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A I R - C O N D I T I O N I N G

5.0 Introduction Air conditioning systems can be categorised into three
main types;
Air conditioning is the process by which the air in a
space is modified to make it comfortable for the occu- Local comfort cooling systems - These systems cool
pants. The primary function of air conditioning is the air in a room to bring its temperature down to ac-
cooling although all systems filter the air and some ceptable levels. The cooling equipment is located in the
also provide heating and adjustments to the humid- room itself. The main forms of local comfort cooling sys-
ity levels. tem are;

Cooling is needed when the room air temperature · Window sill air conditioners
rises above a comfort threshold of 27oC. Tempera- · Split systems
tures rise above this level due to a combination of · Multi split systems
high outside temperatures and internal heat gains. · Variable refrigerant flow split systems
For example, in summer the outside air temperature
may be 22oC or above. When this warm air enters the Centralised air systems - All of the heating or cooling
building its temperature will be further increased by is carried out in a central air handling unit. Room by
heat gains from people, artificial lighting , appliances room control of temperatures is achieved using the fol-
and the sun. Increases of 6oC due to these casual lowing systems;
gains are not uncommon pushing the incoming air
temperature above the comfort threshold. Even in · Constant volume systems
winter when outside air temperatures are low, office · Variable air volume (VAV) systems
buildings may experience sufficiently high casual heat · Dual duct systems
gains that cooling is required.
Centralised air systems do not just provide heating or
Many of the situations previously described in sec- cooling but can filter, humidify or dehumidify the air as
tion 4.2 as requiring mechanical ventilation also need required. The central plant is usually in a ground floor
a degree of air conditioning. To summarise, those plant room or may be a packaged unit situated on the
situations most likely to require air conditioning are; rooftop.

· Rooms subject to high solar gains, such as Partially centralised air/water systems - A central air
south facing rooms especially those with large areas handling unit is used first to filter and then heat or cool
of glazing an airstream. Final adjustment of temperatures is carried
out using room based equipment. System types are;
· Rooms with high equipment densities such
as computer rooms and offices which make extensive · Terminal re heat or fan coil systems
use of IT · Induction systems
· Chilled ceilings and displacement ventilation
· Rooms in which environment (temperature,
dust or humidity) sensitive work is being carried out See IP16, page 80 for a basic system selection tree. All
such as operating theatres and microprocessor manu- of the above systems and their components will be dis-
facturing units. cussed more fully in later sections. The next section will

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The pool conservation is necessary.e. giving pools their characteristic odour. In. water per hour from the extract air. U S I N G . The aim and 27oC respectively and by keeping pool side air of this system is to extract warm humid air from the pool. H E AT. If this energy cannot be recovered from moisture in the air. A heat pump dehumidification water readily evaporates increasing the relative hu.5).L AT E N T. additional heat input from the boiler system will be required. and so can be recovered using a heat pump dehumidification system which condenses the water vapour back to a liquid. An additional problem with pool hall air is that it con- tains chloramines. HEAT PUMP DEHUMIDIFICATION ter on cold surfaces. causes atmosphere which causes wastage of both energy and discomfort and damages the Finally substantial savings in water. It therefore follows that we Figure IP13 Heat pump heat recovery ahu 72 . It should therefore be a target of any design that latent energy should be recovered.I P 1 3 . structure if left unchecked.2. A fresh air sup- ply is necessary to reduce the concentration of chlo- ramines by dilution. This however. system can aid this by recovering up to 120 litres of midity of the atmosphere. Water conservation is increasing in importance. evaporation are achieved by ble energy used to heat up using pool covers when the the pool air and secondly the latent energy contained pool is not being used. This is pollution.1). pool hall. Evaporation can be slightly sup- pressed by keeping pool hall temperatures two Figure IP13 shows a schematic of a heat pump dehu- degrees higher than pool water temperatures i. R E C O V E RY. mal discomfort (see IP5) and damage to the pool struc- ture due to corrosion and condensation of liquid wa. Energy wastage takes energy and reduced two forms firstly the sensi. remove sensible and latent heat from it and use this heat creased activity in the pool or the presence of features to re heat the pool water and the mix of fresh and dehu- such as flumes will increase midified air supplied to the the evaporation rate.7 kW per litre) and causes a reduction in temperature. P U M P S Water based leisure complexes by their very nature can no longer be profligate in the use of water and that have large areas of water exposed to the air. in the water vapour (see IP6). H E AT. hall. 29 midification system (also refer to section 7. This in turn leads to ther. Top up air heating Evaporation of water from is provided by a lphw heat- In the past problems were swimming pools creates a ing coil supplied by gas boil- avoided by simply extracting ers or a CHP unit (section the humid air out of the pool high relative humidity 1. Supplies are becoming more scarce resulting in short- ages and rising prices. This has been brought about by increases in consumption and hotter summers cre- ated by global warming. This latent energy is lost from the pool water itself during evaporation (approximately 0. Latent heat is released. arising from the water treatment system and the bathers themselves. relative humidity levels between 60 and 70% RH.

Refrigerants. Vapour compression cycle. Most people have daily contact with cooling caused by the vapour compres.1 Cooling loop. to reduce As the refrigerant leaves the expansion valve its pres- the temperature of air or water energy must be re. The method of heat rejection depends on the amount of waste heat produced and operational decisions such as the choice between using a dry system or a wet system. temperature. This occurs water. As the refrigerant con- cooling coil of an air handling or fan coil unit to cool denses it releases the heat it absorbed during evapora- the airflow. sure is reduced. It should be noted that the term "cooling" usually leaves the evaporator and passes through the compres- relates to the direct production of cold air whereas sor. and an expansion device.1 shows the compo. The refrigerant. The following sections will consider refrigerants and compressors which are two of the more complex compo- nents of vapour compression chillers. pressor. For any liquid to evaporate it must absorb jority of air conditioning systems is based on the energy. The converse is also true. In terms of a domestic refrigerator the evaporator would sion cycle in the form of the domestic refrigerator. Air passing over the condenser coil takes away this waste heat. tion. The evaporator and condenser coils are simply arrays of copper pipe with aluminium fins mechanically bonded to their surface to increase the area for heat transfer.1 Vapour compression chiller toxicity and low flammability. The pressure is increased causing the refrigerant the term "chilling" relates to the production of cold vapour to condense in the condenser coil. In building cooling systems signifi- systems used in buildings use the same principle cant amounts of waste heat are produced at the con- but on a different scale. denser and various techniques are used to safely re- nents of a vapour compression chiller.3. a com- ditioning systems are based. Figure 5. Refrigerants are liquids that evaporate very easily at relatively low temperatures.consider the cooling equipment on which all air con. The system which is used by the ma. Cooling warm to the touch. The main components are an evaporator coil. be situated in the ice compartment and the condenser is The refrigerator is a useful example to keep in mind the grid of piping at the rear of the refrigerator which is whilst considering how the system works. be added to it. A less common system is from the evaporator coil which in turn removes heat absorption chilling (section 5.2) from the air which is flowing over it. Refrigerants are so volatile that if a liquid refrigerant was spilled in a room at normal temperatures it would very quickly dissapear by evaporation. Refrigerants are also the 73 . Cooling is achieved in the following way. To warm air or water energy in the form of heat must Liquid refrigerant is forced through the expansion valve. These components are connected together using cop- per pipe through which refrigerant circulates in a closed 5. This cold water is then circulated through the at a relatively high temperature. The refrigerant evaporates by removing energy vapour compression cycle. Refrigerants must posses good thermodynamic properties but also have low Figure 5. This allows it to evaporate at a low moved from it. Air cooled condensers are discussed together with condensers utilising water in section 7. move it from the building. a condenser coil. This heats up the condenser coil. now in a vapour state. Hence the air be- comes cooled.

Pin pointing the leak would require a further and detection and rectification inspection of the system of leaks. This refrigerant contained in systems about to be replaced can be achieved using passive cooling techniques. number of refrigerants has refrigerant used to charge the been banned under the system can be reduced the Montreal Protocol and EU effects of a total leak will be minimised. only be detected if the system is inspected regularly. These include the presence of refrigerant in the air sample indicating reducing the volume of refrigerant in the equipment. R E F R I G E R A N T S It is estimated that 20% of refrigerant based systems a glowing patch of dye. It is illegal This may eliminate the need for refrigerants completely under the environmental protection act to release or reduce the size of the system required.IP14 . acids. The first method is to to service older equipment. This system can be set up to developing benign refrigerants. the refrigerant must be cleaned by filtration and distillation before being re-used. If the refrigerant begins is important to manage refrigerants and deter the growing to leak out of the system say through a loose joint trade of smuggling illegal refrigerants into the country. then this will be revealed under an ultra violet light as See also IP15 . De. moisture or particles then which a leak could occur. using either a hand held detector or searching for REDUCTIONS IN Some refrigerant gasses the presence of escaped REFRIGERANT CHARGE dyes as described above. Because of this all refrigerant should be This means more cooling can be carried out with less removed from the system and stored before repair or refrigerant. The second substances into the environment which are known to involves chosing equipment that has a high efficiency. If the refrigerant is the the number of refrigerant components through contaminated with oils. chilled water is created in a local plantroom. they RECYCLING OF damage caused depends on can only do this if they are REFRIGERANTS the volume of refrigerant that has escaped. Hydronic systems can be used where the decommissioning. Refrigerant leak detection takes two forms. In this way the exact location of will develop a leak resulting in a complete loss of the leak can be pin pointed.C A R E F U L . visual and gas analysis. Unfortunately the leak can refrigerant charge during their operational lifetime. U S E . Heavily contaminated LEAK DETECTION refrigerants must be reclaimed this requires that they are taken off site and purified to their original state. that a leak was occuring. has considerable value to existing users. This is then used in the building rather than use refrigerant If the recovered refrigerant is of good quality it can be re pipework through the building which would increase used without further treatment.Refrigerants and the Environment. There are a number of methods of into a gas analyser. It follows therefore that the reduce dependance on refrigeration equipment. It follows allowed to escape from the The production of a therefore that if the volume of system. cause damage. This can be regulations. The analyser will detect and warn of minimising or avoiding these problems. good practice continuously monitor a plant room for the signs of a including servicing. O F. 74 . However existing stocks can still be used achieved in a number of ways. Visual systems require a fluorescent dye A good network of refrigerant reclaimers and recyclers to be added to the refrigerant. designing systems to avoid leaks leak. However. are known to damage the If a leak occurs the amount of ozone layer. pending on the type of refrigerant the risks from this The second type of leak detection involves drawing a vary from fire and toxicity to global warming and ozone sample of air surrounding the refrigeration equipment depletion.

This is not the case the casing. The operating effi- 75 . Open com- pressors have an external motor connected via a shaft to the pumping mechanism. This is the basis of the heat pump (figure 5.subject of environmental concerns as described in heating rather than cooling. A seal around the shaft stops refrigerant escaping. compressors work by allowing refrigerant to flow into a chamber on the down stroke of a piston. ing.1 Heat Pumps Figure 5.2 Reverse cycle heat pump in heating mode Even with this reduction in efficiency the efficiency with Heat pumps are vapour compression systems. Refrigerant is in contact with the motor and compressor. This force is sufficiently strong to drive in winter when heat pumps are required for space heat- the refrigerant towards the condenser.5MW. This is for two main reasons. This means for every 1kWh of electricity put into Rotary compressors have two interlocked helical the compressor 3kWh of heat is obtained by the build- screws which when rotated move refrigerant which ing. This can be avoided by using tween the motor and the compressor it drives. The different forms of compressor are suitable for different cooling load ranges.1. The first is that the thread. which the unit uses electricity to provide heating is scribed previously. but they are used for space higher than simple resistive heating. The second cause of the fall off in efficiency occurs on cold winter days when the evaporator may become Compressors are further classified as either hermetic. iced up due to low temperatures. 5.2) Compressors are electrically driven pumps of which which uses the vapour compression cycle to absorb there are three main types. Rotary and centrifugal compressors are used for large capacity centralised cooling systems. Comfort cooling tends to be of a lower cooling capacity and so uses reciprocating compressors.The evaporation and condensation of refrigerants in a chiller is controlled by lowering and It can be seen that what the vapour compression chiller increasing the pressure using the expansion valve is doing is extracting heat from a low temperature space and compressor respectively. reciprocating. and transferring it into an environment at a higher tem- perature. IP14 and IP15. fer across the evaporator. The refrig. heat from outside air and convert it to higher grade heat rotary and centrifugal compressors. Semi hermetic compres- sors are similar but the joints are bolted rather than welded allowing servicing to take place. These are. In practice however the operating efficiency tends is trapped between the two screws along the line of to be lower. The theoretical efficiency with which the heat pump erant is then forced out of this chamber towards the carries out this function is very high at approximately condenser as the piston moves upwards once more. sealed by welded joints. 300%. an electrical heater on the outside coil to defrost it or to Hermetically sealed compressors have the motor and reverse the refrigerant flow direction. Reciprocating for indoor space heating. This restricts heat trans- semi hermetic or open depending on the seals be. Centrifugal compressors have a rotating the highest efficiencies are obtained when the inside impeller which forces the refrigerant outwards against and outside temperatures are similar. Reciprocating up to 180kW. Both of which re- compressor together inside a shell whose seams are duce the overall efficiency of the device. as de. Rotary up to 2MW and centrifugal in the range 180kW to 3.

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The water is called the absorber. ammonia/water units on the other hand can cool down tion only.4 Absorption Chiller A concentrated solution of ammonia in water is heated in the generator (figure 5. lakes. The big- gest differences between this and vapour compression Reverse cycle heat pumps are very useful pieces of cooling is that the compressor is replaced by a gas fired equipment which can either heat or cool a space.ciency of the device can be increased if a body of water is used as the heat source rather than the out. This is because the water will have a more stable and higher temperature than the surrounding There is growing interest in a method of cooling buildings air. A diagram of an absorption chiller is with a valve which can reverse the direction of refrig. One applica. as it has a lower 77 .4. The effluent. The ammonia component vaporises first. may be required. name. to -10oC. water. In this Reverse cycle heat pumps are particularly useful case water is the absorber and ammonia is the refrigerant. ground water or warm which uses gas as a fuel instead of electricity. technology is known as absorption cooling.3). generator and the refrigerant is replaced by a refrigerant/ This feature is obtained by equipping the heat pump absorber mixture. Later in the day as the shop fills with customers and heat is given out by display light- ing. 5. required. Figure 5. cooling may be needed to maintain comfort.4) using a gas burner. shown in figure 5. Two ex. giving the process its ing and cooling but at different times.3 Reverse cycle heat pump in cooling mode Figure 5. as it is so chemically attracted to ammonia vapour tion is in shops where at the start of the day heating that it absorbs it out of the atmosphere. The generator is filled with a mixture erant flow (figure 5. where spaces may have a requirement for both heat. Note because water freezes the lithium pansion valves fitted with non return valves are also bromide/water units can only cool down to 5 oC. Each expansion valve works in one direc. The direction of the refrigerant of refrigerant and absorber (solvent) which can be either flow determines if the coil inside the building is a water/lithium bromide (>35kW capacity) or ammonia/ cooling evaporator or heating condenser.2 Absorption Chilling side air. (>11kW). Examples are canals. The way the system works can be illustrated using the ammonia/water pairing as an example.

R134a is a Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) it contains (section 5. Refrigerant Type ODP Lifetime GWP There are three indicese that are used for comparing R11 CFC 1. Phone the ETSU enquiries bureau 01235 436747 to obtain a free copy of Good Practice Guide 256: An introduction to Absorption Chilling 78 .0. that the refrigerant remains in the atmosphere causing ozone destruction. Both of these do not affect the ozone layer or add now banned.AND. Some refrigerants have been the contributions from ants and has set a time limit on identified as contributing to each is given by the Total the manufacture of less damag. Environmental same time governments have brought in legislation groups are now campaigning against HFCs because of which bans the production and use of the more their GWP. R11 and Environmental concerns have also led to renewed inter- R12 are chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) which are highly est in traditional refrigerants such as ammonia and pro- destructive to the ozone layer and their production is pane. the dominant factor in global damaging refrigerants. For example. A banned the production of the method of quantifying most ozone depleting refriger.ENVIRONMENT During the last decade some refrigerants have been Global Warming Potential (GWP) .I P 1 5 -REFRIGERANTS.05 15 years 510 R134a HFC 0.A measure of the identified as ozone depleting gases and/or greenhouse contribution the chemical makes to global warming in gases. Many ozone depletion and global Impact (TEWI).0 <1year 0 Atmospheric Lifetime . As a consequence the chemical companies comparison to CO2 whose GWP = 1.1 gas. There are concerns over toxicity and (HCFC) which is less damaging to the ozone layer flammability of these refrigerants and so they should be than CFC's and so its production is allowed until 2005. the escaped refrigerant and the efficiency of the refrigeration system as a whole. However. Equivalent Warming ing refrigerants.0 60 years 1500 the environmental effects of refrigerants.0 <1year 0 comparison to R11 which is said to have an ODP = 1 Lithium Bromide 0. wasted have a low contribution on global warming and However like other refrigerants it is a global warming ozone depletion when compared to other systems.0 <1year 3 how destructive the chemical is to the ozone layer in R717 Ammonia 0. The most well known of these warming is CO2 emitted (from power stations) as a result pieces of legislation is the Montreal Protocol on of electrical consumption by the chiller rather than the substances which deplete the global warming effect of ozone layer.A measure of R290 Propane 0. used externally and according to appropriate guidelines.The length of time.0 16 years 420 Ozone Destruction Potential (ODP) . R22 is an hydrochlorofluorocarbon to global warming. producing refrigerants have been working to find al- ternative refrigerants which have a good blend of Table IP15 below compares these indecese for various physical and thermodynamic characteristics but do refrigerants. Refrigerants are identified in the building services in- dustry by a refrigerant number. R22 HCFC 0.2) and waste heat which would otherwise be no chlorine and so does not damage the ozone layer. Existing stockpiles of both refrigerants can still be Absorption chillers which use a mix of ammonia/water used. measured Table IP15 Environmental Indecese in years. At the but still has a global warming potential. 1. It can be seen that R134a has a zero ODP not damage the environment if they escape. This legislation has escaped refrigerants.THE. This is a governments and the EU have warming lifecycle analysis which brought in more strict legislation considers both the direct shortening timescales meaning global warming impact of that bans are now in place.

· You wish to optimise the use of clean gas as a fuel quirements and so can be used to drive the absorp. Features and photographs of commercially available absorption chillers are shown on page 76. It is an advantage that the heat. modular packaged units mean that solution is pre heated on its way back to the generator cooling capacity can be easily expanded as the building by passing it through a heat exchanger. This is known as trigeneration or com- bined cooling and power. In doing OTHER BENEFITS so its pressure drops and so it can evaporate once more. air cooled.2. and passes into the con. SELECTION CRITERIA It follows that more gas energy will be required than an equivalent electric chiller (COP = 3. This improves is developed or as heat loads increase. which would · You have a source of low cost or free heat energy normally be wasted. The water which is left behind passes back Research is currently underway which is investigating to the absorber. This The above device is known as a single effect configuration means that maintenance costs are low. compression chiller for a given cooling effect (see IP15).0). In winter their heat output is used for space heating. Heat is vibration than a compressor. the pumps used to move the ammonia/water solution The ammonia vapour now passes into the absorber from the absorber back to the generator. waste heat is also removed by the condenser cooling air flow. However From the above it can be seen that absorption chilling is the cost and pollution differentials will be reduced particularly appropriate where. 79 . Double effect units are also available which use water and lithium bromide. This heat is removed from the system by air appearance of large amounts of cost and pollution free which is blown over the condenser by a fan (section solar energy coincides with the need for cooling. Chilling has therefore. The ammonia solution is pumped back to the The pump along with the air cooled condenser fan and generator where the cycle continues once more. When heat. This External.boiling point than water. the gas burner fan are the only moving parts. The ammonia vapour condenses back the linking of absorption chillers with solar panels as a to liquid ammonia in the condenser giving out waste source of generator heat. Contract gas prices plant in summer or a production process which can are lower still in summer when gas is needed for be used to drive the absorption chiller cooling as less is needed for space heating. absorption chiller.7-1. It does this by absorbing heat from the chilled The only electrical elements in an absorption chiller are water circuit. power units. These pumps where it is absorbed by the water from the generator consume much less power and produce less noise and to create a concentrated ammonia solution. for vapour compression chilling and an expensive plus heat is that generated by combined heat and upgrade would be necessary. One form of sur. Double effect units require further enhanced as units are also available that provide a higher temperature heat source (>140oC) derived heating in winter and switch to cooling in summer. In summer this heat is surplus to re. been achieved. is used absorption chillers emit available such as solar energy or heat released from much less CO2 into the atmosphere than a vapour the combustion of landfill gas. throughout the year. from a direct gas fired burner or pressurised hot water. 7. The ammonia now passes from the condenser into the evaporator via an expansion valve. not just in winter tion chiller. This latter point is useful if given out when the two chemicals combine. Flexibility is the efficiency of the unit. Absorption chillers are less efficient than vapour com- pression chillers with a COP of approximately 0. · The electrical supply to the site is not robust As well as direct gas firing some absorption chillers enough to supply the necessary electricity required can be operated using waste heat. denser. The rest of the device consists of sealed metal chambers. This the chiller is to be sited near to a noise sensitive area.3). because electricity costs and pollutes approximately four times more per unit of energy than gas because · You have excess heat production from your CHP of wastage in the power stations.

It is likely that in the future the decision to air- condition a building will be subject to building regulation approval.AND. It is intended to illustrate some of the issues involved in the selection process. For further details on selection criteria consult the CIBSE Guides or phone BRECSU on 0800 585794 and ask for a free copy of Good Practice Guide 71: Selecting Air Conditioning Systems. To be able to make comparisons. Cooling capacity and Energy consumption. IP16 -VENTILATION.AIR-CONDITIONING. There are other issues involved which are not considered here and which may take priority. these include.SELECTOR 80 This ventilation and air-conditioning selector chart is for guidance only. Capital and maintenance costs. these later factors are stated in pounds or watts per square metre of treated floor space. .

The mixed air eventually diffuses throughout the room to create the cooling effect. Chilled air is then output via di- rectional slots. Figure 6. The main vari. through a filter. Window sill. tioning system 81 . systems are so described because the evaporator is housed in a room unit and the condenser is housed in a Window sill air conditioners are the most basic form separate outdoor unit. They are typically used as a retro.0 Local Comfort over the evaporator coil and then is returned. different rooms as required. ants are. A fan is used to draw room air across the evaporator to provide the necessary cooling. These slots are adjusted to keep the cold airstream away from the room occupants so that cold draughts are avoided. water to air reverse cycle Split air conditioning systems. connect the two units together. The indoor unit can be fit solution to an overheating problem which may wall or floor mounted or accommodated within a sus- have arisen due to the introduction of computers pended ceiling. The room side Figure 6. split. The finish of the indoor unit is of high into an office space. Split air conditioning heat pumps and chilled water fan coil units. The refrigerating equipment is quality to integrated with the appearance of the room contained within a cabinet which sits on the window decor or suspended ceiling panels. The chilled air mixes with the room air outside the occupied zone. air over the evaporator coil of a vapour compression chiller so that it becomes cooled. Refrigerant flow and return pipes of cooling system. sill (figure 6. waste heat out of the building. A length of flexible ducting which runs from the cabinet to the outside through an The vapour compression cycle is used in a number available opening such as a window is used to discharge of commercial room cooling products. The system also Portable air conditioners are based on the same princi- includes a method of rejecting the waste heat from ple except that the cabinet is designed to be moved into the cooling process outside of the building. At the same time outside air is circu- Cooling Systems lated over the condenser coil to carry away the waste heat. 6. back to the room.0 Window sill air conditioner The window must be modified to seal the remaining gap above and to the sides of the unit. A diagram of a ceiling unit is shown in figure 6. chilled.0).1 Indoor unit (cassette) of a split air condi- of the air conditioner is sealed from the outdoor side. multi split.1. Air is drawn by a fan from the room. variable refrig- erant flow air conditioners. All the controls and the compressor are fitted into Comfort cooling systems operate by circulating room the casing to create a self contained unit.

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although individual con. The distance between indoor and outdoor units can be up to 100m including a vertical rise of 50m. The outdoor 6. The main advantage of ant flow. The condenser like the evaporator operate either in cooling or heating mode independently has its surface area increased using fins.4) is com- prised of room based reverse cycle heat pumps.3 Variable refrigerant flow system principle as single split air conditioning except that up to four indoor units can be served by a single Filtered and tempered air can be supplied to each unit outdoor unit. The water to air re- units are fitted with electric heaters so that whilst the verse cycle heat pump system is also known as the multi split group is operating in cooling mode odd versatemp system after the first commercial system pro- single units can provide a degree of heating. This is achieved by having collection used to draw outside air across the condenser to vessels for both vapour and liquid refrigerant (figure discharge the waste heat to atmosphere. Figure 6. Water to air reverse cycle heat pumps are a heat pump trol of the degree of heating or cooling from off to full system which gives the opportunity for efficient output can be exercised over each unit. Each indoor unit has its own set of from a centralised air handling unit to provide ventila- refrigerant pipe work connecting it to the outdoor tion as well as heating/cooling. These Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air conditioning. re distributed by the refrigerant to indoor units on the north side of the building. All of the indoor units operate in the same mode i. Waste heat pathetic positioning of the outdoor units on the ex. heat recovery in their mode of operation.e.2) contains the condenser this system over multi splits is that each indoor unit can which is air cooled. Some indoor operation through heat recovery. unit. all heating or all cooling.3). As a 50m pipe length including 30m vertical rise) from the consequence VRF air conditioning systems incorporate indoor unit. The system (figure 6. In heat pumps have an air coil which supplies heat or cool- this system up to eight indoor units can be operated ing to the room depending on the direction of refriger- from a single outdoor unit. say from rooms on the south side of the building can be ternal surfaces of the building. duced by Clivet Ltd. The other coil is part of a refrigerant to water 83 .2 Outdoor unit of a split air conditioning system Multi split air conditioning. This allows flexibility of design and sym. Is based on the same Figure 6. A fan is of the other units. A sophisticated control system redirects these two unit can be placed a considerable distance (up to refrigerant phases to the indoor units as required.The outdoor unit (figure 6.

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The fan coil units provide cooling in a similar manner to split system indoor units. · Chilling and heat rejection occurs in the cen- tralised chiller. Figure 6.5 Chilled water fan coil units · Fewer constraints on the number of room based units 85 . There are a number of advantages to this system. If it is re- quired additional heating or cooling can be input to the water loop using boilers or chillers respectively. This may be in a plant room or on the roof top. The difference is that the heat transfer coil is filled with cold water instead of refrigerant.4 Water to air reverse cycle heat pump system Heat pumps operating in cooling mode will extract heat from the room and deposit it into the water cir- cuit. · Use of hydronic circuits and low fan speeds results in quiet operation making the units useful for noise sensitive locations. The units can be floor or wall mounted or recessed into a sus- pended ceiling. As a result part of the system can heat pumps throughout the building. Chilled water fan coil units. In this way the reject heat say from computer rooms can be recovered and deposited into rooms requiring heating. The charge of refrigerant is therefore reduced and since the lengths of refrigerant pipe work are shorter the risk of leakage is diminished.5). This system of comfort cooling uses a centralised chiller to produce cold water.heat exchanger. The water flow and return pipes to this heat exchanger connect into common flow and · The distribution system uses chilled water return pipes which also serve other reverse cycle instead of refrigerant.0 Figure 6. This water is then distributed to room based fan coil units (figure 6. be installed by tradesmen used to water systems as opposed to specialist refrigeration engineers. Supplying the chilled water fan coils with fresh air using ducting brings the system closer to a partially centralised air/water system as described in section 8. Other heat pumps which are in heating mode will take heat from the circuit.

COMPONENTS 86 .I P 1 7 -CENTRALISED.SYSTEM-MAIN.A/C.

0 Centralised Air Con. SO2 and other odours filtration. air conditioning system. The particles in the airstream vary in size from the visible such as hair and ash to the microscopic such as bacteria and viruses (IP18). If cooling the building is a priority then a north facing inlet grille will provide cooler inlet air Air carries with it a large quantity of suspended parti- temperatures. It also carries gaseous where it is suitably conditioned by passing through pollutants such as benzene. Finally. Air enters the AHU spores. NO2. This should be located to avoid sources of dust and pollution such as 7. mould and fungal avoid ground level pollution. This is ducting is used whenever air movement needs guid- a pressed steel cabinet containing the various compo. Gases and vapours are removed from the airstream 87 .1 Air handling unit including heat recovery tion. The conditioned air is then delivered to the centralised air conditioning system but it should be rooms using ducting. typically twenty times as much dust per cubic metre of air than is found in rural areas. vari- Centralised air conditioning systems differ from com.1and IP17).0) and an air handling unit (AHU) (figure 7. able air volume (vav) systems and dual duct systems.2). Air is brought into the air handling unit via an inlet grille built into an external wall. These changes are applied to the air using an air han- dling unit situated in the plant room or enclosure on Here we will be discussing components in relation to a the roof.1 Filtration near by roads. way of responding to changes in demand for heating or cooling within the occupied spaces. fibres.9 following are able to humidify or dehumidify the airstream in a description of the main components in a centralised addition to providing cooling. bacteria. Ductwork surfaces become coated in dust providing a breeding ground for bacteria. There are two methods by which air can be filtered these are mechanical filtration and electrostatic filtra- Figure 7. constant volume systems. through it. It is essential that air passing through an air handling unit is filtered to remove these impurities. Centralised air conditioning systems must have some 7. heat recovery. In- adequate removal of these particles leads to problems of poor air quality and ill health. Rooftop inlets are often used in cities to cles including dust. humidity control and chilling emitted from vehicle exhausts. This is achieved ditioning Systems in the way that conditioned air is delivered to the rooms. This is especially so or heating stages. the presence of dust in the airstream leaving an air outlet causes unsightly dirty streaks on adjacent surfaces. remembered that many of the components are also used in other systems. ance such as in extract ventilation systems (section nents needed to condition the air which passes 4. In 1996 health and safety regulations concerning ventilation system maintenance and cleaning came in to force requiring that ductwork be cleaned on a regular basis. For example filters and heating/cool- At the heart of a centralised air conditioning system is ing coils are used in fan coil units (section 8. The methods used are. A centrifugal fan drives the air where buildings are sited in urban areas where there is movement through the AHU. viruses and smoke. heating and filtration. fort cooling systems described previously in that they Each of these will be discussed in section 7. Dust particles accumulate on heating/cooling coils reducing their ef- fectiveness.

88 .

the filter media is environments to improve general indoor air quality and folded into pleats. when compared to the flat pad of material in a pad filter. They protect the which the biocide will be effective includes various higher grade. The capture process involves three mechanisms. The biocides used fall into one of two categories: inhibitor or Pad Filters are used as the first bank of filters to prevent eradicator. Eventually the small particle loses energy and comes to rest.using the process of adsorption. The effectiveness of lower grade (G2-G4) (see IP18) pad and panel filters can be enhanced by using a filter media of graduated density. the airstream by a supportive framework. and a Mechanical filtration involves passing the airstream replacement inserted in the same manner. glass fibre. (AHU). Inhibitors simply prevent the micro- large particles from entering the system. Some filters through a porous material known as the filter media. These involve either directly stopping large particles as a result of a single collision or by gradually slowing down smaller particles by multiple collisions with successive fibres. of this type are available as primary filters (usually G4) The materials are usually fabrics. This panel can be easily slid into posi. A single flat organism from reproducing an eradicator kills it sheet of material. Anti-microbial filters line. When the filter requires changing it is removed. The seams are well sealed and it is mounted so tion in a metal holding frame in the air handling unit that the open end of the bag faces the oncoming air- 89 . All grades of filter are available from G2 to F9. sprayed or impregnated with biocides. The range of micro-organisms against steel or lightweight aluminium frame.2. This is a panel filter surface sizes. and therefore will be able to capture a broader range of particulate Anti-microbial filters. A fourth capture mechanism for some filters is to give the fibres an electrical charge during manufacture. This extends the media surface area health. As shown in figure 7. They are normally referred to as Primary Grade are most commonly used in hygiene sensitive areas Filters ranging from G2 to G4 in classification. and hence more expensive filters. The filter media is backed by an open strengthening Bag Filters have a filter medium which is formed into a grid and is then sandwiched into a card. algae and yeasts. but more commonly are used for grades F5-F8 and as a ven synthetic materials or paper. they are held in a card or re-usable completely. They are however being increasingly used in office Panel filters. non-wo. such as hospitals or food processing outlets. It also makes sense to utilise the grades of filters in such a way as to extend the life of the most expensive filters for as long as possible. 7. wire-mesh or bag and held in place by a metal or plastic frame (figure plastic frame. Direct interception.2 Panel filter filter will have smaller pores than the front. Since filters are required to be changed regularly it makes sense to construct them in a robust and effective way but cheap enough to be disposed of at the end of their life. inertial impaction and diffusion. This will attract dust out of the airstream but the effectiveness will reduce with time as the charge is lost. next in types of bacteria. Each is held across secondary filter. disposed of according to regulations. This means that the back of the Figure 7. They are particularly suited to AHU's which have insufficient depth to accommodate a bag filter MECHANICAL FILTERS (see later).3).

F5 matter in its clean state. G1 G2 its clean state. 90 . SW18 4RL.the Average Efficiency % 40 50 60 80 90 95 100 effectiveness of the filter against large particulate Filter Grade.10 3-5 1-3 0-1 (Microns) Initial efficiency - The efficiency of the filter Average Arrestance % against carbonaceous staining contamination in Filter Grade.0 1.45 1. EN 779:1993 F6 Classification F7 Both efficiency and F8 arrestance have average values which represent F9 performance at the average condition of the filter through its life.30 5 .0 0. The test Asbestos Fibres consists of two parts: Atmospheric Cement Dust Contaminant A: The synthetic dust Plant Spores and Pollens weight arrestance test - Bacteria providing an arrestance value when the filter is fed Atmospheric Staining with a blended synthetic Exhaust Smoke/Fumes dust. 5 Rufus Business Centre. London. EN 779:1993 G3 Classification G4 Initial arrestance . Atmospheric Air Sample: Viruses giving an efficiency value produced using an Percentage by atmospheric staining % 0.CHARACTERISTICS The standard method of testing to evaluate performance of air filters in Particle Size Band 50 10 5. Percentage by % 29 52 10 6 3 Weight The following values are obtained Particle Size Band 10 .IP18 -AIR. Figure IP18 Dust particles.1 0.3 98 Number technique.05 0.FILTER. their sizes and appropriate filter grades This chart has been reproduced with permission from publication NFC4 produced by the Nationwide Filter Company Ltd.20 0. Ravensbury Terrace.01 general ventilation and air (Microns) Visible by Naked Eye Optical Microscope Electron conditioning is BS6540 (Defraction) (EN779:1993. Tobacco Approximate Smoke B: The atmospheric dust Distribution of Welding Fumes spot efficiency test . European Standard). Tel +44(0) 20 8944 8877.

HEPA filters are used where a very favour. HEPA filters may be included in the main area of the ahu or only at Electrostatic filters once seen as a low maintenance the air inlet grilles serving those rooms which require low pressure drop option have recently fallen out of the cleanest air. The airstream form greatly extends the surface area over which filtra. Bag filters are usually available in grades from G4 to F9. parts and the high cost of replacement plates that tronics and pharmaceutical manufacturing and storage become less effective after 'pitting' and accumulation areas for documants and artefacts. Some units have au- tomatic cleaning systems which periodically wash High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters are down the collector plates which become coated in ac- panel filters with extremely fine filter media with cumulated dust. Figure 7.4 Electrostatic filter Electrostatic filters have a mechanical pre filter to remove the larger particles and a post filter to collect any large clumps of aggregated dust which may Figure 7. conjunction with at least one pre-filter. In other systems the collector array is collection efficiencies ranging from 99. Activated carbon filters are used to remove gaseous ELECTROSTATIC FILTERS pollutants and odours from the airstream which cannot be removed by mechanical or electrostatic filters. Providing that the bag has sufficient depth this electrical charge on the dust particles. This is due to the increased cost of mechanical clean environment is required such as in micro elec. This induces a positive pore structure which enables the adsorption of gaseous 91 . The dust collects on collapse. then passes between positively and negatively charged tion can take place and as a result bag filters have a plates. the Ultra Low Penetrating Air (ULPA) filter is used in environments where ultra clean air is ACTIVATED CARBON FILTERS required such as the nuclear or space industries.95 to 99.4). removed via a side hatch for cleaning before re assem- To extend the life of a HEPA filter it must be used in bly. spacers to help the individual pockets remain open even at reduced airflows. carbonaceous material is first processed to produce a static attraction. a high dust carrying capacity and offer a low ticles towards the negative plates which are at the same resistance to airflow. some bag filters are manufactured with the negatively charged plates.999%. An even higher of inground atmospheric particulate staining. Dust laden air entering the unit passes char and then heated to 800-1000oC to give it its micro- over an ioniser (figure 7. To minimise the risk of sagging or time attracting the dust particles.flow. The Electrostatic filters remove dust from the air by electro. grade of filter. The positive plates repel the charged dust par- long life.3 Bag filter become dislodged from the unit.

Filter greater pressure drop within remove it. F I L T E R S There are two criteria used to compare the perform. The removal efficiency of the filter. Transducers system. The which will increase the electrical consumption of the system works as shown in figure IP19. One way of avoiding to the resistance of the filter. clogged up quicker than tively large pore size will have expected. The first is the pressure drop which occurs from one side of the filter to the other.36 medium grade 4 bag filter 400mm deep 1. This is a simple method but may mean that the system ticles and the pore size of the filter media. The efficiency will depend on the size of the dust par.92 high grade 6 bag filter 600mm deep 5-5. This If filters are to carry out their role of dust extraction pressure drop arises due to the resistance that the air from the airstream whilst not affecting the air movement encounters passing through the small pores in the me. changed. changing is based on the the system. A common compromise is to select a medium either side of the filter monitor air pressures. So for exam.76 Modern developments include the 'rigid pack' paper filled filter a 600x600x300mm unit can provide a working Figure IP19. It could also mean a high efficiency at collect.M A N A G E M E N T . A large pressure actual state of the filters drop will necessitate the use of a higher capacity fan rather than an assumption of their condition. So for example the filters in an air conditioning system may be routinely changed every six months.I P 1 9 . However when the filter this compromise and reducing the pressure loss in begins to clog up this pressure differential will increase. higher grade filters. Monitoring filter condition area up to 18m2 92 . Various standard test methods exist (BS6540) Routine maintenance involves making a decision (see IP 18) which involve measuring how much dust based on previous experience. This can be carried out using routine The second criterion is the filters ability to remove dust maintenance or condition based maintenance. from the airstream. is to increase the surface area The pressure transducers can be observed manually through which the contaminated air can flow. regular intervals. knowledge of dust there is in the air upstream and downstream from the conditions in the building and filter performance to filter. expressed as determine a period after which the filter should be a percentage can be calculated from these two values. smaller particles. maintenance avoids the and small suspended matter. The grade filter even though this may not necessarily pressure at point P1 will always be higher than P2 due provide the quality of air required. considerably they must be replaced by clean filters at dia. measured in terms of the filter effi- ciency. FILTER REPLACEMENT ance of filters. operates with dirty filters for a time if the filters have ple a coarse filter with a rela. that if the dust load is low ing large particles but a low Systems that concentrate relatively clean filters are efficiency at collecting movement of air also being removed and replaced. as the grade increases to maintain an acceptable working resistance. Face area 600x600mm in all cases Type Area m2 low grade pad filter 50mm deep 0. The list or the signals fed into a BEMS system which will inform below shows how we increase the working area of filters the building operators that the filters need changing. Materials concentrate the dust and with small pore sizes are good Condition based at removing both the large grime contained in it. The smaller the pores the greater the resistance. O F . cause a routine maintenance. Filtration is the only way to problems encountered with They do however.

called absorption cooling is described in section 5.1. This can be achieved using direct heaters such as electrical heating elements. 7. Vapour compression chillers have been described pre- viously in section 5. the airflow. The pipes can be connected by return bends which allows the flow and Cooling of the airstream is achieved by bringing it into return headers to be at the same side of the heating contact with a cold surface.5. These fins increase the antifreeze (glycol) circulates through it rather than hot surface area for heat transfer between the hot coil and water. While most activated carbon ture sensor into the rooms being heated or the extract filters are made of base carbon. In certain instances the carbon can be reactivated and reused at the end of its life. 93 . The cold surface is a cool- coil. Heater coils are composed of a staggered grid of cop- per pipes conveying heated water between flow and 7. carbon impregnated paper or fibre and pleated ther unnecessary heating of the room. The degree of effectiveness of a carbon filter is generally related to the amount of time that the air spends within the carbon. Thereby preventing fur- biscuits. This signal is fed into a control unit and is impregnated to improve its ability to adsorb certain used to set the position of a valve supplying hot water types of contaminant such as nitrogen dioxide(NO2) from the boilers to the flow header. Carbon filters set point then the hot water flow to the coil will be can be constructed of loose carbon. medium or high tempera. How- ever it is more commonly achieved using heater coils. This mixture is cooled using a chiller. Coil heat output is improved by increasing the ing coil.contaminants and odours. sion (DX) cooling coil which is the evaporator of a ture hot water or steam flows through these pipes in vapour compression chiller or it may be a water coil parallel assuring equal distribution of heat across the similar to the heating coil described above. The filter is commonly housed in a metal frame and should always be preceeded by a pre-filter. Low. Attached to the surface of each tube from the heating coil in that a mixture of water and are aluminium or copper fins. The greater the dwell time (lower the air speed or greater the carbon area) the more effective the carbon filter will be at odour or gas removal. the carbon can be duct work.2 Heater Coil One of the functions of an air handling unit is to heat Figure 7. bonded carbon modulated down or shut off.3 Cooling Coil return headers as shown in figure 7. Further increases in heat output are possi- ble by corrugating the fins. granular mat depending on the application. It differs heater coil face. This is known as the dwell time. An alternative method of cooling Temperature control is achieved by fitting a tempera.2. If the temperature and sulphur dioxide(SO 2) which are particularly of air in the extract duct work is higher than the room damaging to documents and works of art. The cooling coil can be either a direct expan- number of pipe rows. Pressure losses through carbon filters can be high and manufacturers should be consulted to select a filter to optimise gas removal and minimise pressure drop.5 Heater coil the incoming airstream. but this does also increases WASTE HEAT REJECTION the resistance the air experiences when passing through the coil.

94 . Ice storage involves using Typical COP's for cooling are 1.5 to 3. P L A N T. of the temperature low. Most refrigeration a split cooling system as an example. it also provides a good proportion of the cool- where T1 = Evaporator ambient air temperature (K) ing requirement of the building using cheaper night time T2 = Condenser ambient air temperature (K) electricity tariffs. During the consumption of 1kW of electricity. thermal energy except that it has a negative value. what this means in systems are based on the vapour compression cycle practice is that when the outside air temperature and this information panel will concentrate on this increases the efficiency of the system will fall. This is given by. It is unfortunate that prevail. The pumps used to remove waste summer as this results in first is to increase the size of heat from the condensor and reduced system the air cooled condenser remove coolth from the and ensure that there is good evaporator. The compressor efficiency! airflow through the device to consumes the majority. At low loads the efficiency will Total Power Input (kW) be reduced.R E F R I G E R AT I O N . The COP of a ICE STORAGE real system is given by. One way of overcoming this problem is to use an ice storage system. Both of these contribute to reducing operating costs. The efficiency of a cooling system is normally called the coefficient of performance or COP. This compares with day the chiller would not have enough capacity to satisfy a COP of 2. However. E F F I C I E N C Y Refrigeration plant is equipment which converts From this it can be seen that for the COP to be high the electricity into coolth. taking causing a reduction in temperature. is set by system requirements the variable is T2 . The efficiency of a chiller varies with the amount of COP = Cooling Capacity (kW) work it is required to do. cooling is required in number of things that can be and secondly by any fans or done to improve this. COP = T1 The advantages of the system is that the chiller oper- T1-T2 ates most of the time at full load and hence peak effi- ciency. condensers (page 95) these use latent heat removal to reduce ambient temperatures. can be satisfied.0 if the refrigeration equipment is the cooling demands of the building. The ice is stored in an insulated tank. Coolth is the same stuff as heatdifference between T1 and T2 should be small. stable low COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) temperature heat sinks should be considered such as surface and groundwaters.5 to 2.0 which indicates an undersized chiller to produce an ice slurry during the that you can achieve 2kW of cooling for the night. The next is energy input to the to consider evaporative refrigeration equipment. However by being used as a heat pump. keep the ambient approximately 95%.e. Since T1 i. there are a Firstly by the compressor. unfortunate since most cooling is required in summer The energy consumption of when high ambient a cooling system is by two condenser temperatures principle components. Finally. This is system.I P 2 0 . the In other words it is heat being removed from something ambient temperature surrounding the condenser. To study factors affecting operating the chiller at full load and drawing additional performance more clearly it is useful to look at the coolth from the ice store the building cooling demand formula for the theoretical COP.

In this way the condenser cooling water only makes Figure 7. A more temperature stable heat sink is water. which we have used as an exam- ple of an every day chiller previously. However. This means prevent bacterial growth. given heat rejection capacity than an air cooled con- denser. The condenser cooling water creased by spraying water over the condenser coil (fig. tors must be used to avoid water droplets. the waste heat is simply allowed to enter the kitchen via the condenser coil at the rear of the refrigerator. 95 . The practical implication of sink is subject to water authority approval.6 Air cooled condenser thermal contact with the heat sink water. leaves the plate heat exchanger and returns once more ure 7. evaporative condensers or water cooled condensers. Air cooled condensers (figure 7. In a domestic refrigerator. Chillers generate a large amount of waste heat. which may be contaminated. Are similar to air cooled con.7). In addition spray elimina- maintenance costs are low.7 Evaporative condenser ing loads (less than 100kW) although they are used for rejecting up to three times this value mainly due to the The water circulating over the condenser is treated to fact that water is not used in their operation. Water from a large nearby source.8). Evaporative con- densers can be used up to 500kW cooling capacity. They are predominantly used for smaller cool.This section will look at methods of condenser heat this is that the unit has a smaller physical size for a rejection. The use ing of the condenser coil is therefore achieved by both of bodies of water such as rivers and canals as a heat sensible and latent means. The water is then pumped to a water to water plate heat exchanger. river. Variations in ambient air tem- perature cause changes in the efficiency of air cooled condensers (see IP20). Water cooled condensers.6) have been described previously in their application to split air conditioning systems. leaving the unit. The condenser passes its waste heat to the water increasing its temperature by about 5oC. As this water evaporates it absorbs heat. There are three main ways in which waste heat is removed from the condenser. to the condenser to pick up more waste heat. is returned to the main body of water where the heat it densers except that their heat rejection capacity is in. Figure 7. Because of this the waste heat must be safely rejected outside the building. Cool. air cooled condensers. such as a canal. Water cooled condensers make use of this by jacketing the condenser in a shell which is filled with water (figure 7. carries is dispersed. The heat sink water having picked up heat from the condenser circuit Evaporative condensers. lake or sea is also circulated through this heat exchanger having first been strained and filtered. in air condi- tioning systems the amounts of waste heat in- volved are too great and would cause serious over- heating in the plant room. These are by using.

temperature is the temperature taken using a mercury in glass thermometer but with the bulb covered in damp STRUCTURE cloth . Axis 2 is moisture content. The The psychrometric chart is like a sheet of graph paper. amount of evaporation and hence temperature Instead of the normal x and y axese creating a square depression depends on the moisture content of the air.e the weight of moisture 23 (page 108) looks daunting because of its complexity.CHART-STRUCTURE The psychrometric chart shown in information panel moisture content . One point to note is that the 100% RH curve forms the wbt axis. This is like the y axis of an x-y graph but is on the right hand side of the x axis. greater the depresion of wbt below dbt. dry Axis 4 is relative humidity (RH). This is like the x axis on a standard x-y graph. However it is a very useful tool for studying the relationships between the temperature and moisture Axis 3 is wet bulb temperature (wbt).I P 2 1 -PSYCHROMETRIC. (kg) in 1 kg of dry air.units oC. (see page 102 for its use and page 108 for the chart) 96 . This curve is also known as the saturation curve. As you can see the lines of equal RH curve upwards from this axis. Axis 1 is dry bulb temperature (DBT).units oC. Wet bulb down into simple components. Dry bulb temperature is the temperature taken by a normal mercury in glass thermometer . This information panel explains the this axis is curved and the lines of equal wbt are structure of the psychrometric chart by breaking it diagonal. Any points drawn on the horizontal lines have the same By overlaying each of the axese and related constant lines the psychrometric chart is formed. sloping down from the axis. This is a short y type axis on the left hand side of the dbt axis. Any points drawn on the vertical lines on the graph will all have the same DBT. grid it has a number of axese and some of the grid lines The dryer the air the greater the evaporation and the are curves rather than straight lines. Evaporation of water from this cloth cools it down so the wbt is usually lower than dbt. As you can see content of air.units kg/kg i.

9 shows a forced draught cooling tower. • The tower should be positioned away from air intakes which could draw infected droplets into the building through the air conditioning system. If ambient conditions are suitable and the bacte- seen that the condenser cooling water is allowed to ria carrying droplets are breathed in by a susceptible tumble down through the device whilst air is forced passer by a potentially fatal infection can occur. Water surface area increases are achieved in a number of ways such as by allowing the water to tumble down splash bars. the naires disease. Figure 7. which is a form of pneumonia.9 Forced draught cooling tower tericides. cooling of the condenser water. 97 . The cooling tower. by spraying or by running it over a PVC matrix. Chemicals to prevent algal growth should also be used since algae tend to coat surfaces and give The purpose of the tower is to enhance evaporative the legionella a medium on which to grow. It can be tower. • A programme of maintenance and cleaning should be carried out throughout the life of the tower. A cooling tower is a device which cools legionella bacteria grow in the warm water of the cool- the condenser cooling water by evaporation before ing tower. Access doors should be incorpo- rated into the tower to facilitate cleaning. Cooling towers can be used safely with the following precautions. dry heat rejection uses approximately 30% more energy for the same capacity as a wet method. They escape from the tower as part of the returning it to the condenser to collect more heat. Figure mist created by the flow of air and water through the 7. In particular legion- bodies of water that can be used as a heat sink. • Use of spray eliminators to prevent the release of infected droplets • The tower should be built of easily cleanable materials such as plastics or epoxy coatings with smooth surfaces. The effect of this is to cool the water which collects in the sump at the base of the tower. It does this by increas- ing the surface area of the water exposed to air. When the condenser water evaporates it ab- sorbs latent heat from the water which is left behind. This is pumped back to the water cooled condenser to remove more waste heat. problem is avoided by using air cooled condensers. In locations where there are no large cive to bacterial and algal growth. The upwards through the cascading water by a fan. However.8 Water cooled condenser Cooling tower hygiene is an important area of concern since the water temperatures in the tower are condu- Cooling Towers. Evapo- ration is a surface effect so increasing the surface area of water in contact with the air increases evaporation. has been water cooled condenser is used in conjunction with a associated with wet heat rejection equipment. This should include dosing the cooling water with bac- Figure 7.