and shales. Later, we will use the
GR to compute volume of shale (Vsh ).

C2.2 POROSITY DETERMINATION


a) Wyllie Time-Average Equation
After numerous laboratory determinations,
M.R.J. Wyllie proposed, for clean and con-
solidated formations with uniformly distrib-
uted small pores, a linear time-average or
weighted-average relationship between poros-
ity and transit time (see Figure C4):
9.8 m

tLOG = tf + (1 )tma (C1)

tLOG tma
or = (C2)
tf tma

2.25 m where
tLOG is the reading on the sonic log in
sec/m
tma is the transit time of the matrix mate-
Figure C2: BHC SonicGR tool distances
rial

(05/96) C-4
Schlumberger

BOREHOLE COMPENSATED SONIC

FILE 2

BS
125.0000 (MM) 375.0000

CALI
125.0000 (MM) 375.0000

GR DT
0.0000 (GAPI) 150.0000 500.0000 (US/M) 100.0000

600

Figure C3 : Borehole-Compensated Sonic Log

(05/96) C-5
Introduction to Openhole Logging

tf is the transit time of the saturating fluid t - tma 1


(about 620 sec/m for freshwater mud sys- SVcor = (C3)
tems) tf - tma CP
is the porosity or volume occupied by
pores
The value of Cp is given approximately by
1 is the volume of the matrix.
dividing the sonic velocity in nearby shale beds
by 328. However, the compaction correction
Typical Values: factor is best determined by comparing SV , as
obtained from Equations 1 and 2, with the true
Sand tmatrix = 182 sec/m porosity obtained from another source.
Lime tmatrix = 156 sec/m
b) Raymer-Hunt
Dolomite tmatrix = 143 sec/m
Over the 25 years since acoustic velocity
Anydrite tmatrix = 164 sec/m well logging was introduced, deficiencies have
been noted in the transform of transit time t
When the formations are not sufficiently to porosity .
compacted, the observed t values are greater
than those that correspond to the porosity ac- Based on extensive field observations of
cording to the time-average formula, but the transit times versus porosity, the new empiri-
versus t relationship is still approximately lin- cal Raymer-Hunt transform was derived. The
ear. In these cases, an empirical correction new transform equation is too complicated to
factor, Cp, is applied to Equation 2 to give a be presented in this course. An approximation
corrected porosity, SVcor (Equation 3): of the transform is given in Equation C4 and
the exact transform is presented in the chart
books as the red lines on all sonic charts.

tLOG - tma
sv = C (C4)
tLOG

The value of the constant C has a range of


0.625 to 0.7 depending upon the investigator.
Chart Por-3m (Figure C6) uses 0.7 for C: this
was the value originally proposed. However,
Figure C4: Components of the Wyllie more recent transit time-to-porosity compari-
Time-Average Equation sons indicate that a value of 0.67 is more ap-
propriate.

(05/96) C-6
Schlumberger

For the case of a gas-saturated reservoir rock, Raymer-Hunt (approximation):


C becomes 0.6. It should be used when the
rock investigated by the sonic tool contains an 5(352 - 182)
appreciable amount of hydrocarbon in the = 30%
gassy (vapor) phase. Because of the shallow 8(352)
depth of investigation, this condition normally
exists only in higher porosity sandstones
(greater than 30%). Chart Por-3m (Figure C6) solves this equa-
tion graphically. Enter tlog of 352 sec/m on
From the example sonic log (Figure C3) at abscissa and project upward until the appropri-
593 m we read 352 sec/m. Given tma =182 ate tma line is reached (Vma = 5500 m/sec). If
sec/m we can solve for : different values of Vma are used, we get differ-
ent values of .
Wyllie:
With a tlog = 250sec/m we would get
352 - 182
= 39%
620 - 182 Raymer-
Wyllie Hunt
Vma F F
V ma tm a V ma
Sandstone (5500 m/sec) 16% 18.5%
(m/sec) ( sec/m) (m/sec) Limestone (6400 m/sec) 21% 24%
Range of
Values
Dolomite (7010 m/sec) 26% 28.5%
Sandstone 5486 182 54865944
Limestone 6400 156 64007010
Dolomites 7010 143 70107925 C 2.3 FACTORS AFFECTING SONIC
Anhydrite 6096 164 6100 INTERPRETATION
Salt 4572 219 4566
Lithology
Casing (iron) 5334 187 5348
Lithology must be known to obtain the cor-
rect Vma . An incorrect choice of Vma will pro-
Fluid Transit Time: V1 = 1615 m/sec
duce erroneous calculations.
tf = 620 microsec/m for fresh muds
= microsec/m for salt muds Shale
Shale content generally causes t to read too
high for a porosity calculation because of the
Figure C5: Chart showing values used for common bound water in the shale. The sonic reads pri-
reservoir rocks
mary porosity, which may be affected by
shale.

(05/96) C-7
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Porosity Evaluation from Sonic


Svf = 1615 m/s

vf = 1615 m/sec
50 50

Time average
Field observation

1.1
40 40

1.2

1.3
ite
om ne
1.4
sto
l
Do

te
30 lc i nd 1.5 30
Ca sa
, porosity (p.u.)

, porosity (p.u.)
r tz 1.6
ua
Q

Bcp
e
ton
ds

20 20
e san
ite

ton tz
Qu em Calc lom

ds ar

vma (ft/sec)
z s te d e
an qu
Do
n it
00
80

e
59 640 00

ar t
C
70
0

10 10
50
00
55

0 0
100 150 200 250 300 350 400
t, interval transit time (sec/m)

EXAMPLE: t = 76 s/ft (249 s/m)


SVma = 19,500 ft/s (5950 m/s) - Sandstone
Thus, = 18% (by either weighted average or empirical transform)

SVma (ft/S) tma (s/ft) SVma (m/s) tma (s/m)


Sandstones 18,000 - 19,500 55.5 - 51.3 5486 - 5944 182 - 168
Limestones 21,000 - 23,000 47.6 - 43.5 6400 - 7010 156 - 143
Dolomites 23,000 - 26,000 43.5 - 38.5 7010 - 7925 143 - 126

Por-3m
Figure C6

(05/96) C-8
Schlumberger

Fluid Type
The depth of investigation of the sonic is An approximate Bcp is obtained from the sur-
shallow; therefore, most of the fluid seen by rounding shales (Bcp = tsh/328). Bcp can also
the sonic will be mud filtrate. be obtained by comparing the porosity ob-
tained from another source (core, density log,
Oil neutron log, computed log porosity) to that
Oil usually has no effect. obtained from the sonic log in a clean water
zone. (For example, if the neutron log in a
Water clean water zone reads 20% and the sonic log
There is usually no effect from water except reads 25%, then Bcp = 25%/20% = 1.25.)
where the drilling fluid is salt saturated, and
then a different Vf should be used, usually 607 Secondary Porosity
sec/m. The sonic generally ignores secondary po-
rosity. For example, in vugular porosity, the
Gas traveltime through the formation matrix is
Residual gas causes tlog to read too high faster than the time through fluid in the vugs,
when the formation is uncompacted. The gas because tf is about 3 to 4 times the value of
between the sand grains slows down the com- tma .
pressional wave resulting in a long t. In
compacted sands, the wave will travel from
one sand grain to another and the gas effect Borehole Effect
will be reduced. The compensated sonic is unaffected by
changing hole size except in the case of ex-
Compaction tremely rough, large holes where the formation
The value of tlog will read too high in un- signal is severely affected by the noise of the
mud signal and formation damage.
compacted sand formations. Compaction cor-
rections can be made if the compaction factor
Mudcake
(Bcp ) is known.
Mudcake has no effect on the BHC sonic be-
cause the traveltime through the mudcake is
compensated.

(05/96) C-9
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96) C-10
Schlumberger

C3.0 Porosity Measurements from the


Litho-Density Tool
C3.1 INTRODUCTION
Litho-Density logs are primarily used for po- These gamma rays may be thought of as high-
rosity and lithology measurements. Other uses velocity particles that collide with the electrons
include the identification of minerals in in the formation. At each collision, a gamma
evaporite deposits, detection of gas, determi- ray loses some, but not all, of its energy to the
nation of hydrocarbon density, evaluation of electron and then continues with diminished
shaly sands and complex lithologies, determi- energy. This type of interaction is known as
nation of oil-shale yield and calculation of Compton scattering. The scattered gamma rays
overburden pressure and rock mechanical reaching the detector, at a fixed distance from
properties. the source, are counted as an indication of
formation density.
C3.2 PRINCIPLE
A radioactive source, applied to the borehole The number of Compton-scattering colli-
wall in a shielded sidewall skid (Figure C7), sions is related directly to the number of elec-
emits medium-energy gamma rays (662 keV) trons in the formation. Consequently, the re-
into the formation. sponse of the density tool is determined
essentially by the electron density (number of
electrons per cubic centimeter) of the forma-
tion. Electron density is related to the true bulk
density b, which, in turn, depends on the den-
sity of the rock matrix material, formation po-
rosity and density of the fluids filling the
pores.

(GR energy > 1.02 MeV)

(over entire GR energy range)

( e )

(low-energy GR)

(Z)

Figure C7: Schematic Drawing of the Dual Spacing


Litho-Density Logging Device
Figure C8: Classical GR Matter Interactions
by Energy Level
Classical GR interactions by energy level are
shown in Figure C8. Because of the medium-
energy GR emission, only points 2 and 3 oc-
cur with respect to Litho-Density operation.

(05/96) C-11
Introduction to Openhole Logging

In addition to the bulk density measurement, The gamma ray spectrum at the near detector
the tool also measures the photoelectric ab- is used only to correct the density measure-
sorption index of the formation, Pe . Photelec- ment from the far detector for the effects of
tric absorption can be related to lithology; mudcake and borehole rugosity.
whereas the b measurement responds primar-
ily to porosity and secondarily to rock matrix
and pore fluid, the Pe measurement responds
primarily to rock matrix (lithology) and secon-
darily to porosity and pore fluid.

At a finite distance from the source, such as


the far detector, the energy spectrum may look
as illustrated in Figure C9. The number of
gamma rays in the higher energy region
(region of Compton scattering) is inversely
related only to the electron density of the for-
mation (i.e., an increase in the formation den-
sity decreases the number of gamma rays).
The number of gamma rays in the lower en-
ergy region (region of photoelectric effect) is
inversely related to both the electron density
and the photoelectric absorption. By compar-
ing the counts in these two regions, the pho- 7m
toelectric absorption index can be determined.

4.5 m

E (keV)

Figure C10: Basic SGT- CNT- LDT


Figure C9: Variations in Spectrum forFormation Tool Configuration
with Constant Density but Different Z

(05/96) C-12
Schlumberger

This can be written as

f ma b
ma
D =
(1 ) ma fl
where:
ma depends on lithology

b b is measured by the density log
Figure C11: Components of Density fl depends on fluid type in pore
Porosity Calculation
volumes.

The equation for b can be proven mathe-


C 3.3 POROSITY FROM A DENSITY
LOG matically, unlike the sonic equation, which is
an empirical relationship. Values of b are used
For a clean formation of known matrix den-
sity ma , with a porosity that contains a fluid for common reservoir rocks (zero porosity)
(Figure C12).
of average density f ,, the formation bulk den-
sity b, will be (Figure C11): From the example Litho-Density log (Figure
C13) at 593 m we read b = 2180 kg/m3.
b = f + (1 ) ma (clean wet zone) Given f = 1000 kg/m3, ma = 2650 kg/m3, we
can solve for D :
where:
b is the measured bulk density (from
2650 2180
Litho-Density tool) D = = 28.5%
ma is the density of the matrix
2650 1000
f is the density of the fluid
is the percent volume of pore space Chart Por-5 (Figure C14) solves this equa-
(1 ) is the percent volume of matrix. tion graphically. For b = 2180 kg/m3 solving
for porosity using other matrix values gives:

ma = 2710 kg/m3 D = 31%

ma = 2870 kg/m3 D = 36.9%

(05/96) C-13
Introduction to Openhole Logging

b Values for Common Reservoir Rocks and Fluids

Actual a
Compound Formula Density (as seen by
tool)

Quartz SiO2 2654 2648


Calcite CaCO3 2710 2710
Dolomite CaCO3MgCO3 2870 2876
Anhydrite CaSO4 2960 2977
Sylvite KCI 1984 1863
Halite NaCI 2165 2032

Actual a
Compound Formula Density (as seen by
tool)

Fresh Water H2O 1000 1000


Salt Water 200,00ppm 1146 1135
Oil n(CH2) 850 850
Gas C1.1 H4.2 g 1.325 g-0188

Figure C12

(05/96) C-14
Schlumberger

LITHOLOGY DENSITY
FILE 2

BS
125.0000 (MM) 375.0000

CALI DRHO
125.0000 (MM) 375.0000 -250.0000 (K/M3) 250.0000

GR RHOB
0.0000 (GAPI) 150.0000 2000.0000 (K/M3) 3000.0000

600

Figure C13

(05/96) C-15
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Formation Density Log Determination of Porosity

f 1.0 0.9 0.8

1.1
1.2

)
ite
40

om
ol

)
ne
(d

sto
87

)
te
2.

nd
lci
83
=

sa
(c
2.
a
m

rtz
71
=

ua
a

2.

8
m

.6

(q
=
2
30

65
a
a =
m

2.
m

a =
m

, porosity, (p.u.)

ma b
20 =
ma f

10

0
2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0
2.31
b, bulk density (g/cm3)

Bulk density, b, as recorded with the FDC* or LDT density logs, is converted to porosity with this chart. To
use, bulk density, corrected for borehole size, is entered in abscissa; go to the appropriate reservoir rock type
and read porosity on the appropriate fluid density, f. scale in ordinate. (f is the density of the fluid saturat-
ing the rock immediately surrounding the borehole - usually mud filtrate.)

EXAMPLE: b = 2.31 Mg/m3 in limestone lithology


ma = 2.71 (limestone)
f = 1.1 (salt mud)

Therefore D = 25 pu
Por-5

Figure C14

(05/96) C-16
Schlumberger

C3.4 LITHOLOGY FROM P e Typical Litho-Density responses for com-


MEASUREMENT mon minerals are presented in Figure C16.
The Pe curve is a good matrix indicator. It is
slightly influenced by formation porosity and The Pe measurement is used
the presence of gas, but responds mainly to
lithology (Figure C15). Hence, a safe interpre- 1. alone as a matrix indicator (the lithol-
tation of matrix lithology can be made for ogy curve)
simple lithologies (one-mineral matrix). In 2. in combination with density b to ana-
conjunction with other log data, more complex lyze two-mineral matrices and deter-
mineral combinations can be analyzed. mine porosity

Pe t

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

Figure C15: Photoelectric Absorption Index as a Function of Porosity and Fluid Content

(05/96) C-17
Introduction to Openhole Logging

3. In combination with the density and (complex lithology identification and heavy
neutron to analyse more complex mineral-detection) is covered in Section H,
lithologies (solutions to three-mineral Porosity in Complex Lithologies.
matrices and porosity).
Examples of the direct use of the Pe curve
A direct benefit from the more accurate de- for lithology identification are shown in Figure
scription of the matrix is a more reliable dis- C17. In the case of an anhydrite, Pe is equal to
tinction between gas and oil.
that of limestone. Anhydrite is positively iden-
tified by the bulk density or density porosity
In this section of the course, we use the Pe values.
curve as a matrix indicator in simple litholo-
gies. Using Pe for more advanced applications

Pe b e

0 0

0
0

Figure C16: Typical Litho-Density Responses for Common Sedimentary Rocks

(05/96) C-18
Schlumberger

Figure C17: Lithology Identification with the CNT, Litho-Density and Pe

(05/96) C-19
Introduction to Openhole Logging

C3.5 FACTORS AFFECTING THE


DENSITY LOG

Lithology Gas
The correct ma must be known to get correct The f of gas is 100300 kg/m3. Porosity
porosity. determination in gas zones may be high if
there is residual gas near the borehole. Usually
Shale most of the gas is flushed and little effect is
The density of shale in sands can range from seen on the density log.
2200 to 2650 but is usually close to 2650, the
same as sandstone. In shaly sands, the density Compaction
usually gives a good value of effective porosity The density tool is unaffected by lack of
regardless of the shale content. The shale ap- compaction.
pears as matrix to the density tool.
Secondary Porosity
b = f e + ma (1 e Vsh ) + sh Vsh The density reads intercrystalline, vugular
and fractured porosity. The porosity measured
collecting terms: is therefore total porosity.

b = f ( e ) + ma (1 e ) + Vsh (sh ma ) Borehole Effect


Density gives good values for smooth holes
if sh = ma , the last term is zero. up to 381 mm in diameter. The tool compen-
sates for minor borehole rugosity, but a rough
hole causes the density to read too low densi-
Fluid Type
ties (high porosities) because the skid-to-for-
The depth of investigation is quite shallow: mation contact is poor.
usually most of the formation fluid is flushed
away from the wellbore and the density tool
Mudcake
sees drilling fluid or filtrate in the pore space.
Hence, the values of f to use is that of the For normal mudcake thickness, there will be
no effect because the tool automatically com-
drilling mud filtrate rather than the formation pensates for mudcake.
water density.
However for a correction of 100 kg/m3
Oil and greater (i.e., > 100 kg/m3), the tool
Residual oil will make density porosities compensation may be insufficient and the b
slightly high, because oil is lighter than drilling
no longer representative of the formation den-
mud filtrate.
sity. In this case, the density should obviously
not be used for porosity calculations.
Water
Water density is proportional to the amount
of salt content. The value of f is selected in the
computer for porosity determination.

(05/96) C-20
Schlumberger

C4.0 Porosity Measurements from the


Compensated Neutron Tool

C4.1 INTRODUCTION C4.2 PRINCIPLE


Neutron logs are used principally for the de- Neutrons are electrically neutral particles,
lineation of porous formations and determina- each with a mass almost identical to the mass
tion of their porosity. They respond primarily of a hydrogen atom. High-energy (fast) neu-
to the amount of hydrogen in the formation. trons are continuously emitted from a radioac-
Thus, in clean formations that have pores filled tive source in the sonde. These neutrons collide
with water or oil, the neutron log reflects the with the nuclei of the formation materials in
amount of liquid-filled porosity. what may be thought of as elastic billiard-ball
collisions. With each collision, the neutron
Gas zones can often be identified by com- loses some of its energy.
paring the neutron log with another porosity
log or a core analysis. A combination of the The amount of energy lost per collision de-
neutron log with one or more other porosity pends on the relative mass of the nucleus with
logs yields even more accurate porosity values which the neutron collides. A greater energy
and lithology identificationeven an evalua- loss occurs when the neutron strikes a nucleus
tion of shale content. of practically equal mass (i.e., a hydrogen nu-
cleus). Collisions with heavy nuclei do not
slow the neutron much. Thus, the slowing of
neutrons depends largely on the amount of hy-
drogen in the formation.
3 3 /8-in. DIAMETER Within a few microseconds, the neutrons
have been slowed by successive collisions to
thermal velocities, corresponding to energies
of about 0.025 eV. They then diffuse ran-
domly, without losing more energy, until they
are captured by the nuclei of atoms such as
chlorine, hydrogen or silicon.

The capturing nucleus becomes intensely ex-


cited and emits a high-energy gamma ray of
capture.

Figure C18: Schematic Drawing of the Dual


Spacing Compensated Neutron Tool

(05/96) C-21
Introduction to Openhole Logging

When the hydrogen concentration of the sidewall neutron porosity (SNP) tools (in lim-
material surrounding the neutron source is ited use) and the CNL tool series, which in-
large, most of the neutrons are slowed and cludes the compensated neutron and DNL*
captured within a short distance of the source. Dual-Energy Neutron Log. The current tools
On the contrary, if the hydrogen concentration use americium-beryllium (AmBe) sources to
is small, the neutrons travel farther from the provide neutrons with initial energies of sev-
source before being captured. Accordingly, the eral million electron volts.
counting rate at the detector increases for de-
creased hydrogen concentrations and vice 1) SNP
versa. Thus, the neutron tool responds to the - detects epithermal neutrons
hydrogen index of the formation. The hydro- - utilizes a skid mounted single detector
gen index is a measurement of the amount of - can be run in open hole only, either liq-
hydrogen per unit volume of formation (HI of uid-filled or empty
water = 1). - most corrections are automatically ap-
plied during logging
Neutron logging tools include the GNT - limited availability.
(Figure C19) tools series (no longer in use),

Figure C19: Neutron Energy Travel History

(05/96) C-22
Schlumberger

2) CNL tool detectors reads lower and agrees more


detects thermal neutrons closely with density-derived porosity.
- The CNL tool uses a two-detector sys- - As with the CNL tool, the DNL tool is
tem that depth and resolution matches especially designed for use in combina-
each count rate before the ratio is com- tion with other devices. In addition, the
puted. The ratio value is then converted DNL tool can be run in liquid-filled
to porosity on a linear scale (Figure holes, air/gas-filled holes (epithermal
C20), based on the matrix selected for porosity only) and open or cased holes.
the computation (limestone, sandstone
or dolomite).
- Conversion from one porosity assump- C4.3 FACTORS AFFECTING CNL
tion to another can be done using Chart LOGS
Por-13b (Figure C22). Por-13b con-
verts curves labelled "NPHI" that are Lithology
not environmentally corrected and also A single known matrix must be present to
converts for curves labelled "TNPH" accurately determine porosities. Large errors
and "NPOR," which are environmen- can occur if the matrix selection is incorrect.
tally corrected.
- The CNL tool is especially designed for Shale
use in combination with other devices. The presence of hydrogen in chemically
- The CNL tool can be run in liquid-filled bound water causes the CNL/DNL tool to read
holes, either open or cased, but not high porosities in shales or shaly formations.
empty holes (i.e., air- or gas-filled
holes.) Fluid Type
Water: Fresh water has no effects. Saline
3) DNL tool water has a reduced hydrogen content and the
detects thermal and epithermal neutrons CNL/DNL tool will read low porosity; the
- The DNL tool incorporates two correction is in the chart book.
epithermal neutron detectors in addition
to the two thermal neutron detectors. Liquid Hydrocarbons: If the hydrogen con-
Two separate porosity measurements tent is close to that of water, there is little or no
are obtained, one from each pair of de- effect.
tectors.
- Improves the response to gas and en- Gas: If the hydrogen concentration is low,
hances interpretation in the presence of the CNL/DNL tool reads low porosity.
thermal neutron absorbers.
- In shaly formations containing a large Compaction
number of thermal neutron absorbers, All neutron logs are unaffected by compac-
the porosity measured by the epithermal tion.

(05/96) C-23
Introduction to Openhole Logging

COMPENSATED NEUTRON LITHODENSITY (NO PEF CURVE)


FILE 2

BS
125.0000 (MM) 375.0000

CALI DPHI
125.0000 (MM) 375.0000 0.6000 (K/M3) 0.0000

GR NPHI
0.0000 (GAPI) 150.0000 0.6000 (V/V) 0.0000

600

Figure: C20

(05/96) C-24
Schlumberger

Secondary Porosity Mudcake


All neutron equipment measures total poros- Corrections for mudcake, fluid (mud and
ity (including primary and secondary). formation) salinity, mud weight, pressure and
temperature are in Charts Por-14(a) and 14(b),
Borehole Effect in the Log Interpretation Chart Book, but are
The effects of rough hole are minimized by a not discussed in this course.
large depth of investigation obtained by the use
of a high-yield source and the two-detector The average net correction is usually between
system. one and three porosity units. Hence, for calcu-
lations by hand, the correction is usually not
When run in combination with the density done.
tool, an automatic caliper correction system is
accurate to [356 mm]. Normally there is zero
standoff correction.

(05/96) C-25
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Neutron Porosity Equivalence Curves


Sidewall Neutron Porosity (SNP), Compensated Neutron Log (CNL*)

40
, True Porosity for Indicated Matrix Material

30

20
e
on
st
nd

ne
Sa

s to
e
m
Li ite
m
lo
Do

10

SNP
CNL

Schlumberger
0
0 10 20 30 40
SNPcor, Apparent Limestone Neutron Porosity (p.u.)
CNLcor, Apparent Limestone Neutron Porosity (p.u.)

When the SNP or CNL log is recorded in limestone porosity units, this chart is used to find porosity in sandstones
or dolomites. For the SNP log, first correct for mudcake thickness. (Chart Por-15 is used for SNP mudcake
corrections.)
For the CNL log, simply enter the chart in abscissa with the apparent limestone neutron porosity; go to the ap-
propriate matrix line, and read true porosity on the ordinate. (Chart Por-14 is used for CNL environmental
corrections.)
EXAMPLE: Sandstone bed Giving, hmc = 1/4 in.
SNP = 13 pu (apparent limestone porosity) SNP = 11 pu (corrected for mudcake)
Bit Size = 77/8 in. And, SNP (sandstone) = 14 pu
SNP caliper = 75/8 in.

This chart can also be used to find apparent limestone porosity (needed for entering the various CP-crossplot
charts) if the SNP or CNL recording is in sandstone or dolomite porosity units. This chart should be used for CNL
values labeled NPHIit should not be used for CNL values labeled TNPH or NPOR.

Por-13a

Figure C21

(05/96) C-26
Schlumberger

Neutron Porosity Equivalence Curves


Compensated Neutron Log (CNL*)

40

Formation salinity
0 kppm

250 kppm TNPH


NPHI
, true porosity for indicated matrix material

30
e
on

20 e)
st

on
nd

t
es
sa

m
rtz

( li it e
ua

ci
te lom
Do
Q

l
a
C

10

0
0 10 20 30 40
CNLcor, apparent limestone neutron porosity (p.u.)

*Mark of Schlumberger

Por-13b

Figure C22

(05/96) C-27
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96) C-28
Schlumberger

C5.0 Total Porosity Determination

We have seen that porosity measurements a) if D is available, use TOTAL = D


are inferred from measurements of bulk den- b) if N and t are available, use TOTAL
sity, hydrogen index and acoustic traveltimes.
= S with compaction corrections
We have also seen that each measurement
provides the necessary input to calculate po- applied.
rosity under the following conditions:
In a carbonate, for initial computations
Porosity type is intergranular, not frac- (limestone matrix),
tured or secondary (vuggy, moldic,
etc.). a) if N and D are available in sandstone
Matrix type is known and constant. and limestone units, then use TOTAL :
Rock is clean, (i.e., no shale present).
Porosity is filled with fluid. N + D
T =
Violations of any of these conditions will
cause the different porosity measurements to 2
disagree in one fashion or another. This can be b) if only t is available, use TOTAL :
used to determine lithology, primary and sec-
ondary porosity and gas vs. liquid content. The T = S + estimate VUGS .
question to be answered here is: Which poros-
ity measurement should be used? If gas is present in the reservoir, additional cor-
rections to N and D must be applied, as dis-
In a sand-shale sequence, for initial compu- cussed in Section F.
tations,
Porosity calculations in complex lithologies shall
are discussed in Section H.

(05/96) C-29
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Figure C23: Porosity Comparison between the LDT, CNT and SLT

(05/96) C-30
Schlumberger

C6.0 GR Log

6.1 INTRODUCTION
The GR log is a measurement of the natural Each of these elements emits gamma rays,
radioactivity of the formations. In sedimentary the number and energies of which are distinc-
formations the log normally reflects the shale tive for each element. Figure C24 shows the
content of the formations. This is because the energies of the emitted gamma rays: potas-
radioactive elements tend to concentrate in sium (K40) emits gamma rays of a single en-
clays and shales. Clean formations usually ergy at 1.46 MeV, whereas the uranium and
have a very low level of radioactivity, unless thorium series emit gamma rays of various
radioactive contaminant such as volcanic ash energies.
or granite wash is present or the formation
waters contain dissolved radioactive salts.

"Clean"
Formation GR Reading
Sands 15 to 30 API
Limestones 10 to 20 API
Dolomites 8 to 15 API

The GR log can be recorded in cased wells,


which makes it very useful as a correlation
curve in completion and workover operations.
It is frequently used to complement the SP log
and as a substitute for the SP curve in wells
drilled with salt mud, air or oil-base muds. In
each case, it is useful for the location of shales
and nonshaly beds and, most importantly, for
general correlation.

6.2 PROPERTIES OF GAMMA RAYS


Gamma rays are bursts of high-energy elec-
tromagnetic waves that are emitted spontane-
ously by some radioactive elements. Nearly all Figure C24: Gamma Ray Emission Spectra
of Radioactive Minerals
the gamma radiation that occurs in the earth is
emitted by the radioactive potassium isotope of
atomic weight 40 (K40) and by the radioactive
elements of the uranium and thorium series.

(05/96) C-31
Introduction to Openhole Logging

In passing through matter, gamma rays ex- per unit volume, but with different densities,
perience successive Compton-scattering colli- will show different radioactivity levels; the less
sions with atoms of the formation material, dense formations will appear slightly more
losing energy with each collision. After the radioactive. (Figure C25).
gamma ray has lost enough energy, it is ab-
sorbed, by means of the photoelectric effect, GR uses:
by an atom of the formation. Thus, natural 1. definition of shale beds
gamma rays are gradually absorbed and their 2. indicator of shale content
energies degraded (reduced) as they pass 3. detection of radioactive and non-
through the formation. The rate of absorption radioactive minerals
varies with formation density. Two formations 4. identification of formation tops.
with the same amount of radioactive material

(05/96) C-32
Schlumberger

Figure C25: Relative GR Response for Various Rocks/Formations

(05/96) C-33
Introduction to Openhole Logging

6.3 NGS NATURAL GAMMA RAY rium-232 decay sequentially through a long
SPECTROMETRY TOOL sequence of various daughter isotopes before
Like the GR log, the NGS Natural Gamma arriving at stable lead isotopes. As a result,
Ray Spectrometry tool measures the natural gamma rays of many different energies are
radioactivity of the formations. Unlike the GR emitted and fairly complex energy spectra are
log, which measures only the total radioactiv- obtained, as Figure C26 shows. The charac-
ity, this log measures both the number of teristic peaks in the thorium series at 2.62
gamma rays and the energy level of each and MeV are caused by the decay of thallium-208
permits the determination of the concentrations and bismuth-214 respectively.
of radioactive potassium, thorium and uranium
in the formation rocks (Figure C27). It is generally assumed that formations are in
secular equilibrium; that is, the daughter iso-
Physical Principle topes decay at the same rate as they are pro-
Most of the gamma ray radiation in the earth duced from the parent isotope. This means that
originates from the decay of three radioactive the relative proportions of parent and daughter
isotopes: potassium (K40), uranium 238 (U238) elements in a particular series remain fairly
and thorium 232 (Th232). constant; so, by looking at the gamma ray
population in a particular part of the spectrum
Potassium-40 decays directly to the stable it is possible to infer the population at any
argon-40 with the emission of a 1.46-MeV other point. In this way, the amount of parent
gamma ray. However, uranium-238 and tho- isotope present can be determined.

Figure C26: Potassium, Thorium and Uranium Response Curves (NAl Crystal Detector)

(05/96) C-34
Schlumberger

NATURAL GAMMA SPECTROMETRY

ACCUMULATED INTEGRATION VALUES SUMMARY:

Integrated Hole Volume: 2.07418 M3 FROM 209.87 M TO 1995.07 M

TENS(N )
50000. 0.0
SGR(GAPI)
0.0 150.00
POTA THOR(PPM ) POTA
0.0 .09370 0.0 40.000 0.0 .10000
CGR(GAPI) URAN(PPM )
0.0 150.00 -10.00 30.000

THORIUM

POTASSIUM

CP 32.6 FILE 3 00- -1941 00:39

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


61 02-JUN-1992 15:15

1/240

2000

2025

TENS---
---SGR
---URAN
---THOR
---POTA
---POTA
---CGR
CGR

Figure C27
(05/96) C-35
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Once the parent isotope population is known, Applications:


the amount of nonradioactive isotope can also - identification of radioactive sands that
be found. The ratio of potassium-40 to total may be misinterpreted as shales
potassium is stable and constant on the earth, - identification of different types of
whereas, apart from thorium-232, the thorium shales/clays (see Figure C28)
isotopes are rare and so can be neglected. The - depth correlation (same as GR)
relative proportions of the uranium isotopes - complex lithology analysis.
depend somewhat on their environment, and
there is also a gradual change because of their
different half-lives; at present, the ratio of ura-
nium-238 to uranium-235 is about 137.

Figure C28: Classification of Radioactive Minerals as a Function of the Th and K Values

(05/96) C-36
Schlumberger

C7.0 Borehole Geometry


by Caliper Measure

C7.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


The hole diameter is usually recorded in The readings given by different calipers in
conjunction with the following surveys: the same hole may be different depending on
the caliper design and the hole cross section.
- Sonic logs (BHC versions, ASI Array
Seismic Imager, DSI Dipole Shear Figure C29 shows the characteristics of the
Sonic Imager) different calipers:
- Microresistivity logs (microlog, Micro-
SFL, EPT Electromagnetic Propagation
logs)
- Litho-Density logs
- Dipmeter logs (Dual Dipmeter Forma-
tion MicroScanner, FMI Formation
MicroImager tools)
- Borehole geometry log

No. of Phasing of the


Caliper tool Maximum Diameter Remarks
Arms Arms (Degrees)
3 arms coupled
Sonic tool 3 120 16 in. [406 mm] 1 reading
1 arm
Microlog tool 1 0 20 in. [508 mm] 1 reading
1 arm
Micro-SFL tool 1 0 16 in. [406 mm] 1 reading
(option A)
4 arms coupled 2 2
Micro-SFL tool 4 90 22 in. [558 mm] 2 paired readings
(option B)
Short Arm 16 in. [406 mm] 1 arm
Density tool 1 0 Long Arm 21 in. [533 mm] 1 reading
4 arms coupled 2 2
Dipmeters 4 90 FMS/FMI 22 in. [558 mm] 2 independent readings
Standard 30 in. [762 mm] 4 arms coupled 2 2
Borehole Geometry 4 90 Special 40 in. [1016 mm] 2 independent readings
tool
2 arms coupled
Dual Axis 2 180 16 in. [406 mm] 1 reading

Figure C29: Caliper Specifications for Different Devices Statedon the Logs

(05/96) C-37
Introduction to Openhole Logging

1) Mudcake is a good reason to have dif- - The sonic caliper (three arms linked
ferent calipers reading different values: together) shows an average hole di-
- If the arm of the caliper is the blade ameter.
type, it will cut into the cake and - The density caliper (one arm) is ap-
this arm will ignore the thickness plied on the wall with strength. Its
of the mudcake. back-up arm will cut into the mud-
- If the arm is of the pad type, it will cake. If no small-axis hardware is
skid over the cake and the mudcake used, it will orient itself to read the
thickness will be taken into account. largest diameter. If small-axis
hardware is used, the Litho-Density
2. Assuming no mudcake, the readings of tool tracks the smoother, short axis
different calipers in a perfectly round of the hole (if ovality exists).
hole will be identical. - The microlog caliper (one arm) will
probably orient itself to read the
But holes are not always round. In larger diameter. Its pad will skid on
clearly ovalized holes, two- three- and any mudcake. This is the case in the
four-arm calipers will read different upper part and lower part of this
hole diameter values, mostly because of section.
the way these arms are coupled to- - Most calipers are designed to rec-
gether. ord accurate hole diameters in cy-
lindrical boreholes. When bore-
If the logging tool is fairly free to rotate holes are noncylindrical and
inside the hole: depending on caliper configura-
- Two-arm calipers will ride using tions, a tool string will orient itself
the larger diameter of the hole. in some preferential direction. This
- Four-arm calipers will ride with can effect both caliper readings and
one pair of coupled arms using the log responses.
larger diameter of the hole.
Using Figure C31, consider the caliper
3) In deviated wells, calipers may par- responses in a 200- 400-mm oval
tially collapse under their own weight borehole for the various caliper types,
and give readings that are too low. configurations and preferred tool orien-
tations. 100 m of 200- 400-mm hole
The following example (Figure C30) has a volume of 6.28m3.
shows different calipers in an ovalized
hole:

(05/96) C-38
Schlumberger

Figure C30: Comparison of Various Caliper Responses

(05/96) C-39
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Single-Arm Caliper Configuration:


records one borehole diameter = 400
mm
calculated 100 m hole volume = 12.57
m3 (+100% error)
tool examples:
- Litho-Density log
(No short-axis hardware)
- MicroSFL tool (option A)
- EPT Electromagnetic Propa-
gation tool.

Two-Arm Caliper Configurations:


a. Unidirectional
records one borehole diameter = 400
mm
calculated 100 m hole volume = 12.57
m3 (+100% error)
tool example:
- MicroSFL tool (option B).

b. Bidirectional Long Axis


records one borehole diameter = 195
mm
records a second diameter = 195 mm
calculated 100 m hole volume = 2.9 m3
( 53%).

c. Bi-directional Short Axis


Records one borehole diameter = 273
mm
Records a second diameter = 273 mm
Calculated 100m hole volume = 5.85m3
(7%).

Figure C31: Caliper Responses Under


Various Hole Conditions

(05/96) C-40
Schlumberger

Three-Arm Caliper Configurations:


a. Centered
records one borehole diameter = 260
mm
calculated 100 m hole volume = 5.31m3
(15%)
tool example:
- sonic log.

b. 90- Degree Offset


records one axis diameter = 200 mm
records a second diameter = 382 mm
calculated 100m hole volume = 6.00 m3
(4%)
tool examples:
- CNL Compensated Neutron
log
- Litho-Density log (short-axis
hardware applied).

Four-Arm Caliper Configuration:


records one-axis diameter = 200 mm
records a second diameter = 400 mm
calculated 100-m hole volume = 6.28
m3 (0%)
tool examples:
- borehole geometry log
- Dual-Dipmeter tool Figure C31 (Continued)
- Formation MicroScanner
- FMI Formation MicroImager.

(05/96) C-41
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96) C-42
Schlumberger

C8.0 Work Session

1a. For the example logs of Figures C32 C34, calculate the following:

(Formation = Sandstone)
581 m 600 m
a. RILD

b.Rt

c. t

d. S

e. D

f. N

2. Using the sonic log of Figure C34, calculate the sonic porosity at 586 m.

tf = 620 sec/m
tma = 182 sec/m

t - tma
s = =
tf - tma

5(t - tma )
s = =
8t

b. Using Chart Por-3m (Figure C6)

s Wyllie Time-Average =
s Field Observation =

(05/96) C-43
Introduction to Openhole Logging

3a. On the CNTLitho-Density log of Figure C35, what effect is seen at 1941 to 1946 m?

b. Using the Pe , what is the lithology in this zone?

c. Convert the log readings (N and D ) to equivalent sandstone values.

d. Explain the effect identified in question 3a.

(05/96) C-44
Schlumberger

DUAL INDUCTION - SP/SFL


FILE 2

ILM
0.2000 (OHMM) 2000.0000

ILD
0.2000 (OHMM) 2000.0000

SP SFLU
-150.0000 (MV) 0.0000 0.2000 (OHMM) 2000.0000

600

Figure C32

(05/96) C-45
Introduction to Openhole Logging

COMPENSATED NEUTRON LITHODENSITY (NO PEF CURVE)


FILE 2

BS SANDSTONE
125.0000 (MM) 375.0000

CALI DPHI
125.0000 (MM) 375.0000 0.6000 (V/V) 0.0000

GR NPHI
0.0000 (GAPI) 150.0000 0.6000 (V/V) 0.0000

600

Figure C33

(05/96) C-46
Schlumberger

BOREHOLE COMPENSATED SONIC

FILE 2

BS
125.0000 (MM) 375.0000

CALI
125.0000 (MM) 375.0000

GR DT
0.0000 (GAPI) 150.0000 500.0000 (US/M) 100.0000

600

Figure C34

(05/96) C-47
Introduction to Openhole Logging

COMPENSATED NEUTRON - LITHO DENSITY (WITH PE)

C2(MM ) DRHO(K/M3)
125.00 375.00 -250.0 250.00
BS1 PEF
125.00 375.00 0.0 10.000
CALI(MM ) NPHI(V/V )
125.00 375.00 .45000 -.1500
GR(GAPI) DPHI(V/V )
0.0 150.00 .45000 -.1500

LIMESTONE

CP 32.6 FILE 4 05-JUN-1992 11:42

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


1 05-JUN-1992 08:58

1/240

1925

DRHO---
---PEF
NPHI---
DPHI---
---BS1
---CALI
---GR

1950

Figure C35
(05/96) C-48
Schlumberger

Contents

D1.0 BASIC QUICKLOOK INTERPRETATION ......................................................................................1


D1.1 QUICKLOOK METHODS ........................................................................................................1
D1.2 METHOD ONE: OVERLAY TECHNIQUE.................................................................................1
D1.3 METHOD TWO: RWA TECHNIQUE..........................................................................................2
D1.4 METHOD THREE: DIRECT METHOD OF CALCULATING WATER
SATURATION FOR CLEAN ZONES ......................................................................................5

D2.0 WORK SESSION.........................................................................................................................9

(05/96)
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96)
Schlumberger

D1.0 Basic Quicklook Interpretation

D1.1 QUICKLOOK METHODS D1.2 METHOD ONE:


OVERLAY TECHNIQUE
Quicklook methods of log interpretation can
be classified as those used to identify possible a. Define the clean zones (no clay) on the
producing intervals, usually at the wellsite. The log with the GR and SP.
requirements are to locate permeable beds, cal- b. Find a clean, 100%-wet zone on the
culate bed thicknesses, porosities and satura- log: this should have a good SP de-
tions of hydrocarbon zones and predict pro- flection, low GR, good porosity and
ducibility. These generally simplified low resistivity.
techniques are not intended as a substitute for c. In the clean, wet zone found in Step
more comprehensive methods of interpreta- (b), overlay the sonic t on the deep
tions. resistivity curve. (If no sonic is avail-
able use density porosity.)
The methods covered here are d. Keeping the logs parallel and in the
1) overlay technique same relative position, trace the deep
2) Rwa resistivity curve on the sonic log for
3) direct method of calculating Sw. the zones found in Step (a).
e. Any zone where there is high resistiv-
A note of caution, though, because there are ity relative to sonic porosity (t) has
some assumptions that should be considered hydrocarbon and should be evaluated
when using quicklook techniques. The zone further.
should have f. Use the same 100%-wet zone found in
Step (b), and overlay the sonic t on
1) constant Rw the neutron porosity curve.
g. Trace the neutron porosity curve on
2) thick, homogenous formation the sonic log for the clean zones de-
3) continuous clean lithology fined in Step (a). Make sure the neu-
4) clean-water-bearing zone tron and sonic log stay parallel and in
5) moderate invasion and of step profile. the same relative position.

(05/96) D-1
Introduction to Openhole Logging

h. In the hydrocarbon zones defined in Rt


Step (e), where the neutron porosity Rwa =
decreases and the sonic t increases
F
the zone is gas bearing. All other hy-
drocarbon zones contain oil.
This value will represent Rw for the forma-
i. On the density porosity log define a
cutoff value of porosity based on test tion if the assumption that all zones are wet is
and production experience for the area. correct.
j. When the density porosity is above
this value, the zone will produce fluid. If the zones are not all at Sw = 100%, the
Below the cutoff value, no production value of Rwa will vary depending upon the ac-
will occur. tual Sw of the formation.
D1.3 METHOD TWO:
If we select the minimum value of Rwa and
Rwa TECHNIQUE
call it Rw, then we can make a comparison of
This technique assumes that all zones are all calculated Rwa values against this Rwa
100% wet, estimates a value for Rw, and sub-
(minimum) value through substitution into
sequently studies the anomalies to the first as- Archie's equation as follows:
sumption.
FR w
Consider Archie's equation:
Given S w
2
=
aRw FR w Rt
S
w
2
= =
Rt
m
Rt If Sw = 100%, then

Assume: Sw = 100% Rt
Rwa =
FR w F
then =1
Rt or conversely, Rt = FRwa

Rt Substituting Rwa (minimum ) for Rw, and FR wa


Rearrange to solve for Rw: Rw = for Rt yields
F FRwa(minimum )
S 2
=
Because we assume that all zones have Sw = w

FRwa
100%, we state
Rwa(minimum )
or S w
2
=
Rwa

(05/96) D-2
Schlumberger

Hence, we can compare the minimum Rwa - The general rule for indicating zones of
value against all other Rwa values calculated and potential hydrocarbons is when Rwa 3Rw
compute Sw. (approximate Sw = 58%). When Rmf > Rw, such
an Rwa calculation may be due to the influence
To work effectively, this technique requires of invasion on the Rt device in a water sand.
that we in fact have a zone at Sw = 100% and To help resolve this problem, an apparent mud
that Rt or vary through the zones to be filtrate resistivity value (Rmfa) may be computed
evaluated. using a shallow investigation resistivity read-
ing e.g., Micro-SFL, SFL tool and AT-10.
Procedure for Rwa Analysis:
Problem: Find: Sw given a resistivity log, R(shallow device )
plus either a sonic, neutron or density log. Rmfa =
F
Solution: This interpretation method is
generally suited to sands, where porosity Quality Checks on Rwa Values:
plus resistivity logs are available (refer to Assuming that Rw< Rmf:
Nomograph in Figure D1).
1. If Rmfa Rwa Rw, invasion is shallow
- Logs must be zoned so that the forma- and Rwa is correct. The zone is water
tions to be evaluated have reasonably
consistent matrix and Rw values. bearing.
2. If Rmfa > Rmf, there is probably some
- Calculate a series of Rwa values in perme- residual hydrocarbon saturation in the
able zones. Check the Rwa values (see flushed zone. This would confirm a
later comments). hydrocarbon indication on the Rwa
curve.
- When Rwa 3Rw, investigate the zone for 3. If Rmfa Rmf and Rw < Rwa < Rmf, deep
possible hydrocarbon presence, because invasion may have occurred. Check
Sw < 58% where Rwa > 3Rw. favorable Rwa indications further.
- If Rw is known, Sw may be calculated by - Having checked Rwa values and
Sw2 = Rw/Rwa. selected an Rw value, proceed
to calculate Sw for all zones
- If Rw is unknown, choose a minimum Rwa
where Rwa 3Rw (Sw2 = Rw/Rwa).
value Rw. Several points should be ex-
amined to establish a suitable Rw value Limitations
(i.e., anomalously low Rw values should Limitations of this technique are similar to
be avoided, because they may be due to those for crossplots. The influence of invasion,
calcareous streaks or other matrix influ- shale, gas and matrix changes for each device
ences, etc.). should be recognized.

(05/96) D-3
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Figure D1

(05/96) D-4
Schlumberger

D1.4 METHOD THREE: DIRECT PSP


METHOD OF CALCULATING SSP =
WATER SATURATION FOR 1-Vsh
CLEAN ZONES where Vsh is from the GR.

All water saturation calculations are based on d. Water Catalog: This is a summary of
one form or other of Archie's saturation for- DSTs and produced water samples.
mula, where: Some countries have logging societies
that publish these catalogs.
FRw
S n
= F - Formation Factor
w

Rt Formation factor may be obtained for Rxo


measurements (e.g., Micro-SFL Focused Log,
aRw electromagnetic propagation resistivity [EPR]).
= Rxo
m Rt
F = Sxo 2
By calculating suitable input parameters we Rmf
can solve these equations for water satura-
tion in shale-free zones.
- Porosity
Rw - Formation Water Resistivity Porosity may be obtained from neutron,
density, sonic or a combination of these de-
An accurate knowledge of Rw is essential but vices.
often difficult to obtain. Rw values can be ob-
Rt - True Resistivity
tained from:
True resistivity may be obtained from ILD,
a. Production Water Samples: samples IDPH or LLD; any borehole and invasion cor-
should be collected prior to any rections should be applied to the raw readings
chemical treatment; measure resistivity to obtain Rt .
and temperature of the sample. Chart Sw -1a (Figure D2) is a convenient
b. Drillstem Tests (DSTs): if possible, method of solving this formula. However,
collect three samples, at top, middle note that the F versus relationship used is F
and bottom of the tool. Measure all = 1/2.
three resistivities and record tempera-
tures. The sample with the lowest If any other relationship is used, F must be
value should be most representative of calculated before entering the chart.
R w.
c. SP Log: if necessary, bed thickness Remember, knowledge of formation water
corrections, etc., should be made prior resistivity is essential for making an accurate
to calculating Rw. (When shale is pres- interpretation.
ent, the SSP may be estimated by
PSP).

(05/96) D-5
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Saturation Determination
(Clean Formations - Humble Relationship)

This nomograph solves the Archie water saturation equation Sw =


R0 FrRw
=
Rt Rt
It should be used in clean (nonshaly) formations only. If R 0 (resistivity when 100% water saturated) is known, a
straight line from the known R0 value through the measured Rt value gives saturation, Sw . If R0 is known, it may
be determined by connecting the formation water resistivity, R w , with the formation resistivity factor, F R , or
porosity,
Example: Rw = 0.05 .m at formation temperature
= 20% (F R = 20)
Rt = 10 .m
Thus, Sw = 31.6%
Chart Sw-1a

Figure D2

(05/96) D-6
Schlumberger

Saturation Determination
(Clean Formations - m = 2)
Sw
(%)
R0 Rt 5
(ohm-m) (ohm-m)
30 10,000
Rw FR 8,000 6
(ohm-m) (%) 6,000
5,000 7
0.01 2000 20 4,000
2.5 18 3,000
16 8
3 1000 14 2,000
800 9
4 12
600 1,000 10
0.02 10
5 400 9 800 11
6 300 8 600
0.03 7 500 12
7 200 400
6 13
0.04 8 300 14
9 5
10 100 200 15
0.05 80 4 16
0.06 60 100
15 50 3 18
0.07 40 80
0.08 30 60 20
0.09 20 50
0.1 20 2 40
25 1.8 30
1.6 25
30 10 1.4 20
35 8 1.2
40 6 30
0.2 45 5 1.0 10
50 4 0.9 8
0.8 6
0.3 1 0.7 5
FR = 4 40
2.0 0.6 3
0.4 0.5
2
0.5 0.4 50
0.6 m = 2.0 1.0
0.7 0.3 0.8 60
0.8 0.6
0.9 0.5 70
1 0.2 0.4
0.18 0.3
0.16 80
1.5 0.14 0.2
0.12 90
2 0.10 0.1 100

R0
R0 = FRRw Sw =
Schlumberger Rt

This nomograph solves the Archie water saturation equation Sw =


R0 FrRw
=
Rt Rt
It should be used in clean (nonshaly) formations only. If R 0 (resistivity when 100% water saturated) is known, a
straight line from the known R0 value through the measured Rt value gives saturation, Sw . If R0 is known, it may
be determined by connecting the formation water resistivity, R w , with the formation resistivity factor, F R , or
porosity,
Example: Rw = 0.05 .m at formation temperature
= 20% (F R = 20)
Rt = 10 .m
Thus, Sw = 31.6%
Chart Sw-1b
Figure D3

(05/96) D-7
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96) D-8
Schlumberger

D2.0 Work Session

1. Using the logs of Figures D4 to D6, follow the overlay technique outlined on pages D1
and D2.

2. Given tma = 182 sec/m tabulate the values and do an Rwa analysis of the example using
Figures D4 to D6. First find Sw from s only and then do the calculation again using T
from the CNT/Litho-Density log to get Sw. Compare the two results.

Depth t S Rt Rwa Sw N D T = N + D Rwa Sw


2

605

600

595

592.5

590

587.5

585

580

(05/96) D-9
Introduction to Openhole Logging

DUAL INDUCTION - SP/SFL


FILE 2

ILM
0.2000 (OHMM) 2000.0000

ILD
0.2000 (OHMM) 2000.0000

SP SFLU
-150.0000 (MV) 0.0000 0.2000 (OHMM) 2000.0000

600

Figure D4

(05/96) D-10
Schlumberger
BOREHOLE COMPENSATED SONIC

FILE 2

BS
125.0000 (MM) 375.0000

CALI
125.0000 (MM) 375.0000

GR DT
0.0000 (GAPI) 150.0000 500.0000 (US/M) 100.0000

600

Figure D5

(05/96) D-11
Introduction to Openhole Logging

COMPENSATED NEUTRON LITHODENSITY (NO PEF CURVE)


FILE 2

BS
125.0000 (MM) 375.0000

CALI DPHI
125.0000 (MM) 375.0000 0.6000 (K/M3) 0.0000

GR NPHI
0.0000 (GAPI) 150.0000 0.6000 (V/V) 0.0000

600

Figure D6

(05/96) D-12
Schlumberger

3. Use Chart Sw -1 (Figure D2) to calculate Sw for depths 1943 m and 1945 m on Figures D7
and D8. (Rw = 0.06 at formation tempurature.)

Depth RID N D Pe T Ro RT Sw
(m)
_____ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

1943

1945

a. What can be said about the lithology from the Pe curve?

b. What can be said about permeability from the caliper?


Can the gamma ray curve add anything to this discussion?

(05/96) D-13
Introduction to Openhole Logging

DUAL INDUCTION - SFL

ILM(OHMM)
.20000 2000.0
ILD(OHMM)
.20000 2000.0
SP(MV ) SFL(OHMM)
-80.00 20.000 .20000 2000.0

CP 32.6 FILE 14 20-MAY-1992 12:06

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


1 20-MAY-1992 16:21

1/240

1925

---SP
ILM---
ILD---
SFL---

1950

Figure D7

(05/96) D-14
Schlumberger
COMPENSATED NEUTRON - LITHO DENSITY

C2(MM ) DRHO(K/M3)
125.00 375.00 -250.0 250.00
BS(MM ) PEF
125.00 375.00 0.0 10.000
GR(GAPI) NPHI(V/V )
0.0 150.00 .45000 -.1500
CALI(MM ) DPHI(V/V )
125.00 375.00 .45000 -.1500

SANDSTONE

CP 32.6 FILE 4 20-MAY-1992 11:32

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


1 20-MAY-1992 15:57

1/240

1925

---BS
GR---
PEF---
NPHI---
DPHI---
DRHO---
---CALI

1950

Figure D8

(05/96) D-15
Introduction to Openhole Logging

4. Interpret the logs in Figures D9 and D10 using the direct method of calculating water
saturation in clean zones. Rmf = 2.35 at formation temperature (24 oC); a = 1; m = 2

a. Zone 303 to 325 m: Rw = at formation temperature

b. Zone 303 to 308 m: Sw = %

c. Zone 309 to 317 m: Sw = %

d. Zone 317 to 325 m: Sw = %

(05/96) D-16
Schlumberger
DUAL INDUCTION -SFL

ILM(OHMM)
.20000 2000.0
ILD(OHMM)
.20000 2000.0
SP(MV ) SFL(OHMM)
-100.0 0.0 .20000 2000.0

CP 32.6 FILE 12 20-MAY-1992 12:00

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


1 20-MAY-1992 14:16

1/240

300

325

SP---
---ILM
---ILD
---SFL

350

Figure D9

(05/96) D-17
Introduction to Openhole Logging

LITHO - DENSITY

BS(MM ) DRHO(K/M3)
125.00 375.00 -250.0 250.00
GR(GAPI) NPHI(V/V )
0.0 150.00 .60000 0.0
CALI(MM ) DPHI(V/V )
125.00 375.00 .60000 0.0

CP 32.6 FILE 3 20-MAY-1992 11:23

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


1 20-MAY-1992 14:02

1/240

---BS
GR---
---NPHI
DPHI---
DRHO---
---CALI

300

325

350

Figure D10

(05/96) D-18
Schlumberger

Contents

E1.0 SHALY FORMATIONS.................................................................................................................1

E1.1 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................1

E1.2 POROSITY IN SHALY FORMATIONS.....................................................................................3

E1.3 EVALUATION OF SHALE VOLUME (VSH)................................................................................4

(05/96)
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96)
Schlumberger

E1.0 Shaly Formations

E1.1 INTRODUCTION
Shales are one of the most important com- The presence of shale in formations gener-
mon constituents of rocks in log analysis. ally affects the response of the logging devices.
Aside from their effects on porosity and per- In our discussions we usually speak of shaly
meability, this importance stems from their sands; however, the presence of shale in car-
electrical properties, which have a great influ- bonates can often be treated in a similar man-
ence on the determination of fluid saturations. ner.

Archie's water saturation equation relating As briefly mentioned before, we categorize


formation resistivity to water saturation, as- the distribution of shaly material in formations
sumes that formation water is the only electri- in three possible ways (see Figure E1):
cally conductive material in the formation. The
presence of another conductive material (e.g., 1) Laminar Shale: occurs when shale
shale) requires changes to either Archie's exists in the form of laminae or thin
equation or the model relating resistivity to layers between thin layers of sand. The
water saturation. As well, the presence of clay shale streaks do not actually influence
in the formation complicates the concept of the effective porosity of the sand lay-
porosity. The water associated with the clays ers in the formation; however, as the
can represent a significant amount of porosity. bulk volume of shale increases, the
However, this porosity is not available as a overall formation porosity decreases.
potential reservoir for hydrocarbons. To this The presence of the shale may have
point, we have dealt with tool responses from considerable influence on the logging
our porosity devices that yield total porosity tool responses.
T . At this time we have to introduce a new 2) Structural Shale: is defined as the type
term, effective porosity, e , which is that por- of shale that exists as grains or nod-
ules in the formation matrix. It is con-
tion of the formation porosity available to
sidered to have properties similar to
contain and produce fluids.
laminar shale.

(05/96) E-1
Introduction to Openhole Logging

3) Dispersed Shale: occurs where the from the main sand body increases (low-
shaly material is dispersed through the energy deposition).
sand to occupy part of the intergranu-
lar space. Dispersed shale reduces the When shales consist of wet clay and silt, the
pore space available for fluid accumu- bulk volume fractions may be expressed as:
lation and also reduces formation
permeability. Vsh = Vsilt + Vclay

The evaluation of shaly sands requires that Another commonly used expression is
we assume some distribution model. With the the silt index (Isilt) where
advent of computers we can analyze forma-
tions on the basis of sedimentation principles.
Isilt = Vsil t/Vsh
Here we determine the silt and wet clay content
of the shale; the former is a maximum near the
main sand body (high-energy deposition) and also
the wet clay becomes predominant as distance
Vclay = Vsh (I Isilt).

Figure E1: Forms of Shale Classified by Manner of Distribution in the Formation


Pictoral Representations Above, Volumetric Representations Below

(05/96) E-2
Schlumberger

E1.2 POROSITY IN SHALY b) Neutron (CNL/SNP) Logs


FORMATIONS - Neutron tools respond to the amount
When a sand contains shale we cannot obtain of hydrogen in the formation. Because
an accurate value of effective porosity from shales contain bound water, the poros-
one porosity log. The responses of the density ity recorded by neutron devices in
and neutron logs to shale content in sands is shaly sands is always higher than the
considered to be the same as in nearby bedded effective porosity.
shales, no matter what model of shale distri-
bution is considered. On the other hand, sonic - In liquid-filled shaly sands, the neutron
logs have quite a different response between relationships may be written as
laminated-structural and dispersed shales.
N = e + Vsh ( Nsh )
a) Density Logs
- When shale and sand matrix densities c) Sonic Logs
are close to each other, the density log - Sonic traveltime in shales rises because
is least affected by shale and reads of the fluid content of the shales;
close to the effective porosity. hence, sonic porosities in shaly for-
- When the shale matrix density is less mations are always higher than the ef-
than 2650 kg/m3 the density log in fective porosity. To further enable
shaly sands will record porosities sonic porosity determination, we must
higher than the effective porosity. also know what shale model is pres-
- When shale matrix density is greater ent, and also whether a compaction
than 2650 kg/m3, the density log in the correction is necessary.
shaly sands will record porosities - In compacted formations with shales
lower then the effective porosity. present, a general sonic relationship
- The relationship for liquid-filled shaly may be written as
sands can be written as
tlog = ( e Vsh )tm a + (Vlam +
b = f e + ma (1 - e Vsh ) + sh Vsh Vstr )tsh
+ ( e Vdis)tf
or

b = (1 e )ma + e f - In uncompacted zones, sonic porosities


derived from this relationship must
+ Vsh (sh ma ) also be corrected downward for the
lack of compaction.

(05/96) E-3
Introduction to Openhole Logging

E1.3 EVALUATION OF b) NGS Natural Gamma Ray


SHALE VOLUME (Vsh) Spectrometry Tool
Basic methods of shale (clay) volume calcu- By using only thorium and potassium com-
lation use the following indicators: ponents of the gamma ray signal, the radioac-
- Gamma ray tive uranium element not associated with
- NGS tool shales will be eliminated. The same method is
- Spontaneous potential then applied to the NGS as that for a regular
- N versus D crossplot gamma ray.
N versus S crossplot CGRzone - CGRclean
Vsh =
a) Gamma Ray
If the radioactivity of the shale content is CGRshale - CGRclean
constant and if no other mineral in the forma-
tion is radioactive, the gamma ray reading may These formulae will not hold true for zones
be expressed as a function of clay content. that contain radioactive matrix materials or ra-
The formula can be written as dioactive waters (e.g., granite wash sands).
Similarly, this method will not hold true where
GRzone GRclean nonradioactive shales occur.
Vsh = Some typical values for formations are
GRshale GRclean - Clean Sandstone: GR = 1530 API
- Clean Carbonates
- Dolomite: GR = 1020 API
- Limestone: GR = 815 A.P.I.
- Shallow Cretaceous Shale: GR = 100
140 API

Strictly speaking, all GR values should be


corrected for borehole effect and formation
density. However, this approximation is usu-
ally satisfactory.

(05/96) E-4
Schlumberger

c) Chart Calculation d) Spontaneous Potential (SP)


The linear equations in (a) and (b) of this In waterbearing sands of low to moderate re-
section are good first estimates of shale vol- sistivity, the ratio of SSP (static SP) to PSP
ume. Chart Vsh -1 (Figure E2) allows us to (pseudostatic SP) is indicative of clay content,
correct for the non-linear relationship between where
Vsh and the GR deflection denoted as x. Line
= PSP/SSP and Vsh = 1 -
(1) is generally used, yielding good interpreta-
tion results.
If hydrocarbons are present, will be de-
creased because of the further reduction of
PSP by the hydrocarbons. Also, when using
this method to calculate Vsh , suitable bed thick-
ness must be present to obtain PSP and SSP.

Figure E2: Chart Vsh - 1: Shale Model Correction

(05/96) E-5
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96) E-6
Schlumberger

Contents
F1.0 SHALY SAND POROSITY ............................................................................................................1
F1.1 CALCULATING t , e, AND SW IN SHALY SANDS ...................................................................1
F1.2 GRAPHICAL CALCULATION...................................................................................................6
F1.3 DIRECT CALCULATION OF EFFECTIVE POROSITY..............................................................6

F2.0 EXAMPLE CALCULATION ...........................................................................................................7

F3.0 WORK SESSION .......................................................................................................................13

(05/96)
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96)
Schlumberger

F1.0 Shaly Sand Porosity


F1.1 CALCULATING T, e AND Sw
IN SHALY SANDS
To this point our calculations have been To explain the spread of points in Group B
fairly straightforward in evaluating porosity along the line from Point Q through Point Sho
and hence water saturation. As indicated in to Point Cl, the shales are considered mixtures
Section E, shale presence complicates inter- of clay minerals, water and silt in varying pro-
pretation considerably. To arrive at the best portions. Silt is fine grained and is assumed to
possible value for Sw, we must develop a qual- consist predominantly of quartz, but it may
ity value for porosity. This means we must also contain feldspars, calcite and other miner-
correct T for the volume of shales and obtain als. Silt has, on the average, nearly the same
e (effective porosity, shale free). This correc- neutron and density log properties as the ma-
tion can be done graphically for all cases or trix quartz; pure quartz silt would plot at the
using an average assumption for neutron and quartz point, Q. Silt, like quartz, is electrically
density porosity, through equations. Both nonconductive. Points near the "wet clay"
these methods are outlined in this section. point, Point Cl, correspond to shales that are
relatively silt free. Point Sho corresponds to
shale containing a maximum amount of silt.
Before giving the methodologies, let's develop
the basis for the graphical correction for which
The shaly sands in Group A grade from
the direct calculation approximates. Shaly
shales, on Line Sho-Cl, to sands at Point Sd, on
clastics are generally modelled with the com-
position of silt-shale-sand in which the shales Line Q-Sd. The shale in these shaly sands
can be laminated, dispersed or structural. The may be distributed in various ways. When all
basic model is suggested by the groupings of the shale is laminar shale, the point falls on the
the plotted points on the neutron-density Sd-Sho line. Dispersed shale causes the point
crossplot of Figures F1 and F2. These plots to plot to the left of the line. Structural shale
represent a typical crossplot through a se- causes the point to plot to the right of the line.
quence of sands, shales and shaly sands. Most
of the data belong to two groups: Group A,
identified as sands and shaly sands, and Group
B, identified as shales.

(05/96) F-1
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Figure F1: Neutron-Density Frequency Crossplot Illustrating the Shaly Sand Model

(05/96) F-2
Schlumberger

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0.2

Figure F2: Expanded N - D Crossplot for Shaly Sand Showing All End Points

(05/96) F-3
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Typically, few points plot in Area C. When With a grid so established, the location of a
they do, they usually represent levels where point on the neutron-density crossplot defines
log readings have been affected by borehole its shale volume Vsh ; breaks down the total
rugosity, or where shale properties have been shale volume into clay volume Vcl and silt vol-
affected by hydration of the clay in contact
ume or silt index, Isl (where Isl = [Vsh Vcl]/Vsh );
with the mud, or where matrix lithology no
longer corresponds to a shale-sand sequence and defines effective porosity for water
(e.g., porous carbonates, lignite). bearing formations.

Once Points Sd, Sho and Cl have been de- Because hydrocarbons, particularly gas and
light hydrocarbons, can significantly affect the
termined from inspection of the crossplot, the neutron and density log responses, hydrocar-
plot can be scaled for water-bearing sands and bon-bearing zones must be handled differently.
shales in terms of and Vcl, as shown in Fig- Zone shaliness is first evaluated using a shale
ure F3. The lines of constant e are parallel to indicator (SP, GR, Rt , Rxo , etc.). The neutron
the shale line, Q-Cl. They range from e = 0 and density logs are corrected for shaliness and
on the shale line to = max on the line through then used to determine porosity and hydrocar-
Point Sd (Figure F3a). The lines of constant bon density.
Vcl are parallel to the clean sand line, Q-Water
With , Vsh and Rw now defined, water satu-
Point; they range from Vcl = 0 on the clean
ration in the noninvaded, virgin formation can
sand line to Vcl = 100% at Point Cl. A similar
be determined using the true resistivity from a
scaling of Vsh is possible if the location of the deep resistivity log.
laminar shale point, Point Sho, is fixed; the
scaling ranges from Vsh = 0 on the clean sand
line to Vsh = 100% at Point Sho.

(05/96) F-4
Schlumberger

0.5
D
e
t

0.5

Figure F3a: N D Crossplot Scaled for t and e

D0.5

0.5

Figure F3b: N D Crossplot Scaled for Vcl

(05/96) F-5
Introduction to Openhole Logging

F1.2 GRAPHICAL CALCULATION F1.3 DIRECT CALCULATION


(APPROXIMATELY) OF
t and e can be found graphically on a N EFFECTIVE POROSITY
D crossplot; the steps are outlined in the fol-
lowing. This method helps identify gas- N + D
bearing zones with the resistivity input (see a) t
Figure F4). 2

1. Calculate Vsh from gamma ray opposite b) e = t (1 - Vsh )


zone of interest.
2. Determine D shale and N shale from therefore,
average responses above the zone of in-
terest. FRw
3. Plot D shale and N shale on the cross- Swe =
2

plot (shale point). Rt


4. Draw shale line from shale point to clean
matrix line at zero porosity.
5. Plot D and N for zone of interest (Point
A).
6. Move the shaly sand point parallel to the
shale line a distance proportional to Vsh
(Point B).
7. If the corrected point falls above the clean
matrix line, gas is present.
8. Gas-correct the point (if necessary) by
moving to the clean matrix in the direction
of the approximate gas correction arrows
(Point E).
9. Once the shale and gas corrections have
been made, you have graphically calcu-
lated e (Point E).
10. If a gas correction of total porosity is re-
quired, shifting the original point in an Figure F4: Graphical Solution of t and e
identical manner will produce t (Point 1. Shale Correction
C). 2. Gas Correction - Effective
11. Using e , therefore 3. Gas Correction - Total
FRw
Swe =
2

Rt

(05/96) F-6
Schlumberger

F2.0 EXAMPLE CALCULATION: Using the log in Figure F5 for the zone from 444 to 447 m calculate:
1) Vsh 2) t 3) e
BS(MM )
125.00 375.00
GR(GAPI) NPHI(V/V )
0.0 150.00 .60000 0.0
CALI(MM ) DPHI(V/V )
125.00 375.00 .60000 0.0

SANDSTONE

CP 32.6 FILE 7 20-MAY-1992 11:40

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


1 20-MAY-1992 16:36

1/240
N = 49 SHALE POINT D = 17

N = 31 D = 27
63 API
450

---BS
GR---
---NPHI
DPHI---
---CALI GR
SHALE
115
GR
CLEAN
23

Figure F5

(05/96) F-7
Introduction to Openhole Logging

EXAMPLE CALCULATION (continued)

GR - GRCL 63 - 23
1. Calculate Vsh . X = = = 0.435 Using Vsh-1 : Vsh = 25%
GRSH - GRCL 115 - 23

2. Plot the shale point on Figure F6.

Figure F6

(05/96) F-8
Schlumberger
EXAMPLE CALCULATION (continued)

3. Plot the shale-sand point on Figure F7.


4. Draw the shale line.

Figure F7

(05/96) F-9
Introduction to Openhole Logging

EXAMPLE CALCULATION (continued)

5. Make the shale correction on Figure F8.

Figure F8

(05/96) F-10
Schlumberger
EXAMPLE CALCULATION (continued):

6. Make the gas correction and read e .


7. Gas correct the log value and read t.

Figure F9

(05/96) F-11
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96) F-12
Schlumberger

F3.0 Work Session

1. Shaly Sand Problem (Figures F10 F13)

Given: BHT = 24oC


Rmf = 3.08 at 14.4oC
Rm = 2.86 at 18.8oC
Rmf = 2.435 at 24oC
Gel Chem Mud; Mud Weight = 1090 kg/m3
Viscosity = 585
pH = 8.5
Fluid loss = 7.0 cm3
a. Find hydrocarbon zones.
b.Rw - Calculate Rw for this interval.
c. e - Determine effective porosity.
d. t - Determine total porosity.

0.62 Rw
e. SWT - From SWT =
2

t 2.15 Rt

Note: When e has been determined, Rt must also be corrected for effect of shale to properly calcu-
late Swe . This is discussed in the next section.

(05/96) F-13
Introduction to Openhole Logging

DUAL INDUCTION - SFL

ILM(OHMM)
.20000 2000.0
ILD(OHMM)
.20000 2000.0
SP(MV ) SFL(OHMM)
-120.0 30.000 .20000 2000.0

CP 32.6 FILE 16 20-MAY-1992 12:10

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


1 20-MAY-1992 15:48

1/240

400

425

SP---
---ILM
---ILD
---SFL

Figure F10
(05/96) F-14
Schlumberger

COMPENSATED NEUTRON - LITHO DENSITY (NO PEF CURVE)

BS(MM )
125.00 375.00
GR(GAPI) NPHI(V/V )
0.0 150.00 .60000 0.0
CALI(MM ) DPHI(V/V )
125.00 375.00 .60000 0.0

SANDSTONE

CP 32.6 FILE 8 20-MAY-1992 11:42

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


1 20-MAY-1992 17:09

1/240

---BS
GR---
---NPHI
DPHI---
---CALI

400

425

Figure F11
(05/96) F-15
Introduction to Openhole Logging

BOREHOLE COMPENSATED SONIC

BS(MM )
125.00 375.00
GR(GAPI)
0.0 150.00
CALI(MM ) DT(US/M)
125.00 375.00 500.00 100.00

CP 32.6 FILE 9 20-MAY-1992 11:51

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


1 20-MAY-1992 17:37

1/240

---DT
---BS
GR---
---CALI

400

425

Figure F12

(05/96) F-16
Schlumberger

COMPENSATED NEUTRON - BHC SONIC

BS(MM )
125.00 375.00
GR(GAPI) DT(US/M)
0.0 150.00 500.00 100.00
CALI(MM ) NPHI(V/V )
125.00 375.00 .60000 0.0

CP 32.6 FILE 11 20-MAY-1992 11:56

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


1 20-MAY-1992 17:37
1 20-MAY-1992 17:55

1/240

400

---DT
---BS
---GR
---NPHI
---CALI

425

Figure F13
(05/96) F-17
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96) F-18
Schlumberger

Contents

G1.0 WATER SATURATION IN SHALY SANDS ...................................................................................1


G1.1 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................1
G1.2 THE DUAL WATER MODEL...................................................................................................1
G1.3 DUAL WATER MODEL FORMULAE:......................................................................................6
G1.4 PROCEDURE FOR USING THE DUAL WATER MODEL .........................................................7
G1.5 DWQL Pass One ...................................................................................................................8
Input....................................................................................................................................8
Output.................................................................................................................................8
G1.6 DWQL Pass Two ..................................................................................................................10
Input..................................................................................................................................10
Output...............................................................................................................................10
G1.7 CYBERLOOK QUALITY CHECKS ........................................................................................16

G2.0 WORK SESSION.......................................................................................................................17

(05/96)
Introduction to Open Hole Logging

(05/96)
Schlumberger

G1.0 Water Saturation in Shaly Sands

G1.1 INTRODUCTION
Since the introduction of CSU wellsite sur- clay crystal. This model did not take into ac-
face instrumentation to well logging, the dual- count the exclusion of salt from part of the
water model has been applied as a means of pore volume near the shaly surface. Ion distri-
quick, effective interpretation of basic logs. bution near a clay surface should be as shown
This technique has been extended to the in Figure G1.
MAXIS 500 wellsite surface instrumentation
and more recently to IBM-compatible PCs In other words, the layer of water bound to
through QLA Quick Log Analysis program the shale surface contains more positive (Na+ )
(version 2). ions than negative (Cl) ions. This fact is nec-
essary to balance the negative internal charge
This section discusses the dual-water model distribution of the shale particles. The thick-
as it applies to Cyberlook wellsite openhole ness of the diffuse layer of positive (Na+ ) ions
evaluation and QLA version 2. Xd is related to the salinity of formation water,
being smaller for more saline waters. Hence,
G1.2 THE DUAL-WATER MODEL conduction of current flow through this bound
In 1972, the dual-water model was the sub- water is mainly by positive ion transport.
ject of an SPE paper "The Theoretical and Ex-
perimental Basis for the Dual Water Model for
the Interpretation of Shaly Sands" by Clavier,
Coates and Dumanoir. Although this section
discusses the important basic ideas about the
model, reference should be made to this paper
if a more detailed explanation is necessary.

The dual-water model is an improvement over


the Waxman-Smits model presented in 1967
and better fits their experimental data. The
Waxman-Smits model proposed that a shaly
formation behaved like a clean formation of
the same porosity, tortuosity and fluid content
except that the water appears to be more con-
ductive than expected from its bulk salinity.
The excess conductivity is due to additional
cations held loosely captive in a diffuse layer Figure G1: Schematic of Diffuse Layer
surrounding the clay particles to compensate Ionic Concentration
for the deficiency of electrical charges in the

(05/96) G-1
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Actually, the positive (Na+ ) ions are kept Hence, when RWB is used as the resistivity
some distance from the clay surface by the hy- of bound water for the shale contained in
dration water around each cation and the water nearby reservoirs it could be incorrect. In
absorbed on the clay surface (see Figure G2). practice, this is not found to be too much
of a problem, and generally RWB derived
As a consequence, the diffuse layer thickness
from shales may be used in adjacent beds.
cannot be less than Xd. However, Xd = Xh when
the connate water is saline enough. In other b. Free Water: All water that is not bound is
words, when the formation water has deficient free water. Although free water, normally
salinity, the resistivity of the bound water is associated with the pore space, is not nec-
relatively constant. essarily producible. It contains the fraction
of water that is irreducible.
For sodium clays, the distance Xh is about
6 and the Na+ ions will be stacked in the c. Total porosity T : Total porosity is the
Helmoltz plane whenever the resistivity of the fraction of unit volume of formation oc-
brine in the pores is less than 0.425 at 75 oF cupied by fluids, that is, bound water,
[24oC]. free water and hydrocarbons.
This thin sheet of salt-free water (the clay
water) is important because clays have tre-
mendous surface area, as much as 91071
ha/m3 compared to 1.5 to 3.0 ha/m3 for a typi-
cal sand, and the volume of clay water is far
from negligible in comparison with the total
pore volume.

We can now make certain definitions in rela-


tion to bound water, free water, the volumes
they occupy and their saturations.

a. Bound Water: This is the water adhered


to shales as described. In addition to the
bound layer, shales may contain water
trapped within the structure and not ex-
pelled by the rock compaction. This water
does not have the same ion distribution as
the surface bound water and so it has a
different conductivity. In the event that the
resistivity of bound water defined here as
Figure G2: Schematic View of Outer Helmoltz Plane
RWB is derived from 100% shale zones,
the value of RWB is affected by this trapped
water.

(05/96) G-2
Schlumberger

d. Effective porosity e : It is the fraction The relationship between these terms is


of unit volume of formation occupied shown diagrammatically in Figure G3. Be-
by free water and hydrocarbons. It can cause we have separated the surface-layer wa-
be derived from the total porosity by ter from shales we are left with a dry colloid
removing the bound water per unit fraction. As a formation becomes increasingly
volume of formation. shaly the colloid plus bound water fraction in-
creases until we have a 100% shale formation
e. Total-Water Saturation SWT : It is de- consisting of a certain fraction of bound water
and the remainder of dry colloids. Under the
fined as the fraction of total porosity
definition of total porosity T , a pure shale
occupied by bound and free water.
therefore has porosity filled with bound water
f. Bound-Water Saturation SWB: It is de- (SWB = 1, SWF = 0). The effective porosity, e ,
fined as the fraction of total porosity as defined is, of course, zero. The evolution of
occupied by bound water. a formation with increasing shaliness is shown
in Figure G4.
g. Free-Water Saturation SWF: It is de-
fined as the fraction of total porosity
occupied by free water.

h. Effective Water Saturation SWE: It is


defined as the fraction of effective po-
rosity occupied by free water. It can be
derived from the total-water saturation.

(05/96) G-3
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Water Saturation Graphical Definitions

Figure G3

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Schlumberger

Evolution of T with Shaliness

Figure G4

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Introduction to Openhole Logging

G1.3 DUAL WATER MODEL


FORMULAS W B
The main objective of the dual-water ap- 2) SWB =
proach whether its through Dual-Water Quick T
Log (DWQL), QLA software, or otherwise, is
to reconstruct the wet formation resistivity R0.
3) T = WF + WB + H
(If hydrocarbon is present).
Consider a wet shaly formation where:
From the Archie relationships:
C0 = wet true conductivity
CWB = bound-water conductivity F = 1/T 2 and F = Ro/Rw
(Shale)
CWF = free-water conductivity (Note:For simplicity
of derivation,
(connate water) a = and
1 m = 2,although
theycould
F = volume of free water be other specific values.)
B = volume of bound water
R w = T 2 R0
T = total porosity.
which gives
Given these, then T = B + F and hence C 0 = T 2 CW
where:
W B CW is the conductivity of the bound- and
SWB = free-water mixture.
T
Considering volumes, we have
Because B represents the volume of bound
water, which thus represents the proportion of T C W = WBC WB + FC WF
shale out of the total volume. Therefore, SWB is
in effect the volume of shale in the formation BCWB FC W F
under investigation.
CW = +
By definition: T T

= SWBCWB + (1 SWB)CWF
WF + W B
C0 = T 2[SWBCWB + (1 SWB) CWF]
1) SWT =
T
or, in resistivity terms

RWFRWB
R0 =
T 2[SWBRWF + (1 SWB)RWB]

(05/96) G-6
Schlumberger

Displayed graphically, our results are as fol- 4. SWB: related to VSH and for our purposes
lows (Figure G5): can be equated to VSH .
Therefore SWB = VSH .

To this point, we have calculated Rw and VSH


for our example and have determined a gas
corrected T . All that is now required is to
calculate RWB. This can be done with the
Figure G5 same NSH and D SH values determined in
Water Saturation and Effective Porosity: our previous section, along with a value for
RSH at the same point(s) on the log.

SWT = R0/Rt Utilizing all of this data, a value for wet re-
sistivity, R0, can be determined from
e = (1 SWB)
1 1
vbwe = e Sw R0 =
T 2 1 - VSH + VSH

G1.4 PROCEDURE FOR USING RWF RWB


DUAL-WATER MODEL
a) To evaluate a shaly formation using the dual using
water model, four parameters must be de-
termined: R0
SWT = 2

1. RWF: from the SP, Rwa technique, water Rt


resistivity catalog or known value.
where Rt = RILD corrected for
2. RWB: generally calculated from the shale
surrounding the zone using the RWA environmental effects as requi
technique. To arrive at effective water saturation Swe
one more step is required:
R WB = TSH2 RtSH
SWT SWB
SWE = where VSH = SWB
NSH + DSH 1
T = 1 SWB
and F =
2 T 2

3. T : total from average of N and D


after correction for gas effect, if neces-
sary.

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Introduction to Openhole Logging

We have now taken a shaly sand, corrected the Output (see Figures G6 and G9)
log data for the effects of shale on both resis- 1. SPoptionally baseline drift corrected
tivity and porosity, as well as gas effect on po- 2. GRborehole corrected if caliper
rosity, and determined the effective Sw and available
hence SHYC. 3. apparent grain density

BVWeff = Swe e B TA
GRA =
b) In using software, the dual-water model is 1 TA
usually presented in two passes. The first
pass is used to perform simple corrections 4. apparent fluid resistivity
to certain measurements and act as an aid to RFA = RT TA2
picking parameters for the second pass.
Pass two performs the main output calcula- 5. N and D in desired matrix
tions.

G1.5 DWQL PASS ONE 6. apparent total porosity


TA = F( N , D )
Input
1. mud weight NLS DLS
2. desired output matrix TA =
3. recorded CNT matrix 2
4. bit size
5. optional SP baseline drift correction 7. RT for correlation
6. logsCNL/Litho-Density tool and
deep resistivity (RIDPH, RLLD , or RT from 8. MP1, MP2, and MP3 - Mineral pro-
tornado chart if necessary). portions from the three-mineral Litho-
Density model.

(05/96) G-8
Schlumberger

Figure G6
(05/96) G-9
Introduction to Openhole Logging

G1.6 DWQL PASS TWO Output (see Figures G7 and G10)


1) Shale index minimum of indicators
Input chosen.
1) All inputs used for pass one. 2) Grain density.
2) Clean and shale parameters for GR 3) R0 reconstructed 100%-wet forma-
and/or SP and/or optionally N tion resistivity.
RHOB, MP3. 4) Water saturation.
GR GRCL 5) Differential caliper caliper-bit size.
MSIGR = 6) Effective porosity e .
GRSH GRCL T is TA corrected for light hydrocar-
bon effect, T TA.
SP SPCL 7) Water volume VBWF.
MSISP = 8) Flags
SPSH SPCL - Producibility shading
between R0 and RT
3) Free- and bound-water resistivities.
- RWF = RFA in a clean, wet for- 9) MP1, MP2, and MP3 as for pass one.
mation.
- RWB = RFA in a good shale
formation.
4) Maximum total porosity MAX.
MAX = highest TA in good hole.
a. eliminates computation in bad
hole.
b. determines SWB MSI rela-
tionship.
5) Expected clean grain density GEX
If GA < GEX a minor correction is
made to total porosity based on either:
a. grain density or
b. hydrocarbon volume and gas
density.

(05/96) G-10
Schlumberger

Figure G7
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Introduction to Openhole Logging

Figure G8
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Schlumberger

Figure G9: Cyberlook Pass 1 for the Basic Log Set used in Sections B, C and D

(05/96) G-13
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Figure G10: Cyberlook Pass 2 for the Basic Log Set used in Sections B, C and D

(05/96) G-14
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Figure G11: Computational parameters for the Cyberlook using the Basic Log Set found in Sections B, C and D

(05/96) G-15
Introduction to Openhole Logging

G.1.7 CYBERLOOK QUALITY


CHECKS 5. Differential caliper must compare to
1. R0 and RT should overlay in clean, wet log.
zones (if not Rwf is incorrect).
6. VSH must appoach 0% in clean zones
and 100% in shales.
2. R0 and RT should overlay in shale
zones (if not, RWB is incorrect). 7. Grain density must conform to local
knowledge in clean zones and ap-
3. Sw should approach 100% in wet proach 3000 kg/m3 in shales.
zones.
8. Are shows on pass 1 also shows on
4. e must be comparable with log po- pass 2?
rosity considering shale, matrix and
gas effects.

(05/96) G-16
Schlumberger

G2.0 Work Session

1. Calculate SWE on the shaly sand example (Figures F10 F13).

Hint: Use the R0 equation developed in this section.

(05/96) G-17
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96) G-18
Schlumberger

Contents

H1.0 POROSITY IN COMPLEX LITHOLOGY ......................................................................................1


H1.1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................1
H1.2 DETERMINATION OF POROSITY AND LITHOLOGY ............................................................4
a) Crossplots............................................................................................................................4
b) Apparent Matrix Density vs. Apparent Volumetric Cross Section Matrix
Identification Plot.................................................................................................................4
H1.3 COMPLEX LITHOLOGY MIXTURES................................................................................... 12
H2.0 WORK SESSION..................................................................................................................... 15

(05/96)
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96)
Schlumberger

H1.0 Porosity in Complex Lithology

H1.1 INTRODUCTION
As previously mentioned, carbonate deposits (Figures H1 through H3). In evaluating com-
generally are complex in lithology. The min- plex lithologies it is essential that comparative
eral composition of the nonclay fraction (i.e., analysis be made only within distinct geologic
the matrix) usually varies within a given for- units.
mation. The deposition may include
- shale (silt and clay) The minimum required logs are a deep re-
- limestone sistivity, neutron porosity, bulk density, Pe ,
- dolomite sonic velocity and gamma ray. Only clean
- anhydrite/gypsum. zones should be evaluated (GR < 3045 API)
because the addition of shale in carbonates has
Accurate porosity determination becomes an extremely variable affect on porosity and
more difficult when the matrix lithology is un- resistivity measurements. All measurements
known or consists of two or more minerals of should also be evaluated as to their accuracy
unknown proportions. The content of the for- with respect to borehole conditions (e.g. too
mation pore space, if other than water, can also high a correction on the density measurement
complicate analysis. or invasion effect on the resistivity measure-
ment). As an aid to evaluation, additional
Sonic, density and neutron logs respond dif- measurements are available that simplify as-
ferently and independently to different matrix sumptions and aid in lithology identification
combinations and to the presence of light hy- and saturation calculations. These include the
drocarbons. We use these characteristics to our AIT Array Induction Imager logs, EPT Elec-
advantage by combining (crossplotting) two or tromagnetic Propagation logs, Formation Mi-
more log responses to furnish more informa- croScanner images, NGS logs, and Rxo logs
tion about the formation and its contents than
(MicroSFL and microlog) to name a few.
can be obtained from a single measurement

(05/96) H-1
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Figure H1: Complex Lithology Evaluation

(05/96) H-2
Schlumberger

Figure H2: Porosity Tool Response to Various Factors

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

Figure H3: Pe Response with Porosity Changes

(05/96) H-3
Introduction to Openhole Logging

H1.2 DETERMINATION OF b) Apparent Matrix Density (maa) versus


POROSITY AND LITHOLOGY apparent volumetric cross section
(Umaa) Matrix Identification Plot
a) Crossplots
Crossplotting two porosity logs is a conven- A more competent method of identifying
ient, relatively simple method of assessing lithology uses data from the Litho-Density log.
both porosity and lithology information. Con- This common method requires two pieces of
sider a clean (shale-free) water-filled forma- information maa and Umaa .
tion. Using neutron (CNT log) and density
(Litho-Density log) porosities, charts CP-1 1. Solving for these parameters first re-
(Figure H4) is scaled in limestone units. The quires apparent total porosity (ta ) us-
charts are entered with porosity values com- ing the appropriate neutron-density
puted assuming the matrix is a water- crossplot (CP-1e). Next, bulk density
saturated limestone. Pure (water-filled) and Pe values must be read from the
lithology lines are displayed for other matrices. log over the section of interest.
2. Next the apparent matrix grain density
If the formation is water-filled limestone, the is obtained. By equation:
points will fall on the limestone line. A clean, b - ta f
water-saturated mixture of limestone and maa =
dolomite will fall between the limestone and
1 ta
dolomite line. Formation porosity may be
evaluated and the matrix mixture estimated. where:
b is bulk density from density log
Beginning on the next page, charts for the f is pore fluid density and
following crossplots are supplied: ta is apparent total porosity.
a) Porosity and lithology determination
from Litho-Density log and CNL Chart CP-14 (Figure H7) can be used
Compensated Neutron log (Chart CP- to graphically obtain maa . Using the
1)
b) Porosity and lithology determination lower lefthand quadrant of the chart,
from sonic log and CNL Compen- values for t a and b are used to obtain
sated Neutron log (Chart CP-2) maa from the x-axis.
c) Lithology identification from formation
density log and sonic log (Chart CP-7).

(05/96) H-4
Schlumberger

Porosity and Lithology Determination from Litho-Density*


Log and CNL* Compensated Neutron Log
Liquid-Filled Holes f = 1.000 g/cc, Cf = 0 ppm

Liquid-filled holes (f = 1.000 g/cm3; Cf = 0 ppm)


1.9
45 45
40
2.0
Sulfur 40 40
Salt
35
2.1 Ap 35
pro 35
xim
co gas ate 30
rre
ctio ity
n ros 30 35 30
2.2
Po
25 ne
sto

D, density porosity (p.u.) (ma = 2.71; f = 1.0)


nd
sa 25
rtz ) 30 25
2.3 20 a ne
Qu sto
e
20 (lim
b, bulk density (g/cm3)

te 20
15 lci 25
2.4 Ca

15 15
10 20 ite
lom
2.5 Do
10 10
5 15
2.6
5
5
0
10
2.7 0
0
5

2.8 5
0
10
2.9

15
Anhydrite
3.0
0 10 20 30 40
CNLcor, neutron porosity index (p.u.) (apparent limestone porosity)

CP-1e

Figure H4

(05/96) H-5
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Porosity and Lithology Determination from Sonic Log


and CNL* Compensated Neutron Log
tf = 620 s/m, Cf = 0 ppm

t f = 620 sec/m; Cf = 0 ppm


360

40
Time average
Field observation

40
340

35

3535
ne
30 30
320

sto
nd
sa

35
tz
ar
300 Qu
y
sit

30
ro

25
Po

35
25

30
280 30
25
20

e)
t , sonic transit time (sec/m)

ton
es

25
25 (lim

260
20

te

30
lci
20
15

Ca

ite
lom

240
20
Do
15
10

15

20

25
lt
Sa

220
15
10

15
5

10

20

200 5
10

0 10
15
0

180
5

5
ite
dr

10
hy

5
An

0
160
5
0

0
0

140

0 10 20 30 40
CNLcor , neutron porosity index (p.u.) (apparent limestone porosity)

CP-2cm

Figure H5

(05/96) H-6
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Lithology Identification from


Formation Density Log and Sonic Log
tf = 620 s/m f = 1.0
t f = 620 sec/m; f = 1.0
1.8

Sylvite
1.9
Time average
Field observation

2.0
40

40
40
Salt
Sulfur
2.1 Trona

40
40

30
30 30
30

2.2
ty
si
oro
P
b, bulk density (g/cm3)

2.3
30
20
20

Gypsum
20

20

2.4

2.5
10
10
20

20
10
) 10
ne
to

2.6
es
(lim
ite
0 alc

0
ne
0
0 C

sto

2.7
10

10
and
s
tz
ar
Qu

2.8 Polyhalite
ite
m
olo
0 D

2.9
0

Anhydrite
3.0
150 200 250 300 350 400
t , sonic transit time (sec/m)
CP-7m
Figure H6

(05/96) H-7
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Determination of Apparent Matrix Parameters from Bulk


Density or Interval Transit Time and Apparent Total Porosity
Fluid Density = 1.0

Fluid density = 1.0

t maa, apparent matrix transit time (sec/m)


350 325 300 275 250 225 200 175 150 125 100
3 350

2.9 325

40
2.8 300

Apparent
2.7 30 crossplot 275
porosity

t , interval transit time (sec/m)


b, bulk density (g/cm3)

2.6 250
c

20
ni
so
n-
tro
eu

10
N

2.5 225
n
tro
eu
-n

2.4 200
ty
si

10
en
D

2.3 20 175

2.2 30 150

2.1 40 125

2 100
3 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2

maa, apparent matrix density (g/cm3)

CP-14m

Figure H7

(05/96) H-8
Schlumberger

3. Finally, the apparent matrix volumetric Table H1 lists the photoelectric absorption
cross section is computed from the cross-section index, bulk density and the
photoelectric cross-section index, bulk volumetric cross section for common minerals
density measurements and apparent and fluids. For the minerals, the listed value is
total porosity by equation the matrix value (ma , Uma ); for the fluids, it is
Pe e ta Uf the fluid value (f , Uf ). Chart CP-21 (Figure
Umaa = H9) shows the location of these minerals on a
1 ta maa versus Umaa crossplot. The triangle en-
where compassing the three common matrix miner-
Pe is photoelectric absorption cross- als of quartz, calcite and dolomite is scaled in
section index, the percentages of each mineral. For example,
b + 0.1883 a point exhibiting an apparent matrix grain
e is electron density, e = density of 2.76 g/cm3 and volumetric cross
1.0704
section of 10.2 barns/cm3 would be defined by
and the crossplot as 40% calcite, 40% dolomite and
ta is apparent total porosity. 20% quartz provided no other minerals exist
and the pores are liquid saturated.
On this crossplot, gas saturation displaces
Chart CP-20 (Figure H8) can be used points to the right. Clays and shales plot
to graphically obtain Umaa . below the dolomite point.

Pe Specific bLOG U
gravity
Quartz 1.810 2.65 2.64 4.780
Calcite 5.080 2.71 2.71 13.800
Dolomite 3.140 2.85 2.85 9.000
Anhydrite 5.050 2.96 2.98 14.900
Halite 4.650 2.17 2.04 9.680
Siderite 14.700 3.94 3.89 55.900
Pyrite 17.000 5.00 4.99 82.100
Barite 267.000 4.48 4.09 1065.000
Water (fresh) 0.358 1.00 1.00 0.398
Water (100K ppm NaCl) 0.734 1.06 1.05 0.850
Water (200K ppm NaCl) 1.120 1.12 1.11 1.360
Oil (n(CH2)) 0.119 o 1.22 o 0.118 0.136 o
Gas (CH4) 0.095 g 1.33 g 0.188 0.119g

Table H1

(05/96) H-9
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Determination of
Apparent Matrix Volumetric Photoelectric Factor
3.0
Fresh water (0 ppk), f = 1.0, U f = 0.398
Salt water (200 ppk), f = 1.11, U f = 1.36 %
2.5 0

10

ta, apparent total porosity (%)


b, bulk density (g/cm3)

2.0 20

30

40

6 5 4 3 2 1 4 6 8 10 12 14
Pe, photoelectric factor Umaa, apparent matrix
volumetric photoelectric factor

The Matrix Identification Plot


maa vs Umaa

MID Plot CP-21 identifies rock mineralogy through a comparison of apparent matrix grain density and apparent volumetric
ph otoelectric factor.
To use, apparent matrix grain density, maa, and apparent volumetric photoelectric factor, Umaa, are entered in ordinate and
abscissa, respectively, of the MID Plot. Rock mineralogy is identified by the proximity of the plotted data point to the la-
beled points on the plot.
To determine apparent matrix grain density, an apparent total porosity must first be determined (using, for example, a ne u-
tron-density crossplot). Then Chart CP-14 may be used with bulk density, b , to define the apparent matrix grain density,
maa.
To find the apparent matrix volumetric photoelectric factor, Umaa, enter the nomograph above with the photoelectric fac-
tor, Pe; go vertically to the bulk density, b; then go horizontally across to the total porosity, t ; and finally, go vertically
downward to define the matrix volumetric photoelectric factor, U maa.

EXAMPLE: P e = 3.65
b = 2.52 g/cm 2 (f = 1.0 g/cm 2 )
ta = 16%
Giving, maa = 2.81 g/cm 2 (from CP-14)
and U maa = 10.9
Plotting these values on the MID Plot indicates the level to be a dolomite-limestone mixture approximately 60% dolomite -
40% limestone.
See Reference 27 for more information.
CP-20

Figure H8

(05/96) H-10
Schlumberger

Matrix Identification Plot


maa vs Umaa

maa versus Umaa


2.2

2.3

Salt

2.4
tion
Gas direc

2.5
maa, apparent matrix grain density (g/cm3)

2.6 K-Feldspar

% Calcit
20 e
Quartz
40
60
2.7 80
80
Calcite
60
20
40
%

40 Barite
2.8
Q
ua

ite
60
rtz

20 olom
D
80 %

2.9 Dolomite
Heavy minerals

Anhydrite
3.0
Kaolinite

Illite

3.1
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Umaa, apparent matrix volumetric photoelectric factor

CP-21

Figure H9

(05/96) H-11
Introduction to Openhole Logging

Additionally, the quartz point can be flipped where


about the limestone-dolomite line to form a b and N are the measured bulk density and
limestone-anhydrite-dolomite model. This apparent limestone porosity from the density
model is a useful variation of Chart CP-21 and neutron logs, respectively
(Figure H9) in carbonate sequences.
HI is the hydrogen index
H1.3 COMPLEX LITHOLOGY
MIXTURES f and [HI]f are the density and hydrogen index
Mathematically, the transformation of the of the fluid saturating the pores investigated by
basic measurement of a porosity or other ap- the density and neutron logs
propriate log into porosity and/or lithology
and/or pore fluid identification is simply the is the porosity;
solution of one or more simultaneous equa-
tions. When the rock matrix contains only a maL and maD are the grain densities of lime-
single known mineral and the saturating fluid
is also known, any one of the porosity logs can stone and dolomite, respectively;
be used for porosity identification. In other
words, a single equation (single log measure- [HI]maL and [HI]maD are the hydrogen indices of
ment) is sufficient to solve for a single un- limestone and dolomite
known (in this case, porosity).
L and D are the fractions of limestone and
If, however, in addition to porosity, the rock dolomite in the rock matrix mixture.
matrix is an unknown mixture of two known
minerals, then two independent equations (two
log measurements) are needed to solve for the
two unknowns (in this case, the porosity and
the mineral fractions). For example, in a lime-
stone-dolomite mixture, the combination of
neutron and density logs could be used. Their
responses to porosity and lithology are

b = f + (1 )(LmaL + DmaD)

and

N = [HI]f + (1 )(L[HI]maL + D[HI]maD),

(05/96) H-12
Schlumberger

Three unknowns exist in these two equa- When more unknowns exist, such as in a
tions: , L and D. However, because the min- rock matrix made up of three minerals, another
eral fractions of the rock matrix must total independent equation (or log measurement) is
unity, the dolomite fraction could be expressed required. Using sonic porosity as an example,
in terms of the limestone fraction as D = 1 L, the equations for a limestone-dolomite-quartz
thereby reducing the number of unknowns in mixture become
the above equation to two; or a third material
balance equation of L + D = 1 could be in- b = f + (1 )(LmaL + DmaD + SmaS )
cluded. In either event, solution for , L and
D is possible because the number of equations N = [HI]f + (1)(L[HI]maL + D[HI]maD +
(and independent log measurements) equals
S[HI]maS )
the number of unknowns.

The several crossplot charts that plot one log t = tf + (1 - )(LtmaL + DtmaD + StmaS )
measurement against another are simply ap-
proximate graphical solutions of the responses 1 = L + D + S.
of two log measurements for porosity and
lithology determination. Charts CP-1, CP-2, Simultaneous solution of these four equations
and CP-7 (Figures H4, H5 and H6, respec- yields values for the four unknowns (L, D, S
tively) are examples. These charts can also be and ). The maa versus Umaa matrix identifica-
used when the rock matrix is composed of a tion plot (Chart CP-21 in Figure H9) is a
single, but unknown, mineral. The problem is graphical solution to a four unknown four
the same; it is one of two equations and two equation system.
unknowns. The unknowns, in this situation,
are porosity and mineral identification (i.e., its Even more complex mixtures can be unrav-
ma and ma characteristics). It is presumed that elled by adding more equations (log measure-
ma and m a are known for most minerals ex- ments). Of course, the additional log meas-
pected in sedimentary rocks. urements must respond to the same, but not
necessarily all, unknown petrophysical pa-
rameters; they should not introduce additional
unknowns into the problem.

(05/96) H-13
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96) H-14
Schlumberger

H2.0 Work Session

1. Using the complex lithology example logs (Figures H10 H12) determine

a. Lithology and at 1377 m.

b. Lithology and from 1360-1370 m.

c. Lithology and at 1342-1349 m.

d. Is there any secondary in any of the zones?

2a. Find the crossplot porosities for points A and B (Figures H13 and H14).
A = ________%
B = ________%

b. What is the lithology in these zones?

3a. Cross plot Pe and DPHI for both points A and B (use chart CP-16, Figure H15).
A =________%
B =________%

b. What is the lithology at points A and B?


A _________
B _________

c. What effect is occurring at point A?

d. Apply proper correction for point A to find correct crossplot porosity.


A =________%

(05/96) H-15
Introduction to Openhole Logging

BS1 PEF
125.00 375.00 0.0 10.000
CALI(MM ) NPHI(V/V )
125.00 375.00 .45000 -.1500
GR(GAPI) DPHI(V/V )
0.0 150.00 .45000 -.1500

LIMESTONE
CP 32.6 FILE 2 05-JUN-1992 11:26 MDEN = 2710 K/M3
FD = 1000 K/M3

1350

---PEF
NPHI---
DPHI---
---BS1
---CALI
---GR

1375

Figure H10: Complex Lithology

(05/96) H-16
Schlumberger

BS1
125.00 375.00
CALI(MM )
125.00 375.00
GR(GAPI) DT(US/M)
0.0 150.00 500.00 300.00

CP 32.6 FILE 1 05-JUN-1992 11:17

DT---
---BS1
---CALI
---GR

1350

1375

Figure H11: Complex Lithology

(05/96) H-17
Introduction to Openhole Logging

BS1
125.00 375.00 1325
CALI(MM ) DRHO(K/M3)
125.00 375.00 250.00 -250.0
GR(GAPI) RHOB(K/M3)
0.0 150.00 2000.0 3000.0

CP 32.6 FILE 5 01-APR-1941 18:52

RHOB---

1350

---BS1
---DRHO
---CALI
---GR

1375

Figure H12: Complex Lithology

(05/96) H-18
Schlumberger

BS1
125.00 375.00
GR(GAPI) NPHI(V/V )
0.0 150.00 .45000 -.1500
CALI(MM ) DPHI(V/V )
125.00 375.00 .45000 -.1500

LIMESTONE LIMESTONE
CP 32.6 FILE 7 09-JUN-1992 14:30

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


1 09-JUN-1992 14:05

1/240

---BS1

25

---GR
NPHI---
---CALI
DPHI---

---BS1
---GR
NPHI---

50 B
---CALI
DPHI---

Figure H13: Complex Lithology

(05/96) H-19
Introduction to Openhole Logging

BS1 PEF
125.00 375.00 0.0 10.000
GR(GAPI) NPHI(V/V )
0.0 150.00 .45000 -.1500
CALI(MM ) DPHI(V/V )
125.00 375.00 .45000 -.1500

LIMESTONE LIMESTONE
CP 32.6 FILE 5 09-JUN-1992 14:28

INPUT FILE(S) CREATION DATE


1 09-JUN-1992 14:05

1/240

A
---PEF
---BS1
---GR

25

NPHI---
---CALI
DPHI---

---PEF
---BS1
---GR
NPHI---
---CALI
DPHI---

50
B

Figure H14: Complex Lithology

(05/96) H-20
Schlumberger

Porosity and Lithology Determination


from Litho-Density* Log
Fresh Water, Liquid-Filled Holes, f = 1.0

Fresh water, liquid-filled holes (f = 1.0)


1.9

2.0 40

Salt
40

0
2.1
40
30

30
2.2
Quartz sandstone

2.3 ne)
30

(limesto
20

20
b, bulk density (g/cm3)

Calcite

2.4
Dolomite
10

20

2.5
10

2.6
0

10

2.7
0

2.8
0

2.9
Anhydrite

3.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Pe, photoelectric factor

See Reference 27 for more information


CP-16

Figure H15

(05/96) H-21
Introduction to Openhole Logging

(05/96) H-22