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International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 1 314 316


Muzzle Print Recognition Using Fuzzy Eigen Face Method

1 2
Anusha Edwin, Jerrin Thomas Panachakel,
Research Scholar, Department of Mathematics, Telecom & Broadcast Systems
Mar Ivanios College, Trivandrum Bharat Electronics Limited,
Kerala, India. Banglore, India.
Email: 1anushaedwin@yahoo.com Email:2jjerrin.panachakel@gmail.com

Abstract Muzzle print recognition is the process of finding any muzzle in the image. It is a two-dimension procedure used for
detecting muzzles and analyzing the information contained in the muzzle image. Here the muzzle images are projected to a feature
space or face space to encode the variation between the known muzzle images. In this paper Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
is used for dimension reduction and the projected feature space is formed using fuzzy algorithm. The above method can be used to
recognize a new muzzle in unsupervised manner.
Keywords-: Muzzle Print, Principal Component Analysis(PCA), Membership Function


The current need for positive identification for cattle Definition 2.1. If A is an matrix over the field , the
traceability, have prompted the implementation of animal transpose of is the matrix defined by
identification and verification programs. The major =
components of a secure animal identification and source Definition 2.2. Let be an matrix over the field
verification system include: rapid, inexpensive and accurate and let be an matrix over . The product is
acquisition of information, security against fraud, human the matrix whose ; j entry is

administration and easy transmission storage and retrieval of
data [5]. Animal ear tags proved to be not very successful as =
a means of identification for reasons such as the loss of tags =1
and tampering. The insertion of ear tags normally results in Definition 2.3. A span of a set of vectors 1 ; 2 is the
inflammatory response and the ear tags could cause both set of vectors that can be written as a linear combination of
short-term and long-term complications of the integrity of 1 ; 2
the ears [3]. span(1 ; 2 ) = 1 1 + 2 2 +
An animal with unique identification number can be
considered as tamper proof and is beneficial to verify an Definition 2.4. A basis for is a set of vectors which spans
animals identity particularly in case of suspected fraud. , i.e., any vector in this n-dimensional space can be
There are various methods of identifying a livestock through written as linear combination of these basis vectors are
biometric markers which include DNA, iris scanning, retinal linearly independent. Clearly, any set of n-linearly
scanning, muzzle print matching [1]. Facial images are the independent vectors form basis vectors for Rn.
most common biometric characteristic used by human to Principal Component Analysis transforms a set of
gain personal recognition. Likewise is cattles muzzle images data from possibly correlated variables into a set of
describe personal identification. The pattern structure of uncorrelated variables called principal components. In the
cattle muzzle patterns is complex than that of human language of information theory, it is necessary to extract
fingerprints, and since the structure features are changed or information from muzzle images, encode it and compare it
deformed during the growing stage and these pattern with encoded images into the database. An easier way to
structures cannot be skillfully recognized by using a extract information contained in an image of a muzzle is to
technique like the one used for conventional fingerprint capture variation in collection of muzzle images,
comparison [8]. A robust algorithm is required to identify independent of any features, and use this information for
cattle using their muzzle prints. encoding and comparison. In mathematical terms find the
In this paper, we use PCA for dimension reduction principal components of the muzzle images(M images) [6],
and a fuzzy classifier , PCA Eigen-face method and i.e the eigen vectors (M eigen vectors) of the covariance
Euclidean distance classifier for feature extraction and matrix of the set of muzzle images, considering as an image
muzzle print recognition. as a point(vectors) in a very high dimensional space. These
1) Principal Component Analysis eigen vectors are accounting for a different amount of
variation among the face images. These eigen vectors can be
considered as a set of features that together characterize the
IJRITCC | January 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org
International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169
Volume: 5 Issue: 1 314 316
variation between muzzle images. Each image location which we call facespace. Each vector of length 2
contributes to eigen vector;so that we can display eigen describes an image and is linear combination of face
vector as a ghostly face called eigen face. Some of the images. Since these vectors are eigenvectors of the
muzzle images are shown in figure 1. covariance matrix corresponding to the original muzzle
images and have muzzle-like in appearance, they are called
eigen faces.
Let the training set of images be 1 , 2 , . . M . The average
muzzle image of the set is defined by
= =1 n (1)

Each muzzle differ from the average by the vector

= (2)
An example of training set is shown in figure 1. Then build
a matrix of size 2 which is
= [1 , 2 . ] (3)
The covariance matrix is given by
= (4)
Each eigen face deviates from uniform gray where some The matrix is 2 and finding the 2 eigen vectors

muzzle features differ among the set of training muzzles, and eigen values is difficult task for typical image sizes.
they are a sort of variation between muzzles. Compute another matrix which is .
Each individual muzzles can be represented exactly in terms = (5)
of a linear combination of the eigen faces. Each muzzles can Find eigen values and eigen vectors of . Eigen vectors of
be approximated using best eigen faces, that have largest and are equivalent.. Build matrix from eigen vectors
eigen values, which corresponds to most variance within set of . With this analysis calculations are reduced from
of eigen faces. The best eigen faces from M eigen number of pixels 2 in the images to number of images in
vectors in the database span on -dimensional subspace the training set ( ). In practice number of images in
called face space among all images. Initialization steps are database will be small ( << 2 ) and the number of
given below. operations becomes very less. Since accurate reconstruction
1. Collect training set muzzles images. of the image is not required, only < ) eigen
2. Calculate the eigen faces from training set,using vectors with highest eigenvalues is sufficient for
images that corresponds to highest eigen values. identification. Thus identification becomes a pattern
These images define face space. For new faces recognition task. Eigen faces span over dimensional
eigen faces are updated or recalculated subspace of the original 2 image space. In our work, for 20
3. By projecting muzzle images into face space - test images (M = 20), = 9 eigen faces are used. Eigen
dimensional weight vectors are calculated. vectors determine linear combinations of training set of
To recognize new face images the following steps are used. muzzle images to form eigen faces .
1. Using input image and eigen faces, calculate = (6)
weight vector. Thus eigen vectors represents variation in muzzle images.
2. Check whether the given image is muzzle image or Each muzzle is transformed into eigen face components.
not. = (7)
for = 1, 2, . Thus each image in the training set is
3. If it is a muzzle, classify it to a known or unknown converted to a weight vector of size 1 describes the
muzzle image of a cow.
contribution of each eigen face. Then compute the threshold
4. If an unknown muzzle is seen several times = 0.45 max (8)
calculate its weight pattern and incorporate into
fo = 1, 2, ; = 1, 2, .
known muzzles.


Let (, ) be the two-dimensional muzzle image of size A new muzzle image is transformed into its eigen face
eight bit intensity values. This can be considered as components by simple operation
2 vector so that typical image of size 300 300 becomes a = . (9)
vector of dimension 9000. An ensemble of images then where of size 2 1, r is a vector of size 2 1 with
maps to a collection of points in this huge space. = ; is average muzzle image for recognition. The
Images of muzzles, will not be randomly distributed weight vector = [1 , 2 , ] may be used in
to huge image space due to its similarity, and thus can be standard pattern recognition algorithm to find the number of
represented in low dimensional subspace. The basic idea of predefined muzzle class. Thus compute the distance in the
the principal component analysis is to find the vectors for face space between the muzzle and all known muzzle
the distribution of muzzle images within the entire image images using Euclidean distance
space. These vectors define the subspace of face images,
IJRITCC | January 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org
International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169
Volume: 5 Issue: 1 314 316
2 = 2 (10) [3]. Kimura A, Itaya K, Structural Pattern Recognition of
for = 1,2, where i is a vector describing kth muzzle. A Biological Textures with Growing Deformations:A case of
muzzle is classified as belonging to class i when the Cattles Muzzle prints, Electronics and Communications in
minimum is below some chosen threshold . Otherwise Japan, part 2, 87(5):54-65, 2004.
the muzzle is classified as
unknown and optionally used to create a new muzzle.
Reconstruct the muzzle from eigen faces of size 2 1 .
= (11)

Compute the distance between the muzzle and its

2 = r 2 (12)

For recognition a membership function as defined is used

= 2 > , < (13)

1 > ,
is used according to equation(12). The given membership
function can be identified as if __ takes the value zero it
is not a muzzle image, if takes the value one it is a known
muzzle with image corresponding to , otherwise it is a
new muzzle image.
1. To summarize the eigen faces approach to m
Collect a set of muzzle images. (eg: M = 15)
2. Calculate the matrix L. Find its eigen vectors and
eigen values, and choose M eigen vectors with the
highest eigen values.
3. Combine the normalized training set of images to
produce eigen faces U.
4. Calculate the weight vector and the threshold for
each known input images.
For each new muzzle image to be identified, calculate its
pattern vector and classification is done as per fuzzy
membership value for the function.

Here using principal component muzzle images from 15
cows of size 300 300 are collected and it is stored in
database. These are converted to weight vectors. When a
new image is given it is also converted to weight vector and
compared. In our experiment all images are correctly
recognized. One of our difficulties is non availability of
cows muzzle images.

[1]. J. Marchant, Secure Animal Identification and Source
Verification, J M Communications 2002, UK
[2]. Brendan Barry, Ursula Gonzales Barron, Kevin
McDonnell, Shane Ward The use of muzzle pattern for
biometric Identification of cattle, Biosystems
Engineering, University College Dublin, Earlsfort Terrace,
Dublin 2, Ireland, 2002

IJRITCC | January 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org