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Technovation 25 (2005) 381393

www.elsevier.com/locate/technovation

Technology management methodologies and applications


A literature review from 1995 to 2003
Shu-hsien Liao*
Department of Management Sciences and Decision Making, Tamkang University, No. 151, Yingjuan Road, Danshuei Jen, Taipei 251, Taiwan, ROC

Abstract
Technology management is a process, which includes planning, directing, control and coordination of the development and
implementation of technological capabilities to shape and accomplish the strategic and operational objectives of an organization. This
paper surveys technology management (TM) development using a literature review and classification of articles from 1995 to 2003
with keyword index in order to explore how TM methodologies and applications have developed in this period. Based on the scope of 546
articles of technology management methodologies, this paper surveys and classifies TM methodologies using the eight categories of:
TM framework, General and policy research, Information systems, Information and communication technology, Artificial
intelligence/expert systems, Database technology, Modeling, and Statistics methodology, together with their applications for different
research and problem domains. Discussion is presented indicating future development for technology management methodologies and
applications as follows: (1) TM methodologies tend to develop towards expert orientation, and TM applications development is a problem-
oriented domain. (2) Integration of qualitative and quantitative methods, and integration of TM technologies studies may broaden our
horizons on this subject. (3) The ability to continually change and obtain new understanding is the power of TM methodologies and will be
the subject of future work.
q 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Technology management; Technology management methodology; Technology management application; Literature survey

1. Introduction and inter-domain relationship, but it should also develop the


implementation strategies according to the available
Technology management is a process, which includes resources, current technologies, future markets, and socio-
planning, directing, control and coordination of the devel- economic environment (Linn et al., 2000). Therefore, how
opment and implementation of technological capabilities to to manage technology has become an important issue in the
shape and accomplish the strategic and operational past few decades, and the technology management (TM)
objectives of an organization (Task Force on Management community has developed a wide range of methodologies
of Technology, 1987). On the other hand, technology and applications for both academic research and practical
management includes: (1) planning for the development of applications. In addition, TM has attracted much effort to
technology capabilities; (2) identifying key technology and explore its nature, concepts, frameworks, architectures,
its related fields for development; (3) determining whether theories, systems, models, tools, functions, and real world
to buy or to make, i.e. whether importation or self- implementations in order to demonstrate TM methodologies
development should be pursued; and (4) establishing and their applications.
institutional mechanisms for directing and coordinating As a part of TM research, this paper focuses on
the development of technology capabilities, and the design surveying technology management development through a
of policy measures for controls (Wang, 1993). Clearly, literature review and classification of articles from 1995 to
technology management should not only fulfill the manage- 2002 in order to explore the TM methodologies and
ment needs of a specific set of technologies within a domain applications from that period. The reason for choosing this
period is that the Internet was opened to general users in
* Tel: 886-2-29472044; fax: 886-2-29453007.
E-mail address: Michael@mail.tku.edu.tw 1994 and this new era of information and communication

0166-4972/$ - see front matter q 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2003.08.002
382 S.-h. Liao / Technovation 25 (2005) 381393

technology has played an important role not only in (Dey et al., 1996). From the business process reengineering
electronic commerce, but also in technology management. perspective, the reasons for BPR failure have been
The literature survey is based on a search for the keyword categorized as the lack of understanding of and the
index technology management on the Elsevier SDOS inability to perform BPR; and new key concepts of BPR,
online database, from which 9253 articles were found on such as fundamental, radical, dramatic, and process have
31 July 2003. After topic filtering, there were 1626 articles been proposed as a conceptual and analytical framework
related to the keyword technology management appli- (Chan and Choi, 1997). In addition, the methodology of
cation and 546 of these were connected to the keyword project appraisal based on non-financial aspects of projects,
technology management methodology. Based on the has previously extended published guidance through inter-
scope of 546 articles on technology management method- views with a number of project-oriented organizations in
ology, this paper surveys and classifies TM methodologies the appraisal procedure (Lopes and Flavell, 1998). For
using eight categories: TM framework, General and policy strategy formulation and implementation, Haas and
research, Information systems, Information and communi- Kleingeld proposed a normative framework for multilevel
cation technology, Artificial intelligence/expert systems, design of diagnostic controls, i.e. performance measure-
Database technology, Modeling, and Statistics method- ment systems. Their framework is an attempt to synthesize
ology, together with their applications on different research a design theory from systems theory and cybernetics, using
and problem domains. a composite of the goal-oriented model, the multiple-
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Sections 2 constituency model and the natural-systems model of
to 9, present the survey results of TM methodologies and organization (Haas and Kleingeld, 1999). In space
applications based on the above eight categories. Section 10 technology, a scenario-based framework has been proposed
presents discussion, with suggestions for future develop- to discuss and analyze the mitigation, management, and
ment of technology methodologies and applications. survivability of asteroid/ comet impact with earth (Garsh-
Finally, Section 11 contains a brief conclusion. nek et al., 2000). Furthermore, an assessment framework
for new technology has been developed, providing
suggestions for a 3-dimensional space structure of the
2. Technology management framework
business process in order to assess the relationship between
and its applications
technology and process on a manufacturing enterprise
(Pretorius and Wet, 2000). In addition, the methodology of
Since the 1980s, technology and the academic discipline
PERA (process environment risk assessment), has been
management of technology, has received widespread
presented for the assessment of business risks during the
attention from both practitioners of management and
design of new processes. This methodology can be used as
academics (Drejer, 1997). Researchers have developed
a project-centered risk assessment method that seeks
a set of management definitions, concepts, activities,
stages, circulations, and procedures, all directed potential problems along the overall supply chain (Sharratt
towards dealing with objects in order to describe the and Choong, 2002). A framework for implementing an
framework of technology management as the TM method- integrative approach based on a strategic perspective to
ology. Different TM working definitions, paradigms, frame- business process reengineering has been discussed in an
works, concepts, objects, propositions, perspectives, empirical study (Wu, 2002). On the other hand, a
measurements, and impacts have been described for framework discusses data, information and knowledge,
investigating the questions of: What is technology manage- providing formal definitions and an understanding of the
ment? What are its methods and techniques? And what are relations and limitations of these resources. This frame-
its functions for supporting individual and organizations in work enables the development of better mechanisms and
managing the technology (Sarkis et al., 1995; Dey et al., procedures for the capture and reuse of information and
1996; Chan and Choi, 1997; Lopes and Flavell, 1998; Haas knowledge in engineering design (Hicks et al., 2002). In
and Kleingeld, 1999; Garshnek et al., 2000; Pretorius and 2003, Liao presented a literature survey of knowledge
Wet, 2000; Sharratt and Choong, 2002; Wu, 2002; Hicks management in order to explore the present and future
et al., 2002)? development of KM (Liao, 2003). These methodologies
For example, the methodology of enterprise engineering offer technological frameworks and explore their content
methodology is an integrated socio-technical framework by broadening the research horizon with different perspec-
that addresses organizational, cultural, process, and tives on TM research issues.
technological issues (Sarkis et al., 1995). In 1996, Dey Some applications have been implemented using a TM
et al., proposed a conceptual framework for project control framework, including computer integrated manufacturing,
through risk analysis, contingency allocation and hierarch- construction project management, business process reengi-
ical planning models. In their article, risk analysis has been neering, project appraisal, product design, space disaster
carried out through the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) management, technology assessment, process design, and
due to the subjective nature of risks in construction projects engineering design. The methodology of technology
S.-h. Liao / Technovation 25 (2005) 381393 383

Table 1 and Technology (NIST) and debates its R&D policy


Technology management framework and its applications (Tassey, 1999). In 2001, Huang and Xia analyzed develop-
Technology management Authors ments, advancements, challenges, and barriers associated
framework/Applications with practices of water-quality management and policy. In
addition, they examined a number of related methodologies,
Computer integrated manufacturing (Sarkis et al., 1995) applications and policies presenting suggestions for water-
Construction project management (Dey et al., 1996) quality policy in the future (Huang and Xia, 2001). In India,
Business process reengineering (Chan and Choi, 1997;
a government technology transfer policy has been
Wu, 2002)
Project appraisal (Lopes and Flavell, 1998) implemented for commercialization of new technologies.
Product design (Haas and Kleingeld, 1999) An empirical study of technology institutions is described in
Space disaster management (Garshnek et al., 2000) (Kumar and Jain, 2003).
Technology assessment (Pretorius and Wet, 2000) In general research methodology, Chang and Hsu
Process design (Sharratt and Choong, 2002)
constructed a set of project management guidelines for a
Engineering design (Hicks et al., 2002)
Knowledge management (Liao, 2003) research institute taking over government R&D projects
intended for commercial application in the industrial sector
in Taiwan (Chang and Hsu, 1997). Kirk and Pine review
papers, which describe particular innovative technological
management framework and its applications are categorized applications within the hospital industry, also presenting a
in Table 1. thorough analysis of the appropriateness of technology and
a detailed plan for the design and implementation of hospital
technology is also presented (Kirk and Pine, 1998). Another
3. General and policy research and its applications diagnostic methodology is the management and organiz-
ational context of new product development, and McQuater
Sometimes, government and enterprise technology et al., describe a new product development self- assessment
policies, such as funding, regulations, limits, guidance, method (McQuater et al., 1998). For the concept of Quality
cooperation, and R&D, are significant factors. They can Function Development (QFD), Kim et al. suggest a method
influence the public sector, enterprises and academic that constructs a decision path for information technology
institutes for developing, managing, and implementing investment in Korea (Kim et al., 2000). Ratio ranking, a
technology in organizations. Therefore, government and research methodology, is proposed for the risk ranking of
enterprise policy for technology management are good projects in order to describe the use of a methodology for the
sources for observing different public sector and private risk ranking of projects undertaken by the Department of
sector technology policies and their decision-making Contract and Management Services (CAMS) in Australia
processes. As policy research, this methodology could be (Baccarini and Archer, 2001). There are also articles which
helpful in exploring technology management in a global implement a systematic approach for technology manage-
environment. In addition, general management is a ment. For example, Manzocco and Nicoli describe a
methodology with qualitative methods, such as interviews, predictive approach to food design, based on the systematic
observations, classifications, logical induction, compari- exploitation of the functional properties of each potential
sons, reviews, and literature surveys. It is a methodology, ingredient, using the formulation of syrups as a case study
which is part of not only social science, but also (Manzocco and Nicoli, 2002). Another example is a supply
technology management. It explores findings or discoveries chain diagnostic methodology, and Naim et al. present a
of nature in a specific problem domain. Some research guide to conduct a supply chain business diagnostic method,
using general and policy research methodologies on Quick Scan. This is a systematic approach to the collection
technology management issues are illustrated in the and synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data from case
following. firms in order to determine the vector of change on the
In policy research methodology, Hailey and McDonald supply chain (Naim et al., 2002). Jacob and Kwak present a
propose a policy perspective for the assessment of conceptual paper describing a new integrative evaluation
diagnostic imaging technologies based on a synthesis of approach for pharmaceutical R&D projects, which offers a
imperfect data in health care, presenting a list of attributes significant improvement in project selection and resource
for consideration in the policy formulation process (Hailey allocation (Jacob and Kwak, 2003). In addition, Liu et al.
and McDonald, 1996). Wood discusses the policy of the US propose an economic performance evaluation method for
Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and proposes hydroelectric generating units (HGUs). Some concepts for
suggestions for increased drawing on OTA-like functions evaluating the performance of HGUs, such as ideal
and other TA activities in the US and overseas (Wood, performance, reachable performance, operational perform-
1997). On the other hand, Tassey provides lessons on the ance, overall efficiency and index of efficiency maintenance
methodology of economic impacts learned according to the are proposed as a methodology for energy management (Liu
experience of the US National Institute of Standards et al., 2003).
384 S.-h. Liao / Technovation 25 (2005) 381393

Table 2 Yap, 1995; Nakanishi et al., 2000; Song et al., 2001; Cho
General and policy research and its applications et al., 2002; Kim et al., 2003).
General and policy Authors In the case of a decision support system, GESMO is a
research/Applications DSS for defining water use policies and measuring monitor
and control systems by employing telecom-detection and
Patient management (Hailey and McDonald, 1996) simulation of crop water needs, as well as another DSS
R&D management system (Chang and Hsu, 1997) methodology for water quality and quality assessment for
Technology assessment (Wood, 1997)
Hospitality management (Kirk and Pine, 1998)
wetland development (Vadas et al., 1995; Recio et al.,
New product development (McQuater et al., 1998; 1999). In addition, DSS can design a distributed database on
Kim et al., 2000) a local area network for file and workload allocation, as
Government policy research (Tassey, 1999; presented by Lee et al. (Lee et al., 2000). Rule-based
Kumar and Jain, 2003)
reasoning is the basis of KBS, including database updating
Risk management (Baccarini and Archer, 2001;
Jacob and Kwak, 2003) rules, process control rules, and data deletion rules for
Water-quality management and policy (Huang and Xia, 2001) logical reference (Knight and Ma, 1997). A guideline-based
Food design (Manzocco and Nicoli, 2002) care-flow system is one, which uses knowledge represen-
Supply chain management (Naim et al., 2002) tation, model simulation, and implementation within a
Energy management (Liu et al., 2003)
health care organization (Quaglini et al., 2000). DSS is also
an example of a training tool to offer methods and
Some applications have been implemented using general techniques for multimedia prototyping (Bouter et al.,
and policy research methodologies such as patient manage- 2001). STEEDS is a DSS that supports multi-criteria
ment, R&D management system, technology assessment, decision aid for transport energy problems (Brand et al.,
hospitality management, new product development, 2002).
government policy research, risk management, water- Object oriented (OO) is another kind of methodology
quality management and policy, food design, supply chain for developing IS in a distributed environment (Low
management, and energy management. The methodology of et al., 1995). ITMS, is an intelligent task management
general and policy research and its applications are system created using OO technology on the net for
categorized in Table 2. achieving automatic task decomposition and assignment.
Another example of an OO technology approach is to
develop a collaborative environment for a computer-
4. Information systems and its applications aided concurrent net shape product and process develop-
ment (Chen, 1997; Lau et al., 1998). In addition, OO
There are common questions and objectives of hypermedia design methodology integration with Intranet
researchers using information systems as a methodology technology also provides a methodology for IS (Lee et al.,
for technology management, including: Will information 1999). FORE is an OO modeling methodology for
systems (IS) make technology management more effi- developing forms to recover semantics of the contents
cient? How are information systems used and produced of business (Lee and Yoo, 2000). SUMMIT is a
within an organization in order to manage technology? hybrid OO approach that was developed to build an
What must be done so that IS can earn its place as enterprise-scale billing system for the cable industry
methodologies for technology management? What tech- (Bhattacherjee et al., 2001). An OO methodology
nology does IS support? And can be implemented IS in integrating computational models has also been
specific technology problem domains? Five main meth- implemented for network and systems management
odologies of IS which implement technology manage- (Mokdad and Probast, 2001).
ment can be seen as: decision support systems (DSS), Some articles related to the concept of knowledge-based
object oriented method (OO), computer aided system systems are presented as the methodology of IS. For
engineering (CASE), knowledge-based systems (KBS) example, a rule-based oriented KBS is a method for
and database applications (DB). (Vadas et al., 1995; integrating design tasks and product design (Ruland and
Recio et al., 1999; Lee et al., 2000; Quaglini et al., 2000; Spindler, 1995). Another design-aided KBS developed
Bouter et al., 2001; Brand et al., 2002; Low et al., 1995; batch pharmaceutical process designs for waste manage-
Chen, 1997; Lau et al., 1998; Lee et al., 1999; Lee and ment (Linninger et al., 1996). In information security,
Yoo, 2000; Bhattacherjee et al., 2001; Mokdad and INFAUDITOR is a KBS for auditing computer and
Probast, 2001; Shoval, 1995; Urwiler et al., 1995; management information systems by implementing black-
Rupnik-Miklic and Zupancic, 1995; Ruland and Spindler, board architecture (Akoka and Comyn-Wattiau, 1996).
1995; Linninger et al., 1996; Akoka and Comyn-Wattiau, Human factors are also the basis for KBS to plan the
1996; Chatzoglou and Macaulay, 1997; Lovett et al., 2000; requirements capture stage of a project (Chatzoglou
Liao, 2001; McMeekin and Ross, 2002; Tian et al., 2002; and Macaulay, 1997), as well as applications of KBS on
S.-h. Liao / Technovation 25 (2005) 381393 385

Table 3 customer behavior, and marketing. The methodology of


Information systems and its applications information systems and its applications are categorized in
Information Authors Table 3.
systems/Applications

Water resources management (Vadas et al., 1995;


Recio et al., 1999) 5. Information and communication technology
File and workload allocation (Lee et al., 2000)
Healthcare management (Quaglini et al., 2000)
and its applications
Emergency management (Bouter et al., 2001)
Environmental management (Brand et al., 2002) In todays information economy, rapid access to knowl-
Distributed system (Low et al., 1995) edge is critical to the success of many organizations. An
applications development
Product data management (Chen, 1997) information and communication technology (ICT) infra-
Manufacturing information network (Lau et al., 1998). structure provides a broad platform for exchanging data,
Military (Liao, 2001) coordinating activities, sharing information, supporting
Hypermedia design and model (Lee et al., 1999; private and public sectors, and developing globalize
Kim et al., 2003)
commerce, all based on powerful computing and
Legacy application (Lee and Yoo, 2000)
System development in (Bhattacherjee et al., 2001) network technology. Information computing offers
cable industry powerful information processing abilities, and the network
Network and systems management (Mokdad and Probast, 2001) provides standards and connectivity for digital integration.
Product design (Ruland and Spindler, 1995) Internet is a kind of ICT that can combine with some other
Waste management (Linninger et al., 1996)
Computer audit (Akoka and Comyn-Wattiau, 1996)
network technologies and services, such as Intranet,
Project management (Chatzoglou and Macaulay, 1997; Extranet, virtual private network (VPN), and wireless
Tian et al., 2002) web, to construct a digital environment to consistently
System development in SMEs (Lovett et al., 2000) create new knowledge, quickly disseminate it, and embody
System design and development (Shoval, 1995; Urwiler et al., 1995;
it in organizations.
Rupnik-Miklic and Zupancic,
1995; Yap, 1995) As the concept of sharing technology distribution, ICT
Risk assessment (McMeekin and Ross, 2002) enables technology management activities for collaborative
Data acquisition (Nakanishi et al., 2000) communication, co-ordination, decision support, infor-
Customer behavior (Song et al., 2001) mation sharing, consultation, data exchange, organizational
Marketing (Cho et al., 2002)
learning, and organizational memory (Roy and Filiatrault,
1998; Dangelmaier et al., 1999; Ramesh and Tiwana, 1999;
Carayannis, 1999; Rezayat, 2000; Huang and Mak, 2000;
small-medium size enterprise and the military (Lovett et al., Robey et al., 2000; Liu et al., 2001; Pallaeala and Lun, 2001;
2000; Liao, 2001). Burkett, 2001; Balasubramanian et al., 2001; Standing,
Database applications propose methodologies of system 2002; Xu et al., 2002; Dawood et al., 2002; Arch-int and
integration (Yap, 1995), object-oriented database (Naka- Batanov, 2003). In addition, for technology management,
nishi et al., 2000), data mining (Song et al., 2001; Cho et al., intelligent software integrates information systems across
2002), and data warehouse (Kim et al., 2003) for the multi-tier enterprises in the US auto industry in order to
technology management. Finally, computer aided system increase organizational flexibility (Olin et al., 1999). On
engineering technology is not only system design method- the other hand, ontology is the knowledge integration of
ology, but is also a support for the implementation stage of different representations of the same piece of technology
systems development. Some CASE examples are presented knowledge at different levels of formalization. The experts
for different application domains (Shoval, 1995; Urwiler who participate in the ontology process use domain
et al., 1995; Rupnik-Miklic and Zupancic, 1995). terminology, facilitating knowledge integration with
Some of these applications which are implemented by cooperative tools (Fernandez-Breis and Martinez-Bejar,
information systems include the following: water resources 2000).
management, file and workload allocation, healthcare Some applications are implemented by information and
management, emergency management, environmental man- communication technology, such as decision support, new
agement, distributed system application development, product development, organizational learning, organiz-
product data management, manufacturing information net- ational memory, knowledge integration, ontology, transport
works, hypermedia design, legacy application, system management, workflow management, supply chain, new
development in the cable industry, network and systems product development, program generation, medical man-
management, product design, waste management, computer agement, product data management, hypermedia design,
auditing, project management, system development in electronic commerce, virtual enterprise, automatic system,
SMEs, system design and development, data acquisition, and information system development. The methodology of
386 S.-h. Liao / Technovation 25 (2005) 381393

Table 4 heuristic rules, and intelligent agents, using their functions


Information and communication technology and its applications of qualitative simulation, automated reasoning and machine
Information and communication Authors learning (Clark and Mehta, 1997; Plant and Vayssieres,
technology/Applications 2000; AI-Habaibeh et al., 2002; Boone and Roehm, 2002;
Lee et al., 2002; Lang et al., 2002; Wang et al., 2002;
Decision support (Ramesh and Tiwana, 1999; Metaxiotis et al., 2003).
Hicks et al., 2002) On the other hand, object-oriented (OO) programming
New product development (Ramesh and Tiwana, 1999;
Huang and Mak, 2000)
technology provides an approach to expert systems that
Organizational learning (Ramesh and Tiwana, 1999; combines knowledge and procedures into a single object.
Carayannis, 1999; Robey et al., 2000) Traditional expert systems methods have treated knowl-
Organizational memory (Ramesh and Tiwana, 1999; edge and procedures as independent components. How-
Robey et al., 2000) ever, objects belonging to a certain class have knowledge
Supply chain (Olin et al., 1999; Rezayat, 2000)
Transport management (Roy and Filiatrault, 1998)
of that class, and classes of objects in turn can represent
Knowledge integration (Fernandez-Breis and Martinez- knowledge and embed knowledge with OO programming
Bejar, 2000) architecture. This leads expert system developments
Ontology (Fernandez-Breis and Martinez- toward fourth generation language and visual program-
Bejar, 2000)
ming methods in order to provide a user-friendly structure
Workflow management (Dangelmaier et al., 1999)
Program generation (Liu et al., 2001) and environment (Doyle et al., 1996; Wu et al., 1997;
Medical management (Pallaeala and Lun, 2001) Nault and Storey, 1998; Shaalan et al., 1998; Chau et al.,
Product data management (Burkett, 2001) 2002).
Hypermedia design (Balasubramanian et al., 2001) Some of the applications implemented by AI/ES
Electronic commerce (Standing, 2002)
including the following: agriculture, production manage-
Virtual enterprise (Xu et al., 2002)
Automatic system (Dawood et al., 2002) ment, waste management, electronic power programming,
Information system (Arch-int and Batanov, 2003) building management, financial management, task manage-
development ment, system maintenance, crime analysis and manage-
ment, ergonomics design, aquaculture engineering,
information and communications, together with its appli- knowledge management, system design and milling,
cations are categorized in Table 4. marketing, credit scoring, design methodology, catalog
retrieval, energy management, education, and water
resource management. The methodology of artificial
6. Artificial intelligence/Expert systems intelligence/ expert systems and its applications are
and its applications categorized in Table 5.

In 1994, Rubenstein pointed out that the research area Table 5


with the most potential in technology management was the Artificial intelligence/Expert systems and its applications
use of artificial intelligence (AI) in technology management Expert systems/Applications Authors
(Rubenstein, 1994). In addition, expert systems (ES), an
artificial intelligence method for capturing knowledge, are Agriculture (Shaalan et al., 1998; Plant and
knowledge-intensive computer programs that capture the Vayssieres, 2000)
Production management (Dawood, 1996)
human expertise in limited domains of knowledge (Laudon
Education (Doyle et al., 1996)
and Laudon, 2002). For this, human knowledge must be Waste management (Wei and Weber, 1996)
modeled or presented in a way that a computer can process. Knowledge management (Nault and Storey, 1998;
Usually, expert systems capture human knowledge in the Noh et al., 2000)
form of a set of rules, which the expert systems add to the Electronic power programming (Wu et al., 1997)
Building management (Clark and Mehta, 1997)
organizational memory, or stored learning of the organiz-
Financial management (Matsatsinis et al., 1997)
ation. An expert system can assist decision making by Task management (Ben-Arieh, 1997)
asking relevant questions and explaining the reasons for System maintenance (Lee and Hong, 1998)
adopting certain actions. Expert systems of technology Crime analysis and management (Brahan et al., 1998)
include knowledge base, rule-based systems, knowledge Ergonomics design (Gilad and Karni, 1999)
Aquaculture engineering (Lee, 2000)
frames, expert system shell, inference engine, robots, and
System design and milling (AI-Habaibeh et al., 2002)
case-based reasoning (Dawood, 1996; Wei and Weber, Marketing (Boone and Roehm, 2002)
1996; Matsatsinis et al., 1997; Ben-Arieh, 1997; Lee and Credit scoring (Lee et al., 2002)
Hong, 1998; Brahan et al., 1998; Gilad and Karni, 1999; Design methodology (Lang et al., 2002; Wang et al., 2002)
Lee, 2000; Noh et al., 2000; Jefferson and Nagy, 2002). Catalog retrieval (Jefferson and Nagy, 2002)
Energy management (Metaxiotis et al., 2003)
Sometimes, expert systems are integrated with other AI
Water resource management (Chau et al., 2002)
methods, such as neural networks, cognitive science,
S.-h. Liao / Technovation 25 (2005) 381393 387

7. Database methodology and its applications Table 6


Database methodology and its applications
A database is a collection of data organized to efficiently Database technology/Applications Authors
serve many applications by centralizing the data and
minimizing redundant data (McFadden et al., 2000). A Hierarchical modeling (Zhong and Ohsuga, 1996a)
database management system (DBMS) is the software that Knowledge refinement (Zhong and Ohsuga, 1996a)
permits an organization to centralize data, manage it Machine learning (Zhong and Ohsuga, 1996a)
Error analysis (Zhong and Ohsuga, 1996b)
efficiently, and provide access to the stored data by
Knowledge representation (Zhong and Ohsuga, 1996b;
application programs (Laudon and Laudon, 2002). How- Owrang and Grupe, 1996)
ever, some large databases make knowledge discovery Knowledge discovery (Zhong and Ohsuga, 1996a;
computationally expensive because some domains or back- Zhong and Ohsuga, 1996b;
ground knowledge, hidden in the database, may guide and Owrang and Grupe, 1996)
Ontology (Sugumaran and Storey, 2002)
restrict the search for important knowledge. Therefore,
Database design (Koschel and Lockemann, 1998;
modern database technologies need to process large Huang et al., 2000; Sugumaran
volumes of data, multiple hierarchies, and different data and Storey, 2002)
formats to discover in-depth experience or knowledge from Knowledge reuse (Allsopp et al., 2002)
large databases in order to manage technology. For Knowledge repository (Allsopp et al., 2002)
Geosciences (Sokolov and Wulff, 1999)
example, multidimensional data analysis, on-line analytical
Web applications (Sokolov and Wulff, 1999;
processing, data warehouses, web and hypermedia data- Huang et al., 2000; Wilkins and
bases (Koschel and Lockemann, 1998; Sokolov and Wulff, Barrett, 2000; Shafer and
1999; Huang et al., 2000; Wilkins and Barrett, 2000; Shafer Agrawal, 2000)
and Agrawal, 2000).
Furthermore, a hierarchical model learning approach for concurrent engineering, optimal tree search, knowledge-
refining and managing concept clusters discovered from based modeling, stochastic modeling, forecasting, dynamic
databases has been proposed. Its approach can be coopera- programming, optimization modeling, simulated annealing,
tively used with other subsystems of decomposition based mathematical programming, pricing model, fuzzy sets, data
induction for knowledge refinement (Zhong and Ohsuga, envelopment analysis, stochastic simulation, network equi-
1996a; Zhong and Ohsuga, 1996b). One example is the librium model, and algorithm architecture (Maimon and
domain knowledge used to guide to test the validity of the Dayagi, 1995; Jensen et al., 1996; Wang et al., 1996; Gong
discovered knowledge (Owrang and Grupe, 1996). et al., 1996; Leu et al., 1996; Carstensen et al., 1997;
Recently, database and architecture design are other Oehlmann et al., 1997; Spiliopoulos and Sofianopoulou,
methodologies for implementing both ontology creation 1998; Demuynck et al., 1997; Cho et al., 1998; Young and
heuristics and intelligent agents into database conceptual Cabezas, 1999; Keller and Dungan, 1999; Sheu, 1999; Khan
modeling and knowledge repository domains (Sugumaran and Abbasi, 2000; Sonesson et al., 2000; Secomandi, 2000;
and Storey, 2002; Allsopp et al., 2002).
Bick and Oron, 2000; Qin and Balendra, 2001; Horng and
Some of the applications implemented by database
Cochran, 2001; Frederix, 2001; Rajaram, 2001; Choi et al.,
methodology are the following: hierarchical modeling,
2002; Chen et al., 2002a; Uddin and Shanker, 2002;
knowledge refinement, machine learning, error analysis,
Balkema et al., 2002; Dawood and Marasini, 2002;
knowledge representation, knowledge discovery, ontology,
Tatsiopoulos et al., 2002; Chen et al., 2002b; Easton et al.,
database design, knowledge reuse, knowledge repository,
2002; Fleten et al., 2002; Lo and Szeto, 2002; Pekny, 2002;
geosciences, and web applications. These database technol-
ogies and their applications are categorized in Table 6. Laking et al., 2002; Rosen and Dincer, 2003; Ashok and
Banerjee, 2003; Sigman and Liu, 2003).
Some of the applications which have been implemented
8. Modeling methodology and its applications by modeling include production management, routing
flexibility, marine engineering, waste water treatment,
Modeling technology has become an interdisciplinary sequencing problem, water quality management, product
methodology of TM in order to build formal relationships development, flexible manufacturing systems, environmen-
with logical model design in different knowledge/problem tal management, business process reengineering, energy
domains. Quantitative methods for exploring the issues of management, ecological management, traffic management,
theory, application, planning, learning, social studies, chemical process, vehicle routing, natural resource manage-
artificial intelligence algorithms, and decision support are ment, error analysis, job assignment, supply chain manage-
the modeling technology of technology management. Some ment, merchandise planning, telecommunication pricing,
methodologies have been presented as examples of waste management, manufacturing process, stockyard
modeling methods and tools, including multi-objective layout design, capacity planning, purchasing evaluation,
programming, simulation, neural networks, genetic algorithms, asset liability management, travel management, risk
388 S.-h. Liao / Technovation 25 (2005) 381393

Table 7 Table 8
Modeling methodology and its applications Statistics methodology and its applications

Modeling/Applications Authors Data mining/Applications Authors

Production management (Maimon and Dayagi, 1995) Manufacturing system (Ip, 1997)
Routing flexibility (Jensen et al., 1996) Ecosystem management (Norton, 1998)
Marine engineering (Wang et al., 1996) Safe and high efficiency (Dai, 1998)
Wastewater treatment (Gong et al., 1996; operation
Balkema et al., 2002) Geology engineering (Liang et al., 1999)
Sequencing problem (Leu et al., 1996) Environmental and natural resources (Varis and Kuikka, 1999)
Water quality management (Carstensen et al., 1997) management
Product development (Oehlmann et al., 1997)
Flexible manufacturing systems (Spiliopoulos and
Sofianopoulou, 1998) manufacturing system, ecosystem management, safe and
Environmental management (Demuynck et al., 1997;
Sonesson et al., 2000)
high efficiency operation, geology engineering, environ-
Business process reengineering (Cho et al., 1998; mental and natural resource management. The methodology
Tatsiopoulos et al., 2002) of statistics methodology and its applications are categor-
Energy management (Young and Cabezas, 1999; ized in Table 8.
Ashok and Banerjee, 2003)
Ecological management (Keller and Dungan, 1999)
Traffic management (Sheu, 1999)
Chemical process (Khan and Abbasi, 2000) 10. Discussion and suggestions
Vehicle routing (Secomandi, 2000)
Natural resource management (Bick and Oron, 2000) 10.1. Discussion
Error analysis (Qin and Balendra, 2001)
Job assignment (Horng and Cochran, 2001)
Supply chain management (Frederix, 2001) Technology management methodologies and appli-
Merchandise planning (Rajaram, 2001) cations are a broad category of research issues on TM.
Telecommunication pricing (Choi et al., 2002) Some specific methodologies and methods have been
Waste management (Chen et al., 2002a) presented as examples in terms of exploring the suggestions
Manufacturing process (Uddin and Shanker, 2002)
and solutions to specific TM problem domains. Therefore,
Stockyard layout design (Dawood and Marasini, 2002)
Capacity planning (Chen et al., 2002b) methodologies and applications of TM are attracting much
Purchasing evaluation (Easton et al., 2002) attention and efforts, both academic and practical. From this
Asset liability management (Fleten et al., 2002) literature review, we can see that TM methodologies and
Travel management (Lo and Szeto, 2002) applications developments are diversified due to their
Risk management (Pekny, 2002)
authors backgrounds, expertise, and problem domains.
Healthcare management (Laking et al., 2002)
Thermal processes (Rosen and Dincer, 2003) This is why a few authors can appear in the literature of
Design methodology (Sigman and Liu, 2003) different methodologies and applications.
On the other hand, some methodologies have common
concepts, and types of technology, for example, information
management, healthcare management, thermal processes, systems and database technology, or some modeling
and design methodology. The methodology of modeling and methods versus artificial intelligence/expert systems. How-
its applications are categorized in Table 7. ever, there are a few authors who work in different
methodologies and applications. This indicates that the
trend of development on methodology is also diversified due
to authors research interests and abilities in the method-
9. Statistics methodology and its applications ology and problem domain. These factors may direct
development of TM methodologies toward expertise
Statistical methodology is an interdisciplinary field that orientation.
combines social science, computer science, engineering, Furthermore, some applications have a high degree of
natural science, data management, and mathematical overlap in different technologies. For example, production
algorithms. Given the enormous size of data, statistics is a management, natural resource management, manufacturing
methodology necessary for data analysis, providing differ- systems, environmental management, business process
ent methods for decision-making, problem solving, analysis, reengineering, transport management, chemical manage-
planning, diagnosis, prediction, and learning (Ip, 1997; ment, industrial engineering, supply chain management,
Norton, 1998; Dai, 1998; Liang et al., 1999; Varis and telecommunication planning, waste management, risk
Kuikka, 1999). management, healthcare management, and energy manage-
Some of the applications that have been implemented ment, are all topics of different methodologies, which
by statistical methodologies include the following: implement TM in a common problem domain. This
S.-h. Liao / Technovation 25 (2005) 381393 389

indicates that those applications are the major trend of TM methodology to remain at the stage of discussion.
development, and many methodologies are focused on these Therefore, integration of qualitative and quantitative
problems. This may direct development of TM applications methods may be an important direction for future work
toward problem domain orientation. on TM technologies and applications.
In this paper, most of the articles discussed were from the 2. Integration of technologies. TM is an interdisciplinary
categories of agricultural and biological sciences, chemical research issue. Thus, future TM developments need
engineering, chemistry, decision sciences, earth and plane- integration with different technologies, and this inte-
tary sciences, economics and finance, energy and power gration of technologies and cross-interdisciplinary
sciences, engineering and technology, physics and astron- research may offer more methodologies to investigate
omy, environmental sciences, material sciences, mathemat- TM problems.
ics, medical sciences, and social sciences journals on the 3. Change is a source of development. The changes due to
Elsevier SDOS online database. We would make no social and technical reasons may either enable or inhibit
presumption about TM methodologies and applications TM technologies and application development. This
that are developed in other science fields. However, we means that inertia, stemming from the use of routine
would like to see more TM methodologies and applications problem-solving procedures, stagnant knowledge
of different research fields published in order to broaden our sources, and following past experience or knowledge
horizon of academic and practice works on TM. may impede changes in terms of learning and innovation
for individuals and organizations. Therefore, to continue
10.2. Limitations creating, sharing, learning, and storing knowledge may
also become a source of TM development.
Firstly, a literature review for the broad category of TM
methodologies and applications is a difficult task due to the
extensive background knowledge needed for studying,
11. Conclusions
classifying, and comparing these articles. Although limited
in background knowledge, this paper presents a brief
This paper is based on a literature review on technology
literature review on TM from 1995 to 2002 in order to
management methodologies and applications from 1995 to
explore how TM methodologies and applications have
2003 using a keyword index search. We conclude that TM
developed in this period. Therefore, the first limit of this
methodologies tend to develop towards expert orientation,
article is the authors limited knowledge in presenting an
and TM applications development is a problem-oriented
overall picture of this subject.
domain. Different science methodologies are suggested to
Secondly, some of the academic journals listed in the
be implemented in TM. Integration of qualitative and
Engineering Index (EI), the Science Citation Index (SCI)
quantitative methods, and integration of TM methodologies
and the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), as well as
studies may broaden our horizon on this subject. Finally, the
other practical reports are not included in this survey. These
ability to continually change and obtain new understandings
would have provided more complete information to explore
the development of TM technologies and applications. is the power of TM technologies, and will be the topic of
Thirdly, non-English publications are not considered in future work.
this survey, although they could help to determine the
effects of different cultures on the development of TM
methodologies and applications. We believe that TM References
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perspectives: an empirical study. Information and Management 39, Dr. Shu-hsien Liao is a professor in the
313324. Department of Management Sciences and
Wu, J.S., Lee, T.T., Tzeng, Y.M., Chen, C.S., 1997. Enhancement of an Decision Making, Tamkang University, Tai-
object-oriented expert system for contingency load transfer of wan. He received his PhD at the Operational
distribution systems. Electronic Power Systems Research 42, 8794. Research/System Group of the Business
Xu, W., Wei, Y., Fan, Y., 2002. Virtual enterprises and its School, University of Warwick, UK, in 1996.
intelligence management. Computers and Industrial Engineering 42, His publications have appeared in the Euro-
199205. pean Journal of Operational Research, Expert
Yap, J.C.H., 1995. Rapid application development in small unit settings. Systems With Applications, Technovation and
International Journal of Bio-Medical Computing 40, 157 163. Space Policy. His current research interests are
Young, D.M., Cabezas, H., 1999. Designing sustainable process with in information management, decision support
simulation: the waste reduction (WAR) algorithm. Computers and systems, knowledge management, electronic
Chemical Engineering 23, 14771491. commerce, and database management.