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early stages of tourism development in nowledge the collaboration of col- first sets out the background informa-

resorts of the South, because indi- leagues at Gadjah Mada University, tion about Poland and about its educa-
viduals with appropriate experience Yogyakarta; Udayana University, tion and training provision for hospi-
may not be readily available locally. It Denpasar; and the University of tality and tourism. This part is de-
is usually hoped that these can be Waterloo. signed to inform and comment on the
replaced by local people as skills and situation as it exists. The second ex-
experience are gained. However, the Judie Cukier and Grofjrey Will amines the work which the author has
Bali case suggests that the in- Fuculty of Environment Studies been carrying out with the Polish au-
migration of outsiders may not be University of Wuterloo thorities to identify gaps, weaknesses
restricted to those working in the most Wuterloo and directions for change and de-
prestigious positions. Jobs in tourism Ontario N2 L 3Gl 1Canctdu velopment. In doing this it is hoped
are highly regarded in Bali and vend- that lessons for other countries, as
ing, although not among the most well as for this area of vocational
prestigious of tourism work, can pro-
References education and training in general, can
vide above-average incomes. In coun- Cukier-Snow. J and Wall. G Tourism be drawn.
tries of the South, where there may be employment: pcrspcctives tor Bali Tour- By way of explanation, both parts of
ism Mar~ugcmen~ 1993 14 (3) 19.5~201
great challenges in making a living, the presentation draw on and are in-
Kermath, B and Thomas. R Spatial dyna-
hawking products to tourists may be mics of resorts: Sosua. Dominican Rcpuh- fluenced by the authors work as an
an acceptable and remunerative activ- lit Armctb of Tourism Rcwurch 1992 19 (2) adviser to the CEC PHARE Program-
ity. 173-190 me for the Development of Tourism in
Cukier. J and Wall, G Tourism employ-
Poland. This is a two-year programme
ment in Bali, Indonesia Tourism RK~CY-
lion Rrviw 1994 19 (I) in press
of support by the Commission of the
Acknowledgements European Communities (CEC) with
Wall, G and Dihnah, S The changing
This paper has benefited from involve- status of tourism in Bali. Indonesia Prop- technical support being provided by
ment in the Bali Sustainable Develop- ress(in Tourism, Rrcredor~ cd Haspirulirv THR Consultants of Barcelona. The
ment Project which is funded by the programme started in late 192 and
Canadian International Development f/ire rouristiquc LHarmattan, Paris ( 1992) provides for up to 3.5 million ECU to
Agency (CIDA). The authors ack- 75-92 support four areas of activity to assist
Polish tourism: institutional strength-
ening, product development, promo-
Education for tourism in Poland: the tion and marketing,
and manpower development.
and management
The au-
PHARE Programme* thor is the technical adviser for man-
agement and manpower development.

Background to Poland
Within the context of the development of rhe market economy, the
Government of Poland with ussistunce from the Commission of rhe
Europeun Communities (CEC) is currying out a tourism development Four features have been selected to
programme. One part of this programme is concerned with management help set the context. These are fo-
und manpower development. This puper provides derails about this work. lowed by a brief description of the
Ir sets out the background to the developmenr of tourism education in present education and training provi-
Poland, it identifies gaps, weaknesses und direhow for chunge in sion in Poland.
manpower development und it describes the programme of uction which The first of the four features is
is being planned und implemented. Among the conclusions is that while simply that with a population of more
the provision in Poland contuins u number of weaknesses compared with than 38 million and a land surface area
Western Europe, there are also muny similurities in the problems und not much smaller than Germany, Po-
is.:ues facing tourism education in Eastern and Western Europe. land is by far the biggest of the coun-
tries of Central and Eastern Europe,
outside the Commonwealth of Inde-
There are two key ingredients to a the background information relating pendent States (CIS). The size acts as
paper on a subject with which most to the country in question. The second an inevitable brake on the speed of
readers are likely to be familiar. but is the lessons, if any, for other coun- development and it means that mea-
relating to a country of which they tries and the new light which can be sures to spread good practice have to
may have little experience. The first is thrown upon the subject. Under the form an important part in any educa-
title Education for Tourism in Po- tion and training development prog-
* An carlicr version of this paper was
land this paper is divided into two ramme.
presented ;Lt the conference 01
EuroCHRIE. Hospitality Schools East- main parts, which deal respectively Second, in common with its neigh-
West. Vienn;t, IS April 1994. with these two key ingredients. The hours, Poland should not be consi-

dered as a developing country in the Table 1. Education and training provision 1993
traditional sense of the word. It has a
Length of Normal age No of schools No of students
high proportion (30%) of employment course on entry (hasp and (hasp and
in agriculture but also has a long- Type of school (years) (years) tourism) tourism)
established manufacturing sector. Its
academic standards and much of its Basic Vocational 2-3 15 ll/Li n/a
Technical and Vocational t-5 1s 20 SO0
provision compares well with western Post Secondary Vocational 2. IX 20 1so0
countries albeit fewer than one-tenth University 5 IX 7 400
of Poles attend university and only a
third stay in school until the age of 18.
Its real difference from the developed
countries of the West stems not from Educutim md training provision
expanding to meet the needs of young
its level of development per SC but As far as the actual provision of people and of the tourism industry.
from the fact it has had a different education and training for tourism and However, as in other countries. the
experience and has developed in a hospitality is concerned Poland has a system alone is not sufficient in itself
different social and economic setting. fairly well-developed system which, in to ensure a high quality of provision;
With this in mind, it is western experi- common with Western Europe, has there are a number of important
ence in working with the market eco- experienced significant expansion in weaknesses and gaps which need to he
nomy that is the key ingredient the past few years. In summary there overcome before Poland approaches
needed in the development of the are four levels of full-time provision. having a provision which matches its
workforce and it is western experience Details of these are outlined in Tuhle competitor countries. A number of
in developing education and training 1. studies of the system f,)r vocational
for such employment which is of vital Basic Vocational Schools provide training in Poland have identified in-
importance in assisting Poland to cope two- and three-year courses for IS- portant weaknesses. As far as tour-
with change and meet the standards year-old school leavers. Many include ism is concerned work carried out
set by its western competitors. courses for students wishing to train as under the PHARE Programme COIJ-
Third. again in common with its professional cooks and waiters. Tech- firmed that, for example, the curricula
neighbours, Poland has experienced nical and Vocational Schools offer are not always suitably designed to
significant economic dislocation fol- five-year courses, again for 15.year- meet the needs of the market eco-
lowing the changes of lY8Y. In many olds. In I903 about 20 of these nomy; teaching methods are not well
ways Poland is going in a few years together enrolled about 500 students structured to encourage students to
through the same changes in, for ex- each year on courses leading to the think for themselves and develop their
ample. the decline in heavy industry qualification of technician of hotel own initiative; industrial placements
and the resulting structural unemploy- management. At least seven of these and other links with industry are poor-
ment, which in the West took place schools enrolled their first hotel man- ly developed; teaching resources. in-
over decades. In the West. the decline agement students after 1989. There cluding up-to-date textbooks and com-
in manufacturing has been accompa- are about 20 Post Secondary Voca- puters, are generally inadequate.
nied by a growth in service sector tional Schools enrolling in lYY3 about These weaknesses lie at the heart of
employment. This shift is now taking 1500 l&year-old students on two-year the changes and developments that
place in Poland and tourism has been courses in either hotel management or are widely accepted as necessary. and
identified as a part of this. Against this tourism services. Many of these have where possible are under way, in Po-
background developments in educa- started since IYYO. And finally at the land. The agenda for change is never-
tion and training are taking place. university level about seven centres, theless a formidable one.
The fourth feature is that, while enrolling about 400 students each Away from full-time provision.
tourism in Poland was well developed year, offer five-year masters degree- adult and part-time vocational educa-
in the past, a number of authorities level courses with a vocational compo- tion and training for hospitality and
have drawn attention to the fact that it nent relating to tourism. In addition, tourism in Poland (apart from the
was seen primarily as a social rather since lYY2, two centres have been notable exception of training for tour-
than an economic activity., The offering courses leading to the equiva- ist guides which dates back to a pre-
education and training provision re- lent of a bachelors degree in hotel vious era), is not generally well de-
flected this. It is really only since lY8Y management. The minimum age for veloped and a system of training and
that serious attention has been given joining such courses is normally I8 retraining for the unemployed and for
to the economic contribution of tour- years. those in employment has been gener-
ism and to the operation of tourism in The provision at four levels noted ally very slow to emerge. Most large
the market economy. Shortcomings in here provides, at least in principle, a companies. including those from the
the quality of service have been high- sound structure for vocational educa- West, have their own in-company
lighted by a number of writers..5 The tion and training and the recent training schemes, but few make use of
developments in education and train- growth in the number of courses indi- the resources or talents of the colleges
ing are taking place in this context. cates the way in which the system is or universities and there is little recog-


nition on either side that this might be lenge from which the individuals con- understanding and challenge which
a useful route to develop. cerned can develop further skills and are expected in such courses in the
In summary, therefore, while Po- knowledge as well as their own think- West. The extent to which students
land has a developed system of educa- ing and initiative. are encouraged to take responsibility
tion and training for hospitality and Based on these premises and follow- or initiative is very different from the
tourism, which in many ways is meet- ing an extensive programme of visits practices which are now common in
ing the needs of the Polish tourism and discussions with representatives of the West.
industry, it also has gaps and weaknes- industry, education and others in It needs to be emphasized that this
ses that need to be addressed if it is to different parts of Poland, a number of is a summary picture. There are not-
help industry compete successfully in important weaknesses and gaps in pro- able exceptions. There are also plenty
the international market-place with vision in Poland compared with West- of examples where the gaps and weak-
the countries of Western Europe. A ern Europe were identified. Subse- nesses have already been recognized
start has been made on this but there quently these findings were the sub- and are being addressed successfully
is still a long way to go. ject of widespread consultation within by the Polish authorities, in some
Poland. Among the weaknesses iden- cases with bilateral support program-
tified is that links with industry are mes. Nevertheless there remain im-
Strengths, weaknesses and poorly developed in Polish education. portant shortcomings which set a for-
directions for change For example, employers are rarely midable agenda for change.
The second part of this paper now involved in courses or curriculum de- Following the identification of gaps
turns to a more detailed examination sign: few teachers have recent or any and weaknesses, a programme of ac-
of the strengths, weaknesses and the experience of the tourism industryX tion has been developed under the
directions for change in Polands hos- and industrial secondment for PHARE Programme. The starting
pitality and tourism education. This teachers is virtually unknown; case point for this programme was that all
draws on the work carried out under studies based on industry rarely form points of action were related to speci-
the PHARE Programme in which the part of the teaching; while most fic gaps and weaknesses. They were
Polish government is seeking to im- courses include industrial placements also grouped into four key areas.
prove provision to put it in a better for students these are rarely well inte- Train the Trainers is concerned with
position to meet the needs of Polish grated into the courses. In relation to providing support for those teaching
tourism in competing on the world the second pointer, provision is not hospitality and tourism courses. Train
market. always up to date and does not alway the Professionals is for those working,
The starting point for this work has reflect best standards and practice or seeking employment, in hospitality
been that, while there is no single either in education and training or in and tourism. Strengthen the Re-
ideal vocational education and train- industrial terms. Particular gaps in- sources is concerned with improving
ing system and nor is there one which clude those areas of the curriculum teaching materials. And Develop the
can simply or easily be transferred concerned with successful business op- Environment focuses on strengthen-
across international boundaries, there eration, particularly finance, econo- ing the whole environment within
are, nevertheless, pointers to success- mics, marketing, management and which education and training takes
ful provision. The PHARE Program- customer care. The latter is something place.
me took four such pointers in its work. which is now taken for granted in Perhaps the most important area of
The first of these is that there should courses in the West. In Central and action, in that it is designed to have a
be sufficient and effective links be- Eastern Europe it is only recently that long-lasting effect and to reach all
tween education and training on the the satisfaction of the customer has parts of the country, is concerned with
one hand and industry and employers become a key issue. Other important providing support for the existing and
on the other so that they can benefit gaps, which have been noted already, potential teachers and trainers. This
from each others experience. The are in the resources, particularly text- centres on providing assistance for
second pointer is that provision should books and computers. As far as the teachers to develop their skills and
be up to date and reflect best stan- adequacy of provision is concerned knowledge in those areas of the curri-
dards and practice in education and (pointer 3), it has already been men- culum - for example marketing and
training and in industrial terms. Third, tioned that there are some important other business studies - and in those
there should be adequate provision for gaps in provision for those already in aspects of teaching methods which
all levels, subsectors and employment employment or for the unemployed. were identified as weaknesses. As
groups. This includes provision for Among the full-time courses, separate with other parts of the programme,
employees, the self-employed and the provision for hotel management, as this work seeks to draw on the experi-
unemployed as well as those at the distinct from lower levels, is also very ence of Western Europe. With this in
start of their careers. The final pointer little developed. mind a range of activities is under way
is that the provision should not simply For teaching methods and curricu- or planned. These include long and
be concerned with training for a speci- lum design (pointer 4) few of the short study visits for teachers outside
fic task but should also provide suffi- courses, particularly at the lower Poland, repertoires of courses for
cient breadth, understanding and chal- level, provide the kind of breadth, teachers within Poland (some involv-

Tourism Management 1944 Volume I5 Number 6 469

ing Polish teachers working alongside While there are a lot of resources
teachers from Western Europe), as which need strengthening. for exam-
well as links between specific institu- plc training kitchens and restaurants
tions. For example in autumn 1993 a in colleges are generally very poorly
series of 10 courses wzs delivered in equipped and computer supply is in-
Warsaw by ;I team of teachers from variably inadeyuatc, given the fi-
The Netherlands. These courses co- nances and nature of the PHARE
vered marketing, finance. customer Pr~gr~n~Ille. the third c~~nlp~~nentcon-
care, developments in tourism and centrates ctn the weaknesses in the
teaching methods. Altogether IS0 supply of up-to-date textbooks and
teachers from colleges and universities learning materials. In particular, sup-
in all parts of Poland attended these port is being given for the translation
courses, which arc subsequently being into Polish of key western texts.
followed up by a study visit. and it is As far :IS the whole environment for
plamled to repeat the courses in au- education and training is concerned.
tumn 1YY3. which is the final area, this covers a
The second arca of activity - train- range of other weaknesses. These in-
ing the pr~~fessi~~ii~~is - focuses on clude the relatively poor links between
those already working in tourism and educaton and industry, and the proh-
related areas. By its nature this is lems of spreading good practice as
designed more to meet short-term well its awareness about tourism in
training needs in. for example, mod- schools. This work is being carried out
ern marketing skills, financial man- through it series of conferences.
agement and planning and develop-
ment for tht)se working in key sectors
of tourism in the public and private
sectors, and a programmc t>f short This paper set out to ~icc~)n~~~iishtwo
courses has been devised to meet spe- tasks. The first was to provide back-
cific training needs. These arc being ground information about Poland and
delivered by training organizations its education and training provision
from ;I number of countries. This area for hospitality and tourism. The
of activity also includes measures to second was to set out the work which
address some signific~Int areas of is hcing instituted under the PI IARE
weakness in, for example, tourist Programme in Poland tt> identify gaps,
attraction management and intcr- wcaknessea and directions for change
pretation and in customer c3rc for and development in provision.
those working at the entry points to From what has been said. it is ob-
Poland. For the latter a particular vious that in many ways the cxperi-
progrommc wits conceived and im- ence and situation of education and
plemented by an Irish ~~rg~ni~~lti~n, in training for h[)~pit~~lit~r and tourism in
June 1994. for the training of border Poland, and, by extension. the other
guards, customs officials, and airport former Soviet Bloc countries, is very
and airline perscmncl. This conten- different from that of western coun-
tratcd on training the trainers within tries, and from a western point of view
these organizntions and it focused par- the provision contains a large number
ticuhtrly on developing awarcncss ab- of weaknesses. These have been set
out tourism and the needs of tourists out in this paper. Yet a? the same time
as they arrive in the country. Also there arc also many similarities in the
under this heading is included a prct- issues which face this area of educ+
gramme to encourage and assist the tion and training in both Eastern and
development of business schools for Wcstcrn Europe. Indeed many of the
hospitality and tourism to provide problems in the Polish situation are
tr~ini~~g ~?rogr~~mrncs for manage- only magnified versions of the same
ment, for the self-employed and for problems faced by those in the West,
the unemployed over II longer period and in some cases the magnification is
of time. The first part of this work was not all th;tt great. The major diffcr-
initiated in spring 19Y4 when :I British cnce is that those in the West have had
company began working with one of much longer experience of working in
the business schools in Poland. the market ec~~n~~~iy. As those in

Education, Krakow and Institute of Tour- Developmem of the Polish Tourist Industry concerns of operators in subsequent
km, Warsaw (1992) State Sport and Tourist Administration.
discussion of marketing, when Maer-
State Sport and Tourist Administration Warsaw (I 992)
tens (Best Western), Krijt (Holland
International) and Van Der Spek
(Holiday Inn International) stressed
the need for adequate promotional
Conference round-up budgets and a clear marketing strategy
for profitability. The problems of the
Genoa Aquarium (Mannetta) effec-
As conferences continue to proliferate, we offer a selection of reviews of tively illustrated all these concerns for
some of the recent events. John Spink, David Leslie, Dimitrios Buhalis, realistic investment and rational deci-
Chris Cooper and John Westluke, and Zhang Guangrui report variously sion making (even by politicians!).
on urhun tourism, leisure, ecotourism and tourism development in Accessibility and innovation pro-
China. vided the themes for the final sessions.
On transport infrastructure, French
speakers emphasized the significance
of regional airports (Tesse) and the
Urban tourism & city trips, potential of the TGV network linked

Rotterdam, 28-29 April 1994 to the Channel

while the opportunities
Tunnel (Dewailly).
for ferry ports
were illustrated by Genoa (Gattorno).
Given the growing interest in urban marketing, which subsequent speakers There was, however, much less con-
tourism in post-industrial cities around confirmed. In sessions on Strategy & sensus on the potentiality of mega-
the world it is perhaps not surprising Product Development and on Market- events. While the designation of Euro-
that this conference attracted over 150 ing Destinations & Promoting City pean cultural capital might work for
delegates, including participants from Trips, examples from Rotterdam those elite tourists with Bourdieus
North America. Reflecting this enthu- (Beijer), Edinburgh (Carter), Victoria cultural capital, it was stressed that
siasm in an opening paper, Confer- BC (Murphy), Amsterdam (Moreu), such accolades needed to have real
ence Chair Leo Van Der Berg empha- Copenhagen (Laybourn) and Glasgow roots if they were to have lasting be-
sized the increasingly competitive con- (Sneddon). were illustrated. All nefit in cities like Antwerp (Antonis)
text for marketing city tourist destina- emphasized the connections between or for sponsors like American Express
tions and the need for civic authorities a publicly supported tourism strategy, (Van Steenbrugge). Greater sceptic-
to be proactive and entrepreneurial if physical and economic regeneration of ism was shown by Professor Hughes
they were to be successful in market- urban cores, a well-considered prog- (Manchester) who doubted the effica-
ing their centres. Jan Van Der Borg ramme of events, and targeted cy of mega-events and suggested that
developed these themes further by marketing, in order to gain maximum their economic benefit was exagger-
synthesizing the conclusions of the benefit and a positive image for both ated and that their reality was a legacy
Euricur comparative study of tourism civic reputation and subsequent visi- of debt. disruption and under-utilized
in eight centres across Europe which tors. These themes were placed in a capacity.
demonstrated the need for infras- comparative historic context by No such doubts were evinced by
tructural investment to keep pace with Dennis Judd (University of Missouri) those promoting conference and con-
growing demand, and the need to who presented a perceptive commen- gress tourism. The positive role of the
integrate mega-events within a cohe- tary on transatlantic civic boosterism business meeting and conference trade
rent long-term strategy if these were and place-marketing, in which he was stressed for The Netherlands
to have lasting positive impact. Furth- likened the scramble for a positive (Rosier), Birmingham (Thorley) and
er amplification of these findings was make-over to a new arms race as internationally (Ouwehand). This
provided as the main elements of rival municipalities competed for im- optimism was endorsed in his closing
European policy were outlined by a proved imageability. He suggested address by Professor Paolo Costa who
representative of the Tourist Unit DG that the USA presented a salutary pointed to continuing growth in urban
XXIII of the European Commission. lesson in that too many centres had tourism despite economic sensitivity in
In the view of the Commission, suc- created a standardized tourist space times of recession, and to the con-
cessful urban tourism required: data (of similarly designed convention cen- tinuing opportunities for established
collection; dissemination of pilot pro- Ire, enclosed shopping mall. domed and newly emerging city venues. Yet
jects showing good practice; action to sports stadium, casino and bar spaces) again the need for maintenance of
improve quality; and the promotion of in an expensive extravaganza of civic quality in a highly competitive market
Europe in external markets. debt which in the long run, by its very and the need for integrated strategic
The opening addresses thus clearly homogeneity, would have little real planning for urban tourism formed the
established the key elements of impact. core of his conclusions.
strategy, product development and Urban image was at the core of the This conference demonstrated the