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Erny Suci Rahayu

1.1 Background
English is an international language that is used by so many people all
around the world not only for communication but also for people to unite from
different countries. There are four skills in learning English, such as listening,
speaking, reading and writing that should be taught in teaching and learning
process. According to Depdiknas (2006) , In the Competency Based Curriculum
(CBC), the ultimate goal of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia is
to use English for communication orally and writing. And standard competency for
English subject is a competency student should have result of learning English
(p.5). Luardini and Asi (2014), learners are expected to be able to handle
written texts, not only for pursuing further studies but also for learning
independently in order to be independent members of the community (p.2)
Writing is the most difficult skill to learn and to master, because writing is
one of productive skill in learning foreign language ( Kooshafar et al, 2012, p.1).
as the productive skill, students who are learning writing have to learn how to
find ideas, and express the ideas into written form. According to Brown (2001)
writing is the process of putting ideas down on paper to transform thought into
words, to sharpen your main ideas, to give them structure and coherent
organization (p.336). The statement shows that the main purpose of writing is also
to express ideas, thought, and writing clearly in a written language.
Most of the handbooks and worksheets used for the students of SMP are
dominated by texts. According Luardini and Asi (2014) texts can be divided
based on the physical structures of the texts and its functions. From the
physical structures, texts can be divided into three types: narration,
description and exposition. Narrative texts are those which are organized

according to time order or chronological order (p.3). To produce those writing
products, students have to follow the writing steps. Seow (2002) states as follows:
Process Writing as a classroom activity incorporates the four basic writing
stages planning, drafting (writing), revising (redrafting), and editing and
three other stages externally imposed on students by the teacher, namely
responding (sharing), evaluating and post-writing. Teachers often plan
appropriate classroom activities that support the learning of specific writing
skills at every stage (p.316).
In fact, most students hardly ever follow the writing stages in their writings.
They often copy texts from the students who are good at English subject.
Sometimes they just rearrange jumbled sentences given by the teacher or taken
from the textbooks. The facts above frequently happen in Indonesia. According to
data of Scientific American Survey 1994 (as cited in Dunia Media Satu, 2016) it
showed annual contribution of Scientist and of Scholars Indonesia at knowledge,
science, and technology which was only 0,012%. The level of writing in Indonesia
has still lower if it compared to Singapore which has shown 0,179%.
This statement is supported by statistic UNESCO survey data (as cited in
Republika, 2014) shows the condition of literary in Indonesia was at 64 from 65
country , while reading students level in Indonesia was at sequence 57 from 65
Country. Index reading enthusiasm was 0,01 ( each every 1000 resident only 1
resident reading) and literate storey level of adult was 65,5%. According to this
ratio can be said that, only 250.000 of 250 million Indonesian have enthusiasm of
reading. This condition is very inversely proportional with internet users which
reach 88,1 million of Indonesian in the year 2014.
Based on the observation at a SMPN 2 Pulau besar, there are some
problems that are found by the writer, those problems are in Speaking, writing
and listening. From those problems, the ability of students in writing is worse
than others skills. It can be seen from how they avoid writing because it
needs a long process to create a good writing and it is too complicated.
According to Penetapan Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal SMPN 1 Pulau Besar in
year 2016/2017, The students have to reach a KKM of 68,00 in order to
pass the writing subject. Only 40% Students reach the KKM. It seems that it

is difficult for many students in SMPN 1 Pulau Besar to achieve this standard
even though they have been taught using all the materials provided in the
curriculum within the appropriate time limits.
Based on the issues above, the writer offers to apply dictogloss technique
when teaching students in writing narrative texts. By using this kind of technique,
students will consider that it is easier to write or produce narrative text. According
to Jacobs (2003), Dictogloss is an integrated skills technique for language
learning in which students work together to create a reconstructed version of a
text read to them by their teacher (p.1). Dictogloss technique contains the
combination of listening skills and writing skills. They also will learn how to
work together with their friends in a group. It will guide students to explore and to
generate their own narrative text. They will not be confused about how they will
produce their own narrative text.
In the narrative text, the students should make an interesting story. The
students should discover their new ideas to make the story become interesting.
Therefore, in Dictogloss technique, the students worked in a group of four. The
students were brainstorming their ideas in their group. They were helping each
other to find the ideas. It made them easier to get more creative ideas.
Furthermore, the students can help each other in solving some difficulties in

1.2 Problems
To write or to produce ones own text by using English is not easy,
especially for the students of eighth grade students of SMP 1 Pulau Besar. Based
on the background of the problem, the writer found some students problems of
writing. The first, the students were got difficulties in brainstorming ideas in
writing. The second, the students were afraid to make mistakes in writing.
The last, the students have lack of motivation to write.
1.2.1 Limitation of the Problem
Based on the identification of the problem, the writer will focus on
improving students writing ability on narrative text through dictogloss technique
at the eighth grade students of SMPN 1 Pulau Besar Bangka.

1.2.2 Formulation of the Problem
This study are formulated on the following questions:
1. Is there any effectiveness of teaching narrative text through dictogloss
technique to improve the eighth grade students writing ability of SMPN 1
Pulau Besar ?
2. Is There any influence of teaching narrative text through dictogloss
technique to improve the eighth grade students writing ability of SMPN 1
Pulau Besar ?
1.3 The objectives of the Study
Based on the problem above, the objectives of this study are :
1. To find out whether or not it is significantly effective teaching narrative text
trough dictogloss technique to the eighth grade students of SMPN 1 Pulau
2. To find out whether or not the influence of teaching narrative text through
dictogloss technique to improve the eighth grade students writing ability of
SMPN 1 Pulau Besar

1.4 Significances of the Study

By doing this study, the writer expects to give valuable contributions: First,
the result of this research will be helpful for the students to learn narrative writing.
Second, the result of this study will be helpful for the teachers to improve their
teaching technique. Third, the result of this study will be useful for other
researchers who are interested in developing their better technique in teaching
writing. Finally, the result of this research will be useful for the readers, especially
English writing teachers who are interested to enrich and to enhance their sight
about teaching by using writing dictogloss technique.


2.1 Definitions of Writing
There are many various definitions of writing. According to Randal (2004),
writing is an ability to make a form of words that in general it may have a higher
truth value than the fact that it has set it down (p.160). It means that the

product of writing should be truly acceptable by the readers. Besides, it must
contain meaningful values so that the readers can get the benefits from the
According to Sudaryanto (2001), writing skill is a persons ability to
express his/her mind and feeling which is expressed in a written language, in
graphic symbols so that the readers are able to understand the message inside
(p.64). From the statement, it can be said that writing is a skill where the writer
can set his idea down in the form of words, sentences, and paragraphs which
are easy to understand for the readers.
From all of the statements above, it can be concluded that writing is an
activity of thinking after which it is expressed into communicative written
language. In expressing the thought into a written language, feeling plays an
important role as well, so that the products will be easily understood and enjoyed
by the readers. In other words, writing is closely related with the thought, feeling,
and ability in using a language.

2.1.1 The Steps of Writing

According to Harmer (2004), there are four stages in the process of writing,
those are planning, drafting, editing, and final draft.
a. Planning
The writers plan what they are going to write. Before starting to write or
type, they try and decide what it is they are going to say. For some writers this
may involves making detailed notes. When planning, writers have to think out
three main issues. There are purpose of writing, the audience they are writing for,
and content structure of the writing.
b. Drafting
We can refer to the first version of a piece of writing as a draft. This first
go at a text is often done on the assumption that it will be amended later.
c. Editing
Once writers have produced a draft they then, usually read through what
they have written to see where it works and where it doesnt.

d. Final Draft
Once writers have edited their draft, making the changes they consider to be
necessary, they produce their final version. This may look considerably different
from both original plan and the first draft, because things have change in the
editing process (p.4-6).

1.1 Narrative Text

According to Hazel (2007), Narrative is first and foremost a prodigious
variety of genres, themselves distributed amongst different substances as
though any material were fit to receive mans stories. Narrative is present in
myth, legend, fable, tale, novella, epic, history, tragedy, drama, comedy, mime,
painting stained glass windows, cinema, comics, news item, conversation (p.1).
According to Abbot (2002), narrative can be an art and that art thrives
on narrative, narrative is also something we all engage in artists and non
artists a like(p.1). Rustipa (2011), states that Narrative is a text to amuse,
entertain, dealing with actual or vicarious experience in different ways.
Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of
some kind, which in turn finds a resolution (p.5).
1.2.1 Generic Structure of Narrative Texts
Neo (2005) states that a narrative has a structure, a shape or a pattern. It can
be represented graphically in this way.


Rising action Falling action

Exposition Resolution
Figure 1
That picture is known as the Freitag triangle. The idea of the Freitag triangle
is to serve as a kind of blue print or map which can be used to guide us
systematically in writing. The Freitag triangle consists of:
a. The composition, it establishes the characters and situation.

b. Rising action, it refers to a series of complication leads to the climax.
c. The climax is the critical moment when problem/ conflict demand
something to be done about them.
d. Felling action is the moment away from the highest peak of excitement.
e. The resolution consists of the result or outcome (p. 2).
On the other hand, Rustipa (2011, p.6)) states that the generic structure of
narrative Texts are:
a. Abstract
The Abstract in narratives functions as a generic indicator which signals
that a story is about to be told and establishes the point of the text. So Abstract is
thematic prediction of what the text is going to be about. The Abstract includes
the activity sequence. It is the opening of Narrative and realized in declaratives,
verbal processes, material processes.
b. Orientation/ exposition
Orientation orients listener to what is to follow in terms of people, actions,
time and place. The clauses are in simple past form. Temporal conjunctions,
individualized participants, material processes are used in this stage.
c. Complication
Complication is the main section of a narrative. It presents sequenced
events which culminate in a crisis or a problem. This Complication is realized in
simple past mental, material processes, individualized participants.
d. Evaluation
The purpose of Evaluation is to reveal the attitude of the narrator
towards the narrative. Evaluation presents appraisal of crisis. Evaluation is
mostly realized in attitudinal lexis.
e. Resolution
Resolution shows how crisis / complication is resolved. The mental,
verbal, material simple past processes are used in this stage.
f. Coda
Coda is the concluding stage. The purpose is to make a point about the text
as a whole. One of the functions of a Coda is to return the text to the present
and by doing so to evaluate the whole event. Coda sometimes conveys comment

of the narrator towards the significance of the narrative. Besides material, mental
processes, appraisal lexis is also included in Coda (p.5-6).

1.2 Dictogloss
Jacobs (2003) states Dictogloss is an integrated skills technique for
language learning in which students work together to create a reconstructed
version of a text read to them by their teacher. Dictogloss is a relatively recent
procedure in language teaching. In traditional dictation students recreate a
dictated text word for word. However, dictogloss has different procedures and
objectives. It combines dictation, paraphrase and interpretation (p.1). Dictogloss
is a relatively recent procedure in language teaching. It borrow a little from
traditional dictation (hence part of its name) but in fact is quite distinct
from dictation in both procedure and objectives ( Wajnryb, 1990: 5).
According to Victoria ( 2008 ) Dictogloss promotes output that is focused
on form. It encourages both bottom up and top down processing strategies.
Learners usually start by being concerned with identifying individual elements in
the text a bottom up strategy. But in order to complete the task, they need to
engage the following top down strategies:
1. Making predictions
2. Making inferences
3. Identifying the topic of the text
4. Identifying the text type
5. Identifying various sorts of semantic relationships in the text (p.1)
1.2.1 Aims of dictogloss
Wajnryb (1990) states the aims of dictogloss are to provide an opportunity
for learners to use their productive grammar in the task of text creation, to
encourage learners to find out what they do and do not know about English, and
also to upgrade and refine the learners use of the language through a
comprehensive analysis of language options in the correction of the learners
approximate texts (p.6).
According to Victoria (2008) the aim of dictogloss is for a group of students
to recreate a heard text in writing, not word for word but using their pooled

grammatical resources (p.1). It means dictogloss also create and building
communication among students to explore and discuss their thoughts.
2.3.2. Steps in dictogloss
Victoria (2008) outline the process of conducting dictogloss involves the
following stages:
1. Preparation: learners ask questions, discuss a stimulus picture, work on
2. Dictation: learners hear the passage read aloud twice (usually on tape). The
second time they take notes, being encouraged to listen the content words.
3. Reconstruction: learners in small groups or pairs pool notes and reconstruct
the text. During this stage it is important has no input.
4. Analysis and correction: the text produced by group can be written on the
board, photocopied and distributed, compared with the original, etc (p.1-2).

2.4 Previous Related Studies

In this study, writer will use three previous related studies. The first one was
conducted by Abid Khoirul Fikri (2016), entitled The Effectiveness of
Dictogloss Technique on Students Writing of Descriptive Text at the First
Grade Students at SMA PGRI 56 Ciputat. The result of the research from abid is
that there is a positive effect of using dictogloss technique on students writing of
descriptive text at the first grade students of SMA PGRI 56 Ciputat. The research
has similarities with the writer in conduct the study using experimental research
and apply dictogloss technique when teaching writing. but there are some
differences in population, choosing the type of text in writing. Abid took first
grade students of SMA PGRI 56 Ciputat, while the writer will take eighth grade
students of SMPN 1 Pulau Besar Bangka as population. From choosing the type
of the text Abid choose descriptive text, while the writer choose narrative text.
Second, research by Iksan Teguh Hadi Sri Hadmojo (2016) The Effect of
Dictogloss Technique to the Students Writing Ability in Narrative Text to the
Tenth Year Students mf MA Sunan Kalijogo Mojo Kediri Academic Year
2016/2017. The result of this research showed that the students who are taught
using dictogloss technique have better ability in structure, vocabulary, grammar,

content and mechanic. The research has similarities with the writer in conduct the
study, first is using quantitative approach, second is use experimental method,
and third is apply dictogloss technique when teaching writing. The differences are
from the population and sample. Iksan chooses Tenth year students as the
population and one class 10 IPA consist of 38 students as the sample. While the
writer chooses eighth grade students as the population and 8A and 8B as the
The last research is done by Rezza yekti praditya (2016) Entitled
Improving Students Writing Skill Through Dictogloss Technique for the
Eighth Grade Students of SMPN 7 Surakarta In 2016. The result of the
research is Dictogloss Technique is a good technique to improve students
writing skill. It can be seen from the result of the research as follows: the mean
score of pre-test was 59.3 in Post Test 66.8, and improved to 73.2 in Post Test 2.
The researcher concludes that Dictogloss Technique can improve the students
writing skill at the eighth grade students of SMP N 7 Surakarta in 2015/2016.
The similarities can be seen from the aims of the research are: 1)To find out
whether teaching English using Dictogloss Technique can improve students
writing skill. 2) To find out whether Dictogloss Technique is effective in solving
the problem of students in writing skill. The population is eight grade students.
The differences can be seen from the design of the study Rezza conduct a
classroom action research while the writer conduct experimental research.
2.5 Hypothesis of the Study
According to Juliansyah (2011), hypothesis as estimated relation logically
among two or more variable which expressing in the form of statement of which
can be tested (p.79). The hypothesis of this study is in the form of alternative
hypothesis (Ha) and null hypothesis (Ho) as follows:
Null hypothesis (Ho) : It is not effective to teach narrative text through
dictogloss method to the eighth grade students of
SMPN 1 Pulau Besar.
Alternative hypothesis (Ha) : It is effective to teach narrative text trough
dictogloss method to the eighth grade students of
SMPN 1 Pulau Besar.

3.1 Research Design
The research design will be an experimental research using pretest and
posttest control group design. According to Sugiyono (2010), experimental
research is a research method that used to find out the impact of certain treatment
to others in controlled situation (p.107). The writer will use two classes in which
one of them will be experimental class and another will be the control class.
Experimental class will get treatment by using dictogloss and control class will
get conventional technique. Below is the general overview of experimental
Experimental Design

E O1 X O2
C O3 X O4
E : Experimental Group
C : Control Group
01 : pretest for experimental group
02 : posttest for experimental group
03 : pretest for control group
04 : post test for control group
X : treatment with dictogloss technique when teaching narrative text
Y : treatment without dictogloss technique when teaching narrative text
( Sugiyono, 2010, p.112)
3.2 Research of Variable
According to Juliansyah (2011), the variable is every matter in research
which its data wish to be obtained (p.48). In this study, the writer use two kinds
of variables. Independent variable, it is presumed to have an effect on, the
influence somehow another variable and the independent variable is assumed to
affect is called the dependent or outcome dependent. The independent of this
study will be the use of teaching narrative text through dictogloss technique and
dependent of this study will be the students writing ability.

3.3 Population and Sample
3.3.1 Population
According to Sugiyono (2015) Population is generalizing region which
consist of object or subject having certain characteristics and quality which
specified by researcher to be studied and later, then pulled its conclusion (p.297).
The population in this study is the Eighth Grade Students of SMPN 1 Pulau Besar.
It consists of 94 students.
No. Classes Total
1. VIII.A 30
2. VIII.B 32
3. VIII.C 32
(Source : Students of SMPN 1 Pulau Besar in academic year 2016/2017 )

3.3.2 Sample
Juliansyah (2011) mention sample is member which have been selected
from the population (p.147). In conducting this study, the writer use random
sampling. According to Sugiyono (2015) random sampling is technique of taking
the sample with randomly without using any certain criteria or characteristics
(p.120). There will be two classes taken randomly of three classes as the sample,
class 8A as the controlled class and class 8B as the experimental class. She will
take 8A and 8B as the sample, because the students of each class almost
have similar ability in English proficiency.
Class Total
(Source : Students of SMPN 1 Pulau Besar in academic year 2016/2017 )

3.4 Technique of Collecting the Data

In collecting the data, the writer will use writing test. In this study the writer
will give an essay writing on narrative text to the students with topic When I

was a Kid . The students should make a narrative paragraph consist of minimum
three paragraph. The raters will help the writer to check the students essay. In
scoring the essay, the writer will use the scoring guidance below:
Table 3. Scale for Assessing the Students Writing Ability Range
Percentage Range Qualification
80-100 Excellent
61-79 Good
51-60 Fair
0-50 Poor
(Source : SMPN 1 Pulau Besar in academic year 2016/2017)

3.5 Validity and Reliability

3.5.1 Validity
Juliansyah (2011) state that validity is an index that showing the measure of
instrument. (p.132). meanwhile Sugiyono (2010), valid means the instrument can
be used to measure what should be used to measured ( p.172). in this study, the
writer will use the content validity of the test. Content validity is the extent to
which elements within a measurement procedure are relevant and representative
of the construct that they will be used.
3.5.2 Reliability
According to Sugiyono (2010), reliability is an index that showing how far
an instrument can be trusted or can be pledged. Reliability shows the consistency
result of measurement (p.131). In this study, the writer will use inter ratter
reliability to find out the reliability of the test. Inter ratters reliability is degree of
agreement among ratters. The test will be tried out to some students who are not
the students from control group and experimental group.

3.7 Technique of Analyzing Data

In this study, the data that get from pretest and posttest were analyzed and
calculated by using statistical calculation of T-test formula to find out the
effectiveness of dictogloss technique in teaching writing of narrative text.
However, before calculating the t-test value to examine the hypothesis of this

study. The writer first do normality and homogeneity test to know whether or not
the data from experimental class and controlled class are normally distributed and

3.6 The Operational Definition

3.6.1 Teaching
Teaching is an interactive process between teacher and the students where
there is the transferring knowledge and skills in there.
3.6.2 Writing
Writing is when someone puts the thoughts and feeling into words and puts
those words onto paper those thoughts on paper must make sense to someone
else, in this case, the reader.
3.6.3 Narrative text
Narrative text is a kind of text that tells about a story that is based on the
some events or experience.
3.6.4 Dictogloss technique
Dictogloss is a w r i t i n g skills technique for language learning in which
students work together to create a reconstructed version of a text read to them
by their teacher.

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